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Sample records for acid aa levels

  1. EB1 levels are elevated in ascorbic Acid (AA)-stimulated osteoblasts and mediate cell-cell adhesion-induced osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pustylnik, Sofia; Fiorino, Cara; Nabavi, Noushin; Zappitelli, Tanya; da Silva, Rosa; Aubin, Jane E; Harrison, Rene E

    2013-07-26

    Osteoblasts are differentiated mesenchymal cells that function as the major bone-producing cells of the body. Differentiation cues including ascorbic acid (AA) stimulation provoke intracellular changes in osteoblasts leading to the synthesis of the organic portion of the bone, which includes collagen type I α1, proteoglycans, and matrix proteins, such as osteocalcin. During our microarray analysis of AA-stimulated osteoblasts, we observed a significant up-regulation of the microtubule (MT) plus-end binding protein, EB1, compared with undifferentiated osteoblasts. EB1 knockdown significantly impaired AA-induced osteoblast differentiation, as detected by reduced expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Intracellular examination of AA-stimulated osteoblasts treated with EB1 siRNA revealed a reduction in MT stability with a concomitant loss of β-catenin distribution at the cell cortex and within the nucleus. Diminished β-catenin levels in EB1 siRNA-treated osteoblasts paralleled an increase in phospho-β-catenin and active glycogen synthase kinase 3β, a kinase known to target β-catenin to the proteasome. EB1 siRNA treatment also reduced the expression of the β-catenin gene targets, cyclin D1 and Runx2. Live immunofluorescent imaging of differentiated osteoblasts revealed a cortical association of EB1-mcherry with β-catenin-GFP. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed an interaction between EB1 and β-catenin. We also determined that cell-cell contacts and cortically associated EB1/β-catenin interactions are necessary for osteoblast differentiation. Finally, using functional blocking antibodies, we identified E-cadherin as a major contributor to the cell-cell contact-induced osteoblast differentiation.

  2. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations.

  3. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy.

  4. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27073325

  5. Characterization of the radical-scavenging reaction of 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives, AA-2G, AA-2P, and AA-2S: a kinetic and stoichiometric study.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Tai, Akihiro; Gohda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the antioxidant activity of three ascorbic acid (AA) derivatives O-substituted at the C-2 position of AA: ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-2P), and ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AA-2S). The radical-scavenging activities of these AA derivatives and some common low molecular-weight antioxidants such as uric acid or glutathione against 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+), or galvinoxyl radical were kinetically and stoichiometrically evaluated under pH-controlled conditions. Those AA derivatives slowly and continuously reacted with DPPH radical and ABTS+, but not with galvinoxyl radical. They effectively reacted with DPPH radical under acidic conditions and with ABTS+ under neutral conditions. In contrast, AA immediately quenched all species of radicals tested at all pH values investigated. The reactivity of Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, was comparable to that of AA in terms of kinetics and stoichiometrics. Uric acid and glutathione exhibited long-lasting radical-scavenging activity against these radicals under certain pH conditions. The radical-scavenging profiles of AA derivatives were closer to those of uric acid and glutathione rather than to that of AA. The number of radicals scavenged by one molecule of AA derivatives, uric acid, or glutathione was equal to or greater than that by AA or Trolox under the appropriate conditions. These data suggest the potential usage of AA derivatives as radical scavengers.

  6. The amino acid sequence of protein AA from a burro (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Sletten, Knut; Johnson, Kenneth H; Westermark, Per

    2003-09-01

    The primary structure of amyloid fibril protein AA of a burro has been determined by Edman degradation. The 80 amino acid residue long protein shows strong resemblance to that of other mammalian AA-proteins and differs from equine protein AA at 5 positions: Burro/horse positions 20 (Q/N), 44 (R,Q, K/K,Q), 59 (G,L/G,A), 61 (Q/E) and 65 (N/R).

  7. Age Differences of Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels of Basal and Acute Responses to Citric Acid Stimulation Between Chinese Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ze-Min; Chen, Long-Hui; Zhang, Min; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1) copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount) in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount) and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount, and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults. PMID:26635626

  8. Synergism and Rules of the new Combination drug Yiqijiedu Formulae (YQJD) on Ischemic Stroke based on amino acids (AAs) metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian; Chen, Chang; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wen, Li-Mei; Yang, Geng-Liang; Duan, Fei-Peng; Huang, Zhi-Ying; Li, De-Feng; Yu, Ding-Rong; Yang, Hong-Jun; Li, Shao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The use of combination drugs is considered to be a promising strategy to control complex diseases such as ischemic stroke. The detection of metabolites has been used as a versatile tool to reveal the potential mechanism of diverse diseases. In this study, the levels of 12 endogenous AAs were simultaneously determined quantitatively in the MCAO rat brain using RRLC-QQQ method. Seven AAs were chosen as the potential biomarkers, and using PLS-DA analysis, the effects of the new combination drug YQJD, which is composed of ginsenosides, berberine, and jasminoidin, on those 7 AAs were evaluated. Four AAs, glutamic acid, homocysteine, methionine, and tryptophan, which changed significantly in the YQJD-treated groups compared to the vehicle groups (P < 0.05), were identified and designated as the AAs to use to further explore the synergism of YQJD. The result of a PCA showed that the combination of these three drugs exhibits the strongest synergistic effect compared to other combination groups and that ginsenosides might play a pivotal role, especially when combined with jasminoidin. We successfully explored the synergetic mechanism of multi-component and provided a new method for evaluating the integrated effects of combination drugs in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:24889025

  9. An amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS) enhanced intestinal epithelial proliferation in mice exposed to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liangjie; Gupta, Reshu; Vaught, Lauren; Grosche, Astrid; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2016-01-01

    Destruction of clonogenic cells in the crypt following irradiation are thought to cause altered gastrointestinal function. Previously, we found that an amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS) improved gastrointestinal function in irradiated mice. However, the exact mechanisms were unknown. Electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and Western blot analysis were used to determine that AA-ORS increased proliferation, maturation, and differentiation and improved electrolyte and nutrient absorption in irradiated mice. A single-hit, multi-target crypt survival curve showed a significant increase in crypt progenitors in irradiated mice treated with AA-ORS for six days (8.8 ± 0.4) compared to the saline-treated group (6.1 ± 0.3; P < 0.001) without a change in D0 (4.8 ± 0.1 Gy). The Dq values increased from 8.8 ± 0.4 Gy to 10.5 ± 0.5 Gy with AA-ORS treatment (P < 0.01), indicating an increased radiation tolerance of 1.7 Gy. We also found that AA-ORS treatment (1) increased Lgr5+, without altering Bmi1 positive cells; (2) increased levels of proliferation markers (Ki-67, p-Erk, p-Akt and PCNA); (3) decreased apoptosis markers, such as cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2; and (4) increased expression and protein levels of NHE3 and SGLT1 in the brush border membrane. This study shows that AA-ORS increased villus height and improved electrolyte and nutrient absorption. PMID:27876791

  10. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway.

  11. Performance of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline ethylene glycol electrolyte with dicarboxylic acids additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DaPeng; Zhang, DaQuan; Lee, KangYong; Gao, LiXin

    2015-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acid compounds, i.e. succinic acid (SUA), adipic acid (ADA) and sebacic acid (SEA), are used as electrolyte additives in the alkaline ethylene glycol solution for AA5052 aluminium-air batteries. It shows that the addition of dicarboxylic acids lowers the hydrogen gas evolution rate of commercial AA5052 aluminium alloy anode. AA5052 aluminium alloy has wide potential window for electrochemical activity and better discharge performance in alkaline ethylene glycol solution containing dicarboxylic acid additives. ADA has the best inhibition effect for the self-corrosion of AA5052 anode among the three dicarboxylic acid additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals that dicarboxylic acids and aluminium ions can form coordination complexes. Quantum chemical calculations shows that ADA has a smaller energy gap (ΔE, the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied orbital and the highest occupied orbital), indicating that ADA has the strongest interaction with aluminium ions.

  12. Tumor-dependent increase of serum amino acid levels in breast cancer patients has diagnostic potential and correlates with molecular tumor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malignancies induce changes in the levels of serum amino acids (AA), which may offer diagnostic potential. Furthermore, changes in AA levels are associated with immune cell function. In this study, serum AA levels were studied in breast cancer patients versus patients with benign breast lesions. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of 15 AA were measured by high performance liquid chromatography before and after surgery in 41 breast cancer patients (BrCA) and nine patients with benign breast lesions (healthy donors, HD). Results were analyzed in relation to clinical tumor data and tested against immunological flow cytometry data. Principal component analysis was performed and the accuracy of AA levels as a potential diagnostic tool was tested. Results Pre- but not postoperative serum AA levels were increased in BrCA in eight out of 15 AA compared with HD. Serum AA levels were highest in the most aggressive (basal-like) as compared with the least aggressive tumor subtype (luminal A). A principal component (PC1) of all measured AA correlated with a mainly pro-inflammatory immune profile, while a second one (PC2, selectively considering AA preoperatively differing between HD and BrCA) could predict health state with an area under the curve of 0.870. Conclusions Breast cancer shows a tumor-dependent impact on serum AA levels, which varies with intrinsic tumor subtypes and is associated with a pro-inflammatory state. Serum AA levels need further evaluation as a potential diagnostic tool. PMID:24237611

  13. Interactions of collagen molecules in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) as a crosslinking agent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wu, Kun; Li, Guoying

    2011-11-01

    The effect of crosslinking agent on pepsin-soluble bovine collagen solution was examined using N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) as a crosslinker. Electrophoretic patterns indicated that crosslinks formed when NHS-AA was added. A higher polarity level deduced from the changes in the fluorescence emission spectrum of pyrene in the crosslinked collagen solution indicated that the formation of well-ordered aggregates was suppressed. The random aggregation of collagens was also observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the association of collagens into fibrils was influenced by crosslinking. Self-assembly was suppressed at 37°C; however, as temperature was increased to 39°C, a small amount of NHS-AA leaded to an improvement in the ability of self-aggregation. Although more random structure was brought about by crosslinking, self-aggregation might still be promoted as temperature was increased, accompanying by the thermal stability improvement of fibrils.

  14. High-throughput quantification of the levels and labeling abundance of free amino acids by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Tsogtbaatar, Enkhtuul; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-03-24

    Accurate assessment of mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs) of intracellular metabolites, such as free amino acids (AAs), is crucial for quantifying in vivo fluxes. To date, the majority of studies that measured AA MIDs have relied on the analysis of proteinogenic rather than free AAs by: i) GC-MS, which involved cumbersome process of derivatization, or ii) NMR, which requires large quantities of biological sample. In this work, the development and validation of a high-throughput LC-MS/MS method allowing the quantification of the levels and labeling of free AAs is described. Sensitivity in the order of the femtomol was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). The MIDs of all free AAs were assessed without the need of derivatization, and were validated (except for Trp) on a mixture of unlabeled AA standards. Finally, this method was applied to the determination of the (13)C-labeling abundance in free AAs extracted from maize embryos cultured with (13)C-glutamine or (13)C-glucose. Although Cys was below the limit of detection in these biological samples, the MIDs of a total of 18 free AAs were successfully determined. Due to the increased application of tandem mass spectrometry for (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis, this novel method will enable the assessment of more complete and accurate labeling information of intracellular AAs, and therefore a better definition of the fluxes.

  15. Decreased eicosapentaenoic acid levels in acne vulgaris reveals the presence of a proinflammatory state.

    PubMed

    Aslan, İbrahim; Özcan, Filiz; Karaarslan, Taner; Kıraç, Ebru; Aslan, Mutay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). PUFA levels were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Lipid profile, routine biochemical and hormone parameters were assayed by standard kit methods Serum EPA levels were significantly decreased while AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in acne vulgaris patients compared to controls. Serum levels of AA, DGLA and DHA showed no significant difference while activity of sPLA2 and LPL were significantly increased in acne vulgaris compared to controls. Results of this study reveal the presence of a proinflammatory state in acne vulgaris as shown by significantly decreased serum EPA levels and increased activity of sPLA2, AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio. Increased LPL activity in the serum of acne vulgaris patients can be protective through its anti-dyslipidemic actions. This is the first study reporting altered EPA levels and increased sPLA2 activity in acne vulgaris and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvant treatment for acne patients.

  16. Experimental study of albumin and lysozyme adsorption onto acrylic acid (AA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Omid; Modarress, Hamid; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2004-03-01

    Many commercial soft contact lenses are based on poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid (AA) hydrogels. The adsorption of proteins, albumin and lysozyme, on such contact lens surfaces may cause problems in their applications. In this work the adsorption of proteins, albumin and lysozyme, on hydrogel surfaces, AA and HEMA, was investigated as a function of concentration of protein. Also the effects of pH and ionic strength of protein solution on the adsorption of protein were examined. The obtained results indicated that the degree of adsorption of protein increased with the concentration of protein, and the adsorption of albumin on HEMA surface at the studied pHs (6.2-8.6) was higher than AA surface, whereas the adsorption of lysozyme on AA surface at the same pHs was higher than HEMA. The change in ionic strength of protein solution affected the proteins adsorption on both AA and HEMA surfaces. Also, the amount of sodium ions deposited on the AA surface was much higher than HEMA surface. This effect can be related to the negative surface charge of AA and its higher tendency for adsorption of sodium ions compared to the HEMA surface.

  17. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  18. Cyt1Aa Protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Is Toxic to the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle, Chrysomela scripta, and Suppresses High Levels of Resistance to Cry3Aa

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Brian A.; Bauer, Leah S.

    1998-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis is due primarily to Cry and Cyt proteins. Cry proteins are typically toxic to lepidopterous, coleopterous, or dipterous insects, whereas the known toxicity of Cyt proteins is limited to dipterans. We report here that a Cyt protein, Cyt1Aa, is also highly toxic to the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta, with a median lethal concentration of 2.5 ng/mm2 of leaf surface for second-instar larvae. Additionally, we show that Cyt1Aa suppresses resistance to Cry3Aa greater than 5,000-fold in C. scripta, a level only partially overcome by Cry1Ba due to cross-resistance. Studies of the histopathology of C. scripta larvae treated with Cyt1Aa revealed disruption and sloughing of midgut epithelial cells, indicating that its mechanism of action against C. scripta is similar to that observed in mosquito and blackfly larvae. These novel properties suggest that Cyt proteins may have an even broader spectrum of activity against insects and, owing to their different mechanism of action in comparison to Cry proteins, might be useful in managing resistance to Cry3 and possibly other Cry toxins used in microbial insecticides and transgenic plants. PMID:9797292

  19. Stability of 100 homo and heterotypic coiled-coil a-a' pairs for ten amino acids (A, L, I, V, N, K, S, T, E, and R).

    PubMed

    Acharya, Asha; Rishi, Vikas; Vinson, Charles

    2006-09-26

    We present the thermal stability monitored by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at 222 nm of 100 heterodimers that contain all possible coiled-coil a-a' pairs for 10 amino acids (I, V, L, N, A, K S, T, E, and R). This includes the stability of 36 heterodimers for 6 amino acids (I, V, L, N, A, and K) previously described and 64 new heterodimers including the 4 amino acids (S, T, E, and R). We have calculated a double mutant alanine thermodynamic cycle to determine a-a' pair coupling energies to evaluate which a-a' pairs encourage specific dimerization partners. The four new homotypic a-a' pairs (T-T, S-S, R-R, E-E) are repulsive relative to A-A and have destabilizing coupling energies. Among the 90 heterotypic a-a' pairs, the stabilizing coupling energies contain lysine or arginine paired with either an aliphatic or a polar amino acid. The range in coupling energies for each amino acid reveals its potential to regulate dimerization specificity. The a-a' pairs containing isoleucine and asparagine have the greatest range in coupling energies and thus contribute dramatically to dimerization specificity, which is to encourage homodimerization. In contrast, the a-a' pairs containing charged amino acids (K, R, and E) show the least range in coupling energies and promiscuously encourage heterodimerization.

  20. Design and construction of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Aa gene: hyperexpression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tohru; Howlader, Mohammad Tofazzal Hossain; Yamagiwa, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Cry4Aa produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is a dipteran-specific toxin and is, therefore, of great interest for developing a bioinsecticide to control mosquitoes. However, the expression of Cry4Aa in Escherichia coli is relatively low, which is a major disadvantage in its development as a bioinsecticide. In this study, to establish an effective production system, a 1,914-bp modified gene (cry4Aa-S1) encoding Cry4Aa was designed and synthesized in accordance with the G + C content and codon preference of E. coli genes without altering the encoded amino acid sequence. The cry4Aa-S1 gene allowed a significant improvement in expression level, over five-fold, compared to that of the original cry4Aa gene. The product of the cry4Aa-S1 gene showed the same level of insecticidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae as that from cry4Aa. This suggested that unfavorable codon usage was one of the reasons for poor expression of cry4Aa in E. coli, and, therefore, changing the cry4Aa codons to accord with the codon usage in E. coli led to efficient production of Cry4Aa. Efficient production of Cry4Aa in E. coli can be a powerful measure to prepare a sufficient amount of Cry4Aa protein for both basic analytical and applied researches.

  1. Engineering Carbon Nanotube Fiber for Real-Time Quantification of Ascorbic Acid Levels in a Live Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limin; Liu, Fangling; Sun, Xuemei; Wei, Guang-Feng; Tian, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Pan; Huang, Rong; Yu, Yanyan; Peng, Huisheng

    2017-02-07

    Ascorbic acid (AA) levels are closely correlated with physiological and pathological events in brain diseases, but the mechanism remains unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of accurately analyzing AA levels in live brain. In this study, by engineering tunable defects and oxygen-containing species in carbon nanotubes, a novel aligned carbon nanotube fiber was developed as an accurate microsensor for the ratiometric detection of AA levels in live rat brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AA oxidation is greatly facilitated on the fiber surface at a low potential, leading to high sensitivity as well as high selectivity against potential sources of interference in the brain. Additionally, an unexpected, separate peak from the fiber surface remains constant as the AA concentration increases, enabling real-time and ratiometric detection with high accuracy. The results demonstrated that the AA levels were estimated to be 259 ± 6 μM in cortex, 264 ± 20 μM in striatum, and 261 ± 21 μM in hippocampus, respectively, in normal condition. However, the overall AA level was decreased to 210 ± 30 μM in cortex, 182 ± 5 μM in striatum, and 136 ± 20 μM in hippocampus in the rat brain model of AD. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to accurately detect AA concentrations in the brains of live animal model of AD.

  2. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Sasaki, Naoya; Iwasaki, Sayaka; Baba, Nobuko; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2011-04-27

    Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fucoxanthin and polyphenol contents of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids were higher than those of Wakame lipids, while Wakame lipids showed higher total omega-3 PUFA content than Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in liver lipids of KK-A(y) mouse significantly increased by Akamoku and Uganomoku lipid feeding as compared with the control, but not by Wakame lipid feeding. Fucoxanthin has been reported to accelerate the bioconversion of omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA to DHA and AA, respectively. The higher hepatic DHA and AA level of mice fed Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids would be attributed to the higher content of fucoxanthin of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The lipid hydroperoxide levels of the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids were significantly lower than those of control mice, even though total PUFA content was higher in the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids. This would be, at least in part, due to the antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin metabolites in the liver.

  3. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brigandi, Sarah A.; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (p < 0.001). In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20) compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism. PMID:25946342

  4. [Changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in bone marrow of MDS and AA patients].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen-Yu; Tian, Xu; Li, Ying; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Song; Wang, Xie-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cheng, Nai-Yao

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in MDS and AA patients. A total of 25 cases MDS and 43 cases of AA (18 cases SAA and 25 cases of NSAA) from January 2010 to October 2013 in the Department of Hematology, affiliated hospital of Hebei United University were enrolled in this study. The complete blood count, bone marrow smears, bone marrow biopsy, karyotype analysis and bone marrow blood cell immune genotyping (mainly the proportion of CD34(+) cells, CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in nucleated cells) were carried out for all patients; the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in patients with MDS and AA (SAA NSAA) were compared; the differences of white blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration in patients with count of CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15% or <15% were analyzed. The results showed that the count of CD34(+) in MDS group was higher than that in AA (NSAA and SAA) group (P < 0.05). The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group was higher than that in SAA (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference between NSAA group and MDS group. In MDS group with CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15%, the platelet count was significantly higher than that in NSAA group (P < 0.05); and there was no statistical difference for leukocyte, platelet count and hemoglobin level between MDS and NSAA group with CD71(+)CD45(-) <15% (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the count of CD34(+) cells in MDS patients is significantly higher than that in AA and SAA patients. The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group is significantly higher than that of SAA group. The platelet count in MDS patients with CD71(+)CD45(-) cells ≥ 15% is significantly higher than that of the NSAA group.

  5. A synergistic combination of tetraethylorthosilicate and multiphosphonic acid offers excellent corrosion protection to AA1100 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmoro, Viviane; dos Santos, João H. Z.; Armelin, Elaine; Alemán, Carlos; Azambuja, Denise S.

    2013-05-01

    This work describes a new mechanism for the incorporation of organophosphonic acid into silane self-assembly monolayers, which has been used to protect AA1100 aluminum alloy. The protection improvement has been attributed to the fact that phosphonic structures promote the formation of strongly bonded and densely packed monolayer films, which show higher surface coverage and better adhesion than conventional silane systems. In order to evaluate the linking chemistry offered by phosphonic groups, two functionalized organophosphonic groups have been employed, 1,2-diaminoethanetetrakis methylenephosphonic acid (EDTPO) and aminotrimethylenephosphonic acid (ATMP), and combined with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) films prepared by sol-gel synthesis. Results suggest that phosphonic acids may interact with the surface through a monodentate and bidentate coordination mode and, in addition, form one or more strong and stable linkages with silicon through non-hydrolysable bonds. Therefore, the incorporation of a very low concentration of phosphonic acids on TEOS solutions favors the complete coverage of the aluminum substrate during the silanization process, which is not possible using TEOS alone. The linking capacity of phosphonic acid has been investigated by FTIR-RA spectroscopy, SEM and EDX analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quantum mechanical calculations. Finally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the corrosion protection revealing that EDTPO-containing films afforded more protection to the AA1100 substrate than ATMP-containing films.

  6. Cyclic AMP regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) release and phospholipid metabolism in human monocytes: modulation by intracellular calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffstein, S.T.; Manzi, R.M.; Godfrey, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Stimulation of inflammatory cells by specific ligands results in activation of phospholipase(s) and production of oxygenation products of AA. The authors have employed (/sup 3/H)AA labeled monocytes to examine the involvement of cAMP in regulating phospholipase activity as measured by percent of incorporated (/sup 3/H)AA released and TLC analysis of (/sup 3/H)AA cellular lipids. Maximum release of radiolabel (31 +/- 5%) occurred upon challenge with the calcium ionophore A23187/sup -/ (10..mu..M), while FMLP (1..mu..M) yielded 15 +/- 1% and untreated cells 8 +/- 1%. Pretreatment of monocytes with isobutyl methyl xanthine/sup -/(IBMX) or dibutyrl cyclic AMP (d-cAMP) inhibited FMLP stimulated release with IC/sub 50/'s of 2.5 x 10/sup -5/M and 8 x 10/sup -5/M respectively. Exposure of monocytes to maximal levels of IBMX (5 x 10/sup -4/M) or d-cAMP (10/sup -3/M) also reduced release from controls by 40%, while A23187 induced release was uneffected by either. Examination of (/sup 3/H) AA labeled phospholipids showed that phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol were the major pools labeled and that stimulation by FMLP or A23187 appeared to deplete the PC pool exclusively. Prior exposure to IBMX or d-cAMP inhibited the loss from the PC pool only in untreated or FMLP stimulated cells. The data suggests that a phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity, directly primarily towards PC, is regulated by cAMP possibly by inhibiting receptor mediated increases in intracellular calcium levels.

  7. Synthesis of ST7612AA1, a Novel Oral HDAC Inhibitor, via Radical 
Thioacetic Acid Addition

    PubMed Central

    Battistuzzi, Gianfranco; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background In the expanding field of anticancer drugs, HDAC inhibitors are playing an increasingly important role. To date, four/five HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA. All these compounds fit the widely accepted HDAC inhibitors pharmacophore model characterized by a cap group, a linker chain and a zinc binding group (ZBG), able to bind the Zn2+ ion in a pocket of the HDAC active site. Romidepsin, a natural compound, is the only thiol derivative. We have selected a new class of synthetic HDAC inhibitors, the thio-ω(lactam-carboxamide) derivatives, with ST7612AA1 as drug candidate, pan-inhibitor active in the range of single- to two-digit nanomolar concentrations. Preliminary results of a synthetic optimization attempt towards a fast scale-up process are here proposed. Methods In the four steps of synthesis, from unsaturated amino acid intermediate to the final product, we explored different synthetic conditions in order to have a transferable process for a scale-up synthetic laboratory. Results In the first step, isobutyl chloroformate was used and, after a simple work up with 1M HCl, 2 (96% yield) was obtained as a white solid, which was used directly in the next step. For thioacetic acid addition to the double bond of intermediate 2, two different routes were possible, with addition reaction in the first (D’) or last step (D). Reactions of 2 to give 5 or of 4 to give ST7612AA1 were both performed in dioxane. Reactions were fast and did not need the usually advised radical quenching with cyclohexene. The corresponding products were obtained in good yields (step D’, 89%; step D, 81%) after a flash chromatography. Conclusion: ST7612AA1 , a thiol derivative prodrug of ST7464AA1, is the first of a new generation of HDAC inhibitors, very potent, orally administered, and well tolerated. Here, we have identified a synthetic route, competitive, versatile and easily transferable to industrial processes. PMID:27917100

  8. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 measured by Dithiothreitol (DTT) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) assays in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Bates, J. T.; Abrams, J.; Klein, M.; Strickland, M. J.; Sarnat, S. E.; Chang, H. H.; Mulholland, J. A.; Tolbert, P. E.; Russell, A. G.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    The ability of certain components of particulate matter to induce oxidative stress through catalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo may be one mechanism accounting for observed linkages between ambient aerosols and adverse health outcomes. A variety of assays have been used to measure this so-called aerosol oxidative potential. We developed a semi-automated system to quantify oxidative potential of filter aqueous extracts utilizing the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and have recently developed a similar semi-automated system using the ascorbic acid (AA) assay. Approximately 500 PM2.5 filter samples collected in contrasting locations in the southeastern US were analyzed using both assays. We found that water-soluble DTT activity on a per air volume basis was more spatially uniform than water-soluble AA activity. DTT activity was higher in winter than in summer/fall, whereas AA activity was higher in summer/fall compared to winter, with highest levels near highly trafficked highways. DTT activity was correlated with organic and metal species, whereas AA activity was correlated with water-soluble metals (especially water-soluble Cu, r=0.70-0.91 at most sites). Source apportionment models, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and a Chemical Mass Balance Method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles (CMB-E), suggest a strong contribution from secondary processes (e.g., organic aerosol oxidation or metal mobilization by formation of an aqueous particle with secondary acids) and traffic emissions to both DTT and AA activities in urban Atlanta. Biomass burning was a large source for DTT activity, but insignificant for AA. DTT activity was well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r=0.49-0.86 across sites/seasons), while AA activity did not co-vary strongly with mass. A linear model was developed to estimate DTT and AA activities for the central Atlanta Jefferson Street site, based on the CMB-E sources that are statistically significant with positive

  9. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations between ascorbic acid (AA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ting; Verma, Vishal; Bates, Josephine T.; Abrams, Joseph; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J.; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Chang, Howard H.; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Russell, Armistead G.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    The ability of certain components of particulate matter to induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo may be one mechanism accounting for observed linkages between ambient aerosols and adverse health outcomes. A variety of assays have been used to measure this so-called aerosol oxidative potential. We developed a semi-automated system to quantify oxidative potential of filter aqueous extracts utilizing the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and report here the development of a similar semi-automated system for the ascorbic acid (AA) assay. Approximately 500 PM2.5 filter samples collected in contrasting locations in the southeastern US were analyzed for a host of aerosol species, along with AA and DTT activities. We present a detailed contrast in findings from these two assays. Water-soluble AA activity was higher in summer and fall than in winter, with highest levels near heavily trafficked highways, whereas DTT activity was higher in winter compared to summer and fall and more spatially homogeneous. AA activity was nearly exclusively correlated with water-soluble Cu (r = 0.70-0.94 at most sites), whereas DTT activity was correlated with organic and metal species. Source apportionment models, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and a chemical mass balance method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles (CMB-E), suggest a strong contribution from traffic emissions and secondary processes (e.g., organic aerosol oxidation or metals mobilization by secondary acids) to both AA and DTT activities in urban Atlanta. In contrast, biomass burning was a large source for DTT activity, but insignificant for AA. AA activity was not correlated with PM2.5 mass, while DTT activity co-varied strongly with mass (r = 0.49-0.86 across sites and seasons). Various linear models were developed to estimate AA and DTT activities for the central Atlanta Jefferson Street site, based on the CMB-E sources. The models were then used to estimate daily

  10. HBV Viral Load and Liver Enzyme Levels May Be Associated with the Wild MBL2 AA Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Tuane Carolina Ferreira; Araújo, Mauro Sérgio; Freitas Queiroz, Maria Alice; Conde, Simone Regina Souza da Silva; Demachki, Sâmia; Martins-Feitosa, Rosimar Neris; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Ishak, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the frequencies of rs1800450 (MBL ⁎B, G>A), rs1800451 (MBL ⁎C, G>A), and rs5030737 (MBL ⁎D, C>T) polymorphisms in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene among patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Blood samples from patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 65), hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 92), and a noninfected control group (n = 300) were investigated. The presence of polymorphisms was detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to correlate with liver disease pathogenesis and fibrosis staging according to the Metavir classification. The genotypic and allelic frequencies showed no significant differences between the groups, but patients with active HBV and the wild AA genotype presented a positive correlation between increased transaminase and HBV DNA levels and the presence of mild to moderate fibrosis. Patients with HCV and the wild AA genotype presented mild inflammation and higher HCV RNA levels, although the same association was not observed for the fibrosis scores. The results suggest that the mutations in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene do not contribute directly to the clinical and laboratory features of HCV and HBV infections, but further studies should be performed to confirm whether the wild AA genotype has indirect effect on disease progression.

  11. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls

    PubMed Central

    Niyonsenga, Theophile; Duff, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. Objectives This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD. Methods Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3–17 years with ADHD (n = 401), ASD (n = 85) or controls (n = 79) were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson’s correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores. Results Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047). Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons). ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001), DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001), n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001) and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01). TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001), EPA (r = .418, P<0.001) AA (r = .199, P<0.001), and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001) and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001). CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002), EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038) and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021). Conclusions Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these

  12. Influence of the amount of co-infused amino acids on post-therapeutic potassium levels in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is routinely used for advanced or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET). To prevent nephrotoxicity, positively charged amino acids (AA) are co-infused. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk for therapy-related hyperkalaemia with the total amount of AA infused. Methods Twenty-two patients undergoing PRRT with standard activities of 177Lu-DOTATATE/-TOC were monitored during two following treatment cycles with co-infusion of 75 and 50 g of AA (l-arginine and l-lysine), respectively. Mean serum levels of potassium and other parameters (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], creatinine, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], phosphate, chloride, lactate dehydrogenase) prior to, 4 h and 24 h after AA infusion were compared. Results Self-limiting hyperkalaemia (>5.0 mmol/l) resolving after 24 h occurred in 91% (20/22) of patients in both protocols. Potassium levels, BUN, creatinine, GFR, phosphate, chloride and LDH showed a similar range at 4 h after co-infusion of 75 or 50 g of AA, respectively (p?>?0.05). Only GFR and creatinine levels at 24 h varied significantly between the two co-infusion protocols (p?AA infusion in PRRT. Varying the dose of co-infused amino acids did not impact on the incidence and severity of hyperkalaemia. PMID:25977877

  13. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  14. Estimation of endogenous protein and amino acid ileal losses in weaned piglets by regression analysis using diets with graded levels of casein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies have investigated endogenous loss of proteins and amino acids (AAs) at the ileal level in growing pigs. However, only a few studies have researched this subject in piglets. Knowledge regarding AA ileal digestibility in piglets would be helpful during the formulation of diets for weaning piglets, rather than just using coefficients obtained in growing pigs. Therefore, in this study, we sought to estimate endogenous protein and AA ileal losses in piglets. Furthermore, apparent and true ileal digestibility (AID and TID) of protein and AAs from casein were measured. Results The average flow of protein was 20.8 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI). Basal protein loss, as estimated by regression, was 16.9 g/kg DMI. Glutamic acid, arginine, and aspartic acid (2.2, 1.4, and 1.2 g/kg DMI, respectively) were the AAs for which greater losses were seen. The AID of protein and AAs increased as the protein level in the diet increased. A higher increment in AID was observed between diets with 80 and160 g CP/kg of feed; this finding was mainly attributable to increases in glycine and arginine (46.1% and 18%, respectively). The TID of protein was 97.8, and the TID of AAs varied from 93.9 for histidine to 100.2 for phenylalanine. Conclusions The basal endogenous protein loss in piglets was 16.9 g/kg DMI. Endogenous protein was rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and arginine, which represented 32.7% of endogenous protein loss in weaning piglets. The TID of casein was high and varied from 93.0 for histidine to 100.2 for phenylalanine. PMID:24053636

  15. Effect of adding amino acids residues in N- and C-terminus of Vip3Aa16 (L121I) toxin.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Sameh; Cherif, Marwa; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-06-01

    To study the importance of N- and C-terminus of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 (L121I) toxin (88 kDa), a number of mutants were generated. The addition of two (2R: RS) or eleven (11R: RSRPGHHHHHH) amino acid residues at the Vip3Aa16 (L121I) C-terminus allowed to an unappropriated folding illustrated by the abundant presence of the 62 kDa proteolytic form. The produced Vip3Aa16 (L121I) full length form was less detected when increasing the number of amino acids residues in the C-terminus. Bioassays demonstrated that the growth of the lepidopteran Ephestia kuehniella was slightly affected by Vip3Aa16 (L121I)-2R and not affected by Vip3Aa16 (L121I)-11R. Additionally, the fusion at the Vip3Aa16 (L121I) N-terminus of 39 amino acids harboring the E. coli OmpA leader peptide and the His-tag sequence allowed to the increase of protease sensitivity of Vip3Aa16 (L121I) full length form, as only the 62 kDa proteolysis form was detected. Remarkably, this fused protein produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) was biologically inactive toward Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Thus, the N-terminus of the protein is required to the accomplishment of the insecticidal activity of Vip3 proteins. This report serves as guideline for the study of Vip3Aa16 (L121I) protein stability and activity.

  16. AaCAT1 of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: a novel histidine-specific amino acid transporter from the SLC7 family.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Immo A; Boudko, Dmitri Y; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Voronov, Dmitri A; Meleshkevitch, Ella A; Drake, Lisa L; Aguirre, Sarah E; Fox, Jeffrey M; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2011-03-25

    Insect yolk protein precursor gene expression is regulated by nutritional and endocrine signals. A surge of amino acids in the hemolymph of blood-fed female mosquitoes activates a nutrient signaling system in the fat bodies, which subsequently derepresses yolk protein precursor genes and makes them responsive to activation by steroid hormones. Orphan transporters of the SLC7 family were identified as essential upstream components of the nutrient signaling system in the fat body of fruit flies and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. However, the transport function of these proteins was unknown. We report expression and functional characterization of AaCAT1, cloned from the fat body of A. aegypti. Expression of AaCAT1 transcript and protein undergoes dynamic changes during postembryonic development of the mosquito. Transcript expression was especially high in the third and fourth larval stages; however, the AaCAT1 protein was detected only in pupa and adult stages. Functional expression and analysis of AaCAT1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that it acts as a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter, with unique selectivity to L-histidine at neutral pH (K(0.5)(L-His) = 0.34 ± 0.07 mM, pH 7.2). Acidification to pH 6.2 dramatically increases AaCAT1-specific His(+)-induced current. RNAi-mediated silencing of AaCAT1 reduces egg yield of subsequent ovipositions. Our data show that AaCAT1 has notable differences in its transport mechanism when compared with related mammalian cationic amino acid transporters. It may execute histidine-specific transport and signaling in mosquito tissues.

  17. Amino acid and energy interrelationships in growing beef steers: I. The effect of level of feed intake on ruminal characteristics and intestinal amino acid flows.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Kerley, M S

    1997-09-01

    Five cannulated Holstein steers (538 +/- 35 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with extra observations to examine the influence of level of feed intake on postruminal flow and intestinal disappearance of N and amino acids (AA). Treatments consisted of a single diet fed at four levels of energy intake (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 times NEm requirement). The diet was formulated on a DM basis to contain 13.25% CP using cracked corn (56.1%), soybean hulls (18%), cottonseed hulls (15%), soybean oil (4.25%), and corn gluten meal (5.6%). Increasing feed intake linearly increased (P < .0001) the quantity of OM truly digested in the stomach but tended to decrease (P = .11) OM digestion as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake had no effect (P > .10) on ruminal pH, NH3 N, or peptide concentration or on particulate and fluid passage rates. However, total VFA concentration increased linearly (P < .0001) and the acetate: propionate ratio decreased linearly (P < .0001) as feed intake increased. Flows of microbial and nonmicrobial N at the duodenum linearly increased (P < .002) with increasing intake but did not differ (P > .10) as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake did not affect (P > .10) microbial efficiency, N disappearance from the small intestine, or total tract N digestibility. With the exception of tryptophan, flows of all individual AA increased linearly (P < .01) with increasing intake. As a percentage of duodenal flow, AA digestion in the small intestine did not differ (P > .10), leading to a linear increase (P < .10) in the net quantity of individual (with the exception of tryptophan) and total AA disappearing from the small intestine as feed intake increased. Likewise, the profile of AA (except tryptophan) disappearing from the small intestine was unaffected (P > .10) by level of feed intake. When compared with predicted requirements for a 227-kg growing beef steer, Arg, Met, His, and Lys were suggested to be the most limiting AA for

  18. Effect of different inclusion level of condensed distillers solubles ratios and oil content on amino Acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Xu, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S; Ma, X K; Piao, X S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS.

  19. Effects of forage intake level on nitrogen net flux by portal-drained viscera of mature sheep with abomasal infusion of an amino acid mixture.

    PubMed

    EL-Sabagh, M; Sugino, T; Obitsu, T; Taniguchi, K

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pattern of nitrogen (N) metabolites flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) of mature sheep over a wide range of forage intake, and to determine the effect of dry matter intake (DMI) on the PDV recovery of an abomasally infused amino acids (AA) mixture. Four Suffolk mature sheep (61.4 ± 3.6 kg BW) surgically fitted with abomasal cannulae and multi-catheters were fed four levels of DMI of lucerne hay cubes ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 fold the metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance. Each period lasted for 17 days: 7 days for diet adaptation, 5 days for measurement of N balance and N metabolites flux under basal pre-infusion conditions (basal phase) and 5 days for determining the recovery of the infused AA (584 mmol/day) across the PDV (infusion phase). Six sets of blood samples were collected on the last day of both basal and infusion phases. Increasing DMI increased portal release of AA and enhanced N retention. At 0.4 M and as a proportion of digested N, there was a marked drop in total AA-N release accompanied by greater ammonia-N release and urea-N uptake across the PDV. The incremental recovery ratio of infused AA across the PDV was altered with increasing DMI accounting for 0.88, 1.12, 1.23 and 1.31 at 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 M, respectively. In addition, across the individual AA, the net portal recovery ratio of infused methionine and valine increased linearly (P < 0.05) while that of phenylalanine, branched-chain AA and total essential AA tended to increase linearly (P < 0.10) with increasing DMI. These results indicated that DMI affects the net portal recovery of AA available in the small intestine of mature sheep.

  20. Cardiac mortality is associated with low levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the heart of cadavers with a history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Petsophonsakul, Petnoi; Suwannahoi, Padiphat; Mahakranukrauh, Pasuk; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2009-10-01

    The benefits of omega-3 (ie, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-6 (ie, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid [AA]) fatty acids on reducing cardiac mortality are still debated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues are associated with low cardiac mortality in Thai cadavers. One hundred fresh cadavers were examined in this study. The cause of death, history of coronary heart disease (CHD), and fish consumption habits were obtained from death certificates, cadaver medical record profiles, and a questionnaire to a person who lived with the subject before death. In each cadaver, biopsies of cardiac tissues were taken from the interventricular septum for measurement of fatty acid. Of the 100 cadavers (average age, 69 +/- 13 years), 60 were men. The frequency of fish consumption was directly associated with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues (P < .01). History of CHD and cause of death (cardiac vs noncardiac) were not significantly associated with levels of omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. However, in cadavers with a history of CHD, high levels of omega-3 and omega-6, particularly DHA and AA, were associated with low cardiac mortality (P < .05). Fish consumption is associated with levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues. Although omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are not associated with cardiac mortality in the overall studied population, their low levels (especially DHA and AA) in heart tissues are associated with high cardiac mortality in cadavers with a history of CHD.

  1. The effect of dietary methionine levels on endogenous nitrogen and endogenous amino acids flows in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C S; Tan, Z L; Tang, S X; Sun, Z H; Han, X F; Wang, M; Tayo, G O

    2010-10-01

    The effect of dietary methionine (Met) levels on endogenous N and amino acids (AA) flows at different part of the digestive tract of growing goats was determined using a (15)N isotope dilution technique. Three goats (25 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with the ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae and allocated to three dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The dietary treatments consisted of a total mixed ration containing three levels of Met (0.15%, 0.25% and 0.35%) respectively. It was found that at 0.15% Met level, the lowest flow in endogenous N and total AA at the duodenum and ileum occurred. The endogenous N secretion contributed to 26% and 23% of the duodenal and ileal total N flows, respectively, and the proportions were not affected by the dietary Met levels. The duodenal and ileal flows of endogenous total AA were 11.1, 11.8, 11.3 g/d and 2.9, 3.9, 4.1 g/d respectively. The average real digestibility of N was 65%, 87% and 95% in the forestomach, intestine and whole digestive tract respectively.

  2. Association between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and placental lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Sert, Selda; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Lead inhibits the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and results in neurotoxic aminolevulinic acid accumulation in the blood. During pregnancy, lead in the maternal blood can easily cross the placenta. The aim of this study was to determine whether the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism (rs1800435) was related to the placental lead levels. The study population comprised 97 blood samples taken from mothers to investigate ALAD G177C polymorphism and their placentas to measure lead levels. ALAD G177C polymorphism was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with a graphite furnace and Zeeman background correction system was used for lead determination. The median placental lead levels for ALAD1-1, ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2 genotypes were 7.54 μg/kg, 11.78 μg/kg and 18.53 μg/kg, respectively. Statistically significant association was found between the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism and placental lead levels (p<0.05). This study suggested that maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism was associated with placental lead levels.

  3. Synovial fluid lactic acid levels in septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Riley, T V

    1981-01-01

    Synovial fluid lactic acid estimations were carried out on 50 samples by gas liquid chromatography. Specimens from 4 patients with bacteria arthritis, other than gonococcal, had a mean lactic acid concentration of 215 mg/dl. One patient with gonococcal arthritis had a synovial fluid lactic acid of 30 mg/dl. Forty-one patients with inflammatory arthritis and 4 patients with degenerative arthritis had mean synovial fluid lactic acid levels of 27 and 23 mg/dl respectively. The estimation of synovial fluid lactic acid is reliable in differentiating septic arthritis from inflammatory and degenerative arthritis except when the infecting organism is NEisseria gonorrhoeae.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid ascorbic acid levels in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Brau, R H; García-Castiñeiras, S; Rifkinson, N

    1984-02-01

    The ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid system was analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 41 patients with different neurological disorders. The chi-square test of covariance analysis revealed in this sample significant differences in the CSF levels of total ascorbic acid when patients were classified by diagnostic categories. The population analyzed contained a group of 18 patients (back pain/sciatica group) in whom no overt neurological abnormalities were disclosed upon evaluation. Taking the CSF levels of total ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in these patients as the reference (3.57 +/- 0.87 (SD)/100 ml and 0.53 +/- 0.19 mg/100 ml, respectively), it was found that head-traumatized patients showed a significant reduction in the concentration of total ascorbic acid in the CSF. CSF ascorbic acid levels were also significantly lower in patients with increased intracranial pressure (noninfected hydrocephalus group) and in patients with cerebral tumors. Although the CSF concentration of dehydroascorbic acid did not correspondingly increase over the reference values in these three groups of patients, the tendency existed for dehydroascorbic acid to represent in them a higher percentage of total ascorbic acid. After examining different alternatives, it is concluded that the hypothesis of free radical damage to the central nervous system after certain types of injury (trauma, ischemia, and tumors) may provide a satisfactory explanation of our findings. A rationale for the use of vitamin C in the management of some neurological patients is also derived from this work.

  5. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  6. Uric Acid Levels in Normotensive Children of Hypertensive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ali; Keles, Fatma; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Uric acid concentrations were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension (4.61 versus 3.57 mg/dL, P < 0.01). Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in control children aged >10 years (P < 0.01). Uric acid levels were significantly higher in all children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (P < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between the level of serum uric acid and age, body weight, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the normotensive children of parents. The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant of hypertension. Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension. PMID:26464873

  7. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  8. The Association of Fatty Acid Levels and Gleason Grade among Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Reinstatler, Lael; Klaassen, Zachary; Xu, Yi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Madi, Rabii; Terris, Martha K.; Qian, Steven Y.; Kelavkar, Uddhav; Moses, Kelvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data suggest that omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) may be associated with cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality, whereas ω-3 FAs are potentially protective. We examined the association of the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 FA (ω-6:ω-3) and individual FA components with pathological results among men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods Sixty-nine men were included in the study. Components of ω-6 (linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)) and ω-3 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass selective detector separation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine association of FA with pathological high grade (Gleason ≥4+3) disease. Results The were 35 men with low grade disease (Gleason ≤3+4) and 34 men with high grade disease. Men with low grade disease were significantly younger (58y vs 61y, p = 0.012) and had lower D’Amico clinical classification (p = 0.001) compared to men with high grade disease. There was no significant association of ω-6:ω-3 with high grade disease (OR 0.93, p = 0.78), however overall ω-6, ω-3, and individual components of ω-6 and ω-3 FAs except EPA were significantly associated with high grade disease (ω-6: OR 3.37, 95% CI: 1.27,8.98; LA: OR 3.33, 95% CI:1.24,8.94; AA: OR 2.93, 95% CI:1.24,6.94; DGLA: OR 3.21, 95% CI:1.28,8.04; ω-3: OR 3.47, 95% CI:1.22,9.83; DHA: OR 3.13, 95% CI:1.26,7.74). ω-6 and ω-3 FA components were highly correlated (Spearman ρ = 0.77). Conclusion Higher levels of individual components of ω-6 and ω-3FAs may be associated with higher-grade PCa. Impact Studies into the causative factors/pathways regarding FAs and prostate carcinogenesis may prove a potential association with PCa aggressiveness. PMID:27880795

  9. Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in Candida albicans and non-albicans species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Ali, Shakir; Shukla, Praveen K

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans utilizes arachidonic acid (AA) released during the course of infection (Candidiasis) from phospholipids of infected host cell membranes and synthesizes extracellular prostaglandin(s) which play an important role in hyphae formation and host cell damage. C. albicans biofilms secrete significantly more prostaglandin(s) and evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to majority of antifungal drugs. AA influences the saturation level of lipids and fluidity of yeast cell membranes. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AA alone or in combination with antifungal agents on biofilm formation and production of prostaglandin (PGE2) in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans amphotericin B resistant strain (AmBR). Maximum biofilm formation was found to be in the case of C. albicans compared to C. non-albicans species. However, among the non-albicans species C. tropicalis exhibited highest biofilm formation. Treatment with AA in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole and terbinafine separately exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in biofilm formation against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and AmBR as compared to their individual effect. Further, these two antifungal agents in combination with AA caused an increase in production of prostaglandin from fungal cell itself which was significant (p<0.05) in case of all the strains tested.

  10. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography.

  11. Effet de l'acide ascorbique sur la détermination du plomb dans des matrices végétales par ETA-AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenig, Michel; Van Hoeyweghen, Paul

    Sulphuric acid used in wet oxidation of plant material and the matrix elements are responsible for a strong suppression of lead absorption signals and for the poor reproducibility of the measurements with ETA-AAS. Addition of ascorbic acid to samples (2% m/V) provides an enhancement in sensitivity by more than 200% and leads to acceptable values of the relative error. The results obtained with the 283.3 nm line are better than those obtained with the 217.0 nm line.

  12. Effect of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) during in vitro maturation on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L S; Pereira, S A; Diógenes, M N; Dode, M A N

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a combination of insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) on in vitro embryo production. To verify the effect of the supplements, cleavage and blastocyst rates, embryo size and total cell number were performed. Embryonic development data, embryo size categorization and kinetics of maturation were analyzed by chi-squared test, while the total cell number was analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.05). When ITS was present during IVM, IVC or the entire culture, all treatments had a cleavage and blastocyst rates and embryo quality, similar to those of the control group (P < 0.05). Supplementation of IVM medium with ITS and AA for 12 h or 24 h showed that the last 12 h increased embryo production (51.6%; n = 220) on D7 compared with the control (39.5%; n = 213). However, no improvement was observed in blastocyst rate when less competent oocytes, obtained from 1-3 mm follicles, were exposed to ITS + AA for the last 12 h of IVM, with a blastocyst rate of 14.9% (n = 47) compared with 61.0% (n = 141) in the control group. The results suggest that the addition of ITS alone did not affect embryo production; however, when combined with AA in the last 12 h of maturation, there was improvement in the quantity and quality of embryos produced. Furthermore, the use of ITS and AA during IVM did not improve the competence of oocytes obtained from small follicles.

  13. Swelling and aspirin release study: cross-linked pH-sensitive vinyl acetate-co-acrylic acid (VAC-co-AA) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ranjha, Nazar Mohammad; Mudassir, Jahanzeb

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop new pH-sensitive hydrogels to deliver gastric mucosal irritating drugs to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, cross-linked vinyl acetate-co-acrylic acid (VAC-co-AA) hydrogels were synthesized by using N, N, methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a cross-linking agent. Different ratios of 90:10, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 10:90 of VAC-co-AA were synthesized. All of the compositions were cross-linked using 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 mol percent MBAAm. Swelling and aspirin release were studied for 8 hour period. The drug release data were fitted into various kinetic models like the zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, and Peppas. Hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition to the above, these hydrogels were loaded with 2%, 8% and 14% w/v aspirin solutions, keeping the monomeric composition and degree of cross-linking constant. In conclusion, it can be said that aspirin can be successfully incorporated into cross-linked VAC/AA hydrogels and its swelling and drug release can be modulated by changing the mole fraction of the acid component in the gels.

  14. Serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease: the Gordian knot

    PubMed Central

    Tugores, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid level of more than 7 mg/dL and blood levels of uric acid are causally associated with gout, as implicated by evidence from randomized clinical trials using urate lowering therapies. Uric acid as a cardiovascular risk factor often accompanies metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic renal disease, and obesity. Despite the association of hyperuricemia with cardiovascular risk factors, it has remained controversial as to whether uric acid is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. To settle this issue, and in the absence of large randomized controlled trials, Mendelian randomization analysis in which the exposure is defined based on the presence or absence of a specific allele that influences a risk factor of interest have tried to shed light on this. PMID:28066631

  15. Independence of sialic acid levels in normal and malignant growth.

    PubMed

    Khadapkar, S V; Sheth, N A; Bhide, S V

    1975-06-01

    Sialic acid content in breast or tumor tissue and serum of mouse strains that are either susceptible or resistant to breast cancer was measured at various age periods. Sialic acid content was also studied in normal lung tissue and in lung adenoma and hepatoma. Sialic acid levels during nonmalignant growth of a tissue were measured in breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation, and in regenerating liver, as well as in newborn and postnatal liver. The sialic acid content, when expressed per mg of protein, increased in mammary tumor, lung adenoma, and hepatoma. It also increased in nonmalignant growth of breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation and of regenerating liver and postnatal liver. Increase in sialic acid per mg DNA was observed only in lung tumors, regenerating liver, and postnatal liver. It appears that the changes in sialic acid level are independent of the normal or malignant growth of a tissue and that these changes might be the function of the parameter used to express the sialic acid values, i.e., either the DNA content or protein content of a given tissue.

  16. Plasma amino acid response to graded levels of escape protein.

    PubMed

    Gibb, D J; Klopfenstein, T J; Britton, R A; Lewis, A J

    1992-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the potential of using plasma amino acid responses to graded levels of escape protein to determine limiting amino acids in cattle. Growing calves (n = 120; mean BW = 220 +/- 21 kg) were fed a basal diet of corncob:sorghum silage (61:39) and were individually supplemented with distillers' dried grains (DDG), heat-damaged DDG (H-DDG), feather meal (FTH), or urea. The urea supplement was mixed with DDG and H-DDG to allow 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, or 80% of the supplemental CP to come from distillers' protein and maintain an 11.5% CP diet. Urea supplement was mixed with FTH to allow 0, 22, 39, 56, 73, or 90% of the supplemental CP to come from FTH. Dietary CP ranged from 11.5% at the 0% level to 17.3% at the 90% level. Plasma concentration of most essential plasma amino acids responded (P less than .10) linearly and(or) quadratically to increased escape protein. The broken-line response of plasma methionine at low DDG intake suggested that methionine was limiting at low levels of escape protein. An initial decrease followed by a plateau fit by a broken line indicated that histidine became limiting in FTH diets, and lysine eventually became limiting for DDG, H-DDG, and FTH diets before maximum BW gain was reached. Results indicate that plasma amino acid responses may identify amino acids that become limiting with increasing escape protein.

  17. Evidence for a catabolic role of glucagon during an amino acid load.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, M R; Adey, D B; Nair, K S

    1996-01-01

    Despite the strong association between protein catabolic conditions and hyperglucagonemia, and enhanced glucagon secretion by amino acids (AA), glucagon's effects on protein metabolism remain less clear than on glucose metabolism. To clearly define glucagon's catabolic effect on protein metabolism during AA load, we studied the effects of glucagon on circulating AA and protein dynamics in six healthy subjects. Five protocols were performed in each subject using somatostatin to inhibit the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone (GH) and selectively replacing these hormones in different protocols. Total AA concentration was the highest when glucagon, insulin, and GH were low. Selective increase of glucagon levels prevented this increment in AA. Addition of high levels of insulin and GH to high glucagon had no effect on total AA levels, although branched chain AA levels declined. Glucagon mostly decreased glucogenic AA and enhanced glucose production. Endogenous leucine flux, reflecting proteolysis, decreased while leucine oxidation increased in protocols where AA were infused and these changes were unaffected by the hormones. Nonoxidative leucine flux reflecting protein synthesis was stimulated by AA, but high glucagon attenuated this effect. Addition of GH and insulin partially reversed the inhibitory effect of glucagon on protein synthesis. We conclude that glucagon is the pivotal hormone in amino acid disposal during an AA load and, by reducing the availability of AA, glucagon inhibits protein synthesis stimulated by AA. These data provide further support for a catabolic role of glucagon at physiological concentrations. PMID:8690809

  18. Association of Renal Manifestations with Serum Uric Acid in Korean Adults with Normal Uric Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that hyperuricemia is associated with the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidences also suggest that hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in the progression of renal disease. Paradoxically, uric acid is also widely accepted to have antioxidant activity in experimental studies. We aimed to investigate the association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and uric acid in healthy individuals with a normal serum level of uric acid. We examined renal function determined by GFR and uric acid in 3,376 subjects (1,896 men; 1,480 women; aged 20-80 yr) who underwent medical examinations at Gangnam Severance Hospital from November 2006 to June 2007. Determinants for renal function and uric acid levels were also investigated. In both men and women, GFR was negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid, log transformed C reactive protein, and log transformed triglycerides. In multivariate regression analysis, total uric acid was found to be an independent factor associated with estimated GFR in both men and women. This result suggests that uric acid appears to contribute to renal impairment in subjects with normal serum level of uric acid. PMID:21165292

  19. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of individual amino acids in mixed diets with different crude protein levels measured by the modified in vitro three-step and mobile nylon bag technique.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Lv, Bo; Liu, Chenli; Chen, Daofu

    2016-04-01

    The ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in three total mixed rations with different CP levels were estimated using the modified in vitro three-step procedure (TSP) and mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique on growing lambs. The ruminal effective degradability of DM and CP did not respond with increasing dietary CP level. However, the intestinal digestibility of DM was significantly increased with increasing dietary CP level estimated by TSP (P < 0.05) or MNB method (P < 0.01). Intestinal digestibility coefficients of CP determined by TSP were lower than those of the MNB method. Histidine was extensively degraded by rumen micro-organisms, while tyrosine was the most anti-degradable AA among the samples. The ruminal AA degradability exhibited no significant differences except for threonine, tryptophan, alanine, aspartic acid and proline for the three diets. Similarly, only a few AAs (i.e. histidine, methionine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and cysteine in TSP; histidine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and serine in MNB) had significant differences in their intestinal digestibility; in addition, values of MNB were lower than that of the TSP method, indicating that intestinal digestibility of DM seems to be overestimated in TSP, while that of CP might be overestimated in the MNB method.

  20. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  1. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  2. Quantitative Profiling of Hydroxy Lipid Metabolites in Mouse Organs Reveals Distinct Lipidomic Profiles and Modifications Due to Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Cheng-Ying; Smyl, Christopher; Dogan, Inci; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten-H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of bioactive metabolites and mediators. In this study, the profile of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE), hydroxyeicosapentaenoic (HEPE) and hydroxydocosahexaenoic (HDHA) acids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colon, liver, lung, spleen, muscle, heart and kidney tissue of healthy wildtype mice were characterized, and compared to profiles in organs from transgenic fat-1 mice engineered to express the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 desaturase and thereby with endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA levels. PUFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The lipid metabolites were assayed using LC-MS/MS. AA and DHA were the prominent PUFAs in wildtype and fat-1 mice. EPA levels were low in both groups even though there was a significant increase in fat-1 organs with an up to 12-fold increase in fat-1 spleen and kidney. DHA levels increased by approximately 1.5-fold in fat-1 as compared to wildtype mice. While HETEs remained the same or decreased moderately and HDHAs increased 1- to 3-fold, HEPE formation in fat-1 tissues increased from 8- (muscle) to 44-fold (spleen). These findings indicate distinct profiles of monohydroxy lipid metabolites in different organs and strong utilization of EPA for HEPE formation, by which moderate EPA supplementation might trigger formation of biologically active EPA-derived resolvins. PMID:28165385

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  5. Puget Sound acidity levels drop after ASARCO shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The levels of acidity in Puget Sound region rainfall have decreased significantly since the shutdown of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, according to a study funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results indicate that sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations obtained from samples taken before the closure were significantly different than those collected after the shutdown. Rainwater samples collected downwind during smelter operation were also significantly different from those collected upwind. Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the principal contributors to acid rain. The smelter was a major source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the Puget Sound region before it shut down in March 1985.

  6. Associations between serum omega-3 fatty acid levels and cognitive functions among community-dwelling octogenarians in Okinawa, Japan: The KOCOA study

    PubMed Central

    Nishihira, Junko; Tokashiki, Takashi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Willcox, Donald Craig; Mattek, Nora; Shinto, Lynne; Ohya, Yusuke; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have found frequent consumption of fatty fish is protective against cognitive decline. However, the association between circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and cognitive functions among the oldest old is not well known. Objective To examine the association between serum PUFA levels and cognitive function among community-dwelling, non-demented elderly aged over 80 years old. Methods The data came from the Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) study; an ongoing cohort of relatively healthy volunteers aged over 80 years old, living in Okinawa, Japan. One hundred eighty five participants (mean age 84.1 ± 3.4 years) assessed in 2011 who were free from frank dementia (defined as Clinical Dementia Rating < 1.0) were used for the current cross-sectional study. We examined whether serum omega-3 PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), arachidonic acid (AA), EPA/AA ratio, DHA/AA ratio and DHA+EPA are associated with (1) age and (2) global cognitive function (Japanese MMSE) and executive function (Verbal Fluency Letters). Data was analyzed univariately by t-test and multivariately by cumulative logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, years of education, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Serum DHA levels decreased with increasing age (p = 0.04). Higher global cognitive function was associated with higher levels of serum EPA (p = 0.03) and DHA + EPA (p = 0.03) after controlling for confounders. Conclusions Higher serum EPA and DHA + EPA levels were independently associated with better scores on global cognitive function among the oldest old, free from dementia. Longitudinal follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:26890763

  7. Decreased serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and folate, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in childhood and adolescent females with depression.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saito, Manabu; Kaneko, Sunao; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-30

    Evidence from observational studies suggests that there is an association among depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and folate; however, this association has yet to be examined in childhood and adolescent depression. The objective was to determine whether the BDNF, PUFAs, and folate in serum differ between first-episode childhood and adolescent depressed patients and healthy controls. We measured the serum levels of BDNF, PUFAs, and folate of cases admitted to the hospital for depression (n=24) and compared it to that of controls (n=26). Subjects and their parents were informed about the nature and the purpose of this study, and a consent form was signed by parents. The ethics committee of Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine approved the study protocol. There were significant differences in the docosahexanoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and folate levels between cases and controls. Serum levels of DHA, AA, and folate levels in the patients group were statistically lower than those in the control group, while serum levels of BDNF were not different between cases and controls. These results are in line with findings of previous studies involving adult and elderly subjects, demonstrating lower levels of PUFAs and folate in patients with depression than healthy controls. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted.

  8. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  9. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  10. Effect of ascorbic acid or increasing metabolizable energy level with or without supplementation of some essential amino acids on productive and physiological traits of slow-growing chicks exposed to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Hassan, R A; Tag El-Din, A E; Abou-Shehema, B M

    2011-12-01

    Four hundred and twenty, 21-day-old slow-growing chicks were divided randomly into seven treatments, each containing five replicates. Each replicate was kept in a 1 × 1-m floor pen. One treatment was kept under thermo-neutral conditions in a semi-open house and fed a corn-soybean meal diet (positive control). The other six groups were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS) at 38 °C and 60% RH for 4 h from 12:00 to 16:00 pm for three successive days per week. Chicks in CHS treatments were fed a corn-soybean meal diet without (negative control) or with increasing metabolizable energy (ME) level by oil supplementation alone, or also with increasing some essential amino acids (EAA) such as methionine (Met), methionine and lysine (Met+Lys) or methionine, lysine and arginine (Met+Lys+Arg) or supplemented with 250 mg of ascorbic acid (AA)/kg. CHS impaired (p < 0.05) growth performance, increased plasma triglycerides and total serum Ca while decreasing (p < 0.05) plasma glucose and total serum protein. Meanwhile 250 mg AA/kg diet or an increasing ME without or with some EAA partially alleviated (p < 0.0001) the negative effect of CHS on growth while increasing (p < 0.05) feed intake and improving (p < 0.05) feed:gain ratio (F:G) and crude protein (CP) digestibility (p < 0.05). AA or increasing ME with or without EAA increased (p < 0.05) percentage dressing, liver and giblets to those of the positive control. AA or increasing ME with or without EAA partially alleviated the negative effect of CHS on blood pH, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hgb), total serum protein and total Ca, plasma glucose and triglyceride, rectal temperature and respiration rate. Increasing ME level improved chickens' tolerance to CHS without a significant difference from those supplemented with AA. However, increasing Met, Lys and Arg concentration did not improve performance over that recorded with increasing ME level alone. Under CHS, 250 mg AA/kg diet or increasing ME level by addition of 3

  11. A Mutant of Arabidopsis with Increased Levels of Stearic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lightner, J.; Wu, J.; Browse, J.

    1994-01-01

    A mutation at the fab2 locus of Arabidopsis caused increased levels of stearate in leaves. The increase in leaf stearate in fab2 varied developmentally, and the largest increase occurred in young leaves, where stearate accounted for almost 20% of total leaf fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of leaf lipids isolated from the fab2 mutant showed increased stearate in all the major glycerolipids of both the chloroplast and extrachloroplast membranes. Although the stearate content was increased, the fab2 mutant still contained abundant amounts of 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 fatty acids. These results are consistent with the expectations for a mutation partially affecting the action of the stromal stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase. Positional analysis indicated that the extra 18:0 is excluded with high specificity from the sn-2 position of both chloroplast and extrachloroplast glycerolipids. Although stearate content was increased in all the major leaf membrane lipids, the amount of increase varied considerably among the different lipids, from a high of 25% of fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine to a low of 2.9% of fatty acids in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. PMID:12232421

  12. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  13. Red fluorescent protein DsRed: parametrization of its chromophore as an amino acid residue for computer modeling in the OPLS-AA force field.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, D V; Vrzheshch, E P; Drutsa, V L; Vrzheshch, P V

    2006-10-01

    Topology of the neutral form of the DsRed fluorescent protein chromophore as a residue of [(4-cis)-2-[(1-cis)-4-amino-4-oxobutanimidoyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-yl]acetic acid was calculated with OPLS-AA force field. Use of this topology and molecular dynamics simulation allows calculating the parameters of proteins that contain such residue in their polypeptide chains. The chromophore parameters were obtained by ab initio (RHF/6-31G**) quantum chemical calculations applying density functional theory (B3LYP). Using this chromophore, we have calculated the molecular dynamics trajectory of tetrameric fluorescent protein DsRed in solution at 300 K (4 nsec). Correctness of the chromophore parametrization was revealed by comparison of quantitative characteristics of the chromophore structure obtained from the molecular dynamic simulations of DsRed protein with the quantitative characteristics of the chromophore based on the crystallographic X-ray data of fluorescent protein DsRed (PDB ID: 1ZGO, 1G7K, and 1GGX), and also with the quantitative characteristics of the chromophore obtained by quantum chemical calculations. Inclusion of the neutral form of DsRed protein chromophore topology into the OPLS-AA force field yielded the extended force field OPLS-AA/DsRed. This force field can be used for molecular dynamics calculations of proteins containing the DsRed chromophore. The parameter set presented in this study can be applied for similar extension in any other force fields.

  14. Infection with Marek’s disease virus induces high levels of CD8a/a cells in chickens resistant to Marek’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CD8a/a cells have non-traditional roles. CD8a/a cells (T'' cells) usually recognize monomorphic antigen like bacterial lipids presented by non-traditional class I glycoproteins such as BF1 (minor) or Rfp-Y. CD8a/a cells have also been implicated in natural killing with approximately 80% of NK ...

  15. Doped copolymer of polyanthranilic acid and o-aminophenol (AA-co-OAP): Synthesis, spectral characterization and the use of the doped copolymer as precursor of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Nasser Mohammed; Nowesser, Nourhan; Al-Hussaini, A. S.; Zoromba, Mohamed Shafick

    2016-02-01

    The copolymer of anthranilic acid and o-aminophenol (AA-co-OAP) was synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis. and thermal analyses (TGA). Linear chain mode was suggested for the pure (AA-co-OAP). The effect of inclusion of MnCl2, CoCl2, NiCl2, CuCl2 and FeCl3 on the spectral, thermal and optical properties of AA-co-OAP has been studied. Octahedral stereochemistry was suggested for Fe, Mn and Ni doped AA-co-OAP, while tetrahedral and square-planar geometries were suggested for Co and Cu doped AA-co-OAP, respectively. Fe doped AA-co-OAP has been used as a precursor for α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles by thermal decomposition route at 800 °C. The obtained hematite has been characterized by XRD and TEM. The average size of the prepared nanoparticles was estimated as 34 nm. The optical band gap of the synthesized hematite nanoparticles was measured and compared with the bulk.

  16. Cloning of an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT1) from Drosophila melanogaster expressed in the nervous system and the gut.

    PubMed Central

    Hintermann, E; Grieder, N C; Amherd, R; Brodbeck, D; Meyer, U A

    1996-01-01

    In insects, neurotransmitter catabolism, melatonin precursor formation, and sclerotization involve arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT, EC 2.3.1.87) activity. It is not known if one or multiple aaNAT enzymes are responsible for these activities. We recently have purified an aaNAT from Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we report the cloning of the corresponding aaNAT cDNA (aaNAT1) that upon COS cell expression acetylates dopamine, tryptamine, and the immediate melatonin precursor serotonin. aaNAT1 represents a novel gene family unrelated to known acetyl-transferases, except in two weakly conserved amino acid motifs. In situ hybridization studies of aaNAT1 mRNA in embryos reveal hybridization signals in the brain, the ventral cord, the gut, and probably in oenocytes, indicating a broad tissue distribution of aaNAT1 transcripts. Moreover, in day/ night studies we demonstrate a diurnal rhythm of melatonin concentration without a clear-cut change in aaNAT1 mRNA levels. The data suggest that tissue-specific regulation of aaNAT1 may be associated with different enzymatic functions and do not exclude the possibility of additional aaNAT genes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8901578

  17. Achiral-chiral two-dimensional chromatography of free amino acids in milk: A promising tool for detecting different levels of mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Federica; Sardella, Roccaldo; Lisanti, Antonella; Gioiello, Antimo; Cenci Goga, Beniamino Terzo; Lindner, Wolfgang; Natalini, Benedetto

    2015-12-10

    In two-dimensional HPLC (2D-HPLC) "heart-cut" applications, two columns are connected in series via a switching valve and volume fractions from the "primary" column are re-injected on the "secondary" column. The heart-cut 2D-HPLC system here described was implemented by connecting a reversed-phase (RP) column (first dimension) to a chiral column (second dimension) containing a quinidine-based chiral stationary phase. The system was used to evaluate the change in the enantiomeric excess value of dansylated (Dns) amino acids (AAs) in milk samples from two cows with different "California Mastitis Test" scores: negative test for sample 1, positive for sample 2. Apart from the co-elution of Dns-Arg/Dns-Gly and the reduced chemoselectivity for Dns-Leu/Dns-allo-Ile, the optimized achiral RP method distinguished the remaining standard Dns-AAs. Dns-AAs were identified in the chromatograms of the real samples, and in higher concentration Dns-Ala, Dns-Arg, Dns-Asp, Dns-Glu, Dns-Ile, Dns-Leu, Dns-Phe and Dns-Val. Except Dns-Arg, the chiral column enabled the RP enantioseparation of all the other compounds (α and RS values up to 1.65 and 8.63, respectively, for Dns-Phe). In sample 2, the amounts of Dns-d-AAs were rather elevated, in particular for Dns-Ala and Dns-Asp. Instead, for sample 1, D-isomers were detected for Dns-Ala, Dns-Glu and Dns-Leu. The proposed 2D-HPLC method could be useful for the identification of clinical mastitis difficult to be diagnosed. Moreover, the eventual progressive reduction of D-AAs levels with the degree of sub-clinical mastitis could allow the building of mathematical models to use for the diagnosis of early stages of mastitis.

  18. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  19. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs.

  20. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K.; Fuiman, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  1. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.

  2. Cytokine levels affected by gamma-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Dirks, J; van Aswegen, C H; du Plessis, D J

    1998-10-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in the form of evening primrose oil (EPO) could affect rat serum cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The following diets were administered: control, glucan, Freund's adjuvant and glucan plus Freund's adjuvant with and without GLA. In the presence of GLA, the IFN-gamma and MCP-1 levels were significantly decreased in contrast to the control group of TNF-alpha, which was significantly stimulated. On account of interaction between diets and GLA, the remaining diet groups of TNF-alpha were either not affected or were inhibited in the presence of GLA. The observations indicate that GLA may modulate the level of serum IFN-gamma, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha, which may be a worthwhile line of treatment in certain human diseases.

  3. A rotamer energy level study of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Lauri; Pesonen, Janne; Sjöholm, Elina; Halonen, Lauri

    2013-10-14

    It is a common approach in quantum chemical calculations for polyatomic molecules to rigidly constrain some of the degrees of freedom in order to make the calculations computationally feasible. However, the presence of the rigid constraints also affects the kinetic energy operator resulting in the frozen mode correction, originally derived by Pesonen [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 144310 (2013)]. In this study, we compare the effects of this correction to several different approximations to the kinetic energy operator used in the literature, in the specific case of the rotamer energy levels of sulfuric acid. The two stable conformers of sulfuric acid are connected by the rotations of the O-S-O-H dihedral angles and possess C2 and Cs symmetry in the order of increasing energy. Our results show that of the models tested, the largest differences with the frozen mode corrected values were obtained by simply omitting the passive degrees of freedom. For the lowest 17 excited states, this inappropriate treatment introduces an increase of 9.6 cm(-1) on average, with an increase of 8.7 cm(-1) in the zero-point energies. With our two-dimensional potential energy surface calculated at the CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 level, we observe a radical shift in the density of states compared to the harmonic picture, combined with an increase in zero point energy. Thus, we conclude that the quantum mechanical inclusion of the different conformers of sulfuric acid have a significant effect on its vibrational partition function, suggesting that it will also have an impact on the computational values of the thermodynamic properties of any reactions where sulfuric acid plays a role. Finally, we also considered the effect of the anharmonicities for the other vibrational degrees of freedom with a VSCF-calculation at the DF-MP2-F12/VTZ-F12 level of theory but found that the inclusion of the other conformer had the more important effect on the vibrational partition function.

  4. Goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) is an extreme vtgAa-type pelagophil teleost.

    PubMed

    Kolarevic, Jelena; Nerland, Audun; Nilsen, Frank; Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2008-06-01

    During oocyte maturation in the goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) extensive proteolysis of yolk proteins generates a large pool of free amino acids that drive hydration of the pelagic egg. By cloning hepatic vitellogenins (vtg) and using mass spectrometry, N-terminal microsequencing, and Western-immunoblotting to identify the yolk proteins (Yp), we show that multiple forms of vitellogenin mRNAs (vtgAa, vtgAb, and vtgC) are expressed in the liver, but only a single major class of the Yps derived from vtgAa predominates in the oocytes. Some Yps derived from vtgAb and vtgC appear also to be incorporated in the oocytes and eggs, but only at background levels. During oocyte hydration the vtgAa-derived lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH-Aa) and its cleavage variants are completely degraded leaving only a processed lipovitellin light chain (LvL-Aa) fragment as the major yolk protein for embryonic development. The maturational cleavage site of the LvL-Aa is identified as two amino acids downstream from the conserved Tyr(1168) of VtgAa in Atlantic halibut. In addition, although a beta'-component (approximately 18 kDa) is present in the oocytes, it is not fully degraded during the hydration process.

  5. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d.

  6. Serum hyaluronic acid levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Cerrahoglu, Lale; Isbilen, Banu

    2008-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and the relationship between clinical parameters in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Approximately 30 patients with AS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited in this study consecutively. Cross-sectional study was planned, and demographic, clinical, functional, radiological, and laboratory data of patients were evaluated. Disease activity, functional status, and quality of life were assessed, respectively, with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Mander Enthesis Index (MEI) was used for evaluation of enthesis involvement. We examined serum concentrations of HA (ng/ml) in patients with AS and controls. The mean ages of patients and control group were 38.3 (SD=10.8) and 42.7 (SD=10.6) years, respectively. The mean of serum HA levels in AS patients was 40.4 (SD=34.8) ng/ml and in controls was 24.9 (SD=20.2). There was significant difference of HA levels between two groups (p=0.04). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between HA level and distance of hand-floor (r=0.444, p=0.014), modified lumbar Schober's (r= -0.413, p=0.023), distance of chin to chest (r=0.436, p=0.016), right sacroiliit grade (r=0.601, p<0.001), left sacroiliit grade (r=0.610, p<0.001), C reactive protein level (r=0.404, p=0.027), albumin (r= -0.464, p=0.010), C3 (p=0.449, p=0.013), and IgA levels (r=0.369, p=0.045). However, there was no significant correlation between HA levels with MEI, BASFI, BASDAI, and SF-36 (p >or= 0.05). Serum HA level was significantly higher in AS patients than controls. However, there was no significant correlation between serum HA level and disease-specific measures as BASFI and BASDAI; it had significant relation with spinal mobility limitation, sacroiliitis, and laboratory parameters related with acute inflammation. The serum HA level may be a potential biomarker of axial

  7. Rating AAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  8. Attenuated acute salivary α-amylase responses to gustatory stimulation with citric acid in thin children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long Hui; Yang, Ze Min; Chen, Wei Wen; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao Rong; Zhao, Ling Bo

    2015-04-14

    Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is responsible for the 'pre-digestion' of starch in the oral cavity and accounts for up to 50 % of salivary protein in human saliva. An accumulating body of literature suggests that sAA is of nutritional importance; however, it is still not clear how sAA is related to individual's nutritional status. Although copy number variations (CNV) of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) are associated with variation in sAA levels, a significant amount of sAA variation is not explained by AMY1 CNV. To measure sAA responses to gustatory stimulation with citric acid, we used sAA ratio (the ratio of stimulated sAA levels to those of resting sAA) and investigated acute sAA responses to citric acid in children with normal (Normal-BMI, n 22) and low (Low-BMI, n 21) BMI. The AMY1 gene copy number was determined by quantitative PCR. We, for the first time, demonstrated attenuated acute sAA responses (decreased sAA ratio) to gustatory stimulation in Low-BMI (thinness grade 3) children compared with the Normal-BMI children, which suggest that sAA responses to gustatory stimulation may be of nutritional importance. However, child's nutritional status was not directly related to their resting or stimulated sAA levels, and it was not associated with AMY1 gene copy number. Finally, AMY1 CNV might influence, but did not eventually determine, sAA levels in children.

  9. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05) gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05) muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05) than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05). There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05) the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  10. Amino Acids, Independent of Insulin, Attenuate Skeletal Muscle Autophagy in Neonatal Pigs during Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-García, Adriana; Manjarín, Rodrigo; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Teresa A.; Orellana, Renán A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sepsis induces loss of skeletal muscle mass by activating the ubiquitin proteasome (UPS) and autophagy systems. Although muscle protein synthesis in healthy neonatal piglets is responsive to amino acid (AA) stimulation, it is not known if amino acids (AA) can prevent the activation of muscle protein degradation induced by sepsis. We hypothesize that AA attenuate the sepsis-induced activation of UPS and autophagy in neonates. METHODS Newborn pigs were infused for 8 h with liposaccharide (LPS) (0 and 10 µg·kg−1·h−1), while circulating glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; circulating AA were clamped at fasting or fed levels. Markers of protein degradation and AA transporters in longissimus dorsi (LD) were examined. RESULTS Fasting AA increased muscle microtubule-associated protein light 1 chain 3 II (LC3-II) abundance in LPS compared to control, while fed AA levels decreased LC3-II abundance in both LPS and controls. There was no effect of AA supplementation on AMP-activated protein kinase, forkhead box O1 and O4 phosphorylation, nor on sodium-coupled neutral AA transporter 2 and light chain AA transporter 1, muscle RING-finger protein-1 and muscle Atrophy F-Box/Atrogin-1 abundance. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that supplementation of AA antagonize autophagy signal activation in skeletal muscle of neonates during endotoxemia. PMID:27064245

  11. Endogenous Levels of Abscisic Acid and Decanoic Acid in Dutch Iris Bulbs and the Influence of Abscisic Acid and Decanoic Acid on Iris Meristems Cultured In Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Robert P.; Kimura, Yosh; Christian, James K.

    1983-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and decanoic acid inhibited shoot elongation and floral development of Dutch iris (Iris hollandica Hoog. cv Ideal) meristems cultured in vitro. No synergism with respect to inhibition of leaf growth between ABA and decanoic acid was observed. With monthly harvest dates, from July 10, 1981 to October 10, 1981, there was a progressive decrease in endogenous level of free ABA in `Ideal' iris bulbs. Bulbs subjected to a full set of the usual preplanting storage conditions flowered, on average, 46 days after planting versus 194 days after planting for bulbs planted directly after harvest. ABA levels at harvest were 4- to 5-fold those after the preplanting storage treatment. In general, ABA levels did not correlate well with the length of time from planting until flowering of iris bulbs. Endogenous decanoic acid levels did not follow any pattern with respect to harvest date or postharvest treatment. After the postharvest high temperature treatment, there was about a 3-fold increase in nonscale decanoic acid concentration. Decanoic acid levels, in nonscale tissue, remained high after each of the other postharvest treatments. It is concluded that there is no good evidence to support the contention that either ABA or decanoic acid is directly involved in iris bulb dormancy. PMID:16663072

  12. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  13. Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and γ-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-α-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid and L-α-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant.

  14. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD).

  15. Elevation of serum levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in uremic patients and the toxicity of the amino acid.

    PubMed

    Gejyo, F; Kinoshita, Y; Ikenaka, T

    1977-12-01

    A reliable method for the determination of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in serum was developed utilizing an automated amino acid analyzer. The serum concentrations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid were determined in 20 normal subjects and in 71 uremic patients. The mean serum level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid was markedly increased in the uremic patients to 0.856 +/- 0.910 (mean +/- SD) mg/100 ml as compared with a normal value of 0.026 +/- 0.027 mg/100 ml. The distribution of serum beta-aminoisobutyric acid level in uremic patients was wide-spread, and there was no correlation between the serum levels of the amino acid and those of urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid. The toxicity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid on mice with acute renal failure induced by uranyl acetate was investigated and compared with that of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid. All mice given more than 4 g/kg body wt of beta-aminoisobutyric acid showed twitching and cramps, and some of them died. However, the control mice given an equivalent dose of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid or gamma-amino-n-butyric acid showed no change. These results suggest that beta-aminoisobutyric acid might be a factor influencing the development and progression of uremic toxemia.

  16. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  17. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  18. Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

  19. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  20. Levels of Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids in Patients With Psychosis, Their Unaffected Siblings, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Medema, Suzanne; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Kahn, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Two recent meta-analyses showed decreased red blood cell (RBC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in schizophrenia and related disorders. However, both these meta-analyses report considerable heterogeneity, probably related to differences in patient samples between studies. Here, we investigated whether variations in RBC FA are associated with psychosis, and thus may be an intermediate phenotype of the disorder. Methods: For the present study, a total of 215 patients (87% outpatients), 187 siblings, and 98 controls were investigated for multiple FA analyses. Based on previous studies, we investigated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), nervonic acid (NA), and eicasopentaenoic acid (EPA). On an exploratory basis, a large number of additional FA were investigated. Multilevel mixed models were used to compare the FA between the 3 groups. Results: Compared to controls, both patients and siblings showed significantly increased DHA, DPA, AA, and NA. LA was significantly higher in siblings compared to controls. EPA was not significantly different between the 3 groups. Also the exploratory FA were increased in patients and siblings. Conclusions: We found increased RBC FA DHA, DPA, AA, and NA in patients and siblings compared to controls. The direction of change is similar in both patients and siblings, which may suggest a shared environment and/or an intermediate phenotype. Differences between patient samples reflecting stage of disorder, dietary patterns, medication use, and drug abuse are possible modifiers of FA, contributing to the heterogeneity in findings concerning FA in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26385764

  1. Plasma BDNF and PDGF-AA levels are associated with high TCD velocity and stroke in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Gee, Beatrice E; Adamkiewicz, Thomas V; Adams, Robert J; Kutlar, Abdullah; Stiles, Jonathan K; Hibbert, Jacqueline M

    2012-10-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) associated cerebrovascular disease includes vascular remodeling, abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) and infarction. We studied the relationships between plasma brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), platelet derived growth factors (PDGF-AA and -AB/BB) and high trans-cranial Doppler (TCD) velocity, an indication of CBF velocity. Baseline plasma samples from 39 children (19 SCA with abnormal/high TCD [SATCD], 13 SCA with normal TCD [SNTCD] and 7 healthy non-SCA), were assayed for BDNF, PDGF-AA and -AB/BB plus 11 other cytokines. The sensitivity, specificity and usefulness of these biomarkers for stroke prediction was investigated. All subject groups were of similar age and gender distribution. Mean BDNF was significantly higher among SATCD than SNTCD (p=0.004) as was mean PDGF-AA (p=0.001). Similarly, mean PDGF-AA was higher among SCA subjects who developed stroke than those who did not (p=0.012). Elevated BDNF and PDGF-AA were good predictors of the presence of abnormally high CBF velocity and were both associated with severity of anemia. Elevated PDGF-AA predicted risk for stroke development. Stroke incidence and high TCD velocity were associated with elevated BDNF and PDGF-AA. These findings suggest a role for BDNF and PDGF-AA in the patho-physiological mechanism of cerebrovascular disease in SCA.

  2. Effects of seasonings on the stability of ascorbic acid in a cooking model system.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Etsu; Maeda, Tomoko; Nishihama, Akiko; Kojo, Shosuke; Masuzawa, Yasuo

    2004-12-01

    The thermolability of ascorbic acid (AA) in aqueous solution at 100 degrees C was assessed in the presence of various seasonings commonly used in Japanese-style cooking. A model system approximated Japanese cooking with regard to the concentrations of AA and seasonings and the heating time. The decrease of AA in the reaction system of this experiment was a first-order reaction with respect to the concentration of AA loss. Although kinetic constants for AA loss decreased with increasing concentrations of AA (25-400 microg/mL), the absolute amounts degraded were almost the same for all AA concentrations, suggesting that dissolved oxygen is one of main factors affecting the stability of AA solutions during heating at 100 degrees C. When each seasoning was added to AA solution, salt stabilized AA and Japanese alcohol-containing admixtures, such as sake and sweet sake (mirin), did not have a significant effect on the stability. Conversely, soy sauce, miso (fermented soybean paste) and broth powder from skipjack accelerated the decrease of AA in a concentration-dependent manner. The kinetic study suggested that oxygen was rapidly consumed and AA loss accelerated by addition of soy sauce or miso to AA solution. Consequently it is likely that a reaction mechanism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic and the forward reactions proceed. Of the constituents of Japanese seasonings, not only iron but also amino acids are involved in the acceleration of AA degradation. The presence of amino acids should be taken into account when considering the levels of AA in soups.

  3. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  4. Stepwise engineering to produce high yields of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guohai; Truksa, Martin; Datla, Nagamani; Vrinten, Patricia; Bauer, Joerg; Zank, Thorsten; Cirpus, Petra; Heinz, Ernst; Qiu, Xiao

    2005-08-01

    Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are valuable commodities that provide important human health benefits. We report the transgenic production of significant amounts of AA and EPA in Brassica juncea seeds via a stepwise metabolic engineering strategy. Using a series of transformations with increasing numbers of transgenes, we demonstrate the incremental production of VLCPUFAs, achieving AA levels of up to 25% and EPA levels of up to 15% of total seed fatty acids. Both fatty acids were almost exclusively found in triacylglycerols, with AA located preferentially at sn-2 and sn-3 positions and EPA distributed almost equally at all three positions. Moreover, we reconstituted the DHA biosynthetic pathway in plant seeds, demonstrating the practical feasibility of large-scale production of this important omega-3 fatty acid in oilseed crops.

  5. Interaction of aminooxyacetic acid and ethacrynic acid with intense sound at the level of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, D L; Bobbin, R P

    1982-02-01

    Results of previous investigation of the interaction of intense sound and drugs have, in general, failed to show a protective effect mediated by pre-administration with a drug having transient ototoxic effects. The present investigation was designed to further evaluate a protective effect found previously at the anatomical level and explained with an electrochemical theory of noise damage. The alternating current (a.c) potential and compound eighth nerve action potential (CAP) amplitude were monitored in aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA)- or ethacrynic acid (EA)-treated guinea pigs exposed to either moderate or high levels of intense sound and compared to changes observed in the same potentials in animals exposed to the intense sounds alone. Results showed protective effects only in the moderate--intense sound-exposure groups, with changes in sensitivity and voltage on the linear part of the input--output curve of the a.c cochlear potential found to be the only conditions where differences occurred. These results were difficult to interpret in terms of a protective effect and point to the need for obtaining additional data before an electrochemical mechanism is shown to play a role in the effect of intense sound on the cochlea.

  6. Sulfur mustard-induced increase in intracellular free calcium level and arachidonic acid release from cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.; Legere, R.H.; Majerus, B.J.; Petrali, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanism of action of the alkylating agent bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard, SM) was studied using the in thai vitro mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid NG 108-1 S clonal p cell line model. Following 0.3 mM SM exposure, cell viability remained high (>80% of untreated control) up to 9 hr and then declined steadily to about 40% of control after 20-24 hr. During the early period of SM exposure, when there was no significant cell viability loss, the following effects were observed. The cellular glutathione level decreased 20% after 1 hr and 34% after 6 hr. Between 2 and 6 hr, there was a time-dependent increase (about 10 to 30%) in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+), which was localized to the limiting membrane of swollen endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria, to euchromatin areas of the nucleus, and to areas of the cytosol and plasma membrane. Moreover,there was also a time-dependent increase in the release of isotopically labeled arachidonic acid ((3H)AA) from cellular membranes. Increase in (3H)AA release was 28% at 3 hr and about 60-80% between 6 and 9 hr. This increase in I3HIAA release was inhibited by quinacrine (20 uM), which is a phospholipase (PLA2) inhibitor. At 16 hr after SM exposure, there was a large increase (about 200% of control) in I3HIAA release, which was coincident with a 50% loss of cell viability. These results suggest a Ca2+-mediated toxic mechanism of SM via PLA2 activation and arachidonate release.

  7. Site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to enhance substrate specificity towards maltodextrin for enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G).

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was conducted to improve the specificity of CGTase towards maltodextrin, which can be used as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for the enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) by CGTase. When using maltodextrin as glycosyl donor, four mutants K47F (lysine→ phenylalanine), K47L (lysine→ leucine), K47V (lysine→ valine) and K47W (lysine→ tryptophan) showed higher AA-2G yield as compared with that produced by the wild-type CGTase. The transformation conditions (temperature, pH and the mass ratio of L-ascorbic acid to maltodextrin) were optimized and the highest titer of AA-2G produced by the mutant K47L could reach 1.97 g/l, which was 64.2% higher than that (1.20 g/l) produced by the wild-type CGTase. The reaction kinetics analysis confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity, and it was also found that compared with the wild-type CGTase, the four mutants had relatively lower cyclization activities and higher disproportionation activities, which was favorable for AA-2G synthesis. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced substrate specificity was further explored by structure modeling and it was indicated that the enhancement of maltodextrin specificity may be due to the short residue chain and the removal of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the sugar at -3 subsite. Here the obtained mutant CGTases, especially the K47L, has a great potential in the production of AA-2G with maltodextrin as a cheap and easily soluble substrate.

  8. Chicoric Acid Levels in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...

  9. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia.

  10. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, taurine, thyroid hormones, and serotonin) are required for the functions. However, elevated levels of AA and their products (e.g., ammonia, homocysteine, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) are pathogenic factors for neurological disorders, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, an optimal balance among AA in the diet and circulation is crucial for whole body homeostasis. There is growing recognition that besides their role as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides, some AA regulate key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. They are called functional AA, which include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan. Dietary supplementation with one or a mixture of these AA may be beneficial for (1) ameliorating health problems at various stages of the life cycle (e.g., fetal growth restriction, neonatal morbidity and mortality, weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and wasting syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility); (2) optimizing efficiency of metabolic transformations to enhance muscle growth, milk production, egg and meat quality and athletic performance, while preventing excess fat deposition and reducing adiposity. Thus, AA have important functions in both nutrition and health.

  11. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J.; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S.; Wu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. PMID:26855198

  12. Noninvasive measurement of aristolochic acid-DNA adducts in urine samples from aristolochic acid-treated rats by liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry: evidence for DNA repair by nucleotide-excision repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Chan, Wan

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxic aristolochic acids (AAs) form covalently bonded DNA adducts upon metabolic activation. In this work, a non-invasive approach to detect AAs exposure by quantifying urinary excreted DNA-AA adducts is presented. The developed method entails solid-phase extraction (SPE) enrichment of the urine-excreted DNA-AAs adducts, addition of internal standard, and quantification by liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed 7-(deoxyadenosine-N(6)-yl)-aristolactam II and 7-(deoxyguanosine-N(2)-yl)-aristolactam I that were previously detected as major DNA-AA adducts in different organs of AA-dosed rats, were detected as the major urine excreted adducts. Lower levels of 7-(deoxyadenosine-N(6)-yl)-aristolactam I and 7-(deoxyguanosine-N(2)-yl)-aristolactam II were also detected in the collected urine samples. The identities of the detected urinary DNA-AA adducts were confirmed by comparing chromatographic retention time with synthetic standards, by high-accuracy MS, and MS/MS analyses. LC-MS/MS analysis of the urine samples collected from the AAs-dosed rats demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in the urinary adduct levels, indicating the urinary DNA-AA adduct levels were reflective of the tissue adduct levels. It is expected that the developed approach of detecting urinary DNA-AA adducts will facilitate further carcinogenesis investigations of AAs.

  13. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA.

  14. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  15. Uptake and release of adrenal ascorbic acid in the guinea pig after injection of ACTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, D.E.; Rivers, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of a single injection of ACTH (3 IU/100 g body weight) on the distribution of ascorbic acid (AA) and radiolabeled AA in 20 tissues was studied in adult male guinea pigs consuming 500 mg AA/kg diet. Saline- or ACTH-injected animals were simultaneously injected with (1-/sup 14/C)AA, and killed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after injection. There was no significant difference between treatments in the weight of any tissue over the 6-h experimental period. As anticipated, the concentration of AA in the adrenals of animals injected with ACTH was 33% of that of animals injected with saline at 4 h. Unexpectedly, the concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenals at 0.5 h after ACTH injection was 172% of that after saline injection. The concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenal of the saline-injected animals increased slowly over time to reach a level similar to that of ACTH-injected animals by 6 h. There was no effect of ACTH on the level of AA or uptake in any of the other tissues examined. These results demonstrate that a single dose of ACTH markedly influences the retention of AA in the adrenal gland without similarly altering retention of AA in other tissues. Furthermore, ACTH treatment causes both accelerated uptake and release of AA into the adrenals.

  16. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  17. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  18. Whole body protein deposition and plasma amino acid profiles in growing and/or finishing pigs fed increasing levels of sulfur amino acids with and without Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Frey, B; Payne, H G; Pluske, J R

    2012-12-01

    A split plot experiment with 72 male pigs weighing 52.9 ± 0.39 kg (mean ± SEM) was conducted to examine AA partitioning and body protein deposition (PD) in response to increasing dietary sulfur amino acids (SAA) with or without immune system (IS) activation. The main plot was with and without IS activation, and 4 diets containing different amounts of standardized ileal digestible (SID) SAA (SAA to Lys ratios of 0.45, 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75) were the subplots. Activation of IS was achieved by intramuscular injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS; serotype 055:B5, Sigma; 30 μg/kg BW) every Monday and Thursday, with control pigs injected with sterile saline. Maximum body PD, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and minimum plasma urea content were achieved at SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.55 in saline-injected pigs but were achieved at a SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.75 in IS-activated pigs. Immune system activation increased rectal temperature (P < 0.05), plasma haptoglobin (1.1 vs. 2.0 mg/mL; P < 0.001), and the proportion of neutrophils (0.39 vs. 0.42; P < 0.05) and decreased serum albumin content (38.4 vs. 36.8 g/L; P < 0.01). Increasing dietary SAA had no effects on these variables. Immune system-activated pigs had lower levels of homocysteine (Hcy; P < 0.001) and a lower Ser content (P < 0.05). Results showed that increasing dietary SAA as DL-methionine in growing and/or finishing pigs altered plasma AA contents, and that use efficiency of the AA was improved when greater levels of SAA were supplemented in IS-activated pigs.

  19. Effect of calcium level and phytase addition on ileal phytate degradation and amino acid digestibility of broilers fed corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Plumstead, P W; Barnard, L P; Kumar, A

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary Ca to available P (AvP) ratio and phytase supplementation on bone ash, ileal phytate degradation, and nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn-based diets. The experimental design was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 4 Ca:AvP ratios (1.43, 2.14, 2.86, and 3.57) and 2 levels of phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg of feed). The 4 Ca:AvP ratios were achieved by formulating all diets to a constant AvP level of 0.28% and varying Ca levels (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%). Each treatment was fed to 6 cages of 8 male Ross 308 broilers from 5 to 21 d. At 21 d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected and analyzed for energy, phytate, P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) to determine digestibility. Digesta pH was measured in each segment (crop, gizzard, duodenum, and ileum) of the digestive tract. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of covariance. There was a significant interaction between dietary Ca:AvP ratio and phytase supplementation for weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In diets with no phytase, Ca:AvP ratio had a greater effect on WG, FI, and FCR compared with those fed diets without phytase. The orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed that the increase in dietary Ca:AvP ratio significantly decreased WG and FI in a quadratic manner, whereas FCR increased (P < 0.05) linearly with higher dietary Ca:AvP ratio. Increasing dietary Ca:AvP ratio led to a significant quadratic decrease in phytate degradation and significant linear decreases in P digestibility and bone ash. Phytase addition increased (P < 0.05) phytate degradation and improved (P < 0.05) energy, AA, and P digestibility at all levels of Ca:AvP with no interaction (P > 0.05) between the main factors. Digestibility of AA was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with the degree of phytate degradation. Increasing dietary Ca:AvP ratio significantly increased gizzard pH in a linear manner. In conclusion, phytase (1

  20. Interaction of brain fatty acid-binding protein with the polyunsaturated fatty acid environment as a potential determinant of poor prognosis in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Elsherbiny, Marwa E.; Emara, Marwan; Godbout, Roseline

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common adult brain cancers. In spite of aggressive treatment, recurrence occurs in the great majority of patients and is invariably fatal. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are abundant in brain, particularly ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Although the levels of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are tightly regulated in brain, the ω-6:ω-3 ratio is dramatically increased in malignant glioma, suggesting deregulation of fundamental lipid homeostasis in brain tumor tissue. The migratory properties of malignant glioma cells can be modified by altering the ratio of AA:DHA in growth medium, with increased migration observed in AA-rich medium. This fatty acid-dependent effect on cell migration is dependent on expression of the brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) previously shown to bind DHA and AA. Increased levels of enzymes involved in eicosanoid production in FABP7-positive malignant glioma cells suggest that FABP7 is an important modulator of AA metabolism. We provide evidence that increased production of eicosanoids in FABP7-positive malignant glioma growing in an AA-rich environment contributes to tumor infiltration in the brain. We discuss pathways and molecules that may underlie FABP7/AA-mediated promotion of cell migration and FABP7/DHA-mediated inhibition of cell migration in malignant glioma. PMID:23981365

  1. d-Amino Acid Levels in Perfused Mouse Brain Tissue and Blood: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Du, Siqi; Parpia, Curran; Santos, Polan T; Hartman, Adam L; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-02-16

    The l-enantiomer is the predominant type of amino acid in all living systems. However, d-amino acids, once thought to be "unnatural", have been found to be indigenous even in mammalian systems and increasingly appear to be functioning in essential biological and neurological roles. Both d- and l-amino acid levels in the hippocampus, cortex, and blood samples from NIH Swiss mice are reported. Perfused brain tissues were analyzed for the first time, thereby eliminating artifacts due to endogenous blood, and decreased the mouse-to-mouse variability in amino acid levels. Total amino acid levels (l- plus d-enantiomers) in brain tissue are up to 10 times higher than in blood. However, all measured d-amino acid levels in brain tissue are typically ∼10 to 2000 times higher than blood levels. There was a 13% reduction in almost all measured d-amino acid levels in the cortex compared to those in the hippocampus. There is an approximate inverse relationship between the prevalence of an amino acid and the percentage of its d-enantiomeric form. Interestingly, glutamic acid, unlike all other amino acids, had no quantifiable level of its d-antipode. The bioneurological reason for the unique and conspicuous absence/removal of this d-amino acid is yet unknown. However, results suggest that d-glutamate metabolism is likely a unidirectional process and not a cycle, as per the l-glutamate/glutamine cycle. The results suggest that there might be unreported d-amino acid racemases in mammalian brains. The regulation and function of specific other d-amino acids are discussed.

  2. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  3. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  4. Evidence for the safety of ascorbic acid administration to the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Bass, W T; Malati, N; Castle, M C; White, L E

    1998-02-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA), a plasma antioxidant, is maintained at high levels in premature fetal blood and declines rapidly postpartum. The sudden reduction in blood AA levels secondary to premature delivery may increase the risk of oxidant injury, that is, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. There is concern that administration of AA to premature infants, in an effort to increase antioxidant capacity, may cause hemolysis. We felt that the benefits of early AA administration and prevention of the immediate postnatal drop in blood AA levels, might outweigh the risks of erthrocyte damage. Fifty one high-risk premature infants were randomized to receive either normal saline or 100 mg/kg of AA, daily for the first week of life. Double-blind comparisons were made of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte morphology, bilirubin, number of blood transfusions and days of phototherapy, renal function tests, the incidence of infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and intraventricular hemorrhage during the first month of life. The administration of AA prevented the immediate postnatal drop in AA and was not associated with evidence of increased hemolysis. No significant differences in renal function, rate of infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or intraventricular hemorrhage were seen between the two groups. This study suggests that AA administration to the premature infant is safe and supports the designing and performance of larger clinical studies of the antioxidant properties of AA.

  5. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  6. Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2007-09-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential.

  7. High levels of serum platelet-derived growth factor-AA and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 are predictors of colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hong-Da; Peng, Yi-Fan; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To develop predictive markers in blood for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. METHODS Twenty colorectal cancer patients were selected and divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 10 patients whose pathological TNM stage was IIIC (T3-4N2M0), while another 10 patients with synchronous liver metastasis (TNM stage IV) were recruited for group B. During the surgical procedure, a 10-mL drainage vein (DV) blood sample was obtained from the DV of the tumor-bearing segment prior to the ligation of the DV. At the same time, a 10-mL peripheral vein (PV) blood sample was collected via peripheral venipuncture. The serum levels of 24 molecules that are potentially involved in the mechanism of liver metastasis in both DV blood and PV blood were analyzed by using high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology. RESULTS Univariate analysis revealed that platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGFAA) in DV blood (dPDGFAA) (P = 0.001), PDGFAA in PV blood (pPDGFAA) (P = 0.007), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in PV blood (pHER2) (P = 0.001), pMMP7 (P = 0.028), pRANTES (P = 0.013), and pEGF (P = 0.007) were significantly correlated with synchronous liver metastasis. Multivariate analysis identified dPDGFAA (HR = 1.001, P = 0.033) and pHER2 (HR = 1.003, P = 0.019) as independent predictive factors for synchronous liver metastasis. Besides, high peripheral HER2 level may also be a risk factor for metachronous liver metastasis, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Significant correlations were found between paired DV and PV blood levels for PDGFAA (r = 0.794, P < 0.001), but not for HER2 (r = 0.189, P = 0.424). CONCLUSION PDGFAA in tumor drainage and HER2 in PV blood may be useful predictive factors for synchronous liver metastasis of colorectal cancer. PMID:28275303

  8. Plasma ω-3 fatty acid levels negatively and ω-6 fatty acid levels positively associated with other cardiovascular risk factors including homocysteine in severe obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Mehmetoglu, Idris; Yerlikaya, F Hümeyra; Kurban, Sevil; Polat, Hakkı

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and homocysteine (tHcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Plasma omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) and omega-6 fatty acids (ω-6 FAs) are essential fatty acids with diverse biological effects in human health and disease. We have investigated the relation of plasma ω-3 FAs and ω-6 FAs levels with other cardiovascular risk factors including tHcy in severe obese subjects. This study was performed on 96 severe obese and 65 normal weight subjects. Plasma fatty acid composition was measured by GC/MS and serum tHcy level was measured by HPLC methods. There were no differences between groups in terms of concentrations of serum tHcy, plasma ω-3 FAs, ω-6 FAs and ω-3/ω-6 ratio, whereas serum vitamin B-12 (p<0.01) and folic acid (p<0.05) levels were lower than those of the normal weight subjects. Homocysteine positively correlated with ω-6 FAs and negatively correlated with ω-3 FAs in severe obese and normal weight subjects. Serum vitamin B-12 positively correlated with ω-3 FAs (p<0.01) and ω-3/ω-6 ratio (p<0.01) and negatively correlated with ω-6 FAs (p<0.05) in severe obese subjects. Serum folic acid positively correlated with ω-3 FAs (p<0.01) in severe obese subjects. Our results suggest an association between the plasma ω-3 FAs and ω-6 FAs and serum tHcy concentrations in severe obese and normal weight subjects. Low levels vitamin B-12 and folic acid may have been responsible for the elevated tHcy levels in severe obese subjects, increasing the risk for future development of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. The Effects of Lowering Uric Acid Levels Using Allopurinol on Components of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heimbach, Esther J.; Bowden, Rodney G.; Griggs, Jackson O.; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Doyle, Eva I.; Doyle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers have reported an independent direct relationship between lipid levels and hyperuricemia with MetS. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum uric acid levels and lipids among patients on allopurinol. Methods A retrospective secondary data analysis was conducted on 66 adult patients from a family health clinic in Central Texas. Medical records used were recorded during a nine year period (2002 - 2010) ascertaining the relationship between uric acid and lipids. Results Spearman correlations revealed a weak correlation between uric acid and total cholesterol, a weak correlation between uric acid and triglycerides and LDL-C. A weak inverse correlation was discovered between uric acid and HDL-C. A moderate correlation was discovered when all lipid variables combined were compared to uric acid. Conclusions We discovered LDL-C and triglycerides to be significant predictors of uric acid with weak correlations. Additionally, weak correlations existed between uric acid and total cholesterol and HDL-C with an inverse relationship discovered with HDL-C. These findings support the literature suggesting that uric acid is more likely to be associated with total cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition, new discoveries serve as an indication that LDL-C may also be associated with uric acids levels. The mechanism by which uric acid may regulate lipids is elusive but suggestions have included suppression of lipid peroxidase and decreases in critical lipase activity.

  10. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    PubMed

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests.

  11. Hippuric Acid Levels in Paint Workers at Steel Furniture Manufacturers in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine hippuric acid levels in urine samples, airborne toluene levels, acute and chronic neurological symptoms, and to describe any correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene. Methods The hippuric acid concentration in the urine of 87 paint workers exposed to toluene at work (exposed group), and 87 nonexposed people (control group) was studied. Study participants were selected from similar factories in the same region. Urine samples were collected at the end of a shift and analyzed for hippuric acid by high performance liquid chromatography. Air samples for the estimation of toluene exposure were collected with diffusive personal samplers and the toluene quantified using gas–liquid chromatography. The two groups were also interviewed and observed about their work practices and health. Results The median of the 87 airborne toluene levels was 55 ppm (range, 12–198 ppm). The median urinary hippuric acid level was 800 mg/g creatinine (range, 90–2547 mg/g creatinine). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between airborne toluene exposure and urine hippuric acid levels (r = 0.548, p < 0.01). Workers with acute symptoms had significantly higher hippuric acid levels than those who did not (p < 0.05). It was concluded that there was a significant correlation between toluene exposure, hippuric acid levels, and health (p < 0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a significant correlation between workers exposure to toluene at work, their urine hippuric acid levels, and resulting symptoms of poor health. Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required at these workplaces. There was good correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene levels. PMID:25516817

  12. Messenger ribonucleic acid levels in disrupted human anterior cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ian K Y; Marchuk, Linda; Hart, David A; Frank, Cyril B

    2003-02-01

    Thirty patients had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction for ongoing instability. Two groups were defined according to gross morphologic features identified during reconstruction: anterior cruciate ligament disruptions with scars attached to a structure in the joint and disruptions without reattachments. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for a subset of extracellular matrix molecules, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors was done on samples of scarred anterior cruciate ligament tissue removed during reconstructive surgery. Results of the nonattached scar group showed significantly increased mRNA levels for Type I collagen, and an increased Type I to Type III collagen ratio compared with that for the attached scar group. In the first year after injury, decorin mRNA levels in the nonattached scar group also were significantly higher than in the attached scar group. Biglycan mRNA levels in the nonattached scar group correlated closely with Type I collagen mRNA levels. These results suggest differences in cellular expression in torn anterior cruciate ligaments that attach to structures in the joint versus those which do not. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been delineated, different molecular signals may influence the gross morphologic features of anterior cruciate ligament disruptions or alternatively, differing gross morphologic features may be subject to different mechanical loads leading to altered molecular expression. However, the finding of endogenous cellular activity in injured anterior cruciate ligaments raises the possibility that this activity may be enhanced to improve outcomes.

  13. Plasma D-lactic acid level: a useful marker to distinguish perforated from acute simple appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cetin, Selma; Uguralp, Sema; Sezgin, Nurzen; Karaman, Abdurrahman; Gozukara, Engin M

    2004-10-01

    Early diagnosis of perforated appendicitis is important for reducing morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to determine the value and utility of plasma D-lactic acid levels in identifying the type of appendicitis. In this clinical study, plasma D-lactic acid levels were assessed in 44 consecutive paediatric patients (23 with acute appendicitis, 21 with perforated appendicitis) before laparotomy. D-lactic acid levels were determined by an enzymatic spectrophotometric technique using a D-lactic acid dehydrogenase kit. Patients with perforated appendicitis had higher D-lactic acid levels (3.970 +/- 0.687 mg/dL) than patients in the control group (0.478 +/- 0.149 mg/dL) and patients with acute appendicitis (1.409 +/- 0.324 mg/dL; p < 0.05). For a plasma D-lactic acid level greater than 2.5 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity of the D-lactic acid assay were 96% and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 87%, the negative predictive value was 96%, and the diagnostic value was 91%. These results suggest that the measurement of plasma D-lactic acid levels may be a useful adjunct to clinical and radiological findings in distinguishing perforated from acute non-perforated appendicitis in children.

  14. Intracellular dehydroascorbic acid inhibits SVCT2-dependent transport of ascorbic acid in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Mara; Azzolini, Catia; Guidarelli, Andrea; Cerioni, Liana; Scotti, Maddalena; Cantoni, Orazio

    2015-09-01

    Exposure of U937 cells to low concentrations of L-ascorbic acid (AA) is associated with a prompt cellular uptake and a further mitochondrial accumulation of the vitamin. Under the same conditions, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake was followed by rapid reduction and accumulation of identical intracellular levels of AA, however, in the absence of significant mitochondrial uptake. This event was instead observed after exposure to remarkably greater concentrations of DHA. Furthermore, experiments performed in isolated mitochondria revealed that DHA transport through hexose transporters and Na(+) -dependent transport of AA were very similar. These results suggest that the different subcellular compartmentalization of the vitamin is mediated by events promoting inhibition of mitochondrial AA transport, possibly triggered by low levels of DHA. We obtained results in line with this notion in intact cells, and more direct evidence in isolated mitochondria. This inhibitory effect was promptly reversible after DHA removal and comparable with that mediated by established inhibitors, as quercetin. The results presented collectively indicate that low intracellular concentrations of DHA, because of its rapid reduction back to AA, are a poor substrate for direct mitochondrial uptake. DHA concentrations, however, appear sufficiently high to mediate inhibition of mitochondrial transport of AA/DHA-derived AA.

  15. Genome level analysis of bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetigyata Pratap; Tiwari, Abhay; Bansal, Ankiti; Thakur, Shruti; Sharma, Garima; Gabrani, Reema

    2015-06-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides which are ribosomally synthesized by mainly all bacterial species. LABs (lactic acid bacteria) are a diverse group of bacteria that include around 20 genera of various species. Though LABs have a tremendous potential for production of anti-microbial peptides, this group of bacteria is still underexplored for bacteriocins. To study the diversity among bacteriocin encoding clusters and the putative bacteriocin precursors, genome mining was performed on 20 different species of LAB not reported to be bacteriocin producers. The phylogenetic tree of gyrB, rpoB, and 16S rRNA were constructed using MEGA6 software to analyze the diversity among strains. Putative bacteriocins operons identified were found to be diverse and were further characterized on the basis of physiochemical properties and the secondary structure. The presence of at least two cysteine residues in most of the observed putative bacteriocins leads to disulphide bond formation and provide stability. Our data suggests that LABs are prolific source of low molecular weight non modified peptides.

  16. Ascorbic Acid and Rates of Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Gene L.; Dodge, Hiroko; Frei, Balz; Calabrese, Carlo; Oken, Barry S.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    The brain maintains high levels of ascorbic acid (AA) despite a concentration gradient favoring diffusion from brain to peripheral tissues. Dietary antioxidants, including AA, appear to modify the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that neurodegeneration in AD is modified by brain levels of AA. Thirty-two patients with mild to moderate AD participated in a biomarker study involving standardized clinical assessments over one year. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected at baseline for AA and albumin content. Cognitive measures were collected at baseline and one year. CSF and plasma AA failed to predict cognitive decline independently, however, CSF: plasma AA ratio did. After adding CSF Albumin Index (an established marker of blood-brain barrier integrity) to the regression models the effect of CSF: plasma AA ratio as a predictor of cognitive decline was weakened. CSF: plasma AA ratio predicts rate of decline in AD. This relationship may indicate that the CSF: plasma AA ratio is an index of AA availability to the brain or may be an artifact of a relationship between blood-brain barrier impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:19158425

  17. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A.; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05) gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05) muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05) than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05). There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05) the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  18. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid concentration and zinc protoporphyrin level among people with low level of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Huan-hu; Chen, Jian-wei; Hao, Qiao-ling; Gu, Kang-ding; Zhu, Ye-xiang; Zhou, Yi-kai; Ye, Lin-xiang

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALAU) level and blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration to low blood lead (PbB) levels, these biomarkers were determined for all subjects enrolled from a rural area of southeast China where people had low levels of exposure to lead. The mean values of PbB, ALAD, ALAU and ZPP were 67.11 microg/L (SD: 1.654, range: 10.90-514.04), 339.66 nmol ml(-1)h(-1) (1.419, 78.33-793.13), 20.64 microg/L (1.603, 2.00-326.00), and 0.14 micromol/L (3.437, 0.01-2.26), respectively. ALAD was inversely associated with low levels of PbB. ZPP was inversely related to low levels of PbB but positively related to relatively higher levels of PbB. Alcohol drinking contributed to low ALAD in men. Women had higher ZPP than men. ALAU had no significant association with PbB. In conclusion, ALAD possibly has a non-linear relation with low to moderate levels of PbB. At moderate levels of PbB, ZPP increases with increasing levels of PbB. ALAU is not suitable as an indicator for low levels of lead exposure.

  19. Dynamic aspects of ascorbic acid metabolism in the circulation: analysis by ascorbate oxidase with a prolonged in vivo half-life.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Emiko; Kashiba, Misato; Jikumaru, Mika; Kuratsune, Daisuke; Orita, Kumi; Yamate, Yurika; Hara, Kenjiro; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Sato, Eisuke F; Inoue, Masayasu

    2009-06-26

    Because AA (L-ascorbic acid) scavenges various types of free radicals to form MDAA (monodehydroascorbic acid) and DAA (dehydroascorbic acid), its regeneration from the oxidized metabolites is critically important for humans and other animals that lack the ability to synthesize this antioxidant. To study the dynamic aspects of AA metabolism in the circulation, a long acting AOase (ascorbate oxidase) derivative was synthesized by covalently linking PEG [poly(ethylene glycol)] to the enzyme. Fairly low concentrations of the modified enzyme (PEG-AOase) rapidly decreased AA levels in isolated fresh plasma and blood samples with a concomitant increase in their levels of MDAA and DAA. In contrast, relatively high doses of PEG-AOase were required to decrease the circulating plasma AA levels of both normal rats and ODS (osteogenic disorder Shionogi) rats that lack the ability to synthesize AA. Administration of 50 units of PEG-AOase/kg of body weight rapidly decreased AA levels in plasma and the kidney without affecting the levels in other tissues, such as the liver, brain, lung, adrenal grand and skeletal muscles. PEG-AOase slightly, but significantly, decreased glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver without affecting those in other tissues. Suppression of hepatic synthesis of GSH by administration of BSO [L-buthionin-(S,R)-sulfoximine] enhanced the PEG-AOase-induced decrease in plasma AA levels. These and other results suggest that the circulating AA is reductively regenerated from MDAA extremely rapidly and that hepatic GSH plays important roles in the regeneration of this antioxidant.

  20. Limiting amino acids in bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) as determined from blood amino acid levels and amino acid supplementation studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Khader, V; Rao, S V

    1982-01-01

    The limiting amino acids of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) were determined from plasma amino acid score and ratio and growth response of weanling rats to supplements of amino acids. The results indicated that methionine, threonine and tryptophan are the most limiting amino acids. Protein efficiency ratio of raw and cooked Bengal gram fed at a dietary level of 10% protein increased from 2.7 to 3.7 and 2.4 to 3.4, respectively, on supplementing the diets with methionine, threonine and tryptophan. Plasma levels of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan were similar in rats fed raw or cooked Bengal gram, indicating that the trypsin or other inhibitors that may be present in the raw gram do not affect the biological availability of these amino acids.

  1. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  2. Blood folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H L; Cao, L Q; Chen, H Y

    2016-12-19

    Deficiencies in nutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 may play a role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether folic acid, vitamin B12, or homocysteine is associated with FGR in Chinese populations remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between these nutrient deficiencies and FGR in pregnant Chinese women. We selected 116 mother and infant pairs, and categorized the neonates into the FGR, appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age groups. Birth weight, body length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer's body index of the newborns were measured. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels were measured in mothers during the first three days of their hospital stay. Results showed that the FGR group exhibited reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and elevated homocysteine levels than those in the other two groups. Folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were positively correlated with birth weight, head circumference, and BMI, whereas homocysteine level was negatively correlated with these variables. The FGR ratio in the folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency group was higher than that in the sufficiency group (χ(2) = 4.717 and 4.437, P = 0.029 and 0.035, respectively). In addition, elevated homocysteine was associated with FGR (χ(2) = 5.366, P = 0.021). In conclusion, we found that folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with elevated homocysteine levels, which may increase susceptibility to FGR.

  3. In vivo blockade of thalamic GABA(B) receptors increases excitatory amino-acid levels.

    PubMed

    Nyitrai, G; Emri, Z; Crunelli, V; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, A; Juhász, G

    1996-12-30

    The effect of intrathalamic application of GABA(B) receptor antagonists on the basal excitatory amino-acid levels was studied using microdialysis probes implanted in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and in the ventrobasal complex. In both nuclei, continuous perfusion of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl-(diethoxymethyl)-phosphinic acid (CGP 35348) produced an increase in the extracellular concentration of aspartate and (to a lesser extent) glutamate, but no change was observed in the level of taurine, the main amino acid involved in the regulation of brain osmolarity processes. In contrast, 3-amino-2-hydroxy-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-propanesulphonic acid (2-hydroxy-saclofen), another GABA(B) receptor antagonist, failed to affect the extracellular concentration of aspartate, glutamate and taurine. Thus, the basal level of excitatory amino acids in the thalamus in vivo is under the control of CGP 35348-sensitive GABA(B) receptors.

  4. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

  5. Effects of toxic work environments on sperm quality and ascorbic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )

    1990-02-26

    Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.

  6. Role of cellular antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbic acid) in the growth and development of wild carrot suspension cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Earnshaw, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Determinations of endogenous glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) in proliferating and developing wild carrot cultures showed that lower levels of GSH and AA were associated with developing cultures. The GSSG and DHA levels did not account for the changes in the levels of antioxidants between proliferating and developing cultures. Studies were designed to test an observed auxin (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-D)-antioxidant association. Two fractions (embryo and less developed) were obtained by screening developed cultures which were previously grown in the presence of /sup 14/C-2, 4-D. The embryo fraction had a lower concentration of /sup 14/C than the less developed fraction, supporting the association, since the two fractions showed this relationship with respect to GSH and AA concentrations. Determinations of GSH and AA levels of cells grown in various concentrations of 2,4-D showed the association, decreases in the 2,4-D concentration correlated with decreases in the GSH and AA concentrations. The existence of a respiratory pathway involving GSSG reductase, DHA reductase, and AA oxidase was investigated to test whether inhibition of AA oxidase by 2,4-D could explain the auxin-antioxidant association; however, AA oxidase activity was not detected.

  7. Enhancement of myofibrillar proteolysis following infusion of amino acid mixture correlates positively with elevation of core body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Mikura, Mayumi; Nishimura, Masuhiro; Doi, Masako; Kawano, Yuichi; Nakayama, Mitsuo

    2008-12-01

    Administration of an amino acid (AA) mixture stimulates muscle protein synthesis and elevates core body temperature (T(b)), as characteristically found under anesthetic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that not only AA given, but also AA produced by degradation of endogenous muscular protein are provided for muscle protein synthesis, which is further reflected in T(b) modifications. Rats were intravenously administered an AA mixture or saline in combination with the anesthetic propofol or lipid emulsion. We measured plasma 3-methylhistidine (MeHis) concentrations as an index of myofibrillar protein degradation, rectal temperature and mRNA expression of atrogin-1, MuRF-1 and ubiquitin in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of rats following 3 h infusion of test solutions. T(b) did not differ significantly between conscious groups, but was higher in the AA group than in the saline group among anesthetized rats. Plasma MeHis concentrations were higher in the AA group than in the saline group under both conditions. Plasma MeHis levels correlated positively with T(b) of rats under both conditions. AA administration decreased mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and ubiquitin in gastrocnemius muscle and all mRNA levels in soleus muscle. These results suggest that AA administration enhances myofibrillar protein degradation and that the change is a determinant of T(b) modification by AA administration. However, the mechanisms underlying AA administration-associated enhancement of myofibrillar proteolysis remains yet to be determined.

  8. Single amino acid insertions in extracellular loop 2 of Bombyx mori ABCC2 disrupt its receptor function for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa toxins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells. After replacement of one or two of the five amino acid residues in loop 2 of the susceptible BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_S] with alanine, cells still showed susceptibility, retaining the receptor function. Five mutants with single amino acid insertions at position 234 in BmABCC2 were also generated, resulting in loop 2 having six amino acids, which corresponds to replacing the tyrosine insertion in the resistant BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y)] with another amino acid. All five mutants exhibited loss of function against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence in loop 2 is less important than the loop size (five vs. six amino acids) or loop structure for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activity. Several domain-swapped mutant toxins were then generated among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, which are composed of three domains. Swapped mutants containing domain II of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac did not kill Sf9 cells expressing BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y), suggesting that domain II of the Cry toxin is related to the interaction with the receptor function of BmABCC2. This also suggests that different reactions against Bt-toxins in some B. mori strains, that is, Cry1Ab resistance or Cry1Aa susceptibility, are attributable to structural differences in domain II of Cry1A toxins.

  9. Pyrazinoic acid decreases the proton motive force, respiratory ATP synthesis activity, and cellular ATP levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Haagsma, Anna C; Pham, Hoang; Maaskant, Janneke J; Mol, Selena; Lill, Holger; Bald, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  10. [A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

    2010-06-01

    Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene.

  11. Low Plasma Eicosapentaenoic Acid Levels are Associated with Elevated Trait Aggression and Impulsivity in Major Depressive Disorder with a History of Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Mann, J. John; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n=48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n=35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n=39; HV, n=33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76=12.493, p=0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65=5.598, p=0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76=7.941, p=0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65=3.485, p=0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. PMID:25017608

  12. Coumarin effects on amino acid levels in mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Cristina; Lucetti, Daniel Luna; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Brito, Eliane Magalhães; Monteiro, Valdécio Silvano; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; de Moura, Rebeca Ribeiro; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Macedo, Danielle Silveira; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2009-04-24

    Coumarin is a compound known to be present in a wide variety of plants, microorganisms and animal species. Most of its effects were studied in organs and systems other than the central nervous system. The present work evaluated the effect of coumarin administration on the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (GLU), glycine (GLY) and taurine (TAU) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mice. Male Swiss mice were treated with distilled water (controls), coumarin (20 or 40 mg/kg, i.p.) or diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Results showed that in the prefrontal cortex, coumarin at the lowest dose increased the levels of GLU and TAU, while GABA increased with both doses studied and GLY had its levels increased only at the dose of 40 mg/kg. Diazepam (DZP) increased the levels of GABA and TAU and decreased the levels of GLU and GLY in this area. In the hippocampus, only glutamate had its levels decreased after coumarin treatment, while diazepam increased the levels of GABA and TAU and decreased the levels of GLU in this brain region. We concluded that coumarin stimulates the release of endogenous amino acids, increasing the levels of inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the prefrontal cortex, and decreasing glutamate levels in the hippocampus. Together, these results are of interest, considering that some neurodegenerative diseases and seizures are related to the imbalance of the amino acid levels in the CNS suggesting a perspective of a therapeutic use of coumarins in these disorders.

  13. Analysis of methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid at low microgram per liter levels in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1997-11-28

    A method is described for determining methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, which are hydrolysis products of the nerve agents VX (S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothiolate) and GB (sarin, isopropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate). The analytes are extracted from 50 ml groundwater using a solid-phase extraction column packed with 500 mg of silica with a bonded quaternary amine phase, and are eluted and derivatized with methanolic trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Separation and quantitation are achieved using a capillary column gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector operated in its phosphorus-selective mode. Two independent statistically-unbiased procedures were employed to determine the detection limits, which ranged between 3 and 9 micrograms/l, for the three analytes.

  14. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one.

  15. Amino acid limitation induces down-regulation of WNT5a at transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zuguang; Chen Hong

    2009-01-23

    An aberrant WNT signaling contributes to the development and progression of multiple cancers. WNT5a is one of the WNT signaling molecules. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that amino acid deprivation induces changes in the WNT signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Results showed that targets of the amino acid response pathway, ATF3 and p21, were induced in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 during amino acid limitation. There was a significant decrease in the WNT5a mRNA level following amino acid deprivation. The down-regulation of WNT5a mRNA by amino acid deprivation is not due to mRNA destabilization. There is a reduction of nuclear {beta}-catenin protein level by amino acid limitation. Under amino acid limitation, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased and the blockage of ERK1/2 by the inhibitor U0126 partially restored WNT5a mRNA level. In conclusion, amino acid limitation in colon cancer cells induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which then down-regulates WNT5a expression.

  16. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  18. Genetic loci associated with circulating levels of very long-chain saturated fatty acids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wu, Jason H. Y.; McKnight, Barbara; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Sun, Qi; Chasman, Daniel I.; Foy, Millennia; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwen; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Arnett, Donna K.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Djousse, Luc; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wu, Hongyu; Jensen, Majken K.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Jacobs, David R.; Rich, Stephen S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Steffen, Lyn; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Ridker, Paul M.; Fornage, Myriam; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFAs is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher arachidic acid (20:0 , P = 5.81 × 10−13). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (P = 2.65 × 10−40) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of behenic acid (P = 4.22 × 10−26) and lignoceric acid (P = 3.20 × 10−21). These novel associations suggest an inter-relationship of circulating VLSFAs and sphingolipid synthesis. PMID:25378659

  19. Metformin impairs systemic bile acid homeostasis through regulating SIRT1 protein levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Huabing; Kong, Xingxing; Yao, Lu; Cui, Xiaona; Zou, Yongkang; Fang, Fude; Yang, Jichun; Chang, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is widely used to treat hyperglycemia. However, metformin treatment may induce intrahepatic cholestasis and liver injury in a few patients with type II diabetes through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that metformin decreases SIRT1 protein levels in primary hepatocytes and liver. Both metformin-treated wild-type C57 mice and hepatic SIRT1-mutant mice had increased hepatic and serum bile acid levels. However, metformin failed to change systemic bile acid levels in hepatic SIRT1-mutant mice. Molecular mechanism study indicates that SIRT1 directly interacts with and deacetylates Foxa2 to inhibit its transcriptional activity on expression of genes involved in bile acids synthesis and transport. Hepatic SIRT1 mutation elevates Foxa2 acetylation levels, which promotes Foxa2 binding to and activating genes involved in bile acids metabolism, impairing hepatic and systemic bile acid homeostasis. Our data clearly suggest that hepatic SIRT1 mediates metformin effects on systemic bile acid metabolism and modulation of SIRT1 activity in liver may be an attractive approach for treatment of bile acid-related diseases such as cholestasis.

  20. Genetic loci associated with circulating levels of very long-chain saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; King, Irena B; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Wu, Jason H Y; McKnight, Barbara; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Sun, Qi; Chasman, Daniel I; Foy, Millennia; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwen; Siscovick, David S; Tsai, Michael Y; Arnett, Donna K; Psaty, Bruce M; Djousse, Luc; Chen, Yii-Der I; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wu, Hongyu; Jensen, Majken K; Chu, Audrey Y; Jacobs, David R; Rich, Stephen S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Steffen, Lyn; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Ridker, Paul M; Fornage, Myriam; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFAs is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher arachidic acid (20:0 , P = 5.81 × 10(-13)). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (P = 2.65 × 10(-40)) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of behenic acid (P = 4.22 × 10(-26)) and lignoceric acid (P = 3.20 × 10(-21)). These novel associations suggest an inter-relationship of circulating VLSFAs and sphingolipid synthesis.

  1. Arachidonic acid increases choline acetyltransferase activity in spinal cord neurons through a protein kinase C-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; King-Pospisil, Kelley; Pedersen, Ward A; Malecki, Andrzej; Wylegala, Edward; Mattson, Mark P; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2004-08-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) plays an important role as a signaling factor in the CNS. Therefore, exposure to AA may affect cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord. To test this hypothesis, mRNA expression and activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was measured in cultured spinal cord neurons treated with increasing concentrations (0.1-10 microm) of AA. Exposure to AA increased mRNA levels and activity of ChAT in dose- and time-dependent manners. The most marked effect of AA on ChAT expression was observed in spinal cord neurons treated with 10 microm AA for 1 h. To study the mechanisms associated with these effects, ChAT mRNA levels and activity were measured in cultured spinal cord neurons exposed to AA and inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), such as 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dichloride (H-7) and chelerythrine. Inhibition of PKC completely prevented an AA-induced increase in ChAT expression. In addition, exposure of spinal cord neurons to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC, mimicked AA-induced stimulation of ChAT activity. The AA-mediated increase in ChAT mRNA levels and activity was also prevented by treatments with EGTA, indicating the role of calcium metabolism in induction of this enzyme. In contrast, treatments with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a specific inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase), sodium vanadate (NaV, a non-specific inhibitor of phosphatases), and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant) had no effect on AA-induced changes in ChAT activity. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide completely blocked AA-mediated increase in ChAT activity. These results indicate that the AA-evoked increase in ChAT activity in spinal cord neurons is mediated by PKC, presumably at the transcriptional level.

  2. Chronic Depression of Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Serum L- Fucose , Protein-Bound Hexose, and Total Protein Levels in Alloxan Diabetic and Control Rats at Various Time Intervals After Treatment 5...ABSTRACT This study was performed to determine whether alloxan treatment of rats alters levels of the terminal carbohydrate residues L- fucose and...occurs with no apparent alteration in the level of L- fucose . The depression in sialic acid level may be attributed in part to decreased activities of

  3. Insulinogenic sucrose+amino acid mixture ingestion immediately after resistance exercise has an anabolic effect on bone compared with non-insulinogenic fructose+amino acid mixture in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Notomi, Takuya; Karasaki, Ikuaki; Okazaki, Yuichi; Okimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Yushi; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masaki; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Masashige

    2014-08-01

    Maximizing peak bone mass is an important factor in osteoporosis prevention. Resistance exercise increases bone mass and strength, while nutritional supplements have beneficial effects on bone loss reduction. We have previously shown that the combined intake of sucrose and amino acids (AA), which is strongly insulinogenic, efficiently increased muscle protein synthesis. To investigate the effects of sugar and an AA solution immediately after resistance exercise, we compared insulinogenic sucrose and non-insulinogenic fructose combined with an AA solution with or without resistance exercise. Sucrose intake immediately after resistance exercise increased the trabecular bone mass and compressive maximum load compared with fructose+AA intake after exercise. Additionally, combined sucrose+AA and exercise increased trabecular bone formation and decreased bone resorption more than combined fructose and exercise. Serum insulin levels were greatly increased by sucrose+AA intake with exercise. In culture experiments, neither sugar+AA affected osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. In a gene expression study, sucrose+AA intake after resistance exercise was shown to upregulate the Runx2 expression level and decrease RANKL/OPG ratio. These results suggest that the combined intake of sucrose and an AA solution immediately after resistance exercise exerts anabolic effects on bone by altering gene expression related to bone remodeling. Although translation of our bone remodeling findings from animal to human studies has been challenging, our findings suggest that exercise with sugar+AA intake may contribute to improved bone health.

  4. Serum nitrite and nitrate levels in epileptic children using valproic acid or carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Karabiber, Hamza; Yakinci, Cengiz; Durmaz, Yasar; Temel, Ismail; Mehmet, Nihayet

    2004-01-01

    In experimental epilepsy studies, nitric oxide was found to act as both proconvulsant and anticonvulsant. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of valproic acid and carbamazepine on serum levels of nitrite and nitrate, which are the metabolites of nitric oxide. To achieve this goal, serum nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in active epileptic 34 children using valproic acid and 23 children using carbamazepine and in non-active epileptic 38 children (control group) not using any antiepileptic drug. In the valproic acid group serum nitrite and nitrate levels were 2.66 +/- 2.11 micromol/l and 69.35 +/- 23.20 micromol/l, 1.89 +/- 1.01 micromol/l and 49.39 +/- 10.61 micromol/l in the carbamazepine group, and 1.22 +/- 0.55 micromol/l, 29.53 +/- 10.05 micromol in the control group, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate levels were significantly high in both valproic acid and carbamazepine groups compared to the control group (P < 0.01). When valproic acid and carbamazepine groups were compared to each other, level of nitrate was found statistically higher in the valproic acid group in relation to the carbamazepine group (P < 0.01), however, there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of nitrite (P > 0.05). No relation could be found between serum drug levels and nitrite and nitrate levels. According to these results, it can be suggested that valproic acid and carbamazepine might have antiepileptic effects through nitric oxide.

  5. Comparative Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in the Slender Pea and Other Pea Phenotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Free indole-3-acetic acid levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three ultra-tall `slender' Pisum sativum L. lines differing in gibberellin content. Measurements were made for apices and stem elongation zones of light-grown plants and values were compared with wild-type, dwarf, and nana phenotypes in which internode length is genetically regulated, purportedly via the gibberellin level. Indole-3-acetic acid levels of growing stems paralleled growth rates in all lines, and were high in all three slender genotypes. Growth was inhibited by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, demonstrating the requirement of auxin activity for stem elongation, and also by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. It is concluded that the slender phenotype may arise from constant activation of a gibberellin receptor or transduction chain event leading directly or indirectly to elevated levels of indole-3-acetic acid, and that increased indole-3-acetic acid levels are a significant factor in the promotion of stem elongation. PMID:16667653

  6. Uric Acid Level and Erectile Dysfunction In Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Covic, Adrian; McFann, Kim; Johnson, Richard J.; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects, and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict erectile dysfunction in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease. Aim To evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED. Main Outcome Measures The short version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ≤21). Serum Uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an exercise stress test. Results 149 of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes, and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, CRP, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (OR = 1.36, p = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for eGFR. Conclusion Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels. PMID:24433559

  7. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Maternal Erythrocytes of Japanese Women during Pregnancy and after Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Terue; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo; Saito, Shoji; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), to the fetus from maternal stores increases depending on the fetal requirements for PUFA during the last trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, maternal blood PUFA changes physiologically with gestational age. However, the changes in PUFA levels in maternal blood erythrocytes during pregnancy and after childbirth have not been fully investigated in a fish-eating population. Objective: To examine the changes of ARA and DHA levels in maternal erythrocytes with the progress of pregnancy and the relationship between maternal and umbilical cord erythrocyte PUFA levels in pregnant Japanese women who habitually eat fish and shellfish. Design: This study was performed as a part of the adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). The participants were 74 pregnant women. The maternal blood samples were collected at 27, 30, and 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 2 days and 1 month after delivery, and umbilical cord blood was collected at delivery. The fatty acid levels of erythrocytes in these blood samples were determined. Results: ARA and DHA levels in maternal erythrocytes tended to decrease with the progress of pregnancy. While the DHA level decreased further after delivery, the ARA level returned to the value at 27 weeks of pregnancy within 1 month after delivery. The n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in maternal erythrocytes at 27, 30, and 36 weeks of pregnancy were significantly positively correlated with the corresponding fatty acid levels in umbilical cord erythrocytes. Conclusion: The present findings showed a significant change in erythrocyte PUFA levels during pregnancy and after childbirth in a fish-eating population. The PUFA levels of maternal blood after the second trimester may be a reliable marker for predicting PUFA levels in infants’ circulating blood. PMID:28272345

  8. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  9. Prednisone lowers serum uric acid levels in patients with decompensated heart failure by increasing renal uric acid clearance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhen, Yuzhi; Zhao, Qingzhen; Zhai, Jian-Long; Liu, Kunshen; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that large doses of prednisone could lower serum uric acid (SUA) in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF); however, the optimal dose of prednisone and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-eight patients with decompensated HF were randomized to receive standard HF care alone (n = 10) or with low-dose (15 mg/day, n = 8), medium-dose (30 mg/day, n = 10), or high-dose prednisone (60 mg/day, n = 10), for 10 days. At the end of the study, only high-dose prednisone significantly reduced SUA, whereas low- and medium-dose prednisone and standard HF care had no effect on SUA. The reduction in SUA in high-dose prednisone groups was associated with a significant increase in renal uric acid clearance. In conclusion, prednisone can reduce SUA levels by increasing renal uric acid clearance in patients with decompensated HF.

  10. Ultraviolet-induced oxidation of ascorbic acid in a model juice system: identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Tikekar, Rohan V; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Elias, Ryan J; LaBorde, Luke F

    2011-08-10

    Degradation products of ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) treated ascorbic acid (AA) are reported. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) conducted in a 0.5% malic acid model juice system (pH 3.3) demonstrated increased degradation of AA above untreated controls with concomitant increases in dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and 2,3-diketogulonic acid (DKGA) levels. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy studies, conducted in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to increase detection sensitivity, demonstrated that ascorbyl radical (AA•) formation occurs simultaneously with AA degradation. Consistent with a previous study in which UV treatments were shown to accelerate dark storage degradation, AA• radicals continued to form for up to 200 min after an initial UV treatment. Results from this study suggest that the mechanism for UV-induced degradation is the same as the general mechanism for metal-catalyzed oxidation of AA in juice.

  11. Folic acid and protein content in maternal diet and postnatal high-fat feeding affect the tissue levels of iron, zinc, and copper in the rat.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Chmurzynska, Agata

    2011-12-01

    Although maternal, fetal, and placental mechanisms compensate for disturbances in the fetal environment, any nutritional inadequacies present during pregnancy may affect fetal metabolism, and their consequences may appear in later life. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of maternal diet during gestation on Fe, Zn, and Cu levels in the livers and kidneys of adult rats. The study was carried out on the offspring (n = 48) of mothers fed either a protein-balanced or a protein-restricted diet (18% vs. 9% casein) during pregnancy, with or without folic acid supplementation (0.005- vs. 0.002-g folic acid/kg diet). At 10 weeks of age, the offspring of each maternal group were randomly assigned to groups fed either the AIN-93G diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks, until the end of the experiment. The levels of Fe, Zn, and Cu in the livers and kidneys were determined by the F-AAS method. It was found that postnatal exposure to the high-fat diet was associated with increased hepatic Fe levels (p < 0.001), and with decreased liver Zn and Cu contents (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), as well as with decreased renal Cu contents (p < 0.001). Moreover, the offspring's tissue mineral levels were also affected by protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet. Both prenatal protein restriction and folic acid supplementation increased the liver Zn content (p < 0.05) and the kidney Zn content (p < 0.001; p < 0.05, respectively), while folic acid supplementation resulted in a reduction in renal Cu level (p < 0.05). Summarizing, the results of this study show that maternal dietary folic acid and protein intake during pregnancy, as well as the type of postweaning diet, affect Fe, Zn, and Cu levels in the offspring of the rat. However, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unclear, and warrant further investigation.

  12. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  13. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  14. Accurate calculation of the p Ka of trifluoroacetic acid using high-level ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazian, Mansoor; Zakery, Maryam; Noorbala, Mohammad R.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The p Ka value of trifluoroacetic acid has been successfully calculated using high-level ab initio methods such as G3 and CBS-QB3. Solvation energies have been calculated using CPCM continuum model of solvation at the HF and B3-LYP levels of theory with various basis sets. Excellent agreement with experiment (to within 0.4 p Ka units) was obtained using CPCM solvation energies at the B3-LYP/6-31+G(d) level (or larger) in conjunction with CBS-QB3 or G3 gas-phase energies of trifluoroacetic acid and its anion.

  15. Fasting levels of monoketonic bile acids in human peripheral and portal circulation.

    PubMed

    Björkhem, I; Angelin, B; Einarsson, K; Ewerth, S

    1982-09-01

    . Einarsson, and S. Ewerth. Fasting levels of monoketonic bile acids in human peripheral and portal circulation.

  16. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beiru; Une, Yumi; Fu, Xiaoying; Yan, Jingmin; Ge, FengXia; Yao, Junjie; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2008-05-20

    AA amyloidosis is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which are in danger of extinction, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Given the transmissible characteristics of AA amyloidosis, transmission between captive cheetahs may be a possible mechanism involved in the high incidence of AA amyloidosis. In this study of animals with AA amyloidosis, we found that cheetah feces contained AA amyloid fibrils that were different from those of the liver with regard to molecular weight and shape and had greater transmissibility. The infectious activity of fecal AA amyloid fibrils was reduced or abolished by the protein denaturants 6 M guanidine.HCl and formic acid or by AA immunodepletion. Thus, we propose that feces are a vehicle of transmission that may accelerate AA amyloidosis in captive cheetah populations. These results provide a pathogenesis for AA amyloidosis and suggest possible measures for rescuing cheetahs from extinction.

  17. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  18. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  19. Childrens' learning and behaviour and the association with cheek cell polyunsaturated fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Kirby, A; Woodward, A; Jackson, S; Wang, Y; Crawford, M A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3, in their red blood cells and plasma, and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate behavioural symptoms in this population. However, in order to compare levels it seems appropriate to establish fatty acid levels in a mainstream school aged population and if levels relate to learning and behaviour. To date no study has established this. For this study, cheek cell samples from 411 typically developing school children were collected and analysed for PUFA content, in order to establish the range in this population. In addition, measures of general classroom attention and behaviour were assessed in these children by teachers and parents. Cognitive performance tests were also administered in order to explore whether an association between behaviour and/or cognitive performance and PUFA levels exists. Relationships between PUFA levels and socio-economic status were also explored. Measures of reading, spelling and intelligence did not show any association with PUFA levels, but some associations were noted with the level of omega-3 fatty acids and teacher and parental reports of behaviour, with some evidence that higher omega-3 levels were associated with decreased levels of inattention, hyperactivity, emotional and conduct difficulties and increased levels of prosocial behaviour. These findings are discussed in relation to previous findings from omega-3 supplementation studies with children.

  20. Inverse Association Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Du, Na; Xu, Donghua; Hou, Xu; Song, Xuejia; Liu, Cancan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Yangang; Li, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The association between Alzheimer's disease and uric acid levels had gained great interest in recent years, but there was still lack of definite evidence. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Relevant studies published before October 26, 2014, were searched in PubMed, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases. Study-specific data were combined using random-effects or fixed-effects models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-four studies (21 case-control and 3 cohort studies) were finally included into the meta-analysis. Those 21 case-control studies included a total of 1128 cases of Alzheimer's disease and 2498 controls without Alzheimer's disease. Those 3 cohort studies included a total of 7327 participants. Meta-analysis showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease had lower levels of uric acid than healthy controls (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.77 mg/dl, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.36, P = 0.0002). High serum uric acid levels were significantly associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.85, P = 0.001). There was low risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. There is an inverse association between serum uric acid levels and Alzheimer's disease. High serum uric acid level is a protective factor of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  2. Serum sialic acid and glycoprotein levels in some Libyan cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Balo, N N; Ishaq, M

    1991-01-01

    Sialic acid is a common conjugate of some serum glycoproteins and glycolipids. Elevated levels of serum sialic acid and alterations in serum glycoproteins have been observed in certain types of cancer. In this study sialic acid concentration in the sera of patients with various types of cancer was determined. In addition to this, serum glycoproteins were also analysed by electrophoretic method. Our results indicate that serum sialic acid levels are generally raised in all types of cancer studied. This increase was more pronounced in case of lung, bronchogenic, intestinal and breast cancer. Some alterations in the serum glycoprotein profiles were also observed, particularly in bronchogenic and gall bladder cancer where an additional band in the low molecular weight region was present and in lung, breast and lymphoma where a band in the middle molecular weight region was found missing when compared with normals.

  3. Ascorbic acid inhibits PMP22 expression by reducing cAMP levels.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ferdinand; Belin, Sophie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Micaleff, Joelle; Blin, Olivier; Fontés, Michel

    2007-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMT] syndrome is the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathy. CMT1A, which accounts for 50% of all CMT cases, usually results from triploidy of the PMP22 gene. Preclinical trials using an animal model show that disabled mice force-fed with high doses of ascorbic acid partially recover muscular strength after a few months of treatment, and suggest that high doses of ascorbic acid repress PMP22 expression. In this study, we demonstrated that ascorbic acid represses PMP22 gene expression by acting on intracellular cAMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity. This action is dose dependent and specific to ascorbic acid, since repression is not observed after treatment with other antioxidants. The new properties of ascorbic acid are discussed, along with the implications of these findings for CMT disease treatment.

  4. Cytochrome aa3 in Haloferax volcanii

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mikiei; Ogawa, Naohide; Ihara, Kunio; Sugiyama, Yasuo; Mukohata, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    A cytochrome in an extremely halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, was purified to homogeneity. This protein displayed a redox difference spectrum that is characteristic of a-type cytochromes and a CN− complex spectrum that indicates the presence of heme a and heme a3. This cytochrome aa3 consisted of 44- and 35-kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of the 44-kDa subunit was similar to that of the heme-copper oxidase subunit I, and critical amino acid residues for metal binding, such as histidines, were highly conserved. The reduced cytochrome c partially purified from the bacterial membrane fraction was oxidized by the cytochrome aa3, providing physiological evidence for electron transfer from cytochrome c to cytochrome aa3 in archaea. PMID:11790755

  5. Beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid levels in two siblings with dihydropyrimidinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, A B P; Stroomer, A E M; Bosch, A M; Duran, M

    2008-06-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) deficiency is an inborn error of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, affecting the hydrolytic ring opening of the dihydropyrimidines. In two siblings with a complete DHP deficiency and a variable clinical presentation, a normal concentration of beta-alanine and strongly decreased levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid were observed in plasma, urine and CSF. No major differences were observed for the concentrations of the beta-amino acids in plasma and urine between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sibling. Thus, the relevance of the shortage of beta-aminoisobutyric acid for the onset of a clinical phenotype in patients with DHP deficiency remains to be established.

  6. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L = cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF = N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu3 + in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu3 + ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of 5D0 and triplet state contracts.

  7. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-05

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts.

  8. Serum iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Gulizar; Bilen, Sule; Arli, Berna; Saka, Mustafa; Ak, Fikri

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to investigate possible associations between systemic iron metabolism deficiency and Parkinson's disease, and also to research any possible correlations between stage of the disease and vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. 33 male and 27 female patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 22 male and 20 female age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Having the diagnosis of secondary Parkinsonism or Parkinson plus syndromes, and for the females, not being in the menopausal stage were considered as exclusion criteria. Recordings of blood samples of both groups collected after 8 h fasts were assessed in terms of serum iron, ferritin levels and iron-binding capacity, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used to determine the stage of the disease. No statistically significant difference was found with respect to mean serum iron, median serum ferritin levels and median serum iron-binding capacity between the groups. A statistically significant but inverse correlation was found between symptoms' duration and serum iron and ferritin levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. However, a statistically significant but inverse correlation was determined between the patients' vitamin B12 levels and the Hoehn and Yahr scores. As Parkinson's disease progresses, serum iron, ferritin and vitamin B12 levels may decrease. The lower levels of these parameters may be the cause of the progression or may be the result of it.

  9. Migration of human inflammatory cells into the lung results in the remodeling of arachidonic acid into a triglyceride pool

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) may be different in inflammatory cells isolated from blood or migrating into tissues. To explore the possibility that changes in AA metabolism between blood and tissue inflammatory cells could be due in part to a different content or distribution of AA in glycerolipid classes, we studied these parameters in six human inflammatory cells isolated from blood (eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets) or from the lung tissue (mast cells and macrophages). Lung cells generally had a higher total cellular content of AA than that found in the blood cells. In addition, both mast cells and macrophages had a large endogenous pool of AA associated with triglycerides (TG), containing 45 and 22% of their total cellular AA, respectively. To address the hypothesis that cells migrating into the lung had a higher cellular level of AA and a larger AA pool in TG, we studied neutrophils isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. BAL neutrophils had a fourfold increase in cellular AA as compared with blood neutrophils and contained 25% of their AA in TG versus 3% in blood neutrophils. BAL neutrophils also had a higher number of cytoplasmic lipid bodies (8 +/- 3/cell) relative to blood neutrophils (2 +/- 1/cell). High concentrations of free AA were also found in the cell-free BAL fluid of adult respiratory distress syndrome patients. To explore whether changes in BAL neutrophils may be due to the exposure of the cells to high concentrations of exogenous AA found in BAL, we incubated blood neutrophils in culture with AA (10-100 microM) for 24 h. Neutrophils supplemented with AA had a 10-fold increase in the amount of AA associated with TG and a sixfold increase in the number of lipid bodies. In addition, supplementation with AA induced a dose-dependent formation of hypodense cells. Taken together, these data indicate that human inflammatory cells

  10. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  11. Evaluation of cooling strategies for pumping of milk - impact of fatty acid composition on free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Wiking, Lars; Bertram, Hanne C; Björck, Lennart; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2005-11-01

    Cooling strategies for pumping of raw milk were evaluated. Milk was pumped for 450 s at 31 degrees C, or pumped after cooling to 4 degrees C and subsequently subjected to various incubation times. Two types of milk were used; i.e. milk from cows fed a diet high in saturated fat supplements resulting in significantly larger milk fat globules than the other type of milk which comes from cows fed a low-fat diet that stimulates high de novo fat synthesis. The content of liquid fat was determined by low-field 1H NMR, which showed that milk from cows given the saturated fat diet also contained less liquid fat at both 4 degrees and 31 degrees C than the other type of milk. This can be ascribed to the differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk as a result of the fatty acid composition of the diets. After pumping of the milk at 31 degrees C, measurement of fat globule size distribution revealed a significant coalescence of milk fat globules in the milk obtained from the saturated fat diet due to pumping. Pumping at 4 degrees C or pumping the other type of milk did not result in coalescence of milk fat globules. Formation of free fatty acids increased significantly in both types of milk by pumping at 31 degrees C. Cooling the milk to 4 degrees C immediately before pumping inhibited an increased content of free fatty acids. However, when the milk was incubated at 4 degrees C for 60 min after cooling and then subjected to pumping, a significant increase in the formation of free fatty acids was observed in both types of milk. It is suggested that this increase in free fatty acids is caused by transition of polymorphic crystal forms or higher level of attached lipoprotein lipases to the milk fat globule before pumping.

  12. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  13. The environmental light influences the circulatory levels of retinoic acid and associates with hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wenqiang; Li, Chunying; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Shiming; Dong, Wei; Jiang, Pengjiu; Zhang, Jianfa

    2008-12-01

    Environmental light is involved in the regulation of photochemical reaction in mouse retina. It remains unclear whether light-mediated increase in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) synthesis in retina will result in altering the circulatory levels of ATRA and regulating downstream gene expression and physiological function. Here we showed circulatory levels of ATRA decreased in mice under constant darkness and elevated by light exposure. Fat gene pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (mPlrp2) and its partner procolipase (mClps), but not hepatic lipase (mHl), activated in livers for responding to lack of light illuminating. Light-triggered alterations in circulatory ATRA levels regulated ecto-5'-nucleotidase gene expression by retinoic acid receptor retinoic acid receptor-alpha and modulated 5'-AMP levels in blood and were associated with mPlrp2 and mClps expression in the livers. Mice deficient in adenosine receptors displayed mPlrp2 and mClps expression in livers under 12-h light, 12-h dark cycles. Caffeine blocked adenosine receptors and induced hepatic mPlrp2 and mClps expression in wild-type mice. Mice activated in hepatic mPlrp2 and mClps expression lowered hepatic and serum lipid levels and markedly elevated circulatory levels of all-trans retinol. Our results suggest environmental light influence hepatic lipid homeostasis by light-modulated retinoic acid signaling associated with mPlrp2 and mClps gene expression in livers.

  14. Ursolic acid reduces prostate size and dihydrotestosterone level in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young; Jung, Da-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, which can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. The prevalence of BPH increases in an age-dependent manner. We investigated the protective effect of ursolic acid in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP), for a period of four weeks. Ursolic acid was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose level of 5mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, before prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. TP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in the serum and prostate were also measured. BPH-induced animals displayed an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate. However, ursolic acid treatment resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight and testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, compared with BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also showed that ursolic acid treatment suppressed TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that ursolic acid may effectively inhibit the development of BPH and it may be a useful agent in BPH treatment.

  15. Fatty acid status and its relationship to cognitive decline and homocysteine levels in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baierle, Marília; Vencato, Patrícia H; Oldenburg, Luiza; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M; Duarte, Marta M M F; Veit, Juliana C; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-09-12

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥ 60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly.

  16. Section AA Pre2004 Fire, Section AA 2009, Section AA, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A-A Pre-2004 Fire, Section A-A 2009, Section A-A, South Elevation - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  17. Dietary, serum and urine ascorbic acid status in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Rokitzki, L; Hinkel, S; Klemp, C; Cufi, D; Keul, J

    1994-10-01

    The ascorbic acid (AA)-status of 14 marathon runners, 12 soccer players, 9 wrestlers, 9 basketball players and 16 controls was determined. A 7-day food weighed record was kept to quantify the AA-intake. In addition, the AA-serum concentrations and urinary ascorbate excretion were measured. The AA-intake of all 44 athletes (median, 26th-75th percentile) was 180.7 (188-239) mg/d, the serum concentration 70.6 (65.7-80.2 mumol/l) and the urine ascorbate excretion 1531 (391-2934) mumol/g creatine. No significant differences could be observed between the various sport groups, or between the sport groups and controls with respect to absolute (mg/d) and relative (mg/g body weight) AA-intake, serum and urine concentrations. Only a few of the athletes had AA-intake below the RDA or serum- or urine levels smaller than the decision limit. The absolute AA-intake (n = 44) from the 7-day record (r = 0.49, p < 0.0009) and the AA-intake on the last day (1-day) prior to urine collection (r = 0.90, p < 0.0000) correlate moderately/strongly with the urinary excretion. Between AA-intake (7-day) and serum concentration there is a correlation of r = 0.59, p < 0.0000. The AA-status of highly trained athletes does not differ significantly from the control group in spite of intensive daily training. Thus, AA-supplementation beyond the normal daily intake does not appear necessary.

  18. Mechanism of arachidonic acid liberation in platelet-activating factor-stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, S.; Suganuma, A.; Sato, M.; Tohmatsu, T.; Nozawa, Y. )

    1989-08-15

    Upon stimulation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids. The mechanism for AA liberation, a key step in the synthesis of biologically active eicosanoids, was investigated. PAF was found to elicit an increase in the cytoplasmic level of free Ca2+ as monitored by fluorescent indicator fura 2. When (3H) AA-labeled neutrophils were exposed to PAF, the enhanced release of AA was observed with a concomitant decrease of radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine fractions. The inhibitors of phospholipase A2, mepacrine and 2-(p-amylcinnamoyl)-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, effectively suppressed the liberation of (3H)AA from phospholipids, indicating that liberation of AA is mainly catalyzed by the action of phospholipase A2. The extracellular Ca2+ is not required for AA release. However, intracellular Ca2+ antagonists, TMB-8 and high dose of quin 2/AM drastically reduced the liberation of AA induced by PAF, indicating that Ca2+ is an essential factor for phospholipase A2 activation. PAF raised the fluorescence of fura 2 at concentrations as low as 8 pM which reached a maximal level about 8 nM, whereas more than nM order concentrations of PAF was required for the detectable release of (3H)AA. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin resulted in complete abolition of AA liberation in response to PAF. However, the fura 2 response to PAF was not effectively inhibited by toxin treatment. In human neutrophil homogenate and membrane preparations, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) stimulated AA release and potentiated the action of PAF. Guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) inhibited the effects of guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate).

  19. Developmental competence and embryo quality of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goats cultured in IVM medium supplemented with low level of hormones, insulin-transferrin-selenium and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Hammami, S; Morató, R; Romaguera, R; Roura, M; Catalá, M G; Paramio, M T; Mogas, T; Izquierdo, D

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) and L-ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation and the hormonal level during in vitro maturation (IVM) of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goat on the blastocyst yield and quality. Concretely, we used four maturation media: conventional IVM medium (CM), growth medium (GM: CM+ITS+AA and low level of hormones), modified CM (mCM: CM with low level of hormones) and modified GM (mGM: CM+ITS+AA and normal level of hormones). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were classified into two categories according to oocyte diameter: <125 μm and ≥ 125 μm. Large oocytes were matured 24 h in CM (Treatment A). Small oocytes were matured randomly in six experimental groups: Treatment B: 24 h in CM; Treatment C: 12 h in GM and 12 h in CM; Treatment D: 24 h in mGM; Treatment E: 12 h in mGM and 12 h in CM; Treatment F: 12 h in mCM and 12 h in CM; and Treatment G: 12 h in GM and 12 h in mGM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized and cultured for 8 days. The blastocyst quality was assessed by the survival following vitrification/warming and the mean cell number. When different maturation media were combined, the blastocyst rate did not improve. The large oocytes produced the highest blastocysts yield. However, the culture of small oocytes in GM (53.3%) enhanced the post-warming survival of blastocysts compared to large oocytes matured in CM (35.7%). In conclusion, IVM of pre-pubertal goat small oocytes in GM would be useful to improve the quality of in vitro-produced blastocysts.

  20. Circulating irisin levels are associated with lipid and uric acid metabolism in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shanshan; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Jie; Chen, Miao; Peng, Danfeng; Yan, Jing; Wang, Shiyun; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-06-26

    Irisin is a novel hormone secreted by skeletal muscle after exercise, which may ameliorate insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between circulating irisin levels and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as related metabolic traits in a Chinese population. A total of 203 subjects were recruited. Of these, 68 subjects with NGT, 63 subjects with IGR and 72 subjects with new-onset T2DM. Circulating irisin levels were measured by ELISA. Detailed clinical investigations and biochemistry measurements were carried out in all of the subjects. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between irisin levels and related metabolic characteristics. All subjects were classified into normal weight and overweight/obese subgroups according to body mass index (BMI). No significant differences in circulating irisin levels were identified among the three groups (p=0.9741). After adjusting for covariates, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum irisin level was independently and significantly associated with total cholesterol (p=0.0005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.0014), fasting fatty acids (p=0.0402) and uric acid (p=0.0062). By dividing the serum irisin levels into three tertile group, the values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting fatty acids and uric acid were all increased significantly with the increase of irisin (p<0.05) . Moreover, serum irisin levels remain closely related to total cholesterol in both normal weight and overweight/obese subgroups. Our study suggests that circulating irisin concentrations are significantly associated with lipid and uric acid metabolism in a Chinese population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum uric acid levels and long-term outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Tokiko; Mochizuki, Toshio; Takei, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2014-07-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but data regarding the relationship between serum uric acid levels and the long-term outcomes of CKD patients have been limited. The present study evaluated the associations between baseline serum uric acid levels with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The subjects of this study were 551 stage 2-4 CKD patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid tertiles and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and development of ESRD, initially without adjustment, and then after adjusting for several groups of covariates. The mean age of the study subjects was 58.5 years, 59.3 % were men, and 10.0 % had diabetes. The mean eGFR was 42.02 ± 18.52 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In all subjects, the mean serum uric acid level was 6.57 ± 1.35 mg/dl, and 52.2 % of study subjects were on hypouricemic therapy (allopurinol; 48.3 %) at baseline. Thirty-one patients (6.1 %) died during a follow-up period of approximately 6 years. There was no significant association between serum uric acid level and all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR in the unadjusted Cox models. In the adjusted models, hyperuricemia was found to be associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality after adjustment with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol, but not associated with development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR. The results of this study showed that hyperuricemia but not serum uric acid levels were associated with all-cause mortality, CVD mortality after adjustments with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol in stage 2-4 CKD patients.

  2. Establishing tolerable dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and razor clam (Siliqua patula) domoic acid contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Mariën, K

    1996-11-01

    Domoic acid has been found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in Washington State and elsewhere on the West Coast of the United States. Due to toxic effects associated with domoic acid exposure, an effort has been made to establish tolerable domoic acid levels in crabs and clams obtained from commercial harvest and sale and from individual recreational harvesting. To accomplish this, the amount of clams and crabs consumed by populations of concern was determined, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) was developed for individuals most sensitive to effects of this compound, and the TDI was equated with consumption patterns to determine tolerable clam and crab domoic acid levels. Results indicate that the primary health effects associated with domoic acid toxicity can be averted in populations of concern and for others consuming crabs or clams less frequently (or in lesser quantity) if domoic acid contaminant concentration does not exceed 30 mg/kg in the hepatopancreas and viscera of dungeness crabs or 20 mg/kg in clams.

  3. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  4. The effect of amino acid deprivation on the transfer of iron through Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Guenievre; Stevens, Valerie; Cottin, Sarah; McArdle, Harry J

    2017-03-01

    Iron (Fe) metabolism is modified by many nutritional factors. Amino acids (AA) play a central role in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis and energy supply. However, the influence of AA status on iron metabolism has not been investigated. Here, we test whether AA alters iron metabolism in an intestinal cell model. Both Fe uptake and transfer across the cell monolayer were significantly increased by non-essential AA deficiency (both p<0.001) while only Fe transfer was increased by essential AA deficiency (p<0.0001). Both essential and non-essential AA deficiency decreased DMT1 (±IRE) exon1A mRNA expression (respectively p=0.0007 and p=0.006) and increased expression of ferritin heavy chain. DMT1+IRE (also expressing exon1A or 1B) mRNA levels were decreased by essential AA deficiency (p=0.012). The mRNA levels of total DMT1 were also decreased by essential, but not non-essential, AA deficiency (p=0.006). Hepcidin levels were increased significantly by non-essential amino acid deprivation (p=0.047). Protein levels of ferroportin and/or ferritin heavy chain were not altered by AA deficiency, suggesting that they had no effect on Fe efflux or storage in the cell, though iron content of ferritin could be increased. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that AA status affects iron transport and the expression of genes related to iron metabolism in Caco-2 cells, although the changes observed are not sufficient to explain the alteration in iron transport. We hypothesise that the effect on Fe transfer is mediated through an increased movement across the cell layer, rather than transfer across the cell membranes.

  5. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis.

  6. Effect of folic acid and zinc sulphate on endocrine parameters and seminal antioxidant level after varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Azizollahi, G H; Baneshi, M R; Safari, Z; Azizollahi, S

    2014-04-01

    Varicocele is among the most common problems which may lead to male infertility. Spermatogenesis is impaired as a consequence of this vascular defect, through mechanisms that are not well described. This study aimed to evaluate serum hormonal level (inhibin B, FSH and testosterone) and seminal plasma antioxidant defence levels after folic acid and zinc sulphate administration in varicocelectomised patients. Participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups. Our randomisation schedule was as follows: zinc sulphate/folic acid, folic acid, zinc sulphate and placebo. The patients underwent varicocelectomy, before which a blood and semen sample were obtained and also three and six months after varicocelectomy for evaluation of blood hormonal level (FSH, testosterone, inhibin B) and seminal oxidative stress status (nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity). Patients in different groups took orally one capsule per day after dinner following varicocelectomy for 6 months. A significant rise in peripheral blood inhibin B and seminal plasma activity was detected in the zinc sulphate/folic acid group after 6 months. The present clinical trial indicates a change in the hormonal status of varicocelectomised patients following long-term administration of zinc sulphate and folic acid.

  7. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  8. Stable Isotope Composition of Fatty Acids in Organisms of Different Trophic Levels in the Yenisei River

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Michail I.; Sushchik, Nadezhda N.; Kalachova, Galina S.; Makhutova, Olesia N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied four-link food chain, periphytic microalgae and water moss (producers), trichopteran larvae (consumers I), gammarids (omnivorous – consumers II) and Siberian grayling (consumers III) at a littoral site of the Yenisei River on the basis of three years monthly sampling. Analysis of bulk carbon stable isotopes and compound specific isotope analysis of fatty acids (FA) were done. As found, there was a gradual depletion in 13C contents of fatty acids, including essential FA upward the food chain. In all the trophic levels a parabolic dependence of δ13C values of fatty acids on their degree of unsaturation/chain length occurred, with 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in its lowest point. The pattern in the δ13C differences between individual fatty acids was quite similar to that reported in literature for marine pelagic food webs. Hypotheses on isotope fractionation were suggested to explain the findings. PMID:22470513

  9. Systems-level metabolic flux profiling identifies fatty acid synthesis as a target for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Joshua; Bennett, Bryson D; Parikh, Anuraag; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; McArdle, Jessica; Rabitz, Herschel A; Shenk, Thomas; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Viruses rely on the metabolic network of their cellular hosts to provide energy and building blocks for viral replication. We developed a flux measurement approach based on liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to quantify changes in metabolic activity induced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This approach reliably elucidated fluxes in cultured mammalian cells by monitoring metabolome labeling kinetics after feeding cells 13C-labeled forms of glucose and glutamine. Infection with HCMV markedly upregulated flux through much of the central carbon metabolism, including glycolysis. Particularly notable increases occurred in flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its efflux to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis suppressed the replication of both HCMV and influenza A, another enveloped virus. These results show that fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of two divergent enveloped viruses and that systems-level metabolic flux profiling can identify metabolic targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:18820684

  10. [Ecogenetic aspects of the study of phenotypes and levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion].

    PubMed

    Spitsyn, V A; Afanas'eva, I S; Alekseeva, N V

    1993-11-01

    The levels of excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) in urea were examined in five groups. The distribution of BAIB concentration revealed the existence of high and low excretors in each group. Asbestosis patients had the lowest frequency of high excretors. The BAIB concentration among high excretors was similar for all the groups. The BAIB levels of low excretors varied. The most alike were two children groups, asbestosis patients and the workers from the town Asbest.

  11. Is increased arachidonic acid release a cause or a consequence of replicative senescence?

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, A; Hrelia, S; Bordoni, A; Biagi, P; Frisoni, L; Marinucci, T; Cristofalo, V J

    2001-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) has been related to both stimulation and inhibition of cellular proliferation. During replicative senescence of human fibroblasts, increased levels of AA have been thought to play a causal role in the limited proliferative capacity of the cells. To clarify the role of AA in the proliferation of normal fibroblasts and in cellular senescence, we examined uptake from and release of AA into the culture media and its effects on DNA synthesis. Our results indicate that some aspects of AA metabolism in normal human fibroblasts aged in culture are significantly different in comparison to early passage cells. Particularly, AA release following different mitogenic stimulation is higher in senescent than in young cells. Notwithstanding this significant difference, AA, at the concentration used, has no inhibitory effect on fibroblast DNA synthesis. Moreover AA and prostaglandins are responsible for the proliferative block in neither senescent cells nor mediate ceramide inhibition of DNA synthesis. So our results suggest that the increasing AA release is not causal, but rather the result of in vitro aging.

  12. Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Le; Huang, Yue-Hui; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Peng; He, Meng-Jie; Huang, Xin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-11-15

    Urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs), such as dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), have been suggested as potential biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, variable exposure to and the short elimination half-lives of these biomarkers can result in considerable variability in urinary measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Here we examined the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among eleven men who provided urine samples on 8 days over 3 months. The urinary concentrations of DCAA and TCAA were measured by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize the within-person and between-person variances and computed the sensitivity and specificity to assess how well single or multiple urine collections accurately determined personal 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels. The within-person variance was much higher than the between-person variance for all three sample types (spot, first morning, and 24-h urine samples) for DCAA (ICC=0.08–0.37) and TCAA (ICC=0.09–0.23), regardless of the sampling interval. A single-spot urinary sample predicted high (top 33%) 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels with high specificity (0.79 and 0.78, respectively) but relatively low sensitivity (0.47 and 0.50, respectively). Collecting two or three urine samples from each participant improved the classification. The poor reproducibility of the measured urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations indicate that a single measurement may not accurately reflect individual long-term exposure. Collection of multiple urine samples from one person is an option for reducing exposure classification errors in studies exploring the effects of DBP exposure on reproductive health. - Highlights: • We evaluated the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among men. • Urinary DCAA and TCAA levels varied greatly over a 3-month

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced P-450 mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in chick embryo liver (CEL) occurs in parenchymal cells (PC) rather than in non-parenchymal cells (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, L.; Rifkind, A.B. )

    1992-02-26

    TCDD induces cytochrome P-450 mediated AA metabolism in CEL and changes the dominant metabolite(s) from {omega}-OH AA to AA epoxygenase products (EETs and EET-diols). PC and NPC from CEL were separated by differential centrifugation and characterized by morphology, immunohistochemistry and P-450 mediated xenobiotic metabolism; purities were >95%. PC and NPC, from 16 day old chick embryos treated for 5 days with TCDD or vehicle alone, were cultured for 48 hr, homogenized and incubated with ({sup 14}C)-AA {plus minus} NADPH. AA products were resolved by reverse phase HPLC. The major product in control PC, {omega}-OH AA was not significantly affected by TCDD. All of the AA metabolism was NADPH dependent. Control and TCDD treated PC had the same metabolite patterns as whole liver microsomes. Neither control nor TCDD treated NPC generated P-450 AA metabolites. Also co-culturing NPC with PC did not affect AA metabolism of either cell type. The findings indicate that TCDD-induced changes in AA metabolism are retained in culture and that hepatocytes rather than NPC effect P-450 mediated AA metabolism in both control and TCDD-induced CEL.

  14. The TOC159 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates altered levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Fry, Morgan; Workman, Samantha

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated whether the TOC159 mutant of Arabidopsis called plastid protein import 2-2 (ppi2-2) accumulates normal levels of fatty acids, and transcripts of fatty acid desaturases and galactolipid synthesis enzymes. The ppi2-2 mutant accumulates decreased pigments and total fatty acid content. The MGD1 gene was downregulated and the mutant accumulates decreased levels of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and 16:3, which suggests that the prokaryotic pathway was impaired in the mutant. The HY5 gene, which encodes long hypocotyl5 transcription factor, was upregulated in the mutant. The DGD1 gene, an HY5 target was marginally increased and the mutant accumulates digalactosyldiacylglycerol at the control level. The mutant had increased expression of 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II gene, which encodes a plastid enzyme that elongates 16:0 to 18:0. Interestingly, glycerolipids in the mutant accumulate increased levels of 18:0. A gene that encodes stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) was expressed at the control level and 18:1 was increased, which suggest that SAD may be strongly regulated at the posttranscriptional level. The molar ratio of MGDG to bilayer forming plastid lipids was decreased in the cold-acclimated wild type but not in the ppi2-2 mutant. This indicates that the mutant was unresponsive to cold-stress, and is consistent with increased levels of 18:0, and decreased 16:3 and 18:3 in the ppi2-2 mutant. Overall, these data indicate that a defective Toc159 receptor impaired the synthesis of MGDG, and affected desaturation of 16 and 18-carbon fatty acids. We conclude that expression of the MGD1 gene and synthesis of MGDG are tightly linked to plastid biogenesis.

  15. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  16. The 9aaTAD Transactivation Domains: From Gal4 to p53

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Marek; Rezacova, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The family of the Nine amino acid Transactivation Domain, 9aaTAD family, comprises currently over 40 members. The 9aaTAD domains are universally recognized by the transcriptional machinery from yeast to man. We had identified the 9aaTAD domains in the p53, Msn2, Pdr1 and B42 activators by our prediction algorithm. In this study, their competence to activate transcription as small peptides was proven. Not surprisingly, we elicited immense 9aaTAD divergence in hundreds of identified orthologs and numerous examples of the 9aaTAD species' convergence. We found unforeseen similarity of the mammalian p53 with yeast Gal4 9aaTAD domains. Furthermore, we identified artificial 9aaTAD domains generated accidentally by others. From an evolutionary perspective, the observed easiness to generate 9aaTAD transactivation domains indicates the natural advantage for spontaneous generation of transcription factors from DNA binding precursors. PMID:27618436

  17. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  18. Effect of excitatory amino acids on serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, M; Durán, R; Arufe, M C

    2000-01-01

    The actions of glutamate (L-Glu), and glutamate receptor agonists on serum thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and TSH levels have been studied in conscious and freely moving adult male rats. The excitatory amino acids (EAA), L-Glu, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainic acid (KA) and domoic acid (Dom) were administered intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected through a cannula implanted in the rats jugular 0--60 min after injection. Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that L-Glu (20 and 25 mg/kg) and NMDA (25 mg/kg) increased serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations. Serum thyroid hormone levels increased 30 min after treatment, while serum TSH levels increased 5 min after i.p. administration, in both cases serum levels remained elevated during one hour. Injection of the non-NMDA glutamatergic agonists KA (30 mg/kg) and Dom (1 mg/kg) produced an increase in serum thyroid hormones and TSH levels. These results suggest the importance of EAAs in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as the importance of the NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in this stimulatory effect.

  19. The five glucose-6-phosphatase paralogous genes are differentially regulated by insulin alone or combined with high level of amino acids and/or glucose in trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lucie, Marandel; Weiwei, Dai; Stéphane, Panserat; Sandrine, Skiba-Cassy

    2016-04-01

    A recent analysis of the newly sequenced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome suggested that duplicated gluconeogenic g6pc paralogues, fixed in this genome after the salmonid-specific 4th whole genome duplication, may have a role in the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in this carnivorous species. This should be due to the sub- or neo-functionalization of their regulation. In the present short communication we thus addressed the question of the regulation of these genes by insulin, hormone involved in the glucose homeostasis, and its interaction with glucose and amino acids in vitro. The stimulation of trout hepatocytes with insulin revealed an atypical up-regulation of g6pcb2 ohnologues and confirmed the sub- or neo-functionalization of the five g6pc genes at least at the regulatory level. Intriguingly, when hepatocytes were cultured with high levels of glucose and/or AAs in presence of insulin, most of the g6pc paralogues were up-regulated. It strongly suggested a cross-talk between insulin and nutrients for the regulation of these genes. Moreover these results strengthened the idea that g6pc duplicated genes may significantly contribute to the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout via their atypical regulation by insulin alone or in interaction with nutrients. These findings open new perspectives to better understand in vivo glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet.

  20. Arachidonic acid has protective effects on oxygen-glucose deprived astrocytes mediated through enhancement of potassium channel TREK-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Zhang, Guangru; Song, Chunli; Wang, Xuexi; Qian, Weina; Wang, Zhuanling; Liu, Yanan; Gong, Sheng; Zhou, Shuning

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain diseases. The newly discovered potassium channel "TREK-1" is a promising target for therapies against neurodegeneration. Arachidonic acid (AA) is an n-6 PUFA, as well as a potent TREK-1 activator. We previously showed that TREK-1 is expressed at high levels in astrocytes. However, the effect of AA on astrocytes in ischemia remains unknown. Here, we assessed the effects of 3-30μM AA on astrocyte apoptosis, glutamate uptake, and expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and TREK-1 under different conditions. Under normal conditions, 3-30μM AA showed no effect on astrocytic apoptosis or TREK-1 expression, whereas glutamate uptake decreased significantly and its change paralleled the decreased expression of GLT-1. When astrocytes were subjected to 4h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), 10μM AA markedly alleviated OGD-induced cell death, recovering from 63.50±1.90% to 82.96±4.63% of the control value. AA also rescued the decreased glutamate uptake and increased mRNA, as well as protein levels of GLT-1 and TREK-1. Our results provide new evidence of a protective effect of AA on astrocytes under OGD conditions, suggesting that a low concentration of AA may protect against brain ischemic diseases.

  1. The AAS Workforce Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Norman, D. J.; Evans, N. R.; Ivie, R.

    2014-01-01

    The AAS Demographics Committee, on behalf of the AAS, was tasked with initiating a biennial survey to improve the Society's ability to serve its members and to inform the community about changes in the community's demographics. A survey, based in part on similar surveys for other scientific societies, was developed in the summer of 2012 and was publicly launched in January 2013. The survey randomly targeted 2500 astronomers who are members of the AAS. The survey was closed 4 months later (April 2013). The response rate was excellent - 63% (1583 people) completed the survey. I will summarize the results from this survey, highlighting key results and plans for their broad dissemination.

  2. Vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid levels in patients with neural crest tumor: 24-hour urine collection versus random sample.

    PubMed

    Gregianin, L J; McGill, A C; Pinheiro, C M; Brunetto, A L

    1997-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and is the most frequent neural crest tumor (NCT). More than 90% of the patients excrete high levels of vanilmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the urine. Original biochemical methods for measuring these two metabolites of catecholamines employed a collection of urine for 24 hours to avoid errors related to circadian cycle variations. More recently, attempts have been made to replace the 24-hour collections by random samples (RSs). This has practical advantages particularly for young children. The objective of this study is to assess whether urinary VMA related to urinary creatinine levels can be determined reliably by the method of Pisano et al. from RSs in patients with NCT. The determination of the consumption of VMA in urine stored for prolonged periods of time was also studied. We found a good correlation between the values of metabolites of catecholamines in RSs compared with 24-hour urine collections. There was consumption of VMA in urine samples after storage. We conclude that determination of VMA in RSs of urine by Pisano's method may identify NCT production of catecholamines and that the consumption of these catecholamines is an important factor to consider in the interpretation of values obtained with stored urine specimens.

  3. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    many orbits has made it a powerhouse for learning about the temperatures, atmospheres, and orbits of exoplanets. The list of examples that Fazio provided included the first global temperature map of an exoplanet (HD 189733b), the detection of the closest transiting exoplanet (HD 219134b), and the measurement of thermal emission from a super-Earth (55 Cnc e). Spitzers large distance from the Earth (specifically, the ground-based telescopes on Earth) even allowed astronomers to observe an exoplanet via gravitational microlensing using a special technique called space-based parallax.Spitzer has also been extremely useful for observing everything from Solar System scales (such as the enormous infrared dust ring around Saturn) to galactic structures. Comparing images of galaxies observed at visible wavelengths with Spitzer images of the same galaxies at infrared wavelengths has allowed us to probe the structure and composition of galaxies at a new level.Astronomers have also used Spitzer to explore the evolution of stars. Thanks to its infrared detectors, Spitzer can look through large clouds of dust that are opaque at visible wavelengths, and observe young stellar objects in their birth environments. Cosmologists can use Spitzer to study the early universe and the formation of galaxies over twelve billion years ago. Fazio used all of these examples and more to demonstrate that Spitzer has truly changed our understanding of the universe.Climate Change for Astronomers (Meredith Rawls)Every astronomer at #aas227 wants to learn about climate change! WOW this room is ridiculously full. pic.twitter.com/ud9an0gLJG Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 7, 2016The second half of the session was a presentation by Doug Duncan featuring an activity from his 101-level college course. He uses climate change as a way to teach critical thinking and scientific reasoning. Members of the audience were walked through an exercise that included interpreting plots of changing surface temperatures

  5. Serum uric acid levels contribute to new renal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Reátegui-Sokolova, C; Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Gamboa-Cárdenas, Rocío V; Zevallos, Francisco; Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M; Alfaro-Lozano, José L; Medina, Mariela; Rodriguez-Bellido, Zoila; Pastor-Asurza, Cesar A; Alarcón, Graciela S; Perich-Campos, Risto A

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine whether uric acid levels contribute to new renal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This prospective study was conducted in consecutive patients seen since 2012. Patients had a baseline visit and follow-up visits every 6 months. Patients with ≥2 visits were included; those with end-stage renal disease (regardless of dialysis or transplantation) were excluded. Renal damage was ascertained using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). Univariable and multivariable Cox-regression models were performed to determine the risk of new renal damage. Uric acid was included as a continuous and dichotomous (per receiving operating characteristic curve) variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for age at diagnosis, disease duration, socioeconomic status, SLEDAI, SDI, serum creatinine, baseline use of prednisone, antimalarials, and immunosuppressive drugs. One hundred and eighty-six patients were evaluated; their mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 36.8 (13.7) years; nearly all patients were mestizo. Disease duration was 7.7 (6.8) years. Follow-up time was 2.3 (1.1) years. The SLEDAI was 5.2 (4.3) and the SDI 0.8 (1.1). Uric acid levels were 4.5 (1.3) mg/dl. During follow-up, 16 (8.6%) patients developed at least one new point in the renal domain of the SDI. In multivariable analyses, uric acid levels (continuous and dichotomous) at baseline predicted the development of new renal damage (HR 3.21 (1.39-7.42), p 0.006; HR 18.28 (2.80-119.48), p 0.002; respectively). Higher uric acid levels contribute to the development of new renal damage in SLE patients independent of other well-known risk factors for such occurrence.

  6. Correlation between maternal and childhood VitB12, folic acid and ferritin levels

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Fatima; Bari, Attia; Farhan, Saima; Jabeen, Uzma; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between serum folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin of mother and child and to study various neonatal risk factors as a cause of anemia in children. Methods: One hundred eighty children two months to two years of age admitted in the department of Pediatric Medicine of The Children’s Hospital and The Institute of Child Health Lahore from January 2013 to January 2015 with common medical conditions having anemia were included. Complete blood count (CBC), serum ferritin level, folic acid and Vitamin (Vit) B12 level were sent of children and their mothers. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 180 children with anemia, 66.7% were males. Mean age of children was 7.3months. Fifty-five percent children were malnourished according to z scoring. The mean Hemoglobin (Hb) of children was 8 g/dl. Only 4% children had low ferritin level while 60% had low folic acid and 45% had decreased VitB12. There was significant correlation between Hb of mother and child (p =0.02), Vit B12 deficiency (p=0.008) and iron deficiency (p<0.001). Premature children had lower folic acid levels (p =0.02), while prematurity, IUGR, previous admission and history of sepsis showed no association with anemia in our study. Both breast-feeding and top feeding showed significant association with anemia with p-value of 0.042 and 0.003 respectively while dilution showed no impact on anemia. Conclusion: Maternal anemia has a significant impact on child’s hemoglobin. As compared to previous concept of increased iron deficiency in children we found increased occurrence of folic acid and VitB12 deficiency in children and their mothers. PMID:28367192

  7. Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naohiro; Okazaki, Mari; Xuan, Meiyan; Kamiuchi, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Hirokazu; Hibino, Yasuhide

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of ascorbic acid (AA) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We also evaluated the effects of AA on expression of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) after MCAO/Re in the brain. The diabetic state markedly aggravated MCAO/Re-induced cerebral damage, as assessed by infarct volume and edema. Pretreatment with AA (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for two weeks significantly suppressed the exacerbation of damage in the brain of diabetic rats. AA also suppressed the production of superoxide radical, activation of caspase-3, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in the ischemic penumbra. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that expression of SVCT2 was upregulated primarily in neurons and capillary endothelial cells after MCAO/Re in the nondiabetic cortex, accompanied by an increase in total AA (AA + dehydroascorbic acid) in the tissue, and that these responses were suppressed in the diabetic rats. AA supplementation to the diabetic rats restored these responses to the levels of the nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, AA markedly upregulated the basal expression of GLUT1 in endothelial cells of nondiabetic and diabetic cortex, which did not affect total AA levels in the cortex. These results suggest that daily intake of AA attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects via the improvement of augmented oxidative stress in the brain. AA supplementation may protect endothelial function against the exacerbated ischemic oxidative injury in the diabetic state and improve AA transport through SVCT2 in the cortex. PMID:24739976

  8. Fatty acid and prostaglandin metabolism in children with diabetes mellitus. II. The effect of evening primrose oil supplementation on serum fatty acid and plasma prostaglandin levels.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, M; Arisaka, O; Yamashiro, Y

    1991-07-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid in serum total lipids decreased in association with increased plasma levels of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this study, 11 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on serum essential fatty acid and plasma PGE2 and PGF2 alpha levels. GLA was given as the seed oil from the evening primrose (EPO) and all patients received either EPO capsules (containing 45 mg of GLA and 360 mg of linoleic acid) or indistinguishable placebo capsules for 8 months. Initially patients took 2 capsules daily for 4 months then 4 capsules daily for a further 4 months. All patients were assessed at the start of the study, after 4 months and at the end of the study, by measuring serum essential fatty acid and plasma PGE2 and PGF2 alpha levels. After administration of 4 capsules daily the DGLA levels increased and PGE2 levels decreased significantly (p less than 0.01) in the EPO compared with the placebo group. Neither fatty acid nor PGE2 and PGF2 alpha levels were altered by administration of 2 EPO capsules daily. This suggests that the altered essential fatty acid and PG metabolism in diabetes may be reversed by direct GLA supplementation.

  9. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gavin F; McNiven, Mary A; Petit, Hélène V; Duynisveld, John L

    2013-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 18 cows of 36 in the Flax group were switched to the soybean supplement and 18 cows of 36 in the Soybean group were switched to the flax supplement (start of Period 2). Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) in week 5 of period 2. The FA composition of the milk reflected the FA profile of the oilseed supplements. There were no differences in pregnancy rates among the 4 groups. The treatments had no effect on plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels or ratios at 4 to 11 d postpartum. At 5 to 6 d post- TAI, pregnant cows fed Flax in period 1 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma prostaglandin F metabolite (PGFM) levels and PGFM to prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) ratio than cows fed Soybean, but there were no significant differences at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. Cows pregnant from TAI and fed Flax in period 2 had higher (P < 0.05) serum progesterone levels at 5 to 6 d post-TAI than cows fed Soybean, but there was no difference at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. The dietary treatments had no effect on pregnancy rates, but there were some effects on plasma PGFM levels, PGFM to PGEM ratios, and serum progesterone levels. The FA supplements influenced the FA composition of milk.

  10. Meta-analysis of amino acid stable nitrogen isotope ratios for estimating trophic position in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens M; Popp, Brian N; Winder, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Estimating trophic structures is a common approach used to retrieve information regarding energy pathways, predation, and competition in complex ecosystems. The application of amino acid (AA) compound-specific nitrogen (N) isotope analysis (CSIA) is a relatively new method used to estimate trophic position (TP) and feeding relationships in diverse organisms. Here, we conducted the first meta-analysis of δ(15)N AA values from measurements of 359 marine species covering four trophic levels, and compared TP estimates from AA-CSIA to literature values derived from food items, gut or stomach content analysis. We tested whether the AA trophic enrichment factor (TEF), or the (15)N enrichment among different individual AAs is constant across trophic levels and whether inclusion of δ(15)N values from multiple AAs improves TP estimation. For the TEF of glutamic acid relative to phenylalanine (Phe) we found an average value of 6.6‰ across all taxa, which is significantly lower than the commonly applied 7.6‰. We found that organism feeding ecology influences TEF values of several trophic AAs relative to Phe, with significantly higher TEF values for herbivores compared to omnivores and carnivores, while TEF values were also significantly lower for animals excreting urea compared to ammonium. Based on the comparison of multiple model structures using the metadata of δ(15)N AA values we show that increasing the number of AAs in principle improves precision in TP estimation. This meta-analysis clarifies the advantages and limitations of using individual δ(15)N AA values as tools in trophic ecology and provides a guideline for the future application of AA-CSIA to food web studies.

  11. Arachidonic acid stimulates glucose uptake in cerebral cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, N; Martin, J L; Stella, N; Magistretti, P J

    1993-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) has recently been shown to influence various cellular functions in the central nervous system. Here we report that AA increases, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H]glucose ([3H]2DG) uptake in primary cultures of astrocytes prepared from the cerebral cortex of neonatal mice. This effect is mimicked by an unsaturated fatty acid such as linolenic acid, while palmitic and arachidic acids, two saturated fatty acids, are inactive. Pharmacological agents that increase the endogenous levels of AA by stimulating AA release (melittin) or by inhibiting its reacylation (thimerosal) also promote [3H]2DG uptake by astrocytes. We also report that norepinephrine (NE) stimulates the release of [3H]AA from membrane phospholipids, with an EC50 of 3 microM; this effect is accompanied, with a temporal delay of approximately 4 min, by the stimulation of [3H]2DG uptake, for which the EC50 of NE is 1 microM. Since the cerebral cortex, the brain region from which astrocytes used in this study were prepared, receives a massive noradrenergic innervation, originating from the locus coeruleus, the effects of NE reported here further stress the notion that certain neurotransmitters may play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism in the cerebral cortex and point at astrocytes as the likely targets of such metabolic effects. PMID:8483920

  12. AAS 228: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  13. AAS 227: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  14. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission.

  15. Low ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in gulo−/− mice during development

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Fiona E.; Meredith, M. Elizabeth; Dawes, Sean M.; Saskowski, Jeanette L.; May, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) depletion during pre-natal and post-natal development can lead to oxidative stress in the developing brains and other organs. Such damage may lead to irreversible effects on later brain function. We studied the relationship between AA deficiency and oxidative stress during development in gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) knockout mice that are unable to synthesize their own ascorbic acid. Heterozygous gulo(+/−) mice can synthesize AA and typically have similar tissue levels to wild-type mice. Gulo(+/−) dams were mated with gulo(+/−) males to provide offspring of each possible genotype. Overall, embryonic day 20 (E20) and post-natal day 1 (P1) pups were protected against oxidative stress by sufficient AA transfer during pregnancy. On post-natal day 10 (P10) AA levels were dramatically lower in liver and cerebellum in gulo (−/−) mice and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased. In post-natal day 18 pups (P18) AA levels decreased further in gulo(−/−) mice and oxidative stress was observed in the accompanying elevations in MDA in liver, and F2-isoprostanes in cortex. Further, total glutathione levels were higher in gulo(−/−) mice in cortex, cerebellum and liver, indicating that a compensatory antioxidant system was activated. These data show a direct relationship between AA level and oxidative stress in the gulo(−/−) mice. They reinforce the critical role of ascorbic acid in preventing oxidative stress in the developing brain in animals that, like humans, cannot synthesize their own AA. PMID:20599829

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Lipka, Alexander E.; Deason, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Buell, Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three of the nine essential amino acids in human and animal diets and are important for numerous processes in development and growth. However, seed BCAA levels in major crops are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, making genetic improvement for increased and balanced seed BCAAs an important nutritional target. Addressing this issue requires a better understanding of the genetics underlying seed BCAA content and composition. Here, a genome-wide association study and haplotype analysis for seed BCAA traits in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a strong association with a chromosomal interval containing two BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASES, BCAT1 and BCAT2. Linkage analysis, reverse genetic approaches, and molecular complementation analysis demonstrated that allelic variation at BCAT2 is responsible for the natural variation of seed BCAAs in this interval. Complementation analysis of a bcat2 null mutant with two significantly different alleles from accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara is consistent with BCAT2 contributing to natural variation in BCAA levels, glutamate recycling, and free amino acid homeostasis in seeds in an allele-dependent manner. The seed-specific phenotype of bcat2 null alleles, its strong transcription induction during late seed development, and its subcellular localization to the mitochondria are consistent with a unique, catabolic role for BCAT2 in BCAA metabolism in seeds. PMID:24368787

  17. [Pantothenic acid levels in blood of athletes at rest and after aerobic exercise].

    PubMed

    Rokitzki, L; Sagredos, A; Reuss, F; Petersen, G; Keul, J

    1993-12-01

    Ninety-six high-performance athletes of various disciplines were available for this investigation. All athletes had many years of training and competition experience. The pantothenic acid contents in the blood were determined by means of microbiological measurements. In addition to the pantothenic acid level at rest, measurements were made resp. physical exertion in 14 marathon runners and nine body builders. Blood was collected for determination of pantothenic acid before (a), after (b) and 2 h after exercise. Compared to the reference values for untrained persons (1.34 +/- 0.13 nmol/mL), the marathon runners with 0.76 (0.31-0.94) nmol/mL and soccer players with 1.19 (0.37-2.64) nmol/mL were below the reference values. According to relative frequencies, more than 30% of all athletes were below the lower limit (< 1.20 nmol/mL). The values in body builders/racing cyclists differed significantly from those in marathon racers (p < 0.001), which is presumably due to unallowed supplementation. During exercise, there was a significant increase in the pantothenic acid level in marathon runners (p < 0.01).

  18. [A case of megaloblastic anemia with abnormally high urine level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid].

    PubMed

    Konjiki, O; Yoneda, Y; Sato, Y; Oosawa, Y; Imamura, T; Takasaki, M

    1993-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with anemia and jaundice. Hematological studies revealed hyperchromic macrocytic anemia, and biochemical studies revealed findings of hemolysis. The folic acid level was low and megaloblasts were observed in the bone marrow. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency. This patient had been a heavy alcohol drinker in the habit of drinking alcohol without meals. He began to eat regular meals in the hospital, and the anemia and jaundice improved gradually. Since liver cirrhosis was suspected, amino acid analysis of the urine was performed, and abnormal excretion of beta-amino-isobutyric acid (BAIB) was found. According to the amount of BAIB excreted, the Japanese population can be divided into low and high BAIB excretors comprising 65% and 36%, respectively. BAIB is also considered to reflect dissimilation of thymine. The present patient was included in the high excretion group because of the abnormally high urine level of BAIB, which was considered to be caused by ineffective hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as a result of his megaloblastic anemia. For this reason, dissimilation of thymine was considered to have been active in this patient.

  19. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  20. Abscisic Acid Levels during Early Seed Development in Sechium edule Sw

    PubMed Central

    Vernieri, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico; Lorenzi, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Nello

    1989-01-01

    The time-course growth of single tissues in pollinated and unpollinated ovules of Sechium edule Sw. is described in relation to the endogenous levels of abscisic acid. Quantitation of abscisic acid (ABA) in the minute amounts of material obtained after ovule dissection has been performed by using a highly specific and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody raised against free (S)-ABA. While the absolute amount of ABA rises in both types of ovules, only in unpollinated ones does this leads to an increase in the hormone concentration. Infact in pollinated ovules the rapid growth following pollination prevents, through a dilution effect, the increase in ABA concentration. Growth patterns and endogenous ABA levels are similar for integuments and nucellus tissues either in pollinated or unpollinated ovules. It is suggested that the growth inhibition induced by the increase in ABA concentration after anthesis could be counteracted by the pollination triggered fast ovule growth. PMID:16667185

  1. Membrane Level of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Associated with Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ladesich, James B.; Pottala, James V.; Romaker, Ann; Harris, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major component of neural tissues, and supplementation with fish oils improves autonomic tone and reduces risk for CVD. A link between low DHA status and less mature sleep patterns was observed in newborns. Methods: We investigated the relations between red blood cell (RBC) levels of DHA and OSA severity in 350 sequential patients undergoing sleep studies. Severity categories were defined as none/mild, moderate, and severe, based on apnea hypopnea index (AHI) scores of 0 to 14, 15 to 34, and > 34, respectively. Results: After controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, BMI, alcohol intake, fish intake, and omega-3 supplementation, RBC DHA was inversely related with OSA severity. For each 1-SD increase in DHA levels, a patient was about 50% less likely to be classified with severe OSA. The odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.47 (0.28 to 0.80) and 0.55 (0.31 to 0.99) for being in the severe group versus the none/mild or moderate groups, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that disordered membrane fatty acid patterns may play a causal role in OSA and that the assessment of RBC DHA levels might help in the diagnosis of OSA. The effects of DHA supplementation on OSA should be explored. Citation: Ladesich JB; Pottala JV; Romaker A; Harris WS. Membrane level of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):391-396. PMID:21897776

  2. Lamotrigine, carbamazepine and phenytoin differentially alter extracellular levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shagufta; Fowler, Leslie J; Whitton, Peter S

    2005-02-01

    We have studied the effects of treatment with the anticonvulsants lamotrigine (LTG), phenytoin (PHN) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on basal and stimulated extracellular aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), taurine (TAU), GABA, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the hippocampus of freely moving rats using microdialysis. All of the drugs investigated have had inhibition of Na(+) channel activity implicated as their principal mechanism of action. Neither LTG (10-20 mg/kg), PHN (20-40 mg/kg) or CBZ (10-20 mg/kg) had an effect on the basal extracellular concentrations of any of the amino acids studied with the exception of glutamate, which was decreased at the highest LTG dose. However, when amino acid transmitter levels were increased with 50 microM veratridine, LTG was found to cause a dose-dependent decrease in dialysate levels of all four amino acids, with the effect being most pronounced for glutamate. In contrast, PHN decreased extracellular aspartate levels but had no effect on evoked-extracellular GLU, TAU or GABA. Somewhat unexpectedly, CBZ did not alter the stimulated increase in the excitatory amino acids, GLU and ASP, but, rather surprisingly for an antiepileptic drug, markedly decreased that of the inhibitory substances TAU and GABA. The three drugs had differing effects on basal extracellular 5-HT and DA. LTG caused a dose-dependent decrease in both, while CBZ and PHN both increased extracellular 5-HT and DA. When extracellular 5-HT and DA was evoked by veratridine LTG had no significant effect on this, while PHN but not CBZ increased stimulated extracellular 5-HT and both PHN and CBZ augmented DA. Thus, the effects of the three drugs studied seemed to depend on whether extracellular transmitter levels are evoked or basal and the particular transmitter in question. This suggests that there are marked differences in the neurochemical mechanisms of antiepileptic drug action of the three compounds studied.

  3. [Aristolochic acid nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Witkowicz, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy is a chronic, fibrosing, interstitial nephritis caused by aristolochic acid (AA), which is a component of the plants of Aristolochiacae family. It was first reported in 1993, in Belgium as a Chinese herb nephropathy, in patients who received a slimming regimen containing AA. The term aristolochic acid nephropathy also includes Balcan endemic nephropathy and other endemic tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Moreover, AA is a human carcinogen which induces urothelial cancer. The AA-containing herbs are banned in many countries and FDA published the warnings concerning the safety of AA-containing botanical remedies in 2000. Regarding the increasing interest in herbal medicines, uncontrolled access to botanical remedies and replacement of one herb by another AA-containing compounds makes thousands of people all around the world at risk of this grave disease.

  4. The influence of dietary manipulation with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on liver and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Nassar, B A; Huang, Y S; Manku, M S; Das, U N; Morse, N; Horrobin, D F

    1986-10-01

    The interrelations between linoleic acid (LA) metabolites and fish oil fatty acids were studied. Sprague-Dawley rats (200-220 g) were fed a fat-free semisynthetic diet supplemented with 10% (by weight) of different combinations of evening primrose oil (EPO), a rich source of LA and gamma-linolenic acid, and polepa (POL), a marine oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. The combinations of supplement were as follows: 9% EPO-1% POL, 8% EPO-2% POL, 7% EPO-3% POL, 6% EPO-4% POL and 5% EPO-5% POL. After two weeks on the respective diets, the animals were killed, and the fatty acid compositions of liver and plasma phospholipids were examined. The results showed that animals fed higher proportions of POL consistently contained higher levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) (p less than 0.05), a metabolite of LA and GLA, and lower levels of arachidonic acid (AA) (p less than 0.01), a metabolite of DGLA through delta-5-desaturation. Thus, an inverse relationship between AA/DGLA ratio and EPA levels was found to exist (r = -0.765 in plasma and -0.792 in liver). However, there was no such relationship between AA/DGLA ratio and DHA levels. This result suggested that EPA but not DHA in fish oil exerts an inhibitory effect on the conversion of DGLA to AA.

  5. Normal level of sepsis-associated phenylcarboxylic acids in human serum.

    PubMed

    Beloborodova, N V; Moroz, V V; Osipov, A A; Bedova, A Yu; Olenin, A Yu; Getsina, M L; Karpova, O V; Olenina, E G

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that large amounts of phenylcarboxylic acids (PhCAs) are accumulated in a septic patient's blood due to increased endogenous and microbial phenylalanine and tyrosine biotransformation. Frequently, biochemical aromatic amino acid transformation into PhCAs is considered functionally insignificant for people without monogenetic hereditary diseases. The blood of healthy people contains the same PhCAs that are typical for septic patients as shown in this paper. The overall serum PhCAs level was 6 µM on average as measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This level is a stable biochemical parameter indicating the normal metabolism of aromatic amino acids. The concentrations of PhCAs in the metabolic profile of healthy people are distributed as follows: phenylacetic ≈ p-hydroxyphenyllactic > p-hydroxyphenylacetic > phenyllactic ≈ phenylpropionic > benzoic. We conclude that maintaining of stable PhCAs level in the serum is provided as the result of integration of human endogenous metabolic pathways and microbiota.

  6. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  7. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Uche, Ebele; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects.

  8. The multiplicity of spinal AA-5-HT anti-nociceptive action in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Malek, Natalia; Kostrzewa, Magdalena; Makuch, Wioletta; Pajak, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable evidence to support the role of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors, in neuropathic pain modulation. AEA also produces effects mediated by other biological targets, of which the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been the most investigated. Both, inhibition of AEA breakdown by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and blockage of TRPV1 have been shown to produce anti-nociceptive effects. Recent research suggests the usefulness of dual-action compounds, which may afford greater anti-allodynic efficacy. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), a blocker of FAAH and TRPV1, in a rat model of neuropathic pain after intrathecal administration. We found that treatment with AA-5-HT increased the pain threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, with highest effect at the dose of 500nM, which was most strongly attenuated by AM-630, CB2 antagonist, administration. The single action blockers PF-3845 (1000nM, for FAAH) and I-RTX (1nM, for TRPV1) showed lower efficacy than AA-5-HT. Moreover AA-5-HT (500nM) elevated AEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) levels. Among the possible targets of these mediators, only the mRNA levels of CB2, GPR18 and GPR55, which are believed to be novel cannabinoid receptors, were upregulated in the spinal cord and/or DRG of CCI rats. It was previously reported that AA-5-HT acts in CB1 and TRPV1-dependent manner after systemic administration, but here for the first time we show that AA-5-HT action at the spinal level involves CB2, with potential contributions from GRP18 and/or GPR55 receptors.

  9. The toc132toc120 heterozygote mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates reduced levels of hexadecatrienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Duffield-Duncan, Kayla; Fry, Morgan; Workman, Samantha; Hum-Musser, Sue; Hildebrand, David

    2015-11-01

    A null and heterozygous mutant for the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC132 and TOC120 genes accumulates increased levels of 16:0 and decreased 16:3, suggesting altered homeostasis in fatty acid synthesis. The FAD5 gene encodes a plastid desaturase that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of 16:3 in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). In non-acclimated toc132toc120+/- mutant plants, the FAD5 gene was repressed and this correlated with decreased levels of 16:3. In cold-acclimated mutant however, the FAD5 gene was upregulated and there was a small increase in 16:3 levels relative to the non-acclimated mutant plants. The MGD1 gene was expressed at control levels and the mutant accumulated levels of MGDG that were similar to the wild type. In the mutant however, MGDG had decreased 16:3 levels, suggesting that the activity of FAD5 desaturase was compromised. In the mutant, the FAD2 and FAD3 genes were downregulated but levels of 18:3-PC were increased, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation for the ER-localized fatty acid desaturases. The Toc120 or Toc159 receptor is likely to compensate for a defective Toc132 receptor. In the cold-acclimated mutant, the TOC159 gene was repressed ca. 300-fold, whereas the TOC120 gene was repressed 7-fold relative to the non-acclimated wild type. Thus, the TOC159 gene is more sensitive to cold-stress and might not compensate for defect in the TOC132 gene under these conditions. Overall, these data show that a mutation in the TOC132 gene results in decreased 16:3 levels, indicating the need for an intact Toc132/Toc120 receptor, presumably to facilitate the import of the FAD5 preprotein into chloroplasts.

  10. Influence of age, dietary cholic acid, and calcium levels on performance, utilization of free fatty acids, and bone mineralization in broilers.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Leeson, S

    1985-10-01

    The effects of age on the utilization of dietary palmitic or a 50/50 mixture of palmitic and oleic acid at the 8% inclusion level in the absence or presence of .2% cholic acid and also in the presence of low (.8%) or high (1.2%) calcium were investigated using broiler chicks from 1 to 56 days of age. Significant interactions (P less than .01) were observed between the type of fatty acid supplemented and the presence or absence of cholic acid on weight gain and feed efficiency. Supplementing diets with a mixture of equal weights of palmitic and oleic acid, reduced feed intake relative to control diets and diets supplemented with palmitic acid alone. There was an interaction between the age of the bird and the type of fatty acid supplemented on fat retention and metabolizable energy (ME) of diets (P less than .01). There was also a significant interaction between the type of fatty acid supplemented and the addition of cholic acid on fat retention and ME of diets. While cholic acid reduced soap formation during the process of digestion (P less than .05), increasing dietary calcium level increased the proportion of the digesta fat that was present as soap (P less than .01). The proportion of digesta and excreta fat, present as soap, depended on the type of fatty acid supplemented. The addition of free fatty acids to broiler diets resulted in a decrease in bone ash and bone calcium content relative to those birds fed the control diet. It is concluded that the ability of broilers to utilize dietary free fatty acids depends on the age at which they are fed, although in all cases supplemental cholic acid enhances fatty acid utilization.

  11. Elevation of cellular NAD levels by nicotinic acid and involvement of nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Nobumasa; Yamada, Kazuo; Shibata, Tomoko; Osago, Harumi; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2007-08-24

    NAD plays critical roles in various biological processes through the function of SIRT1. Although classical studies in mammals showed that nicotinic acid (NA) is a better precursor than nicotinamide (Nam) in elevating tissue NAD levels, molecular details of NAD synthesis from NA remain largely unknown. We here identified NA phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) in humans and provided direct evidence of tight link between NAPRT and the increase in cellular NAD levels. The enzyme was abundantly expressed in the small intestine, liver, and kidney in mice and mediated [(14)C]NAD synthesis from [(14)C]NA in human cells. In cells expressing endogenous NAPRT, the addition of NA but not Nam almost doubled cellular NAD contents and decreased cytotoxicity by H(2)O(2). Both effects were reversed by knockdown of NAPRT expression. These results indicate that NAPRT is essential for NA to increase cellular NAD levels and, thus, to prevent oxidative stress of the cells. Kinetic analyses revealed that NAPRT, but not Nam phosphoribosyltransferase (NamPRT, also known as pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin), is insensitive to the physiological concentration of NAD. Together, we conclude that NA elevates cellular NAD levels through NAPRT function and, thus, protects the cells against stress, partly due to lack of feedback inhibition of NAPRT but not NamPRT by NAD. The ability of NA to increase cellular NAD contents may account for some of the clinically observed effects of the vitamin and further implies a novel application of the vitamin to treat diseases such as those associated with the depletion of cellular NAD pools.

  12. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway.

  13. Prooxidant versus antioxidant brain action of ascorbic acid in well-nourished and malnourished rats as a function of dose: a cortical spreading depression and malondialdehyde analysis.

    PubMed

    Mendes-da-Silva, Rosângela Figueiredo; Lopes-de-Morais, Andréia Albuquerque Cunha; Bandim-da-Silva, Maria Eduarda; Cavalcanti, Gabriela de Araujo; Rodrigues, Ana Rafaela Oliveira; Andrade-da-Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Although ascorbic acid (AA) is an antioxidant, under certain conditions it can facilitate oxidation, which may underlie the opposite actions of AA on brain excitability in distinct seizure models. Here, we investigated whether chronic AA administration during brain development alters cortical excitability as a function of AA dose, as indexed by cortical spreading depression (CSD) and by the levels of lipid peroxidation-induced malondialdehyde. Well-nourished and early-malnourished rats received per gavage 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg/d of AA, saline, or no gavage treatment (naïve group) at postnatal days 7-28. CSD propagation and malondialdehyde levels were analyzed at 30-40 days. Confirming previous observations, CSD velocities were significantly higher in the early-malnourished groups than in the well-nourished groups. AA dose was important: 30 mg/kg/d AA decelerated CSD and reduced malondialdehyde levels, whereas 60 mg/kg/d and 120 mg/kg/d accelerated CSD and augmented malondialdehyde levels compared with the corresponding saline and naïve groups. Our findings reinforce previous suggestion that AA acts as an antioxidant in the brain when administered at low doses, but as a prooxidant at high doses, as indicated by CSD propagation and malondialdehyde levels.

  14. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  15. Para- and Pre-Professionals in Student Development Services: Part Three. Training Paraprofessionals in Human Services at the AAS Degree Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, John C.

    This presentation describes a program being developed at South Plains College (SPC) of Lubbock to train paraprofessional helpers at the two-year degree level. As an interface between the training of helpers at the four-year and graduate degree levels of preparation and the non-degree or extra-degree level of preparation in the helping professions,…

  16. Uric acid plasma level and urine pH in rats treated with ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Drewa, Tomasz; Wolski, Zbigniew; Gruszka, Marzena; Misterek, Bartosz; Lysik, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    It was a chance discovery that ambroxol parenteral administration led to urinary bladder stone formation in rats. This study was undertaken to examine the serum uric acid levels and urine pH in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. Ambroxol influence on the uric acid level was measured in 5 rats (Rattus sp.) treated with 60 mg/kg (dissolved in injection water, sc, daily) during 2 weeks. Ambroxol influence on urine pH was examined on 45 rats divided into 3 groups. Rats from the 1st and 2nd group received 30 and 60 mg/kg/24h ambroxol, respectively. Urine was collected once daily and measured with strip kit. All values were presented as the means with standard deviations. The Student t test was used to compare the means, p < 0.05 was considered as significant. Dynamics of pH changes was measured in 4 rats treated with 60 mg/kg/24h of ambroxol. Controls received 1 mL of injection water sc. Serum uric acid level increased up to 8.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL vs. 5.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL in control (p < 0.002). In the 1st and 2nd group urine pH increased up to 7.5 +/- 0.5 and 7.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.4 (p < 0.05). Ambroxol withdrawal resulted in sequential urine pH decrease. 11 days after interruption of ambroxol therapy pH reached the starting value. Urine pH changes and possible disturbances in uric acid metabolic pathway may influence on the stone formation in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. The influence of ambroxol on urinary tract GAG layer and the balance between xanthine and CaOx in the urine should be checked.

  17. Effects of Uric Acid on Lipid Levels in CKD Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Shelmadine, Brian D.; Moreillon, Jennifer J.; Deike, Erika; Griggs, Jackson O.; Wilson, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have been conducted that compared lipid levels and uric acid in CKD or End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients with most using animal models. The purpose of the study was to explore effects on lipids while controlling uric acid levels in CKD patients. Methods Twenty-four CKD patients (N = 24) volunteered to participate in this study. The study was conducted using a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled experimental protocol. The experimental group was prescribed 300 mg of allopurinol PO daily by their treating physician and followed prospectively for 8-weeks. The control group consumed a similar pill once a day for 8-weeks. Results ANCOVA revealed significant differences in total cholesterol (P = 0.009) and Apo B (P = 0.006) with lower levels in the allopurinol group. A trend emerged with LDL (P = 0.052) with lower levels in the allopurinol group. No significant differences were discovered in triglycerides (P = 0.403), HDL (P = 0.762) and total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio (P = 0.455). Conclusions After statistically controlling for compliance and inflammation significant differences between groups were observed for total cholesterol and Apo B. In both instances the allopurinol group had lower concentrations than the placebo group. Similarly, a trend was observed in LDL with the allopurinol group having lower concentrations than the placebo group.

  18. Gallic acid induces HeLa cell death via increasing GSH depletion rather than ROS levels.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Gallic acid (GA; 3,4,5-triphydroxyl-benzoic acid) is widely dispersed in various plants, fruits and foods and it shows various biological properties including anticancer effects. This study investigated the effects of GA on HeLa cervical cancer cells in relation to cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). GA dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) at 24 or 72 h. The susceptibility of HeLa cells to GA was higher than that of HUVEC. GA induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, which was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ∆ψm). GA increased ROS levels including O2•- in HeLa cells at 24 h and it also induced GSH depletion. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) increased the growth inhibition of GA-treated HeLa cells and enhanced the death of these cells. NAC differently influenced ROS levels in GA-treated HeLa cells and significantly increased GSH depletion in these cells. L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) increased MMP (∆ψm) loss, ROS levels and GSH depletion in GA-treated HeLa cells. In conclusion, GA significantly inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. GA-induced HeLa cell death was tightly related to GSH depletion rather than ROS level changes.

  19. Extracellular amino acid levels in the interpositus nucleus during classical eyeblink conditioning in alert cats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Gruart, Agnès; Miñano, Francisco Javier; Delgado-García, José María

    2007-10-01

    The extracellular levels of selected amino acids in the cerebellar posterior interpositus nucleus (PIN) during classical eyeblink conditioning was analyzed in alert cats using a delay paradigm. Animals were prepared for the chronic recording of eyelid movements (with the magnetic search-coil technique) and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle. With the help of a guide and push-pull cannulae, selected PIN sites were perfused daily during classical eyeblink conditioning. The perfusate was sampled at intervals of 5 min and analyzed with a high-pressure liquid chromatography- electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) method. The analysis of push-pull perfusate revealed a significant increase in the release of glycine, taurine, and glutamate across the successive conditioning sessions, in parallel with the acquisition of eyelid conditioned responses (CRs). Both CRs and extracellular levels of these three amino acids returned to control values during extinction. Other amino acids (alanine, GABA, glutamine, serine, and threonine) did not undergo modifications in their extracellular concentrations across the training. Results are discussed with regard to the role of PIN in this type of associative learning.

  20. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Methattel Raman, Shijeesh; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  1. Insulin Signaling Regulates Fatty Acid Catabolism at the Level of CoA Activation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojun; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Ruskeepää, Anna-Liisa; Aye, Cho Cho; Carson, Brian P.; Mora, Silvia; Orešič, Matej; Teleman, Aurelio A.

    2012-01-01

    The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG) catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS). We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis. PMID:22275878

  2. The Impact of Selection at the Amino Acid Level on the Usage of Synonymous Codons

    PubMed Central

    Błażej, Paweł; Mackiewicz, Dorota; Wnętrzak, Małgorzata; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    There are two main forces that affect usage of synonymous codons: directional mutational pressure and selection. The effectiveness of protein translation is usually considered as the main selectional factor. However, biased codon usage can also be a byproduct of a general selection at the amino acid level interacting with nucleotide replacements. To evaluate the validity and strength of such an effect, we superimposed >3.5 billion unrestricted mutational processes on the selection of nonsynonymous substitutions based on the differences in physicochemical properties of the coded amino acids. Using a modified evolutionary optimization algorithm, we determined the conditions in which the effect on the relative codon usage is maximized. We found that the effect is enhanced by mutational processes generating more adenine and thymine than guanine and cytosine, as well as more purines than pyrimidines. Interestingly, this effect is observed only under an unrestricted model of nucleotide substitution, and disappears when the mutational process is time-reversible. Comparison of the simulation results with data for real protein coding sequences indicates that the impact of selection at the amino acid level on synonymous codon usage cannot be neglected. Furthermore, it can considerably interfere, especially in AT-rich genomes, with other selections on codon usage, e.g., translational efficiency. It may also lead to difficulties in the recognition of other effects influencing codon bias, and an overestimation of protein coding sequences whose codon usage is subjected to adaptational selection. PMID:28122952

  3. Carbon Dots and 9AA as a Binary Matrix for the Detection of Small Molecules by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Bai, Hangrui; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Application of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) to analyze small molecules have some limitations, due to the inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization and interference of matrix-related peaks in low m/z region. In this work, carbon dots (CDs) were for the first time applied as a binary matrix with 9-Aminoacridine (9AA) in MALDI MS for small molecules analysis. By 9AA/CDs assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, a wide range of small molecules, including nucleosides, amino acids, oligosaccharides, peptides, and anticancer drugs with a higher sensitivity were demonstrated in the positive ion mode. A detection limit down to 5 fmol was achieved for cytidine. 9AA/CDs matrix also exhibited excellent reproducibility compared with 9AA matrix. Moreover, by exploring the ionization mechanism of the matrix, the influence factors might be attributed to the four parts: (1) the strong UV absorption of 9AA/CDs due to their π-conjugated network; (2) the carboxyl groups modified on the CDs surface act as protonation sites for proton transfer in positive ion mode; (3) the thin layer crystal of 9AA/CDs could reach a high surface temperature more easily and lower transfer energy for LDI MS; (4) CDs could serve as a matrix additive to suppress 9AA ionization. Furthermore, this matrix was allowed for the analysis of glucose as well as nucleosides in human urine, and the level of cytidine was quantified with a linear range of 0.05-5 mM (R2 > 0.99). Therefore, the 9AA/CDs matrix was proven to be an effective MALDI matrix for the analysis of small molecules with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. This work provides an alternative solution for small molecules detection that can be further used in complex samples analysis.

  4. Carbon Dots and 9AA as a Binary Matrix for the Detection of Small Molecules by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Bai, Hangrui; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Application of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) to analyze small molecules have some limitations, due to the inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization and interference of matrix-related peaks in low m/z region. In this work, carbon dots (CDs) were for the first time applied as a binary matrix with 9-Aminoacridine (9AA) in MALDI MS for small molecules analysis. By 9AA/CDs assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, a wide range of small molecules, including nucleosides, amino acids, oligosaccharides, peptides, and anticancer drugs with a higher sensitivity were demonstrated in the positive ion mode. A detection limit down to 5 fmol was achieved for cytidine. 9AA/CDs matrix also exhibited excellent reproducibility compared with 9AA matrix. Moreover, by exploring the ionization mechanism of the matrix, the influence factors might be attributed to the four parts: (1) the strong UV absorption of 9AA/CDs due to their π-conjugated network; (2) the carboxyl groups modified on the CDs surface act as protonation sites for proton transfer in positive ion mode; (3) the thin layer crystal of 9AA/CDs could reach a high surface temperature more easily and lower transfer energy for LDI MS; (4) CDs could serve as a matrix additive to suppress 9AA ionization. Furthermore, this matrix was allowed for the analysis of glucose as well as nucleosides in human urine, and the level of cytidine was quantified with a linear range of 0.05-5 mM (R(2) > 0.99). Therefore, the 9AA/CDs matrix was proven to be an effective MALDI matrix for the analysis of small molecules with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. This work provides an alternative solution for small molecules detection that can be further used in complex samples analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Serum uric acid levels in patients with myasthenia gravis are inversely correlated with disability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dehao; Weng, Yiyun; Lin, Haihua; Xie, Feiyan; Yin, Fang; Lou, Kangliang; Zhou, Xuan; Han, Yixiang; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid (UA), the final product of purine metabolism, has been reported to be reduced in patients with various neurological disorders and is considered to be a possible indicator for monitoring the disability and progression of multiple sclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether there is a close relationship between UA and myasthenia gravis (MG), or whether UA is primarily deficient or secondarily reduced because of its peroxynitrite scavenging activity. We investigated the correlation between serum UA levels and the clinical characteristics of MG. We assessed 338 serum UA levels obtained in 135 patients with MG, 47 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 156 healthy controls. In addition, we compared serum UA levels when MG patients were stratified according to disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, age of onset, duration, and thymus histology (by means of MRI or computed tomography). MG patients had significantly lower serum UA levels than the controls (P<0.001). Moreover, UA levels in patients with MG were inversely correlated with disease activity and disease progression (P=0.013). However, UA levels did not correlate significantly with disease duration, age of onset, and thymus histology. Our findings suggest that serum level of UA was reduced in patients with MG and serum UA might be considered a surrogate biomarker of MG disability and progression. PMID:26836463

  6. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid but not arachidonic acid influences central nervous system fatty acid status in baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Andrea T; Brenna, J Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on infant central nervous system (CNS) composition has implications for neural development, including vision, cognition, and motor function. We consider here combined results of three published studies of DHA/AA-containing formulas and breastfeeding to evaluate the CNS tissue response of baboon neonates with varied concentration and duration of DHA/AA consumption [G.Y. Diau, A.T. Hsieh, E.A. Sarkadi-Nagy, V. Wijendran, P.W. Nathanielsz, J.T. Brenna, The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system, BMC Med. 3 (2005) 11; A.T. Hsieh, J.C. Anthony, D.A. Diersen-Schade, et al., The influence of moderate and high dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on baboon neonate tissue fatty acids, Pediatr. Res. 61 (2007) 537-45; E. Sarkadi-Nagy, V. Wijendran, G.Y. Diau, et al., The influence of prematurity and long chain polyunsaturate supplementation in 4-week adjusted age baboon neonate brain and related tissues, Pediatr. Res. 54 (2003) 244-252]. A total of 43 neonates born spontaneously at term, or preterm by Cesarean section, consumed diets with DHA-AA (%w/w) at several levels: none (0,0), moderate (0.3, 0.6), or high (>0.6, 0.67 or 1.2). CNS fatty acids were analyzed at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum for term baboons and 7.5 weeks for preterm neonates. CNS DHA was consistently greater by 5-30% in neonates consuming DHA and nearer 30% for cortex. In contrast, CNS AA was unaffected by dietary AA and decreased in all structures with age. Dietary DHA consistently supports greater CNS DHA and maintenance of cortex DHA concentration with feeding duration, while CNS AA is not related to dietary supply. These data on structure-specific LCPUFA accretion may provide insight into neural mechanisms responsible for suboptimal functional outcomes in infants consuming diets that do not

  7. Soyasaponins Aa and Ab exert an anti-obesity effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through downregulation of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung A; Shin, Tai-Sun; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Suh, Joo-won; Mei, Itabashi; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2015-02-01

    Saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Soyasaponins are usually glycosylated, which give rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of soyasaponins Aa and Ab in regulating adipocyte differentiation and expression of adipogenic marker genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Soyasaponins Aa and Ab dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation of lipids and the expression of adiponectin, adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1/sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, fatty acid synthase, and resistin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, soyasaponins Aa and Ab suppressed the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expression of PPARγ and of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) was suppressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treatment with soyasaponins Aa and Ab. Taken together, these findings indicate that soyasaponin Aa and Ab markedly inhibit adipocyte differentiation and expression of various adipogenic marker genes through the downregulation of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  8. Mood-Stabilizers Target the Brain Arachidonic Acid Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Jagadeesh S.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes, without a characteristic neuropathology or clear etiology. Drugs effective in BD target many key signaling pathways in animal and cell studies. However, their mode of action in the BD brain remains elusive. In the rat brain, some of the mood stabilizers effective in treating mania (lithium, carbamazepine, valproate) or depression (lamotrigine) in BD are reported to decrease transcription of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 and to reduce levels of AP-2 and NF-κB, transcription factors of the two enzymes. The anti-manic drugs also decrease arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in brain phospholipids when given chronically to rats. Thus, drugs effective in BD commonly target AA cascade kinetics as well as AA cascade enzymes and their transcription factors in the rat brain. These studies suggest that BD is associated with increased AA signaling in the brain. Developing therapeutic agents that suppress brain AA signaling could lead to additional treatments for BD. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid on AA cascade enzymes in relation to BD. PMID:20021459

  9. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  10. Molecular Characteristic, Protein Distribution and Potential Regulation of HSP90AA1 in the Anadromous Fish Coilia nasus

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Di-An; Duan, Jin-Rong; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Min-Ying; Xu, Dong-Po; Liu, Kai; Xu, Pao

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins play essential roles in basic cellular events. Spawning migration is a complex process, with significant structural and biochemical changes taking place in the adult gonad. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying migration reproductive biology remain undetermined. In this regard, a full length HSP90AA1 comprising 2608 nucleotides from the anadromous fish Coilia nasus was characterized, encoding 742 amino acid (aa) residues with potential phosphorylation sites. HSP90AA1 mRNA transcripts were detected in all organs, especially in the gonad. Furthermore, the greatest transcript levels were found during the developmental phase, while the lowest levels were found during the resting phase. In addition, the strongest immunolabeling positive signal was found in the primary spermatocyte and oocyte, with lower positive staining in secondary germ cells, and a weak or absent level in the mature sperm and oocyte. Interestingly, HSP90AA1 was mainly located in the cytoplasm of germ cells. These results are important for understanding the molecular mechanism of anadromous migration reproductive biology. In combination with data from other fish species, the result of this present study may facilitate further investigations on the spawning migration mechanism. PMID:26828521

  11. Correlation between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption and BDNF peripheral levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several studies have reported an association between mental disorders and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), this association is still poorly understood. The study of factors associated with both BDNF levels and mental disorders, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), may help to elucidate the mechanisms mediating the relationship between the two variables. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether the intake n-3 PUFAs correlates with serum levels of BDNF. Findings This study involved 137 adolescents drawn from a community sample, including a group with high levels of anxiety, assessed using the Screen for Children and Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Blood samples were collected and serum BDNF levels were measured. n-3 PUFAs were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire for adolescents. Correlations were performed to assess the association between n-3 PUFAs intake and BDNF levels. Effects of potential confounders (total fat consumption, age, gender and anxiety) were examined using linear regression models. There was a direct correlation between n-3 PUFAs consumption and serum BDNF levels, which remained significant even after accounting for potential confounders. Conclusions We were able to detect a correlation between n-3 PUFAs intake and peripheral BDNF levels. Our study was limited by its small sample size, and our external validity may be restricted by the oversampling of anxious adolescents. Our findings may help determine the nature of the association between mental disorders and serum levels of BDNF. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs intake affects BDNF levels, and how this may lead to an increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24593295

  12. Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Improves Uric Acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Moisés S.S.R.; Saavedra, Francisco J.F.; Neto, Gabriel R.; Novaes, Giovanni S.; Souza, Antonio C. R.; Salerno, Verônica P.; Novaes, Jefferson S.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA) concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.7±9.0 years) that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34) that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34) that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001). Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001), leg extension (p<0.001), shoulder press (p<0.001), leg curl (p=0.001), seated row (p<0.001), leg press (p=0.001) and high pulley (p<0.001). The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024). We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:25713640

  13. Adenosine plasma level correlates with homocysteine and uric acid concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fromonot, J; Deharo, P; Bruzzese, L; Cuisset, T; Quilici, J; Bonatti, S; Fenouillet, E; Mottola, G; Ruf, J; Guieu, R

    2016-03-01

    The role of hyperhomocysteinemia in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients remains unclear. The present study evaluated the relationship between homocysteine (HCys), adenosine plasma concentration (APC), plasma uric acid, and CAD severity evaluated using the SYNTAX score. We also evaluated in vitro the influence of adenosine on HCys production by hepatoma cultured cells (HuH7). Seventy-eight patients (mean age ± SD: 66.3 ± 11.3; mean SYNTAX score: 19.9 ± 12.3) and 30 healthy subjects (mean age: 61 ± 13) were included. We incubated HuH7 cells with increasing concentrations of adenosine and addressed the effect on HCys level in cell culture supernatant. Patients vs. controls had higher APC (0.82 ± 0.5 μmol/L vs 0.53 ± 0.14 μmol/L; p < 0.01), HCys (15 ± 7.6 μmol/L vs 6.8 ± 3 μmol/L, p < 0.0001), and uric acid (242.6 ± 97 vs 202 ± 59, p < 0.05) levels. APC was correlated with HCys and uric acid concentrations in patients (Pearson's R = 0.65 and 0.52; p < 0.0001, respectively). The SYNTAX score was correlated with HCys concentration. Adenosine induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in HCys in cell culture. Our data suggest that high APC is associated with HCys and uric acid concentrations in CAD patients. Whether the increased APC participates in atherosclerosis or, conversely, is part of a protective regulation process needs further investigations.

  14. Diurnal Changes in Metabolite Levels and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Kalanchoë daigremontiana Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, William H.; Holaday, A. Scott; Black, Clanton C.

    1981-01-01

    Diurnal changes in levels of selected metabolites associated with glycolysis, the C3 cycle, C4-organic acids, and storage carbohydrates were analyzed in active Kalanchoë daigremontiana Crassulacean acid metabolism leaves. Three metabolic transition periods occurred each day. During the first two hours of light, nearly all of the metabolite pools underwent transient changes. Beginning at daylight, stomata opened transiently and closed again within 30 minutes; malate synthesis continued for about 1 hour into the light; C3 photosynthesis began within 30 minutes; and net quantities of starch and glucan began to accumulate after 2 hours, continuing linearly throughout the rest of the day. The second transition occurred in midafternoon: stomata reopened; malate decarboxylation nearly terminated; and the assimilation of ambient CO2 occurred primarily via the C3 cycle. The third transition occurred at dark: stomata transiently closed before opening again; the C3 cycle stopped; malate synthesis started in about 1 hour; starch and glucan degradation began within 1 hour; and the bulk of carbon flow was through glycolysis leading to the synthesis and accumulation of malate throughout the night. At night, the levels of metabolites involved in acidification and glycolysis (except for phosphoenolpyruvate) generally accumulated. Phosphoenolpyruvate levels peaked near midday and were minimal at night. The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate pool was depleted at night, while sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, and fructose 6-phosphate accumulated. Images PMID:16662040

  15. Axillary versus peripheral blood levels of sialic acid, ferritin, and CEA in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monti, M; Catania, S; Locatelli, E; Gandini, R; Reggiani, A; Cunietti, E

    1990-12-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were measured both in tumor drainage blood (axillary vein) and in peripheral blood obtained from 121 breast cancer patients during surgery. No significant differences between mean values in peripheral and tumor draining blood, between cancer patients and healthy controls, or between patients with or without axillary lymph node metastases were found for any of the markers. Both ferritin and CEA levels were higher in axillary and peripheral blood from patients with central breast cancer versus other sites but the difference was significant only for CEA (p less than 0.05). CEA levels were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in patients with greater than 2 cm diameter carcinomas versus T1 stage patients in axillary but not in peripheral blood. When the cephalic vein was clamped before the axillary sample was taken, ferritin showed a significant increase (p less than 0.05). We conclude that measurement of sialic acid, CEA, and ferritin in axillary venous blood in breast cancer patients is not of clinical benefit, although further data are needed to clarify whether other advantages can be derived.

  16. Effects of domoic acid on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    1995-08-01

    The actions of Domoic Acid (Dom), a marine toxin, on the levels of serum TSH and thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) has been studied to determine if these actions could be mediated by the serotoninergic system. In all the experiments, adult male Wistar rats were used. The Dom dissolved in saline was administered via i.p. in doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. The T4 and T3 concentrations were determined by enzimoinmunoassay and TSH concentration was determined by radioinmunoassay. The results show that Dom 1 mg/kg increases the serum T4 levels one hour after treatment and decreases these levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. Dom 0.5 mg/kg decreased the serum T4 levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. The concentrations of T3 in serum were unchanged by both doses of Dom. The concentration of TSH was increased by Dom. In order to study the possible mediation of the serotoninergic system in the effect of Dom on the hormone levels, PCPA, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was administered i.p. 90 min before blood sampling. In this case, with both doses of Dom a decrease in the levels of both hormones occurred with respect to the PCPA group. These results indicate that the serotoninergic system could affect the actions of Dom on TSH and thyroid hormone secretion.

  17. Hypouricemia in severely disabled children II: influence of elemental enteral nutrition on the serum uric acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Yamazaki, Sawako; Abe, Tokinari

    2004-01-01

    The previous study showed that both valproic acid (VPA) and a bedridden state decreased the serum uric acid level, and VPA-induced renal tubular dysfunction was suspected to be one cause of hypouricemia in severely disabled children. However, it was uncertain what factor of bedridden state influences the uric acid level in severely disabled children. Among many factors of a bedridden state that might influence the uric acid level, we examined the influence of elemental nutrition on the serum uric acid level in severely disabled children because many severely disabled children with marked hypouricemia receive elemental nutrition. Thirty-one severely disabled children were included in this study, who were divided into two groups-group A: 11 patients with elemental nutrition; group B: 20 patients with non-elemental nutrition. The laboratory data in both groups were analyzed statistically, using the t-test. The uric acid level was significantly decreased in group A compared with group B (p < 0.01) without elevation of urinary excretion of uric acid. Other laboratory data, except phosphate and potassium, did not differ between the two groups significantly. An elemental diet may be one factor that decreases the uric acid level in severely disabled children.

  18. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-03-20

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  19. Absolute identification of muramic acid, at trace levels, in human septic synovial fluids in vivo and absence in aseptic fluids.

    PubMed

    Fox, A; Fox, K; Christensson, B; Harrelson, D; Krahmer, M

    1996-09-01

    This is the first report of a study employing the state-of-the-art technique of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for absolute identification of muramic acid (a marker for peptidoglycan) at trace levels in a human or animal body fluid or tissue. Daughter mass spectra of synovial fluid muramic acid peaks (> or = 30 ng/ml) were identical to those of pure muramic acid. Absolute chemical identification at this level represents a 1,000-fold increase in sensitivity over previous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identifications. Muramic acid was positively identified in synovial fluids during infection and was eliminated over time but was absent from aseptic fluids.

  20. AAS Career Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  1. Hepatic bile acid metabolism in the neonatal hamster: expansion of the bile acid pool parallels increased Cyp7a1 expression levels.

    PubMed

    Burke, Katie T; Horn, Paul S; Tso, Patrick; Heubi, James E; Woollett, Laura A

    2009-07-01

    Intraluminal concentrations of bile acids are low in newborn infants and increase rapidly after birth, at least partly owing to increased bile acid synthesis rates. The expansion of the bile acid pool is critical since bile acids are required to stimulate bile flow and absorb lipids, a major component of newborn diets. The purpose of the present studies was to determine the mechanism responsible for the increase in bile acid synthesis rates and the subsequent enlargement of bile acid pool sizes (BAPS) during the neonatal period, and how changes in circulating hormone levels might affect BAPS. In the hamster, pool size was low just after birth and increased modestly until 10.5 days postpartum (dpp). BAPS increased more significantly ( approximately 3-fold) between 10.5 and 15.5 dpp. An increase in mRNA and protein levels of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting step in classical bile acid synthesis, immediately preceded an increase in BAPS. In contrast, levels of oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7b1), a key enzyme in bile acid synthesis by the alternative pathway, were relatively elevated by 1.5 dpp. farnesyl X receptor (FXR) and short heterodimeric partner (SHP) mRNA levels remained relatively constant at a time when Cyp7a1 levels increased. Finally, although simultaneous increases in circulating cortisol and Cyp7a1 levels occurred, precocious expression of Cyp7a1 could not be induced in neonatal hamsters with dexamethasone. Thus the significant increase in Cyp7a1 levels in neonatal hamsters is due to mechanisms independent of the FXR and SHP pathway and cortisol.

  2. Tissue Specific Expression Levels of Apoptosis Involved Genes Have Correlations with Codon and Amino Acid Usage

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Iman; Salavaty, Abbas; Nasiri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Different mechanisms, including transcriptional and post transcriptional processes, regulate tissue specific expression of genes. In this study, we report differences in gene/protein compositional features between apoptosis involved genes selectively expressed in human tissues. We found some correlations between codon/amino acid usage and tissue specific expression level of genes. The findings can be significant for understanding the translational selection on these features. The selection may play an important role in the differentiation of human tissues and can be considered for future studies in diagnosis of some diseases such as cancer. PMID:28154517

  3. Elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids predicts depression development following interferon-alpha treatment: relationship with interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Lotrich, Francis E; Sears, Barry; McNamara, Robert K

    2013-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found that an elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acid is associated with depression, and controlled intervention studies have found that decreasing this ratio through administration of omega-3 fatty acids can alleviate depressive symptoms. Additionally, arachidonic acid and omega-3 fatty acids have opposing effects on inflammatory signaling. Exogenous administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) can trigger a depressive episode in a subset of vulnerable people, though associated risk factors remain poorly understood. Using a within-subject prospective design of 138 subjects, we examined whether baseline long-chain omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid - DHA; eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA) and omega-6 (arachidonic acid - AA; di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid - DGLA) fatty acid status was associated with depression vulnerability in hepatitis C patients treated with IFN-α. Based on the literature, we had specific a priori interest in the AA/EPA+DHA ratio. Lower baseline DHA predicted depression incidence (p=0.04), as did elevated DGLA (p=0.02) and an elevated AA/EPA+DHA ratio (p=0.007). The AA/EPA+DHA ratio predicted depression even when controlling for other critical variables such as sleep quality and race. A higher AA/EPA+DHA ratio was positively associated with both increasing Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scores over time (F=4.0; p<0.05) as well as interleukin-6 levels (F=107.4; p<0.05) but not C-reactive protein. Importantly, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid status was not associated with sustained viral response to IFN-α treatment. These prospective data support the role of fatty acid status in depression vulnerability and indicate a potential role for omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of inflammation-induced depression.

  4. Modifying the OPLS-AA force field to improve hydration free energies for several amino acid side chains using new atomic charges and an off-plane charge model for aromatic residues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhitao; Luo, Harry H; Tieleman, D Peter

    2007-02-01

    The hydration free energies of amino acid side chains are an important determinant of processes that involve partitioning between different environments, including protein folding, protein complex formation, and protein-membrane interactions. Several recent papers have shown that calculated hydration free energies for polar and aromatic residues (Trp, His, Tyr, Asn, Gln, Asp, Glu) in several common molecular dynamics force fields differ significantly from experimentally measured values. We have attempted to improve the hydration energies for these residues by modifying the partial charges of the OPLS-AA force field based on natural population analysis of density functional theory calculations. The resulting differences between calculated hydration free energies and experimental results for the seven side chain analogs are less than 0.1 kcal/mol. Simulations of the synthetic Trp-rich peptide Trpzip2 show that the new charges lead to significantly improved geometries for interacting Trp-side chains. We also investigated an off-plane charge model for aromatic rings that more closely mimics their electronic configuration. This model results in an improved free energy of hydration for Trp and a somewhat altered benzene-sodium potential of mean force with a more favorable energy for direct benzene-sodium contact.

  5. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  6. Serum uric acid levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Min; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Yun-Hua; Ma, Zhao-Lei; Gou, Yun; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Yu, Wen-Feng; Jiao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Background Lower serum uric acid (UA) levels have been reported as a risk factor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the results have been inconsistent so far. Objectives The aim of the present study was to clarify the potential relationship of uric acid with PD. Methods Comprehensive electronic search in pubmed, web of science, and the Cochrane Library database to find original articles about the association between PD and serum uric acid levels published before Dec 2015. Literature quality assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects model was used to estimate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity across studies was assessed using I2 and H2 statistics. Sensitivity analyses to assess the influence of individual studies on the pooled estimate. Publication bias was investigated using funnel plots and Egger’s regression test. Analyses were performed by using Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 11.0. Results Thirteen studies with a total of 4646 participants (2379 PD patients and 2267 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The current results showed that the serum UA levels in PD patients were significantly lower compared to sex and age-matched healthy controls (SMD: -0.49, 95% CI: [-0.67, -0.30], Z = 5.20, P < 0.001) and these results showed no geographic regional (Asia: SMD = −0.65, 95% CI [−0.84, −0.46], Z = 6.75, p <0.001; Non-Asia: SMD = −0.25, 95% CI [−0.43, −0.07], Z = 2.70, p = 0.007) and sex differences (women: SMD = −0.53, 95% CI [−0.70, −0.35], z = 5.98, p <0.001; men: SMD = −0.66, 95% CI [−0.87, −0.44], z = 6.03, p <0.001). Serum UA levels in middle-late stage PD patients with higher H&Y scales were significantly lower than early stage PD patients with lower H&Y scales (SMD = 0.63, 95% CI [0.36,0.89], z = 4.64, p <0.001). Conclusions Our study showed that the serum UA levels are significantly lower in PD and the level is further decreased as the

  7. Distinguishing Functional Amino Acid Covariation from Background Linkage Disequilibrium in HIV Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Lee, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Correlated amino acid mutation analysis has been widely used to infer functional interactions between different sites in a protein. However, this analysis can be confounded by important phylogenetic effects broadly classifiable as background linkage disequilibrium (BLD). We have systematically separated the covariation induced by selective interactions between amino acids from background LD, using synonymous (S) vs. amino acid (A) mutations. Covariation between two amino acid mutations, (A,A), can be affected by selective interactions between amino acids, whereas covariation within (A,S) pairs or (S,S) pairs cannot. Our analysis of the pol gene — including the protease and the reverse transcriptase genes — in HIV reveals that (A,A) covariation levels are enormously higher than for either (A,S) or (S,S), and thus cannot be attributed to phylogenetic effects. The magnitude of these effects suggests that a large portion of (A,A) covariation in the HIV pol gene results from selective interactions. Inspection of the most prominent (A,A) interactions in the HIV pol gene showed that they are known sites of independently identified drug resistance mutations, and physically cluster around the drug binding site. Moreover, the specific set of (A,A) interaction pairs was reproducible in different drug treatment studies, and vanished in untreated HIV samples. The (S,S) covariation curves measured a low but detectable level of background LD in HIV. PMID:17726544

  8. Stimulus-specific induction of phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, R.W.; Manzi, R.M.; Clark, M.A.; Hoffstein, S.T.

    1987-04-01

    Phospholipid remodeling resulting in arachidonic acid (AA) release and metabolism in human neutrophils stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187 has been extensively studied, while data obtained using physiologically relevant stimuli is limited. Opsonized zymosan and immune complexes induced stimulus-specific alterations in lipid metabolism that were different from those induced by A23187. (/sup 3/H)AA release correlated with activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) but not with cellular activation as indicated by superoxide generation. The latter correlated more with calcium-dependent phospholipase C (PLC) activation and elevation of cellular diacylglycerol (DAG) levels. When cells that had been allowed to incorporate (/sup 3/H)AA were stimulated with A23187, large amounts of labeled AA was released, most of which was metabolized to 5-HETE and leukotriene B4. Stimulation with immune complexes also resulted in the release of (/sup 3/H)AA but this released radiolabeled AA was not metabolized. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan induced no detectable release of (/sup 3/H)AA. Analysis of (/sup 3/H)AA-labeled lipids in resting cells indicated that the greatest amount of label was incorporated into the phosphatidylinositol (PI) pool, followed closely by phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine, while little (/sup 3/H)AA was detected in the phosphatidylethanolamine pool. During stimulation with A23187, a significant decrease in labeled PI occurred and labeled free fatty acid in the pellet increased. With immune complexes, only a small decrease was seen in labeled PI while the free fatty acid in the pellets was unchanged. In contrast, opsonized zymosan decreased labeled PI, and increased labeled DAG. Phospholipase activity in homogenates from human neutrophils was also assayed. A23187 and immune complexes, but not zymosan, significantly enhanced PLA2 activity in the cell homogenates. On the other hand, PLC activity was enhanced by zymosan and immune complexes

  9. Interaction between propranolol and amino acids in the single-pass isolated, perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Semple, H A; Xia, F

    1995-08-01

    Propranolol (PL) bioavailability has been shown to increase substantially when it is administered with a protein-rich meal. A change in metabolic capacity or tissue uptake, induced by amino acids (AAs) released as a result of digestion of dietary protein, is a possible contributing mechanism to the food effect. This hypothesis was tested in isolated, perfused rat livers in the single-pass mode. Rac-PL (20 micrograms/ml) was infused to steady-state at 3 ml/min/g liver for 150 min. A balanced mixture of I-AA was coinfused from 70 to 110 min. The AA reversibly increased the steady-state concentration of PL by 18% and reduced steady-state concentrations of 4-hydroxypropranolol, N-deisopropylpranolol, PL glycol, naphthoxylactic acid, and naphthoxyacetic acid by an average of 41% and propanolol conjugates by almost 100%, indicating metabolic inhibition. In a second experiment, PL was coinfused with AAs from the beginning of the experiment, and tissue binding was compared with control livers. There was no significant effect of AAs on PL tissue binding. In a third study, the effect of four different concentrations of AAs coinfused from 70 to 110 min was assessed. The percentage change in PL and phase I metabolite levels was linearly correlated to the influent AA concentration. The large magnitude, reversibility, lack of pathway specificity, and concentration dependence of the AA interaction in the perfused liver are also features of food interaction in humans. These similarities constitute evidence that metabolic inhibition by AAs originating from dietary protein could contribute to the PL-food interaction.

  10. Lower levels of uric acid and striatal dopamine in non-tremor dominant Parkinson's disease subtype

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, Ismael; Jesús, Silvia; Lojo, José Antonio; García-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Oropesa-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Carrillo, Fátima; Vargas-Gonzalez, Laura; Martín Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; García-Solís, David; Mir, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients who present with tremor and maintain a predominance of tremor have a better prognosis. Similarly, PD patients with high levels of uric acid (UA), a natural neuroprotectant, have also a better disease course. Our aim was to investigate whether PD motor subtypes differ in their levels of UA, and if these differences correlate with the degree of dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. We included 75 PD patients from whom we collected information about their motor symptoms, DAT imaging and UA concentration levels. Based on the predominance of their motor symptoms, patients were classified into postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD, n = 36), intermediate (I, n = 22), and tremor-dominant (TD, n = 17) subtypes. The levels of UA and striatal DAT were compared across subtypes and the correlation between these two measures was also explored. We found that PIGD patients had lower levels of UA (3.7 vs 4.5 vs 5.3 mg/dL; P<0.001) and striatal DAT than patients with an intermediate or TD phenotype. Furthermore, UA levels significantly correlated with the levels of striatal DAT. We also observed that some PIGD (25%) and I (45%) patients had a predominance of tremor at disease onset. We speculate that UA might be involved in the maintenance of the less damaging TD phenotype and thus also in the conversion from TD to PIGD. Low levels of this natural antioxidant could lead to a major neuronal damage and therefore influence the conversion to a more severe motor phenotype. PMID:28358829

  11. Regulation of uterine and umbilical amino acid uptakes by maternal amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Thureen, P J; Anderson, S M; Hay, W W

    2000-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that decreased fetal amino acid (AA) supply, produced by maternal hypoaminoacidemia (low AA) during hyperglycemia (HG), is reversible with maternal AA infusion and regulates fetal insulin concentration ([I]). We measured net uterine and umbilical AA uptakes during maternal HG/low AA concentration ([AA]) and after maternal intravenous infusion of a mixed AA solution. After 5 days HG, all maternal [AA] except glycine were decreased >50%, particularly essential [AA] (P < 0.00005). Most fetal [AA] also were decreased, especially branched-chain AA (P < 0.001). Maternal AA infusion increased net uterine uptakes of Val, Leu, Ile, Met, and Ser and net umbilical uptakes of Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, and Arg but did not change net uteroplacental uptake of any AA. Fetal [I] increased 55 +/- 14%, P < 0.001, with correction of fetal [AA], despite the lack of change in fetal glucose concentration. Thus generalized maternal hypoaminoacidemia decreases uterine and umbilical uptakes of primarily the essential AA and decreases fetal branched-chain [AA]. These changes are reversed with correction of maternal [AA], which also increases fetal [I].

  12. Effects of dietary saturated or unsaturated fatty acids and calcium levels on performance and mineral metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Leeson, S

    1984-11-01

    The effects of inclusion of 8% oleic, palmitic, or a 50/50 mixture of oleic and palmitic acids as the major source of fat in the presence of .8, 1.2, or 1.6% calcium in broiler diets was investigated using broiler chicks from day-old to 3 weeks of age. Supplementation of broiler diets with oleic acid reduced feed intake (P less than .05) and improved feed efficiency (P less than .01) compared to other treatments. Chicks fed diets supplemented with oleic acid or a mixture of oleic and palmitic acid gained more weight (P less than .01) over a 3-week period. Significant interactions were observed between type of dietary fatty acid and calcium level on metabolizable energy of diets (P less than .01), magnesium retention (P less than .05), calcium and fat retention (P less than .01), and proportion of excreta fatty acid that was present as soap (P less than .01). Although all fatty acids tested formed soap in the small intestine, soaps of oleic acid were efficiently utilized as opposed to soaps of palmitic acid. There was a significant (P less than .05) reduction in bone ash and bone calcium content of chicks fed diets supplemented with palmitic acid. There was a significant interaction (P less than .05) between type of fatty acid and calcium level on bone magnesium content. Increasing the calcium content of diets aggravated the decrease in calcium retention and bone calcium content associated with addition of fat.

  13. Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marsha; Jones, Paul; Sobus, Jon; Boyd Barr, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a further analysis of published study data, we quantified urinary 3-PBA levels of 50 adults over a single, 24-h sampling period and examined the associations between the biomarker measurements and selected non-chemical stressors (demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors). A convenience sample of 50 adults was recruited in North Carolina in 2009–2011. Participants collected individual urine voids (up to 11) and filled out activity, food, and pesticide use diaries over a 24-h sampling period. Urine voids (n = 326) were analyzed for 3-PBA concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 3-PBA was detected in 98% of the 24-h composited urine samples. The geometric mean urinary 3-PBA level was 1.68 ng/mL in adults. Time spent outside (p = 0.0006) was a highly significant predictor of natural log-transformed (ln) urinary 3-PBA levels, while consumption of coffee (p = 0.007) and breads (p = 0.019) and ln creatinine levels (p = 0.037) were significant predictors of urinary 3-PBA levels. In conclusion, we identified specific factors that substantially increased adult exposures to pyrethroids in their everyday environments. PMID:27886113

  14. Relation between change in exercise capacity and change in blood amino acids in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Morotomi, Nobuo; Saitoh, Masakazu; Ishii, Noriko; Ohno, Kayoko; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Kawate, Nobuyuki; Mizuma, Masazumi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is recommended for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), adequate exercise effect cannot be obtained in elderly patients. Administration of amino acids (AA) to CHF patients has been reported to improve exercise capacity, but the changes in AA composition in plasma before and after CR had not been reported. This study aimed to measure plasma levels of AA in CHF patients and compare with values of normal range. In addition the relationship between the change of exercise capacity and AA were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve CHF patients (60% males, aged 68 ± 12 years) were studied. The correction between the rates of changes in exercise capacity parameters and in plasma AA levels was investigated. [Results] Anaerobic threshold (AT) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2) improved significantly after CR. The AA profile showed no specific pattern, and citrulline (Cit) was the amino acid showing a significant positive correlation with exercise capacity (∆Cit vs. ∆AT: r=0.602, ∆Cit vs. ∆AT-work rate (WR): r=0.681, ∆Cit vs. ∆VO2/WR: r=0.635). A tendency of positive correlation was observed between ∆Cit and ∆peak VO2 (r=0.456). [Conclusion] The AA profile showed no specific pattern, but a relationship between change in exercise capacity and Cit were found. PMID:28356624

  15. Relation between change in exercise capacity and change in blood amino acids in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Morotomi, Nobuo; Saitoh, Masakazu; Ishii, Noriko; Ohno, Kayoko; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Kawate, Nobuyuki; Mizuma, Masazumi

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is recommended for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), adequate exercise effect cannot be obtained in elderly patients. Administration of amino acids (AA) to CHF patients has been reported to improve exercise capacity, but the changes in AA composition in plasma before and after CR had not been reported. This study aimed to measure plasma levels of AA in CHF patients and compare with values of normal range. In addition the relationship between the change of exercise capacity and AA were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve CHF patients (60% males, aged 68 ± 12 years) were studied. The correction between the rates of changes in exercise capacity parameters and in plasma AA levels was investigated. [Results] Anaerobic threshold (AT) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2) improved significantly after CR. The AA profile showed no specific pattern, and citrulline (Cit) was the amino acid showing a significant positive correlation with exercise capacity (∆Cit vs. ∆AT: r=0.602, ∆Cit vs. ∆AT-work rate (WR): r=0.681, ∆Cit vs. ∆VO2/WR: r=0.635). A tendency of positive correlation was observed between ∆Cit and ∆peak VO2 (r=0.456). [Conclusion] The AA profile showed no specific pattern, but a relationship between change in exercise capacity and Cit were found.

  16. Receptor-level interrelationships of amino acids and the adequate amino acid type hormones in Tetrahymena: a receptor evolution model.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1986-01-01

    Histidine stimulates the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena to the same extent as histamine, and also stimulates its division, which histamine does not. Tyrosine and diiodotyrosine equally stimulate the growth of the Tetrahymena. Both amino acids inhibit the characteristic influence of the adequate amino acid hormone when added to Tetrahymena culture 72 h in advance of it. Primary interaction with diiodotyrosine and tyrosine notably increases the cellular growth rate. Histamine has a similar, although less notable effect than histidine. In the light of these experimental observations there is reason to postulate that the receptors of the amino acid hormones have developed from amino acid receptors.

  17. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  18. Adipose tissue branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism modulates circulating BCAA levels.

    PubMed

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D; Lynch, Christopher J; Kahn, Barbara B

    2010-04-09

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels.

  19. Reconsideration of the significance of substrate-level phosphorylation in the citric acid cycle*.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, David O

    2006-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, students of metabolism in animals have been taught that a substrate-level phosphorylation in the Krebs citric acid cycle produces GTP that subsequently undergoes a transphosphorylation with ADP catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Research in the past decade has revealed that animals also express an ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase whose activity exceeds that of the GDP-forming enzyme in some tissues. Here I argue that the primary fate of GTP is unlikely to be transphosphorylation with ADP. Rather, two succinate-CoA ligases with different nucleotide specificities have evolved to better integrate and regulate the central metabolic pathways that involve the citric acid cycle. The products of substrate-level phosphorylation, ATP and/or GTP, may represent a pool of nucleotide that has a different phosphorylation potential than the ATP made by oxidative phosphorylation and may be channeled to meet specific needs within mitochondria and the cell. Further research is needed to determine the applicable mechanisms and how they vary in tissues.

  20. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  1. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  2. Effect of somatostatin on nonesterified fatty acid levels modifies glucose homeostasis during fasting

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, G.K.; Frizzell, R.T.; Cherrington, A.D. )

    1987-10-01

    In the 7-days fasted conscious dog, unlike the postabsorptive conscious dog, somatostatin infusion results in decreased levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and increased glucose utilization (R{sub d}) even when insulin and glucagon levels are held constant. The aim of this study was to determine whether NEFA replacement in such animals would prevent the increase in R{sub d}. In each of three protocols there was an 80-min tracer equilibration period, a 40-min basal period, and a 3-h test period. During the test period in the first protocol saline was infused, in the second protocol somatostatin was infused along with intraportal replacement amounts of insulin and glucagon (hormone replacement), while in the third protocol somatostatin plus the pancreatic hormones were infused with concurrent heparin plus Intralipid infusion. Glucose turnover was assessed using (3-{sup 3}H)glucose. The peripheral levels of insulin, glucagon, and glucose were similar and constant in all three protocols; however, during somatostatin infusion, exogenous glucose infusion was necessary to maintain euglycemia. The NEFA level was constant during saline infusion and decreased in the hormone replacement protocol. In the hormone replacement plus NEFA protocol, the NEFA level did not change during the first 90-min period and then increased during the second 90-min period. After a prolonged fast in the dog, (1) somatostatin directly or indirectly inhibits adipose tissue NEFA release and causes a decrease in the plasma NEFA level, and (2) this decrease in the NEFA level causes an increase in R{sub d}.

  3. Core-corona PSt/P(BA-AA) composite particles by two-stage emulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Delong; Ren, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinya; Liao, Shijun

    2016-03-01

    Raspberry-shaped composite particles with polystyrene (PSt) as core and poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(BA-AA)) as corona were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The random copolymer, P(BA-AA), was pre-prepared and used as a polymeric surfactant, its emulsifying properties adjusted by changing the mass ratio of BA and AA. The morphology of the resulting core-corona composite particles, P(St/P(BA-AA)), could be regulated and controlled by varying the concentrations of P(BA-AA) or the mass ratio of BA:AA in P(BA-AA). The experimental results indicate that 3.0-6.0 wt% of P(BA-AA) is required to obtain stable composite emulsions, and P(BA-AA) with a mass ratio of BA:AA = 1:2 is able to generate distinct core-corona structures. A mechanism of composite particle formation is proposed based on the high affinity between the PSt core and the hydrophobic segments of P(BA-A). The regular morphology of the colloidal film is expected to facilitate potential application of core-corona particles in the field of light scattering. Furthermore, the diversity of core-corona particles can be expanded by replacing P(BA-AA) corona particles with other amphiphilic particles.

  4. A pilot study investigating early postoperative changes of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine early postoperative changes of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Methods Ten obese patients (mean BMI: 51.10 ± 11.59 kg/m2) underwent LSG and eleven normal weight control patients (mean BMI: 24.37 ± 2.33 kg/m2) underwent laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Fasting blood samples were collected prior to surgery, at day 1 after surgery and after postoperation oral feeding. Plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured in serum samples by enzyme immunoassay. Results A significant decrease was observed in insulin and HOMA IR levels in sleeve gastrectomy patients after postoperation oral feeding compared to preoperation. Plasma AA levels and AA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in sleeve gastrectomy patients after postoperation oral feeding compared to postoperation day 1. Serum PGE2 levels and AA/DHA ratio was significantly higher in sleeve gastrectomy patients at preoperation, postoperation day 1 and after postoperation oral feeding when compared to control group patients. Conclusion Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity associated with LSG may play a role in the significant increase of plasma AA levels in sleeve gastrectomy patients following postoperation oral feeding. The significant increase in PGE2 levels and AA/DHA ratio in sleeve gastrectomy group patients also confirms the presence of a proinflammatory state in obesity. PMID:24694037

  5. Sulforaphane reduces the alterations induced by quinolinic acid: modulation of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Santana-Martínez, R A; Galván-Arzáte, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Avila-Chávez, E; López-Acosta, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A; Maldonado, P D

    2014-07-11

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5mg/kg, i.p.) 24h and 5min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities.

  6. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Levels Are Related to Cognitive Deterioration in an Elderly Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazushi; Koide, Daisuke; Fujii, Kurumi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Shoji; Iwata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Aims The association between serum uric acid (UA) levels and cognitive function is controversial since UA can be a risk factor for cerebral ischemia as well as acting as a neuroprotective antioxidant. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 228 elderly participants and examined neuropsychological test results, clinical data as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients Overall, 64 participants were diagnosed with cognitive deterioration. To control for the effect of sex differences, 2 independent sets of single-variable and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with quartiles divided into non-sex-specific and sex-specific cutoff values for UA. Results In non-sex-specific quartiles, the participants in the highest quartiles of UA levels were found to be at a significantly higher risk of cognitive deterioration than those in the lowest quartiles. In sex-specific quartiles, the highest quartile showed an increased risk of cognitive deterioration, and a greater than fourfold increase in the risk in the highest quartiles was confirmed using multivariate regression models. However, no significant association was observed between serum UA levels and the presence of white matter lesions. Conclusions Elevated serum UA levels were independently associated with cognitive deterioration. UA might have unknown adverse effects on cognitive function, other than causing vascular pathology. PMID:28203247

  7. Effects of composite restorations on nitric oxide and uric acid levels in saliva

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Nilgun; Gul, Pinar; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Kiziltunc, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, and should, therefore, not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances capable of causing side effects. This study was intended to investigate the effects on salivary nitric oxide (NO) and uric acid (UA) levels after application of dental composite filling materials to healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 individuals (32 female and 20 male) participated in the study. Filtek Z250 composite filling material (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) was applied to healthy volunteers. Saliva samples were collected before restoration (baseline) and 1 h, 1-day, 7 days, and 30 days after restoration. NO concentrations were measured using the Griess reaction method, and UA was measured using an enzymatic method. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test (α =5%). Results: NO values increased statistically significant after 7 days (P < 0.05). In addition, lower UA levels were determined compared to the baseline levels, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was no correlation between NO and UA levels in saliva (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Composite resins activated the antioxidant system in saliva. However, further studies are now needed to confirm our findings and to permit a definitive conclusion. PMID:26321839

  8. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  9. Plasma ammonia levels in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with crystalline L-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shohat, M; Wielunsky, E; Reisner, S H

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the severity and incidence of hyperammonemia in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with crystalline L-amino acids having high arginine content (Travasol), we determined the plasma ammonia (PA) levels in a group of 29 preterm infants on TPN, weekly and 1 wk posttherapy. Their mean gestational age was 29.9 +/- 2.6 wk and mean birth weight 1208 +/- 262 g. Thirty five blood samples obtained from 15 preterm infants not on TPN with mean gestational age 32.2 +/- 1.9 wk and a birth weight of 1495 +/- 161 g served as a control. In the parenteral nutrition group the mean PA level (140 +/- 58 micrograms/100 ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that in the same group one week post TPN (97 +/- 34 micrograms/100 ml) and in the control group (86 +/- 35 micrograms/100 ml). The incidence of hyperammonemia (greater than 160 micrograms/100 ml) was 30% in the TPN group versus 3% in the controls (p less than 0.01). Maximal PA level during that treatment was 405 versus 216 micrograms/100 ml 1 wk post-TPN versus 163 micrograms/100 ml in the controls. The data show a significant increase in PA levels in preterm infants receiving TPN with Travasol, possibly because of its high glycine content.

  10. Amino acid supplementation of calf milk replacers containing plasma protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S Y; Campbell, J M; Drackley, J K

    2017-03-22

    We determined the effects of calf milk replacers containing 0, 5, or 10% bovine plasma protein (PP), either without or with the supplemental amino acids (AA) Ile and Thr, on growth and health of male Holstein calves (n = 104) for 56 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 22% crude protein (CP), 20% fat, and 2.0% Lys. Milk replacers (12.5% solids) were fed at a rate of 1.5% of body weight (BW) on a dry matter basis during wk 1 and 1.75% of BW beginning on d 8. Starter was introduced on d 36 so that effects of PP and AA balance in milk replacers could be isolated. Intake, respiratory scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and stature were measured weekly and blood serum samples were obtained during wk 4. Treatments had no effects on intakes of dry matter, CP, or metabolizable energy. During wk 6 and 8, BW was less as PP inclusion increased without AA supplementation compared with the other treatments. In wk 7, calves fed the higher level of PP without AA had lower BW than calves fed either the lower level of PP without supplemented AA or the higher inclusion of PP with supplemented AA. Average daily gain and gain:feed were lowest for calves fed the higher inclusion of PP without supplemented AA; heart girth in wk 7 was smallest for those calves. During the first 21 d, occurrence of scours was greater in calves fed the control milk replacer than in calves fed milk replacers containing the higher inclusion of PP either without or with supplemental AA. Occurrence of scours was also greater for the lower inclusion of PP compared with the higher inclusion of PP when AA were supplemented. Throughout the 56-d experiment, the chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for calves fed the control milk replacer than for all other treatments except the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA. Additionally, chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA than for other milk replacers with PP. Calves

  11. Mechanism underlying mitochondrial protection of asiatic acid against hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Chen, Jin; Tang, Xinhui; Pan, Liya; Fang, Feng; Xu, Lizhi; Zhao, Xiaoning; Xu, Qiang

    2006-02-01

    Asiatic acid (AA) is one of the triterpenoid components of Terminalia catappa L., which has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity. This research focused on the mitochondrial protection of AA against acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN) in mice. It was found that pretreatment with 25, 50 or 100 mg kg(-1) AA significantly blocked the LPS + D-GalN-induced increase in both serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) and serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) levels, which was confirmed by ultrastructural observation under an electron microscope, showing improved nuclear condensation, ameliorated mitochondrion proliferation and less lipid deposition. Meanwhile, different doses of AA could decrease both the transcription and the translation level of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs), the most important mitochondrial PTP component protein, and block the translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol. On the other hand, pre-incubation with 25, 50 and 100 microg mL(-1) AA inhibited the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), including mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential dissipation and releasing of matrix Ca(2+) in liver mitochondria separated from normal mice, indicating the direct role of AA on mitochondria. Collectively, the above data suggest that AA could protect liver from damage and the mechanism might be related to up-regulating mitochondrial VDACs and inhibiting the process of MPT.

  12. Salivary total sialic acid levels increase in breast cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Leyla Koç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Kaşikci, Emel; Demir, Gokhan; Yarat, Aysen

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women living in the Western world, even though it occurs worldwide. Cancer and cancer therapy induce multiple oral complications including dental and periodontal disease. Saliva is a complex and dynamic biologic fluid, which reflects both oral and systemic changes. While saliva is easily accessible body fluid, there has been little effort to study its value in cancer diagnosis. Sialic acids (SA), the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains, are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates that are reported to be altered in both blood and saliva of various cancer patients. Increased sialylation has been shown to be a characteristic feature in cancer tissue and blood in breast cancer patients. However, there is no data about salivary SA in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary total sialic acid (TSA) levels in breast cancer patients who were under chemotheraphy. The study included 15 breast cancer patients in different stages and 10 healthy individuals as age-matched controls. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. Salivary total protein and SA levels were determined. Flow rate was calculated from salivary volume by the time of secretion. Salivary SA was significantly higher and total protein was lower in breast cancer patients compared to controls. It is concluded that sialylation may be increased in saliva of patients with breast cancer as the same way for cancer tissue and for blood . Increased salivary SA may therefore be useful as a non-invasive predictive marker for breast cancer patients and for the prevention and management of oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy to improve oral function and quality-of-life. The effects of different types of chemotherapies and different stages of the disease on salivary SA levels and salivary sialo-glycomic are worthy of being further investigated in breast cancer patients.

  13. Serum Uric Acid Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueping; Guo, Xiaoyan; Huang, Rui; Chen, Yongping; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Shang, Huifang

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum uric acid (UA) could exert neuro-protective effects against Alzheimer's disease (AD) via its antioxidant capacities. Many studies investigated serum UA levels in AD patients, but to date, results from these observational studies are conflicting. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to compare serum UA levels between AD patients and healthy controls by the random-effects model. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library databases from 1966 through July 2013 using the Medical Subject Headings and keywords without restriction in languages. Only case-control studies were included if they had data on serum UA levels in AD patients and healthy controls. Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test were applied to assess the potential publication bias. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Results A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria including 2708 participants were abstracted. Serum UA levels were not significantly different in AD patients compared to healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.23 to 0.22). Little evidence of publication bias was observed. Sensitivity analyses showed that the combined SMD was consistent every time omitting any one study, except only one study which greatly influenced the overall results. Meta-regression showed that year of publication, race, sample size, and mean age were not significant sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion Our meta-analysis of case-control studies suggests that serum UA levels do not differ significantly in AD patients, but there may be a trend toward decreased UA in AD after an appropriate interpretation. More well-designed investigations are needed to demonstrate the potential change of serum UA levels in AD patients. PMID:24714617

  14. Developmental and withdrawal effects of adolescent AAS exposure on the glutamatergic system in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2011-06-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) glutamate activity has been implicated in the modulation of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS)-induced aggression. The current study investigated the time course of adolescent AAS-induced neurodevelopmental and withdrawal effects on the glutamatergic system and examined whether these changes paralleled those of adolescent AAS-induced aggression. Glutamate activity in brain areas comprising the aggression circuit in hamsters and aggression levels were examined following 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of AAS treatment or 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks following the cessation of AAS exposure. In these studies glutamate activity was examined using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). The onset of aggression was observed following 2 weeks exposure to AAS and continued to increase showing maximal aggression levels after 4 weeks of AAS treatment. This aggressive phenotype was detected after 2 weeks of withdrawal from AAS. The time-course of AAS-induced changes in latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH)-VGLUT2 closely paralleled increases in aggression. Increases in LAH-VGLUT2 were first detected in animals exposed to AAS for 2 weeks and were maintained up to 3 weeks following the cessation of AAS treatment. AAS treatment also produced developmental and long-term alterations in VGLUT2 expression within other aggression areas. However, AAS-induced changes in glutamate activity within these regions did not coincide with changes in aggression. Together, these data indicate that adolescent AAS treatment leads to alterations in the glutamatergic system in brain areas implicated in aggression control, yet only alterations in LAH-glutamate parallel the time course of AAS-induced changes in the aggressive phenotype.

  15. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    and astronomy) who transitioned to being a freelance science writer. Wearing a distinctive bowler hat, Francis talked to a room full of students (and some non-students!) about what its like to be a science writer. Here are some highlights from among his recommendations and comments.A day in the life of a science writer.About the mechanics of freelancing:Some sample numbers: he wrote 73 articles in 2015, for 12 different publications. These vary in length and time invested. He supports himself fully by freelancing.The time between pitching a story and getting it published can vary between a few hours for online news stories to months for feature articles.The answer to the question, What do science writers do all day? (see photo)About transitioning into science writing:If youre interested in a science writing career, start blogging now to build up a portfolio.Use your training! As a researcher, you can read plots, understand scientific articles, and talk to scientists as colleagues. These are great strengths.About writing for the public:Theres a difference in writing for academics and the public: when writing for academics, youre trying to bring them up to your level. When writing for the public, thats probably not the goal.That said, on the subject of dumbing down: If you think your audience is somehow deficient, youve already failed.writing for the web: youll make fundamental spelling/grammar errors, youll find them only when you read the published post. Truth! #aas227 astrobites (@astrobites) January 8, 2016At the end of the session, Francis told us what he considers to be the best part of being a science writer: getting to tell people something that theyve never heard before. Getting it right is communicating a mundane fact to you that is an astounding surprise to your audience.Plenary Talk: News on the Search for Milky Way Satellite Galaxies (by Susanna Kohler)The second-to-last plenary talk of the meeting was given by Keith Bechtol, John Bahcall fellow at

  16. Production of yogurt with enhanced levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and valuable nutrients using lactic acid bacteria and germinated soybean extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Bum; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2007-05-01

    Yogurt with high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids and isoflavones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and germinated soybean extract. Fermented soya milk (GABA soya yogurt) produced with starter and substrate had the GABA concentration of 424.67 microg/gDW, whereas fermented milk produced by a conventional method had GABA less than 1.5 microg/gDW. The GABA soya yogurt also contained significantly high levels of free amino acids and isoflavones compared with other conventional yogurts. The results suggested that the Lactobacillus brevis OPY-1 and germinated soybean possessed a prospect to be applied in dairy and other health products with high nutritive values and functional properties.

  17. Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA).

    PubMed

    Behari, Jai Raj; Prakash, Rajiv

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (microg/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry with vapour generation assembly (AAS-VGA) is well known technique for the trace analysis of arsenic. However, total arsenic analysis [As(III)+As(V)] is very crucial and it requires reduction of As(V) to As(III) for correct analysis. As(III) is reduced to AsH3 vapours and finally to free As atoms, which are responsible for absorption signal in AAS. To accomplish this the vapour generation assembly attached to AAS has acid channel filled with 10 M HCl and the reduction channel with sodium borohydride. Further sample can be reduced either before aspiration for analysis, using potassium iodide (KI) or the sample can be introduced in the instrument directly and KI can be added in the reduction channel along with the sodium borohydride. The present work shows that samples prepared in 3 M HCl can be reduced with KI for 30 min before introduction in the instrument. Alternatively samples can be prepared in 6 M HCl and directly aspirated in AAS using KI in VGA reduction channel. The latter methodology is more useful when the sample size is large and time cycle is difficult to maintain. It is observed that the acid concentration of the sample in both the situations plays an important role. Further reduction in acid concentration and analysis time is achieved for the arsenic analysis by using modified method. Analysis in both the methods is sensitive at ppb level.

  18. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2(-/-) Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy.

  19. Separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace levels of inorganic Sb and Se from different sample matrices by charge transfer sensitized ion-pairing using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2016-10-01

    In the existing study, a new, simple and low cost process for separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace level of inorganic Sb and Se from natural waters, beverages and foods using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS, is proposed. The process is based on charge transfer sensitized complex formations of Sb(III) and Se(IV) with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride (Neutral red, NRH(+)) in presence of pyrogallol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as both sensitivity enhancement and counter ion at pH 6.0. Under the optimized reagent conditions, the calibration curves were highly linear in the ranges of 8-300ngL(-1) and 12-250ngL(-1) (r(2)≥0.993) for Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The limits of detection were 2.45 and 3.60ngL(-1) with sensitivity enhancement factors of 155 and 120, respectively. The recovery rate was higher than 96% with a relative standard deviation lower than 5.3% for five replicate measurements of 25, 75 and 150ngL(-1) Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs), and was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable speciation and determination of the contents of total Sb/Sb(III), and total Se/Se(IV) after UA-CPE of the pretreated sample matrices with and without pre-reduction with a mixture of l-cysteine and tartaric acid. Their Sb(V) and Se(VI) contents were calculated from the differences between total Sb and Sb(III) and/or total Se and Se(IV) levels.

  20. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation.

  1. The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Relationship with Serum Uric Acid Level in Uyghur Population

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wen; Song, Jiang-mei; Zhang, Bei; Sun, Yu-ping; Yao, Hua; Zhang, Yue-xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the association of serum uric acid level with NAFLD in Uygur people, Xinjiang. Methods. A total of 2241 Uyghur persons (1214 males and 1027 females) were interviewed for physical checkups from 2011 to 2012. The clinical data of questionnaire survey, body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipid, and serum uric acid level were collected for analysis. Results. The prevalence rates of NAFLD determined by abdominal ultrasound examination and hyperuricemia were 43.9% and 8.4%, respectively. The persons with NAFLD had significantly higher serum uric acid levels than those without NAFLD (320 ± 88 versus 254 ± 80 μmol/L; P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of NAFLD was significantly higher in subjects with hyperuricemia than that in those without hyperuricemia (78.19% versus 40.83%; P < 0.001), and the prevalence rate increased with progressively higher serum uric acid levels (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (odds ratio (OR): 2.628, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.608–4.294, and P < 0.001). Conclusion. Serum uric acid level was significantly associated with NAFLD, and the prevalence rate of NAFLD increased with progressively higher serum uric acid levels. PMID:24516367

  2. Effects of copper on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag; Kirbag, Sevda

    2007-07-01

    The effect of copperchloride (CuCl2) on the level of chlorophyll (a+b), proline, protein and abscisic acid in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were investigated Control and copper treated (0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mM) seedlings were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Abscisic acid content was determined in root, shoot and leaf tissues of seedlings by HPLC. Copper stress caused significant increase of the abscisic acid contents in roots, shoots and leaves of seedlings. The increase was dependent on the copper salt concentration. Enhanced accumulation of proline in the leaves of seedlings exposed to copper was determined, as well as a decrease of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was observed that the level of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) remarkably decreased as copper concentration increased to 0.6 mM, although the levels of proline and abscisic acid in the leaves of plants were increased--a dose-depended behavior The same trends were also observed with the level of abscisic acid of stems and roots. Copper has dose- depended effects on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Thus, we assumed that copper levels increase above some critical points seedling growth get negative effects. This assumption is in line with previous findings.

  3. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  4. Effects of allopurinol on plasma uric acid levels in normouricaemic and hyperuricaemic green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Divers, S J; Martinez-Jimenez, D; Bush, S; Latimer, K S; Zwart, P; Kroeze, E J B Veldhuis

    2008-01-26

    A two-phase cross-over therapeutic study was performed with 19 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) maintained within a preferred optimum temperature range of 26 to 37 degrees C. During phase 1, they were fed a normal vegetarian diet and medicated orally with either allopurinol or a placebo control once a day for seven days. Uric acid concentrations, total protein, packed-cell volumes (pcv) and bodyweights were recorded from each lizard before and after treatment to determine the effects of allopurinol. In phase 2, after a 10-day washout period, the iguanas were fed a high protein diet to induce hyperuricaemia. Normo- and hyperuricaemic iguanas that received 24.2 (3.2) mg/kg allopurinol had significantly lower mean (sd) uric acid concentrations (100.3 [53.1] micromol/l) than the controls (159.3 [100.3] micromol/l). There were no detectable interactions between the doses of allopurinol or placebo, and the iguanas' diet, weight, pcv or total protein. The allopurinol was well tolerated, and there was no significant clinical, gross or histological evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity in the iguanas that received the drug. However, in the kidneys of the hyperuricaemic iguanas that did not receive allopurinol there were proliferative changes in the glomeruli and degeneration of tubular epithelia. Allopurinol given orally at 25 mg/kg daily is able to reduce plasma uric acid levels by 41 to 45 per cent, and is therefore recommended for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in the green iguana.

  5. Intestinal epithelial cell caveolin 1 regulates fatty acid and lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Chieh; Quinlivan, Vanessa; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Farber, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Caveolae and their structural protein caveolin 1 (CAV1) have roles in cellular lipid processing and systemic lipid metabolism. Global deletion of CAV1 in mice results in insulin resistance and increases in atherogenic plasma lipids and cholesterol, but protects from diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. Despite the fundamental role of the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of dietary lipid processing and metabolism, the contributions of CAV1 to lipid metabolism in this tissue have never been directly investigated. In this study the cellular dynamics of intestinal Cav1 were visualized in zebrafish and the metabolic contributions of CAV1 were determined with mice lacking CAV1 in intestinal epithelial cells (CAV1IEC-KO). Live imaging of Cav1–GFP and fluorescently labeled caveolae cargos shows localization to the basolateral and lateral enterocyte plasma membrane (PM), suggesting Cav1 mediates transport between enterocytes and the submucosa. CAV1IEC-KO mice are protected from the elevation in circulating fasted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol associated with a high-fat diet (HFD), but have increased postprandial LDL cholesterol, total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The increase in circulating FAs in HFD CAV1IEC-KO mice is mirrored by decreased hepatic FAs, suggesting a non-cell-autonomous role for intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 in promoting hepatic FA storage. In conclusion, CAV1 regulates circulating LDL cholesterol and several FA species via the basolateral PM of enterocytes. These results point to intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 as a potential therapeutic target to lower circulating FFAs and LDL cholesterol, as high levels are associated with development of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:28130355

  6. On the cellular metabolism of the click chemistry probe 19-alkyne arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, Philippe Pierre; Poirier, Samuel J; Boudreau, Luc H; Doiron, Jérémie A; Barnett, David A; Boilard, Eric; Surette, Marc E

    2016-10-01

    Alkyne and azide analogs of natural compounds that can be coupled to sensitive tags by click chemistry are powerful tools to study biological processes. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a FA precursor to biologically active compounds. 19-Alkyne-AA (AA-alk) is a sensitive clickable AA analog; however, its use as a surrogate to study AA metabolism requires further evaluation. In this study, AA-alk metabolism was compared with that of AA in human cells. Jurkat cell uptake of AA was 2-fold greater than that of AA-alk, but significantly more AA-Alk was elongated to 22:4. AA and AA-alk incorporation into and remodeling between phospholipid (PL) classes was identical indicating equivalent CoA-independent AA-PL remodeling. Platelets stimulated in the pre-sence of AA-alk synthesized significantly less 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) and cyclooxygenase products than in the presence of AA. Ionophore-stimulated neutrophils produced significantly more 5-LOX products in the presence of AA-alk than AA. Neutrophils stimulated with only exogenous AA-alk produced significantly less 5-LOX products compared with AA, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-alk was 12-fold less potent at stimulating neutrophil migration than LTB4, collectively indicative of weaker leukotriene B4 receptor 1 agonist activity of LTB4-alk. Overall, these results suggest that the use of AA-alk as a surrogate for the study of AA metabolism should be carried out with caution.

  7. Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and total heat production of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Yen, J T; Nienaber, J A; Easter, R A

    2003-08-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a 16% CP diet, a 12% CP diet, or a 12% CP diet supplemented with crystalline Lys, Trp, and Thr (12% CP + AA diet) in a thermal-neutral (23 degrees C) or heat-stressed (33 degrees C) environment on various body and physiological measurements in growing pigs. Heat-stressed pigs were given a 15% lower daily feed allowance than thermal-neutral pigs to remove the confounding effect of feed intake caused by high temperature. No diet x temperature interaction was observed for any variables (P > 0.09) except for pig activity and pancreas weight. At 33 degrees C, pig activity and pancreas weight did not differ among dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In contrast, at 23 degrees C, pigs fed the 12% CP diet had greater activity than those fed the 16% CP diet or the 12% CP + AA diet (P < 0.05). Pancreas weight was greater for pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet than those fed the 12% CP diet (P < 0.05) when maintained at 23 degrees C. Compared with 23 degrees C, the 33 degrees C temperature decreased pig activity, heat production, daily gain, feed efficiency, and affected the concentration and accretion of empty body protein and ash, as well as weights of heart, pancreas, stomach, and large intestine (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet attained similar levels of performance and rates of empty body water, protein, lipid, and ash deposition as pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P > 0.10). Pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet had lower serum urea plus ammonia nitrogen concentrations (P < 0.01) and total heat production (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the 16% CP diet or the 12% CP diet. These results confirm that, with crystalline AA supplementation, growing pigs fed a 12% CP diet will perform similar to pigs fed a 16% CP diet. The data further indicate that lowering dietary CP and supplementing crystalline AA will decrease total heat production in growing pigs whether they are housed in a thermal-neutral or heat-stressed environment.

  8. ClC-7 expression levels critically regulate bone turnover, but not gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Supanchart, C; Wartosch, L; Schlack, C; Kühnisch, J; Felsenberg, D; Fuhrmann, J C; de Vernejoul, M-C; Jentsch, T J; Kornak, U

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the 2Cl(-)/1H(+)-exchanger ClC-7 impair osteoclast function and cause different types of osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis. However, it is unknown to what extent ClC-7 function has to be reduced to become rate-limiting for bone resorption. In osteoclasts from osteopetrosis patients expression of the mutated ClC-7 protein did not correlate with disease severity and resorption impairment. Therefore, a series of transgenic mice expressing ClC-7 in osteoclasts at different levels was generated. Crossing of these mice with Clcn7(-/-) mutants rescued the osteopetrotic phenotype to variable degrees. One resulting double transgenic line mimicked human autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. The trabecular bone of these mice showed a reduction of osteoblast numbers, osteoid, and osteoblast marker gene expression indicative of reduced osteoblast function. In osteoclasts from these mutants ClC-7 expression levels were 20 to 30% of wildtype levels. These reduced levels not only impaired resorptive activity, but also increased numbers, size and nucleus numbers of osteoclasts differentiated in vitro. Although ClC-7 was expressed in the stomach and PTH levels were high in Clcn7(-/-) mutants loss of ClC-7 did not entail a relevant elevation of gastric pH. In conclusion, we show that in our model a reduction of ClC-7 function by approximately 70% is sufficient to increase bone mass, but does not necessarily enhance bone formation. ClC-7 does not appear to be crucially involved in gastric acid secretion, which explains the absence of an osteopetrorickets phenotype in CLCN7-related osteopetrosis.

  9. A new classification of the amino acid side chains based on doublet acceptor energy levels.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, S F; Morgan, R S; Brooks, C L

    1988-01-01

    We describe a new classification of the amino acid side chains based on the potential energy level at which each will accept an extra (doublet) electron. The doublet acceptor energy level, and the doublet acceptor orbital were calculated using semiempirical INDO/2-UHF molecular orbital theory. The results of these calculations show that the side chains fall into four groups. We have termed these groups repulsive, insulating, semiconducting, and attractive in accordance with where each lies on the relative energy scale. We use this classification to examine the role of residues between the donor and acceptor in modulating the rate and mechanism of electron transfer in proteins. With the calculated acceptor levels, we construct a potential barrier for those residues between the donor and acceptor. It is the area beneath this barrier that determines the decay of electronic coupling between donor and acceptor, and thus the transfer rate. We have used this schematic approach to characterize the four electron transfer pathways in myoglobin recently studied by Mayo et al. (Mayo, S.L., W.R. Ellis, R.J. Crutchley, and H.B. Gray. 1986. Science [Wash. DC]. 233:948-952). PMID:3342271

  10. Effect of different levels of supplied cobalt on the fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Karlengen, Inger J; Taugbøl, Ole; Salbu, Brit; Aastveit, Are H; Harstad, Odd M

    2013-03-14

    In previous studies, administration of high amounts of Co decreased the proportion of MUFA in bovine milk. The present study was conducted to examine the amount of Co needed to obtain this effect. High-yielding dairy cows (n 4), equipped with ruminal cannulas, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The basal diet consisted of concentrate mixture (9 kg/d) without added Co and grass silage (ad libitum). The following four levels of Co were administrated as cobalt acetate dissolved in distilled water: no Co (treatment 1, T1); 4·0 mg Co/d (T2); 380 mg Co/d (T3); 5300 mg Co/d (T4). Each period lasted for 18 d, including 11 d of treatment. During the treatment periods, the solutions were continuously infused into the rumen. Milk yield and milk concentration of fat, fatty acids (FA), protein, lactose, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu were determined. Blood plasma was analysed with respect to FA, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu. Feed intake and total tract digestibility of feed components were also determined. There was a linear effect of increasing the level of Co on milk FA composition. The effects of Co on FA composition in blood were insignificant compared with the effects on milk. In milk fat, the concentration of cis-9-18 : 1 was reduced by as much as 38 % on T4 compared with T1. Feed intake and milk yield were negatively affected by increasing the Co level.

  11. Drought-Induced Increases in Abscisic Acid Levels in the Root Apex of Sunflower 1

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. Mason; Pharis, Richard P.; Huang, Yan Y.; Reid, David M.; Yeung, Edward C.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) levels in 3-mm apical root segments of slowly droughted sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv Russian Giant) were analyzed as the methyl ester by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using characteristic ions. An internal standard, hexadeuterated ABA (d6ABA) was used for quantitative analysis. Sunflower seedlings, grown in aeroponic chambers, were slowly droughted over a 7-day period. Drought stress increased ABA levels in the root tips at 24, 72, and 168 hour sample times. Control plants had 57 to 106 nanograms per gram ABA dry weight in the root tips (leaf water potential, −0.35 to −0.42 megapascals). The greatest increase in ABA, about 20-fold, was found after 72 hours of drought (leaf water potential, −1.34 to −1.47 megapascals). Levels of ABA also increased (about 7− to 54-fold) in 3-mm apical root segments which were excised and then allowed to dessicate for 1 hour at room temperature. PMID:16664535

  12. Urinary D-glucaric acid and serum hepatic enzyme levels in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tutor, J C; Alvarez-Prechous, A; Bernabeu, F; Pardiñas, M C; Paz, J M; Lareu, V

    1988-06-01

    Urinary D-glucaric acid (DGA) and the activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and other hepatic enzymes in serum were determined in 33 noncirrhotic male alcoholics who had continued to consume alcohol until at least 24 h prior to the taking of samples. DGA excretion was significantly greater in them than in a group of 30 healthy controls (p less than 0.001), exceeding the upper reference level in 38% of the alcoholic cases (as compared with 88% for GGT). In the alcoholic patients, there was highly significant correlation between urinary DGA and serum GGT (r = 0.613, p less than 0.001), suggesting that in both cases the increased levels are due to enzyme induction. None of the biochemical variables studied were significantly correlated with estimated daily alcohol consumption. Urinary DGA levels fell off rapidly with abstinence, and in 31 alcoholic patients who had consumed no alcohol for 5 days, there was no statistically significant correlation between DGA excretion and serum GGT (r = 0.158, p congruent to 0.4).

  13. Lipid-associated sialic acid levels in human breast cyst fluids.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Bocchiotti, G; Troccoli, R; Gazzanelli, G

    1992-01-01

    Benign mammary gross cystic disease is the most common breast lesion. Women with apocrine changes of epithelium lining the cysts are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than the normal female population. Sialic acid has drawn considerable interest because of carbohydrate aberrations in malignant cells. The current investigation determined the concentrations of lipid-associated sialic acid (LASA) in 62 breast cyst fluids and sera. Data analyses show a significant increase in the mean values of LASA in metabolically active apocrine cysts when compared to the cysts with Na+/K+ > 3 (flattened cysts) (p < 0.001). The greater LASA levels in cyst fluids with lower intracystic Na+/K+ ratios could represent an altered expression of biosynthetic activity of the surrounding apocrine cell surface sialoglycolipid metabolism, providing a possible explanation of why women with apocrine cysts may be at greater cancer risk and being useful in further studies on functional stage changes in the cysts and their relationship to breast cancer.

  14. [Ascorbic acid consumption and serum levels in smokers and non-smokers adult men in Hermosillo, Sonora, México].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Wyatt, C Jane; Saavedra, Javier; Ornelas, Alicia

    2002-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important antioxidant nutrients that can aid in the prevention of oxidative cellular damage. Adequate dietary intake is essential as humans can not synthesize this vitamin. It has been reported that smokers require higher dietary intakes to maintain their serum levels. The objective of this study was to determine serum levels of ascorbic acid in young male smokers and non smokers in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. In addition, their dietary intake of ascorbic acid was determined by a 24 h dietary recall. The dietary intake of ascorbic acid in 12 smokers was 64 +/- 11 mg/d and in 13 non smokers it was 70 +/- 12 mg/d. The smokers in this study did not meet the dietary recommendation of 100 mg/d. Serum ascorbic acid values in smokers and non smokers were 24.2 +/- 6.9 mumol/L and 30.9 +/- 3.7 mumol/L respectively. No significant difference was found among the 2 groups. Although the average serum ascorbic acid values fell within the range considered normal, 50% of the smokers had individual values that were below 23 mumol/L, indicating that these subjects have hipovitaminosis. A positive correlation between intake and serum levels was obtained for smokers (r = 0.71; p = 0.03). The results of this study suggest smokers may be at increased risk for chronic diseases due to their low intake and low serum levels of ascorbic acid.

  15. Increased plasma levels of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    About 350 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes (T2D). The major risk factor of T2D is impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) with 10% of pre-diabetes subjects develop T2D every year. Understanding of mechanisms of development of T2D from pre-diabetes is important for prevention and treatment of T2D. Chronic stress and chronic low grade inflammation are prominent risk factors for T2D development in pre-diabetic subjects. However, molecular mechanisms mediating effect of stress and inflammation on development of T2D from pre-diabetes remain unknown. One of such mechanisms might involve kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. We suggested that chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation-induced upregulation of formation of upstream KTP metabolites, KYN and 3-hydroxyKYN, combined with chronic stress or chronic low grade inflammation-induced deficiency of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, a cofactor of downstream enzymes of KTP, triggers overproduction of diabetogenic downstream KYN metabolites, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxyKYNA (also known as xanthurenic acid (XA)). As the initial assessment of our working hypothesis, we evaluated plasma levels of up- and down-stream KP metabolites in the same samples of T2D patients. KYN, XA and KYNA levels in plasma samples of T2D patients were higher than in samples of non-diabetic subjects. Our results provide further support of “kynurenine hypothesis of insulin resistance and its progression to T2D” that suggested that overproduction of diabetogenic KP metabolites, induced by chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation, is one of the mechanisms promoting development of T2D from pre-diabetes. Downstream metabolites of KP might serve as biomarkers of T2D and targets for clinical intervention. PMID:26055228

  16. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet.

  17. Value of random urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid levels in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuroblastoma: comparison with 24-hour urine collections.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Morris, C L; Ramnaraine, M L; Bowers, L D; Krivit, W

    1985-02-01

    Urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) levels were determined in random samples and in 24-hour collections from 13 patients with neuroblastoma and 22 patients without neuroblastoma. Random sample levels were compared with levels in 24-hour collections and showed a positive correlation of 95% for HVA (N = 59) and 93% for VMA (N = 52). No false positives or false negatives occurred using random samples for diagnosis. Nonneuroblastoma (normal) HVA (N = 126) and VMA (N = 119) levels are reported for different age groups. Sequential random HVA and VMA determinations in patients with neuroblastoma during and after therapy are shown. Random urinary HVA and VMA levels are shown to be adequate for utilization in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and sequential determinations of random HVA and VMA are shown to be helpful in the follow-up of those patients.

  18. Acanthoic acid, a diterpene in Acanthopanax koreanum, ameliorates the development of liver fibrosis via LXRs signals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ting; Yao, You-li; Jin, Xue-jun; Lian, Li-hua; Li, Qian; Yang, Ning; Jin, Quan; Wu, Yan-ling; Nan, Ji-xing

    2014-07-25

    Liver X receptors (LXRs)-mediated signals in acanthoic acid (AA) ameliorating liver fibrosis were examined in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mice and TGF-β stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). AA was isolated from the root of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae). CCl4-treated mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil (2 mL/kg for 8 weeks). In AA treated groups, mice were intragastrically administrated with AA (20 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Administration of AA reduced serum aminotransferase and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels evoked by CCl4, and the reverse of liver damage was further confirmed by histopathological staining. Administration of AA reduced the expression of fibrosis markers and regulated the ratio of MMP-13/TIMP-1, further reversed the development of liver fibrosis. TGF-β (5 ng/ml) was added to activate HSC-T6 cells for 2 h, and then treated with AA (1, 3, or 10 μmol/l) for 24 h before analysis. Cells were collected and proteins were extracted to detect the expressions of LXRs. AA could inhibit the expression of α-SMA stimulated by TGF-β and increase the expression of LXRβ. In vivo and in vitro experiments, AA could modulate liver fibrosis induced by CCl4-treatment via activation of LXRα and LXRβ, while inhibit HSCs activation only via activation of LXRβ. Acanthoic acid might ameliorate liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 via LXRs signals.

  19. Bacterial cellulose based hydrogel (BC-g-AA) and preliminary result of swelling behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hakam, Adil; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Abdul Rahman, I. Irman

    2013-11-27

    In this study, hydrogel based on Bacterial cellulose (BC) or local known as Nata de Coco, which grafted with monomer: Acrylic acid (AA) is synthesis by using gamma radiation technique. These hydrogel (BC-g-AA) has unique characteristic whereby responsive to pH buffer solution.

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL AND WITHDRAWAL EFFECTS OF ADOLESCENT AAS EXPOSURE ON THE GLUTAMATERGIC SYSTEM IN HAMSTERS

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) glutamate activity has been implicated in the modulation of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS)-induced aggression. The current study investigated the time course of adolescent AAS-induced neurodevelopmental and withdrawal effects on the glutamatergic system and examined whether these changes paralleled those of adolescent AAS-induced aggression. Glutamate activity in brain areas comprising the aggression circuit in hamsters and aggression were examined following 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of AAS treatment or 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the cessation of AAS exposure. In these studies glutamate activity was examined using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). The onset of aggression was observed following 2 weeks exposure to AAS and continued to increase showing maximal aggression levels after 4 weeks of AAS treatment. This aggressive phenotype was detected after 2 weeks of withdrawal from AAS. The time-course of AAS-induced changes in latero anterior hypothalamus (LAH)-VGLUT2 closely paralleled increases in aggression. Increases in LAH-VGLUT2 were first detected in animals exposed to AAS for 2 weeks and were maintained up to 3 weeks following the cessation of AAS treatment. AAS treatment also produced developmental and long-term alterations in VGLUT2 expression within other aggression areas. However, AAS-induced changes in glutamate activity within these regions did not coincide with changes in aggression. Together, these data indicate that adolescent AAS treatment leads to alterations in the glutamatergic system in brain areas implicated in aggression control, yet only alterations in LAH-glutamate parallel the time course of AAS-induced changes in the aggressive phenotype. PMID:21500881

  1. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  2. Sedimentation properties in density gradients correspond with levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, chromatin compaction and binding affinity to hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Forough; Binduraihem, Adel; Miller, David

    2017-03-01

    Mature spermatozoa bind hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix via hyaladherins. Immature spermatozoa may be unable to interact because they do not express the appropriate hyaladherins on their surface. Fresh human semen samples were fractionated using differential density gradient centrifugation (DDGC) and the ability of these fractions to bind hyaluronic acid was evaluated. The presence of sperm hyaladherins was also assessed. CD44 was located mainly on the acrosome and equatorial segment and became more restricted to the equatorial segment in capacitated spermatozoa. Hyaluronic acid-TRITC (hyaluronic acid conjugated with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanante), a generic hyaluronic-acid-binding reagent, labelled the membrane and the neck region, particularly after capacitation. Sperm populations obtained after DDGC or after interaction with hyaluronic acid were assessed for DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity. Strong relationships between both measures and sperm sedimentation and hyaluronic-acid-binding profiles were revealed. Capacitation enhanced hyaluronic acid binding of both DDGC-pelleted sperm and sperm washed free of seminal fluid. In conclusion, hyaladherins were detected on human sperm and a higher capacity for sperm hyaluronic-acid-binding was shown to correspond with their DDGC sedimentation profiles and with lower levels of DNA fragmentation and better chromatin maturity. Capacitation induced changes in the distribution and presence of hyaladherins may enhance hyaluronic-acid-binding.

  3. Plasma Elaidic Acid Level as Biomarker of Industrial Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Weight Change: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Scalbert, Augustin; Bueno de Mesquita, Bas; Romaguera, Dora; Gunter, Marc J.; Vineis, Paolo; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verana; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Huerta, Jose Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, Jose Ramon; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Sonested, Emily; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicolas J.; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow-up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region. Results In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97-1.56, p = 0.082) (p-trend<.0001). In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88-1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids. PMID:25675445

  4. A higher baseline plasma uric acid level is an independent predictor of arterial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao-Han; Wang, Xiaona; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei; Ye, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyperuricemia has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Though the association between uric acid (UA) and arterial stiffness has been investigated previously in patients with basic diseases, the predictive value of baseline UA level for arterial stiffness has not been conducted. We aimed at identifying the predictive role of UA for arterial stiffness prospectively. A longitudinal follow-up study in a routine health check-up population was performed with an average follow-up of 4.8 years. The demographic information, baseline and follow-up anthropometric parameters, arterial stiffness (pulse-wave velocity, PWV), and biomarker variables including UA have been measured and analyzed. A total of 1447 valid follow-ups were available for the final analysis. Both of the baseline and follow-up UA levels were significantly higher in the arterial stiffness groups than that in the nonarterial stiffness groups (all P values <0.001). The follow-up carotid-femoral PWV [(cf-PWV), r = 0.161, P < 0.001] was strongly correlated with baseline UA. At the follow-up cross-section, cf-PWV was also closely associated with UA (r = 0.101, P < 0.001). Logistic regressions revealed that a higher baseline UA level was an independent predictor of follow-up arterial stiffness assessed by cf-PWV [odds ratio (OR): 1.824; P = 0.046]. A higher baseline level of UA is closely related to arterial stiffness and is an independent predictor of arterial stiffening. PMID:28178136

  5. C-reactive protein and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein levels in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kwak, I; Iqbal, Z; Kociba, G; Mott, J; Chichanasiriwithaya, W

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate whether acute-phase protein responses occur in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were serially measured in the plasma of five dogs experimentally inoculated with E. canis and 10 sham-inoculated or noninoculated control dogs. The CRP concentration was measured by a canine-specific capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the AAG concentration was measured by a canine-specific radial immunodiffusion method. In all E. canis-inoculated dogs, a 3.3- to 6.5-fold increase in the plasma CRP concentration and a 1.9- to 8.6-fold increase in the plasma AAG concentration over the preinoculation level occurred at days 4 to 6 postexposure. Despite the persistence of E. canis and high antibody titers, both CRP and AAG concentrations gradually declined to preexposure levels by day 34 postexposure. E. canis-infected dogs had mild and transient clinical signs which resolved without treatment by day 14 postexposure. The CRP and AAG concentrations in control inoculated or nontreated dogs remained within the normal range throughout the experimental period. Of 12 dogs naturally infected with E. canis, 75% had greater than 50 micrograms of CRP per ml and 83% had greater than 500 micrograms of AAG per ml. All of these 12 dogs had chronic and severe clinical signs of canine ehrlichiosis. Thus, elevations in the levels of acute-phase proteins occur in both acute and chronic canine ehrlichiosis. Determination of CRP and AAG concentrations may help in assessing the severity of inflammatory damage in dogs with E. canis infections. PMID:8027343

  6. Trans fatty acids: current contents in Canadian foods and estimated intake levels for the Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M Nimal; L'Abbe, Mary R; Farnworth, Sara; Dumais, Lydia; Gagnon, Claude; Lampi, Brian; Casey, Valerie; Mohottalage, Dayani; Rondeau, Isabelle; Underhill, Lynne; Vigneault, Michele; Lillycrop, William; Meleta, Mary; Wong, Lynn Y; Ng, Tran; Gao, Yu; Kwong, Keri; Chalouh, Shirley; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Gunaratna, Hasantha; Rahardja, Adeline; Blagden, Richard; Roscoe, Veronica; Krakalovich, Thomas; Neumann, Gary; Lombaert, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Research conducted in the mid-1990s indicated that the levels of trans fats in Canadian diets were among the highest in the world. The consumption of trans fats raises blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, while reducing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. In June 2007, Health Canada called on the food industry to voluntarily reduce levels of trans fats in vegetable oils and soft (tub)-margarines to < 2% of total fat, and in all other foods, to < 5%. Industry must show satisfactory progress by June 2009, or Health Canada might have to introduce legislation to ensure that recommended limits are achieved. Since 2005, Health Canada has been performing a national assessment of prepackaged and restaurant foods that likely contain trans fats. From 2005 to 2009, 1120 samples were analyzed, of which 852 or approximately 76% met the recommended trans fat limits. As a result of reformulation, most of the products had decreased trans + saturated fat content. The estimated average intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) in Canada significantly dropped from the high value of 8.4 g/day in the mid-1990s to 3.4 g/day (or 1.4% food energy) in 2008. However, this TFA intake of 1.4% of energy is still above the World Health Organization recommended limit of TFA intake of < 1% of energy, which suggests that the Canadian food industry needs to put more effort into reducing the TFA content in its products, especially in tub-margarines, donuts, and bakery products.

  7. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    PubMed

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  8. Amino Acid Transport Associated to Cluster of Differentiation 98 Heavy Chain (CD98hc) Is at the Cross-road of Oxidative Stress and Amino Acid Availability.

    PubMed

    de la Ballina, Laura R; Cano-Crespo, Sara; González-Muñoz, Elena; Bial, Susanna; Estrach, Soline; Cailleteau, Laurence; Tissot, Floriane; Daniel, Hannelore; Zorzano, Antonio; Ginsberg, Mark H; Palacín, Manuel; Féral, Chloé C

    2016-04-29

    CD98hc functions as an amino acid (AA) transporter (together with another subunit) and integrin signaling enhancer. It is overexpressed in highly proliferative cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. CD98hc deletion induces strong impairment of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro Here, we investigate CD98hc-associated AA transport in cell survival and proliferation. By using chimeric versions of CD98hc, the two functions of the protein can be uncoupled. Although recovering the CD98hc AA transport capacity restores the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of CD98hc-null cells, reconstitution of the integrin signaling function of CD98hc is unable to restore in vitro proliferation of those cells. CD98hc-associated transporters (i.e. xCT, LAT1, and y(+)LAT2 in wild-type cells) are crucial to control reactive oxygen species and intracellular AA levels, thus sustaining cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, in CD98hc-null cells the deficiency of CD98hc/xCT cannot be compensated, leading to cell death by ferroptosis. Supplementation of culture media with β-mercaptoethanol rescues CD98hc-deficient cell survival. Under such conditions null cells show oxidative stress and intracellular AA imbalance and, consequently, limited proliferation. CD98hc-null cells also present reduced intracellular levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and ARO AAs, respectively) and induced expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Interestingly, external supply of dipeptides containing BCAAs and ARO AAs rescues cell proliferation and compensates for impaired uptake of CD98hc/LAT1 and CD98hc/y(+)LAT2. Our data establish CD98hc as a master protective gene at the cross-road of redox control and AA availability, making it a relevant therapeutic target in cancer.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces cardiovascular events: relationship with the EPA/arachidonic acid ratio.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Haruo; Saito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of fish oil and high-purity eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (hp-EPA-E) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. Fish oil contains saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that have pharmacological effects opposite to those of ω3 fatty acids (ω3). Moreover, ω3, such as EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), do not necessarily have the same metabolic and biological actions. This has obscured the clinical efficacy of ω3. Recently, the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) of hp-EPA-E established the clinical efficacy of EPA for CVD, and higher levels of blood EPA, not DHA, were found to be associated with a lower incidence of major coronary events. A significant reduction in the risk of coronary events was observed when the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (AA) (EPA/AA) was > 0.75. Furthermore, the ratio of prostaglandin (PG) I3 and PGI2 to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) ([PGI2 + PGI3]/TXA2) was determined to have a linear relationship with the EPA/AA ratio as follows: (PGI2 + PGI3)/TXA2 =λ + π* (EPA/AA). Like PGI2, PGI3 not only inhibits platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction, but also is assumed to reduce cardiac ischemic injury and arteriosclerosis and promote angiogenesis. Thus, the effects of EPA in reducing the risk of CVD could be mediated by biological action of PGI3 in addition to hypotriglyceridemic action of EPA. Compared with DHA, EPA administration increases the EPA/AA ratio and the (PGI2 + PGI3)/TXA2 balance to a state that inhibits the onset and/or progression of CVD.

  10. Serum free fatty acid levels in PCOS patients treated with glucophage, magnesium oxide and spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Muneyyirci-Delale, Ozgul; Kaplan, Julie; Joulak, Ibrahim; Yang, Lianfu; Von Gizycki, Hans; Nacharaju, Vijaya L

    2013-05-01

    To assess the effect of glucophage, magnesium oxide and spironolactone in altering free fatty acids (FFAs), 36 PCOS women were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 14) was treated with 500 mg glucophage po bid, group 2 (n = 10) was treated with 400 mg magnesium oxide po bid and group 3 (n = 12) was treated with 50 mg spironolactone po bid for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test with 75 g glucose load was performed before and after treatment, collecting blood at 0, 1 and 2 h for insulin, glucose, FFA and aldosterone. Amount of FFA before and after treatment were compared by repeated measure ANOVA and represented as area under the curve. FFA levels before treatment were 0.83 ± 0.23, 0.77 ± 0.15 and 0.85 ± 0.28 and after treatment were 0.77 ± 0.48, 0.71 ± 0.18 and 0.66 ± 0.25 for glucophage, magnesium oxide and spironolactone-treated patients, respectively. The FFA levels were unchanged in the groups treated with glucophage and magnesium oxide but were significantly (p < 0.03) decreased in the group treated with spironolactone. Since FFAs are known to be involved in the development of insulin resistance, these results suggest that spironolactone may be useful for lowering insulin resistance in PCOS patients.

  11. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  12. Early Effects of Boron Deficiency on Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase Levels of Squash Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Bohnsack, Charles W.; Albert, Luke S.

    1977-01-01

    The indoleacetic acid (IAA) oxidase activity of root tips of boron-sufficient, -deficient, recovering, and IAA-treated boron-sufficient squash plants (Cucurbita pepo L.) was determined. Apical and subapical root sections displayed an increase in IAA oxidase activity between 6 and 9 hours after boron was withheld, and after 24 hours the activity of the apical sections showed a 20-fold increase over +B controls. Root elongation of -B plants was inhibited before an increase in oxidase activity could be detected. Roots of plants subjected to 12 hours of -B treatment and then transferred to +B treatment for recovery regained normal elongation rates and oxidase activity within 18 to 20 hours. IAA treatment of +B plants increased IAA oxidase activity of apical and subapical root sections and also inhibited root elongation and caused symptoms similar to -B treatments. These results have demonstrated the earliest enzymic change for intact boron-deficient plants. The results are in agreement with the theory that boron deficiency symptoms may be the result of supraoptimal endogenous levels of IAA. These high levels of IAA may inhibit cell division and lead to an induction of the IAA oxidase enzyme. PMID:16659990

  13. The putative effects of D-Aspartic acid on blood testosterone levels: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Roshanzamir, Farzad; Safavi, Seyyed Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Background: D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) is in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues, where it carries out important physiological functions. Recently, it has been reported that D-Asp is involved in the synthesis and release of testosterone and is assumed can be used as a testosterone booster for infertile men, and by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence related to the effects of D-Asp on serum testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all type studies, which evaluated the effect of the D-Asp on blood testosterone including published papers until October 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest and Scopus database. Results: With 396 retrieved records, 23 animal studies and 4 human studies were included. In vivo and in vitro animal studies revealed the effect of D-Asp depending on species, sex and organ-specific. Our results showed that exogenous D-Asp enhances testosterone levels in male animal’s studies, whereas studies in human yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association in man is still sparse, mostly because of limited number and poor quality studies. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for more and well-designed human clinical trials with larger sample sizes and longer duration to investigate putative effects of D-Asp on testosterone concentrations. PMID:28280794

  14. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

  15. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both GA and OPA are widely used in disinfection of endoscopes and have been previously discussed, but there is little research on the practical use of PAA as an endoscope disinfectant. An experimental model of a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope being contaminated with 9 strains of microorganism was designed. After the cleaning and disinfecting procedure was completed, we evaluated the biocidal activity (850 ppm PAA, 2% GA, and 0.55% OPA) on our flexible gastrointestinal endoscope model. We also evaluated sterilization effectiveness of PAA on other bacteria, including some antibiotic-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile). The residual bacterial colony count number of the PAA-disinfected endoscope was significantly lower than that of the GA- and OPA-disinfected endoscopes. The biocidal effect and efficiency of the endoscope disinfection by PAA appeared to be better than either the GA- or OPA-disinfected endoscope. PAA has demonstrated a good sterilization effect on other bacterial species; of particular note are common antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile. The results of this study demonstrate that PAA is a fast and effective high-level disinfectant for use in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes.

  16. Effects of Rosuvastatin Alone or in Combination with Omega-3 Fatty Acid on Adiponectin Levels and Cardiometabolic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin is an important adipocyte-related protein that has been postulated to participate in prevention of the development of metabolic syndrome. The relationship between adiponectin serum levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been widely investigated and remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin and/or omega-3 fatty acid on adiponectin serum levels in patients with insulin resistance (IR) and CAD. Patients and Methods: This study involved 87 patients with CADs and IR of different etiology, the patients were divided into three groups; 24 patients on treatment with rosuvastatin, 22 patients on treatment with omega-3 fatty acid, 23 patients on treatment with omega-3 fatty acid and rosuvastatin, 18 patients were not previously or currently treated with either rosuvastatin or omega-3 fatty acid, those regarded as control patients. Anthropometric measures, adiponectin serum levels, and other biochemical parameters were assessed in each treated group. Results: Rosuvastatin therapy leads to a significant elevation in adiponectin serum levels from 4.1 ± 0.99 ng/mL to 6.76 ± 1.03 ng/mL compared to control P < 0.01. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy leads to a significant elevation in adiponectin serum levels from 4.1 ± 0.99 ng/mL to 6.11 ± 1.29 ng/mL compared to control P < 0.01. Rosuvastatin plus omega-3 fatty acid therapy lead to a significant elevation in adiponectin serum levels from 4.1 ± 0.99 ng/mL to 7.99 ± 1.76 ng/mL compared to control P < 0.01. Conclusions: Rosuvastatin and/or omega-3 fatty acid lead to significant cardiometabolic protection through an increment in adiponectin serum levels. PMID:28104968

  17. Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid suppresses Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Jintaek; Baik, Jung Eun; Kim, Kyoung Whun; Kang, Seok-Seong; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Jin; Kim, Hyun Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Periodontitis is caused by multi-bacterial infection and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Enterococcus faecalis are closely associated with inflammatory periodontal diseases. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa.LPS) and lipoteichoic acid of E. faecalis (Ef.LTA) are considered to be major virulence factors evoking inflammatory responses, their combinatorial effect on the induction of chemokines has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the interaction between Aa.LPS and Ef.LTA on IL-8 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Aa.LPS, but not Ef.LTA, substantially induced IL-8 expression at the protein and mRNA levels. Interestingly, Ef.LTA suppressed Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression without affecting the binding of Aa.LPS to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Ef.LTA reduced Aa.LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, including ERK, JNK and p38 kinase. Furthermore, Ef.LTA inhibited the Aa.LPS-induced transcriptional activities of the activating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappa B transcription factors, all of which are known to regulate IL-8 gene expression. Ef.LTA augmented the expression of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), a negative regulator of TLR intracellular signaling pathways, in the presence of Aa.LPS at both the mRNA and protein levels. Small interfering RNA silencing IRAK-M reversed the attenuation of Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression by Ef.LTA. Collectively, these results suggest that Ef.LTA down-regulates Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression in human PDL cells through up-regulation of the negative regulator IRAK-M.

  18. Antioxidant properties of 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Rie; Abe, Shigeki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Tai, Akihiro

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of a provitamin C agent, 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2betaG), was compared to that of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) and ascorbic acid (AA) using four in vitro methods, 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(*+))-scavenging assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis inhibition assay. AA-2betaG slowly and continuously scavenged DPPH radicals and ABTS(*+) in roughly the same reaction profiles as AA-2G, whereas AA quenched these radicals immediately. In the ORAC assay and the hemolysis inhibition assay, AA-2betaG showed similar overall activities to AA-2G and to AA, although the reactivity of AA-2betaG against the peroxyl radical generated in both assays was lower than that of AA-2G and AA. These data indicate that AA-2betaG had roughly the same radical-scavenging properties as AA-2G, and a comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity of AA-2betaG appeared to be comparable not only to that of AA-2G but also to that of AA.

  19. Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

    2013-02-01

    The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher

  20. Decreased plasma arachidonic acid binding capacity in neonates.

    PubMed

    Sadowitz, P D; Walenga, R W; Clark, D; Stuart, M J

    1987-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites have been implicated in neonatal pathologic states such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Since free (nonprotein bound) AA is the substrate for synthesis of these compounds, a decreased capacity to bind AA in neonatal plasma could contribute to these disorders. AA binding was assayed by equilibrium dialysis in plasma samples from healthy adults and various infant groups. Plasma from these infant groups bound significantly less AA than adult plasma. Premature infants with RDS and premature infants receiving intralipid had the lowest capacity to bind AA. The increased availability of free AA may be important in neonatal pathophysiologic states involving arachidonate metabolites.

  1. Rheological and functional properties of composite sweet potato - wheat dough as affected by transglutaminase and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ndayishimiye, Jean Bernard; Huang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yong-Zheng; Letsididi, Rebaone; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Tang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Effect of transglutaminase (TGM) and ascorbic acid (AA) on composite sweet potato - wheat dough functional and rheological properties was studied. Partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour at the level of 20 % significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced glutenin, gliadin, dough stability, protein weakening, storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mixolab revealed that both TGM and AA treated dough had stability and protein weakening closed to wheat dough (control), with TGM treated dough having the highest values. TGM Introduced new cross-link bonds as shown by the change of amino acid concentration, leading to an increase in storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″), with G' being higher at all levels of TGM concentration. The opposite was observed for composite dough treated with AA as measured by controlled - stress rheometer. TGM treatment increased glutenin and gliadin content. Compared with the control, dough treated with AA exhibited high molecular weight of polymers than TGM treated dough. The results indicate that the TGM and AA modification of the mixolab and dynamic rheological characteristics (G' and G″) dependent on the changes of GMP, glutenin, gliadin and protein weakening in the composite dough. TGM and AA treatment could improve functional and rheological properties of sweet potato - wheat dough to levels that might be achieved with normal wheat bread. However, it's extremely important to optimize the concentrations of both additives to obtain the optimum response.

  2. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  3. Effect of rosmarinic acid on sertoli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hajhosseini, Laleh; Khaki, Arash; Merat, Ehsan; Ainehchi, Nava

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid belongs to the group of polyphenols; it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and help to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. The objective was to study the effect of Rosmarinic acid on sertolli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after they were exposed to electromagnetic fields. Male Wistar rats (n=40) were allocated into three groups: control group (n=10) that received 5 cc normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily by gavage method, Rosmarinic acid group that received 5mg/rat (gavage) (n=10), electromagnetic fields (EMF) group that had exposure with 50 hz (n=20) which was subdivided to two groups of 10; EMF group and treatment group. Treatment group received 5mg/rat (gavage) Rosmarinic acid daily for 6 weeks, respectively. However, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (gavage). On the 42nd day of research, 5 cc blood was collected to measure testosterone hormones, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels from whole group's analysis. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and sertoli cells apoptosis significantly decreased in the group that received 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05) in comparison with experimental groups. Level of testosterone, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), significantly increased in groups that received Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05). Since in our study 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid showed significantly preventive effect on cell damages especial sertoli cells apoptosis that caused with EMF, it seems that using Rosmarinic acid as food additive can be effective for supporting people living under EMF environmental pollution.

  4. Alpha-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n-3 fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Murphy, Eric J

    2009-11-01

    There is little doubt regarding the essential nature of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), yet the capacity of dietary ALA to maintain adequate tissue levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids remains quite controversial. This simple point remains highly debated despite evidence that removal of dietary ALA promotes n-3 fatty acid inadequacy, including that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that many experiments demonstrate that dietary inclusion of ALA raises n-3 tissue fatty acid content, including DHA. Herein we propose, based upon our previous work and that of others, that ALA is elongated and desaturated in a tissue-dependent manner. One important concept is to recognize that ALA, like many other fatty acids, rapidly undergoes beta-oxidation and that the carbons are conserved and reused for synthesis of other products including cholesterol and fatty acids. This process and the differences between utilization of dietary DHA or liver-derived DHA as compared to ALA have led to the dogma that ALA is not a useful fatty acid for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 fatty acids, including DHA. Herein, we propose that indeed dietary ALA is a crucial dietary source of n-3 fatty acids and its dietary inclusion is critical for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 levels.

  5. CSF levels of heart fatty acid binding protein are altered during early phases of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chiasserini, Davide; Parnetti, Lucilla; Andreasson, Ulf; Zetterberg, Henrik; Giannandrea, David; Calabresi, Paolo; Blennow, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    Heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) has been proposed as a putative marker for dementia disorders. To evaluate the value of this protein as an early marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we analyzed HFABP level and the classical biomarkers amyloid-β (Aβ)1-42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) followed up for four years (n=41), AD (n=32), and subjects with other neurological diseases without dementia (OND, n=25). HFABP levels were higher in AD patients and in MCI converting to AD (MCI-AD) with respect to OND and to cognitively stable MCI patients (MCI-MCI). The receiver operator characteristics analysis for HFABP alone showed a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 81% for AD versus OND (area under the curve, AUC=0.83); sensitivity and specificity were 46% and 94%, respectively, when comparing MCI-MCI versus MCI-AD. CSF HFABP levels showed a strong positive correlation with both t-tau and p-tau. Interestingly, the ratio between HFABP and Aβ1-42 improved the performance in distinguishing AD from OND (sensitivity: 90%; specificity 82%, AUC=0.89), and gave the best accuracy in discriminating MCI-AD from MCI-MCI (sensitivity: 80%; specificity 100%, AUC=0.90). Survival analysis by means of Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significantly higher proportion of MCI patients converting to AD in the group with higher values of HFABP/Aβ1-42 ratio (cut-off=0.7). A significant correlation between HFABP/Aβ1-42 ratio and MMSE annual decrease rate was also documented (p<0.0001). HFABP /Aβ1-42 ratio might be a useful predictor of conversion in MCI patients.

  6. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a

  7. Predictors of urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and pentachlorophenol in 121 adults in Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited data exist on the driving factors that influence the non-occupational exposures of adults to pesticides using urinary biomonitoring. In this work, the objectives were to quantify the urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TC...

  8. A Study of Reverse Causation: Examining the Associations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Serum Levels with Two Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Radhika; Winquist, Andrea; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations.Background: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations. Objective: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations.Objective: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations. Methods: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30–65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29,499) in a highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley cohort. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a marker of kidney function) and serum PFOA concentration were measured in blood samples collected during 2005–2006. Retrospective year-specific serum PFOA estimates were modeled independently of measured PFOA based on residential history and plant emissions. Using measured and modeled PFOA in 2005 or 2006 (predictor variables), cross-sectional associations were assessed for eGFR and menopause (yes/no). We also analyzed measured PFOA (dependent variable) in relation to the number of years since menopause.Methods: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30–65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29

  9. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Agnes; Mfilinge, Prosper; Limbu, Samwel M.; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F = 6.19,  P = 0.001). The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F = 0.652,  P = 0.583). The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. PMID:25610654

  10. Ala54Thr polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene and saturated fat intake in relation to lipid levels and insulin resistance: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Fornage, Myriam; Loria, Catherine M.; Siscovick, David; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The Thr54 allele of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein Ala54Thr functional polymorphism (FABP2) is associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance. We determined the cross-sectional associations of the FABP2 gene with lipid levels and insulin resistance in 2148 participants who completed the year 20 exam of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. No significant difference in total cholesterol, low-density or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio, or HOMA-IR was found between FABP2 genotypes. However, in the presence of a high saturated fat diet (≥ 53.2 grams per day, the 90th percentile for the population), the AA/AG genotypes (carriers of the Thr54 allele) of FABP2 had statistically significantly higher levels of log(HOMA-IR) (p=0.006) and a lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio (p=0.03), and borderline statistically significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and log(triglycerides) (p-values = 0.08, 0.07, and 0.05, respectively) compared to those with the GG genotype (Ala54 homozygotes). Lipid levels and log(HOMA-IR) did not vary by genotype with saturated fat intake below 53.2 grams per day. Limiting dietary saturated fat intake may be particularly important among carriers of the A allele of FABP2. PMID:19439328

  11. Roles of various phospholipases A2 in providing lysophospholipid acceptors for fatty acid phospholipid incorporation and remodelling.

    PubMed Central

    Balsinde, Jesús

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the lysophospholipid sources for arachidonic (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) incorporation into and redistribution within the phospholipids of phorbol-ester-differentiated U937 cells was investigated. Initially, AA incorporated primarily into choline glycerophospholipids (PC), whereas EPA incorporated mainly into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (PE). Bromoenol lactone (BEL), an inhibitor of the Group VI Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), diminished both lysophosphatidylcholine levels and the incorporation of AA into phospholipids. However BEL had little effect on EPA incorporation. In concanavalin A-activated cells, EPA, but not AA, incorporation was also affected by methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP), suggesting an additional role for the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2. In the activated cells AA and EPA did not compete with each other for incorporation, indicating that the pathways for AA and EPA incorporation are partially different. The AA and EPA initially incorporated into PC slowly moved to PE in a process that took several hours. The transfer of AA and EPA from PC to PE was not inhibited by BEL, MAFP or LY311727 [3-(3-acetamide 1-benzyl-2-ethylindolyl-5-oxy)propanesulphonic acid], raising the possibility that an as-yet-undetermined phospholipase A2 may be involved in fatty acid phospholipid remodelling. A strong candidate to be involved in these reactions is a novel Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 that, unlike all known iPLA2s, is resistant to inhibition by BEL and also to MAFP and LY311727. The enzyme activity cleaves both PC and PE and is thus able to provide the lysoPC and lysoPE acceptors required for the fatty acid acylation reactions. PMID:12049633

  12. Acidification in the Adirondacks: defining the biota in trophic levels of 30 chemically diverse acid-impacted lakes.

    PubMed

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Boylen, Charles W; Eichler, Lawrence W; Harrison, James P; Sutherland, James W; Shaw, William; Daniels, Robert A; Charles, Donald F; Acker, Frank W; Sullivan, Timothy J; Momen, Bahram; Bukaveckas, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on species diversity, from bacteria through fish, essential for understanding the full impact of acidification on biota. Baseline midsummer chemistry and community composition are presented for a group of chemically diverse Adirondack lakes. Species richness of all trophic levels except bacteria is significantly correlated with lake acid-base chemistry. The loss of taxa observed per unit pH was similar: bacterial genera (2.50), bacterial classes (1.43), phytoplankton (3.97), rotifers (3.56), crustaceans (1.75), macrophytes (3.96), and fish (3.72). Specific pH criteria were applied to the communities to define and identify acid-tolerant (pH<5.0), acid-resistant (pH 5.0-5.6), and acid-sensitive (pH>5.6) species which could serve as indicators. Acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive categories are at end-points along the pH scale, significantly different at P<0.05; the acid-resistant category is the range of pH between these end-points, where community changes continually occur as the ecosystem moves in one direction or another. The biota acid tolerance classification (batc) system described herein provides a clear distinction between the taxonomic groups identified in these subcategories and can be used to evaluate the impact of acid deposition on different trophic levels of biological communities.

  13. Antiepileptic potential of matrine via regulation the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-12-05

    Our present study aimed to determine the antiepileptic activity of matrine, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of matrine, seizures in mice induced by PTZ and MES were established, then the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests in mice were also carried out. For the molecular mechanism investigations, contents of aspartic acid (Asp), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), glycine (Gly) in seizures mice were determined; then, the chronic seizures rats induced by PTZ were prepared, and western blotting was used to determine the expressions of GAD 65, GABAA and GABAB in the brains. In the results, matrine showed significant antiepileptic effects on seizures mice induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests were also demonstrated that matrine had obvious antiepileptic effects. Additionally, our results revealed that after treatment with matrine, contents of GABA can be elevated, and the contents of Glu were obviously decreased. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the mechanism regarding the antiepileptic effect of may be related to the up-regulations of GAD 65 and GABAA in the brain. Collectively, we suggested that matrine can be developed as an effective antiseptic drug.

  14. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-08-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeastern Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010, respectively. Speciation of organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates - from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were in focus. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), 12 organosulfates and 1 nitrooxy organosulfate were identified in aerosol samples from the two sites using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. At Station Nord, compound concentrations followed a distinct annual pattern, where high mean concentrations of organosulfates (47 ± 14 ng m-3) and organic acids (11.5 ± 4 ng m-3) were observed in January, February and March, contrary to considerably lower mean concentrations of organosulfates (2 ± 3 ng m-3) and organic acids (2.2 ± 1 ng m-3) observed during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain, organosulfate and organic acid concentrations remained relatively constant during most of the year at a mean concentration of 15 ± 4 ng m-3 and 3.9 ± 1 ng m-3, respectively. However during four weeks of spring, remarkably higher concentrations of total organosulfates (23-36 ng m-3) and total organic acids (7-10 ng m-3) were observed. Elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentrations coincided with the Arctic haze period at both stations, where northern Eurasia was identified as the main source region. Air mass transport from northern Eurasia to Zeppelin Mountain was associated with a 100% increase in the number of detected organosulfate species compared with periods of air mass transport from the Arctic Ocean, Scandinavia and Greenland. The results from this

  15. Effects of level of supplemental phytase on ileal digestibility of amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus in dehulled soybean meal for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Traylor, S L; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Knabe, D A

    2001-10-01

    Ileally cannulated pigs were used to assess the effects of four dietary levels of microbial phytase (Natuphos) on the apparent and true digestibility of Ca, P, CP, and AA in dehulled soybean meal. Fourteen pigs (25 kg initial BW) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum and assigned to diets in a replicated 7 x 7 Latin square design. Following a 14-d recovery, four diets consisting of 30.5% soybean meal with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 units of phytase/kg of diet were fed. Diets 5 (1.05% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.75% P) and 6 (1.05% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.75% P) contained 35.25% soybean meal and 27.0% soy protein concentrate, respectively. Diet 7 (0.37% lysine, 0.03% Ca, and 0.05% P) was a low-CP, casein-based diet used to estimate the nonspecific endogenous losses of Ca, P, CP, and AA in order to estimate the true digestibility of these nutrients. All diets contained cornstarch and dextrose and were fortified with vitamins and minerals. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible indicator. The diets were fed daily at 9% of metabolic BW (BW0.75). Apparent and true ileal digestibility of P increased quadratically (P < 0.01) and true digestibility of Ca increased linearly (P < 0.07) with increasing levels of phytase. Apparent digestibility of Ca was unaffected (P = 0.15) by phytase level. Apparent and true ileal digestibility of CP and most AA increased slightly with the addition of 500 units of phytase/kg of diet, but not at higher levels of phytase supplementation (in most cases, cubic effect, P < 0.05). Apparent and true ileal nutrient digestibility coefficients were unaffected by soybean meal source (Diet 1 vs Diet 5), except for arginine and Ca. The apparent and true digestibility coefficients for most of the AA tended (P < 0.10) to be lower in diets containing soy protein concentrate vs the common source of soybean meal used in Diet 5, but ileal digestibilities of Ca and P were unaffected (P = 0.15). In this study, supplemental microbial phytase

  16. Effects of dietary folic acid level and symbiotic folate production on fitness and development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Blatch, Sydella A; Meyer, Kyle W; Harrison, Jon F

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid is a vitamin for probably all animals. When converted to folate forms, it is used in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism. Literature suggests insects must consume folates, folates do not affect others, is a toxin for some, and that a few insects synthesize it. It has been reported that Drosophila melanogaster does not consistently need dietary folate because it can synthesize it. This seems unlikely since animals generally lack this ability. More likely, folates thought to have been made by the fly came from microbial symbionts. We aimed to clarify how dietary folic acid affects fitness and development in fruit flies and whether flies may receive folates from microbial symbionts. We found larvae were more viable and developed faster with increasing dietary folic acid, with the surprising exception that larvae fed nearly-zero folic acid developed faster. Their body folate levels did not significantly differ from those that consumed up to 600 times more folic acid. However, these flies fed little folate only achieved normal body folate levels and development times when antibiotics were excluded from the diet. When flies consumed near-zero folates with antibiotics, their body folate levels decreased and development was prolonged. An assay for the endosymbiont Wolbachia in flies used to generate the experimental flies did not show presence of these bacteria. Our data suggest D. melanogaster can harbor unknown bacterial symbiont(s) that provide essential folates to their host when it is scarce in the diet, allowing the fruit fly to maintain growth and development.

  17. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega-3 to unhealthy levels.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Andersen, J R; Våge, V; Rajalahti, T; Mjøs, S A; Kvalheim, O M

    2016-08-01

    Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls. During the next 3 weeks of treatment, the FA levels in lifestyle patients were unchanged, while the weight loss continued at almost the same rate as in the first 3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and change of serum FA patterns were unrelated outcomes of the intervention for lifestyle patients. For bariatric patients, these processes were associated probably due to reduced dietary input and increased input from the patients' own fat deposits, causing a higher rate of weight loss and simultaneous reduction of the ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid.

  18. Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaoyun; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang

    2014-01-15

    The origin of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) occurring in hydrosphere has long been a controversial issue. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs/HFCs) as replacements of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are precursors of TFA in the atmosphere, their contribution to rainwater TFA is a concern as their ambient mixing ratios are continually growing. Here we present rainwater TFA monitored from April 2007 to March 2008 in urban Guangzhou, a central city in south China's highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta region. Rainwater TFA levels ranged 45.8-974 ng L(-1) with a median of 166 ng L(-1). TFA levels negatively correlated with rainfall amount, the yearly rainfall-weighted average for TFA was 152 ng L(-1). The annual TFA wet deposition flux was estimated to be 229 g km(-2) yr(-1), and the total wet deposition of TFA reached ~1.7 tyr(-1) in Guangzhou. The Two-Box model was applied to estimate attributions of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers to rainwater TFA assuming TFA generated was proportional to gross domestic product (GDP), gross industrial product (GIP) or number of private cars. The results revealed that the degradation of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers could explain 131.5-152.4 ng L(-1) rainwater TFA, quite near the observed rainfall-weighted annual mean of 152 ng L(-1), suggesting rainwater TFA in Guangzhou was predominantly originated from these anthropogenic precursors. HCFCs/HFCs accounted for 83.3-96.5% of rainwater TFA observed, while fluoropolymers' contributions were minor (~5%). HFC-134a alone could explain 55.9-90.0% of rainwater TFA, and its contribution would be greatly enhanced with its wide use in mobile air conditioning systems and rapid increase in ambient mixing ratios.

  19. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance.

  20. Serum uric acid levels and freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ruwei; Cao, Bei; Wei, Qianqian; Hou, Yanbing; Xu, Yaqian; Song, Wei; Zhao, Bi; Shang, Huifang

    2017-03-01

    Uric acid (UA) is a natural antioxidant and iron scavenger in the human body, which has been hypothesized to exert an anti-oxidative effect in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum UA levels and freezing of gait (FOG) in PD. A total of 321 Chinese PD patients with fasting serum UA evaluated were included in the cross-sectional study. Demographics, clinical features, and therapeutic regimen were collected. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) stage were used to evaluate the severity of disease, and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scales were used to assess the cognitive function. Patients with FOG showed lower proportion of male, longer disease duration, lower body mass index, lower concentrations of serum UA, higher total levodopa equivalent daily dosage, higher UPDRS III score, greater median H and Y stage, lower scores of FAB and MoCA, and higher frequencies of motor fluctuation, dyskinesia, falls, and festination compared to patients without FOG (P < 0.05). The binary logistic regression model indicated that high UPDRS III score (OR = 1.049, P < 0.001), fluctuation (OR = 2.677, P = 0.035), dyskinesia (OR = 6.294, P = 0.003), festination (OR = 3.948, P < 0.001), falls (OR = 7.528, P < 0.001), and low serum UA levels (OR = 0.990, P < 0.001) were associated with FOG. Our study suggests that low serum UA concentration is associated with the occurrence of FOG in PD.

  1. Glycyrrhizic acid attenuates growth of Leishmania donovani by depleting ergosterol levels.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Neeradi; Neelagiri, Soumya; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Sushma

    2017-02-24

    In the present study, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) the main component of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its efficacy as antileishmanial agent and its mode of action explored. GA inhibits promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in a dose dependent manner at an IC50 value of 34 ± 3.0 μM and 20 ± 4.2 μM respectively. GA was non-toxic against THP-1 macrophage host cell line. GA was found to inhibit recombinant Leishmania donovani HMG-CoA reductase (LdHMGR) enzyme at the half-maximum inhibitory concentration of 24 ± 4.3 μM indicating the sensitivity and specificity of GA towards the enzyme. However, GA could cause only 30% reduction in HMGR activity when measured in Leishmania promastigotes treated with 34 μM of GA. Interestingly western blot analysis revealed fivefold reduced HMGR expression in GLA treated promastigotes. To further study the mode of action of GA, we used transgenic parasites overexpressing LdHMGR. Results indicated that ∼2 fold resistance was exhibited by LdHMGR overexpressing promastigotes to GA with an IC50 value of 74 μM compared to the wild type parasite. This explained the specific binding of GA to LdHMGR enzyme. There was ∼2 fold depletion in ergosterol levels in wild type promastigotes compared to the HMGR overexpressors. This data was further validated by exogenous supplementation of GA treated cells with ergosterol and 40% reversal of growth inhibition was observed. The results obtained suggested that GA kills the parasite by affecting sterol biosynthetic pathway, especially by inhibiting the L. donovani HMGR and altering ergosterol levels. The finding from the current study shows that GA is a potential antileishmanial chemotherapeutic agent.

  2. Deletions of the SACPD-C locus elevate seed stearic acid levels but also result in fatty acid and morphological alterations in nitrogen fixing nodules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are the primary source of edible oil in the United States. Despite its widespread utility, soybean oil is oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent chemical hydrogenation, a process which also generates trans fats. An alternative to chemical hydrogenation is genetic modification of seed oil through identification and introgression of mutant alleles. One target for improvement is the elevation of a saturated fat with no negative cardiovascular impacts, stearic acid, which typically constitutes a minute portion of seed oil (~3%). Results We examined radiation induced soybean mutants with moderately increased stearic acid (10-15% of seed oil, ~3-5 X the levels in wild-type soybean seeds) via comparative whole genome hybridization and genetic analysis. The deletion of one SACPD isoform encoding gene (SACPD-C) was perfectly correlated with moderate elevation of seed stearic acid content. However, SACPD-C deletion lines were also found to have altered nodule fatty acid composition and grossly altered morphology. Despite these defects, overall nodule accumulation and nitrogen fixation were unaffected, at least under laboratory conditions. Conclusions Although no yield penalty has been reported for moderate elevated seed stearic acid content in soybean seeds, our results demonstrate that genetic alteration of seed traits can have unforeseen pleiotropic consequences. We have identified a role for fatty acid biosynthesis, and SACPD activity in particular, in the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:24886084

  3. Effects of L- and iso-ascorbic acid on meat protein hydrolyzing activity of four commercial plant and three microbial protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Ha, Minh; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2014-04-15

    The present study investigated the effects of both l- and iso-ascorbic acid (AA) on the activity of four plant proteases (papain, bromelain, actinidin and zingibain) and three microbial proteases (Bacterial Protease G, Fungal 31,000 and Fungal 60,000) preparations using fluorescent-labelled casein, meat myofibrillar and connective tissue extracts to explore their effects on meat structure components upon treatment with individual proteases. While l-AA in the range 0.8-3.2mM inhibited the activity of papain, bromelain and zingibain, iso-AA acted as an inhibitor of papain but as an activator of zingibain and had no significant effect on bromelain. Both AA isoforms acted as an activator of the actinidin protease and the concentration of AA isoforms appeared to affect the level of activation of the protease. The effect of the two AA isoforms on collagen and myofibrillar protein hydrolyzing activity varied depending on the concentration of the two AA isoforms. The results indicate the ability to up and down regulate the activity of the investigated proteases by using an appropriate concentration of the AA isoform.

  4. Effect of dietary starch level and its rumen degradability on lamb meat fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria A; Alves, Susana P; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2017-01-01

    Forty lambs were fed one of four diets supplemented with a linseed and sunflower oil blend but differing in starch level (mid, ≈35 vs. high, ≈50%) and starch rumen degradability (mid, ≈70 vs. high, ≈80%). The effects of diet on growth, carcass traits and meat fatty acid (FA) composition, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates were evaluated. Lambs stayed on trial for 5weeks until slaughter. Treatment had no effect on animal performance and carcass traits. High-degradability diets decreased (P=0.04) meat shear force compared with mid-degradability diets. Lipid content of meat was unaffected by the diet. Mid-starch diets increased (P<0.05) the saturated FA and cis-MUFA but decreased (P<0.05) the trans-MUFA, particularly the t10-18:1, when compared with high-starch diets. The t11-18:1 (0.7% of total FA) and c9,t11-18:2 (<0.3%) remained low and the 18:3n-3 remained high (1.74%) and unaffected by diet.

  5. Risk assessment of plant food supplements and other herbal products containing aristolochic acids using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Rozaini; Diaz, Leolean Nyle; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-02-01

    After the incidences of induction of aristolochic acid nephropathy after consumption of herbal weight loss preparations that accidentally contained aristolochic acids (AAs), several countries defined national restrictions on the presence of AAs in food, including plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal products. This study investigates whether the risks associated with exposure to AAs via PFS and herbal products are at present indeed negligible. Data reported in literature on AA levels in PFS and other herbal products and also obtained from a new series of PFS in the present study were used to calculate the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and corresponding margins of exposure (MOEs). Available literature data revealed that 206 out of 573 samples were found to contain aristolochic acid I (AAI) and/or aristolochic acid II (AAII). The results obtained from recently collected PFS revealed that both AAI and AAII were detected in three out of 18 analysed PFS at levels up to 594.8 and 235.3 µg g(-1), respectively, being in line with the levels reported in literature. The EDIs resulting from intake of these PFS resulted in MOEs that were generally below 10,000, corroborating the priority for risk management. Although these results refer to PFS collected by targeted sampling strategies, the data reveal that AA-containing PFS are still freely available. When considering that the use of these samples may be limited to shorter periods of time, the EDIs might be lower, but MOE values would still be lower than 10,000 for more than 50% of the AA-containing PFS and herbal products. In conclusion, the presence of AAs in PFS and herbal products even several years after instalment of the legal restrictions still raises concern, especially for people who frequently use the respective PFS and herbal products.

  6. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  7. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia: a cohort study focused on cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Neider, Daniel; Lindström, Leif H; Bodén, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the association between 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bullying, and later suicide among patients with schizophrenia. Methods Ninety-nine patients with schizophrenia were included. Correlations of clinical factors, 5-HIAA and HVA, and later suicide were investigated. Results Twelve patients committed suicide (12%) during a 28-year follow-up period. Later suicide was correlated to bullying in childhood (P=0.02) and a lower quotient of HVA/5-HIAA in CSF (P<0.05). Conclusion Suicide in schizophrenia is related to childhood exposedness and CSF neurotransmitter levels. PMID:27468235

  8. Serum Uric Acid Level Predicts Progression of IgA Nephropathy in Females but Not in Males

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuya; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Nagatoya, Katsuyuki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Terumasa; Kuragano, Takayuki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of most common forms of glomerulonephritis. At this point, the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on IgAN is not clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on the progression of IgAN. Study Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 935 IgAN patients who were diagnosed by kidney biopsy at Osaka University Hospital, Osaka General Hospital, and Osaka Rosai Hospital. were included in this study. Predictor Uric acid levels at renal biopsy. Outcomes The outcome of interest was the time from the kidney biopsy to the time when a 50% increase in the baseline serum creatinine level was observed, which was defined as "progression". Measurements The baseline characteristics according to the kidney biopsy at the time of diagnosis were collected from the medical records, and included age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (use of antidiabetic drugs), serum levels of creatinine, urinary protein, smoking status, RAAS blockers and steroid therapy. Results An elevated serum uric acid level was an independent risk factor for progression in female patients (per 1.0 mg/dL, multivariate-adjusted incident rate ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval 1.07, 1.64], P = 0.008) but not in male patients (1.02 [0.81, 1.29], P = 0.855). To control a confounding effect of renal function on an association between serum uric acid level and progression in female patients, age- and serum creatinine-matched and propensity score-matched analyses were performed, and these results also supported the effect by uric acid on kidney disease progression independent of basal kidney function. Limitations A cohort analyzed retorospectively. Conclusions This study revealed that an elevated uric acid level was an independent risk factor for ESKD in female IgAN patients. Therefore, uric acid might be a treatable target in female IgAN patients. PMID:27560997

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  10. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Fujita, Misuzu; Yamato, Takako; Oumi, Masayo; Holst, Jens Juul; Seino, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome cluster of diseases. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet is associated with insulin resistance, which may be modulated by dietary fatty acid composition. We hypothesized that high saturated fatty acid intake increases insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) secretion. To clarify the effect of ingested fatty acid composition on glucose levels, we conducted an intervention study to investigate the insulin and plasma GIP responses in 11 healthy women, including a dietary control. Subjects were provided daily control meals (F-20; saturated fatty acids/monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids [S/M/P] ratio, 3:4:3) with 20 energy (E) % fat, followed by 2 isoenergetic experimental meals for 7 days each. These meals comprised 60 E% carbohydrate, 15 E% protein, and 30 E% fat (FB-30; high saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 5:4:1; F-30: reduced saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 3:4:3). On the second day of the F-20 and the last day of F-30 and FB-30, blood samples were taken before and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose responses did not differ between F-20 and FB-30 or F-30. However, insulin levels were higher after the FB-30 than after the F-20 (P < .01). The GIP response after the FB-30 was higher than that after the F-30 (P < .05). In addition, the difference in the incremental GIP between FB-30 and F-30 correlated significantly and positively with that of the insulin. These results suggest that a high saturated fatty acid content stimulates postprandial insulin release via increased GIP secretion.

  11. Aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest depends on ROS generation and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry C; Waltzer, Wayne C; Grollman, Arthur P; Rosenquist, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AAs) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adducts formation, is well documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. To better elucidate some aspects of this process, we studied cell cycle distribution and cell survival of renal epithelial cells treated with AAI at low and high doses. A low dose of AA induces cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase via activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathway ATM-Chk2-p53-p21. DNA damage signaling pathway is activated more likely via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by AA treatment then via DNA damage induced directly by AA. Higher AA concentration induced cell death partly via apoptosis. Since mitogen-activated protein kinases play an important role in cell survival, death and cell cycle progression, we assayed their function in AA-treated renal tubular epithelial cells. ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were activated in cells treated with AA. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 as well as suppression of ROS generation with N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint and a decline of apoptosis level. Cell cycle arrest may be a mechanism for DNA repair, cell survival and reprogramming of epithelial cells to the fibroblast type. An apoptosis of renal epithelial cells at higher AA dose might be necessary to provide space for newly reprogrammed fibrotic cells.

  12. Hydrogen isotopes in individual amino acids reflect differentiated pools of hydrogen from food and water in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Marilyn L.; Griffin, Patrick L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope (δ2H) analysis is widely used in animal ecology to study continental-scale movement because δ2H can trace precipitation and climate. To understand the biochemical underpinnings of how hydrogen is incorporated into biomolecules, we measured the δ2H of individual amino acids (AAs) in Escherichia coli cultured in glucose-based or complex tryptone-based media in waters with δ2H values ranging from −55‰ to +1,070‰. The δ2H values of AAs in tryptone spanned a range of ∼250‰. In E. coli grown on glucose, the range of δ2H among AAs was nearly 200‰. The relative distributions of δ2H of AAs were upheld in cultures grown in enriched waters. In E. coli grown on tryptone, the δ2H of nonessential AAs varied linearly with the δ2H of media water, whereas δ2H of essential AAs was nearly identical to δ2H in diet. Model calculations determined that as much as 46% of hydrogen in some nonessential AAs originated from water, whereas no more than 12% of hydrogen in essential AAs originated from water. These findings demonstrate that δ2H can route directly at the molecular level. We conclude that the patterns and distributions in δ2H of AAs are determined through biosynthetic reactions, suggesting that δ2H could become a new biosignature for studying novel microbial pathways. Our results also show that δ2H of AAs in an organism’s tissues provides a dual tracer for food and environmental (e.g., drinking) water. PMID:27444017

  13. Molecular simulation insights on the in vacuo adsorption of amino acids on graphene oxide surfaces with varying surface oxygen densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Farzin; Nouranian, Sasan; Mahdavi, Mina; Al-Ostaz, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    In this fundamental study, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were performed in vacuo to investigate the energetics and select geometries of 20 standard amino acids (AAs) on pristine graphene (PG) and graphene oxide (GO) surfaces as a function of graphene surface oxygen density. These interactions are of key interest to graphene/biomolecular systems. Our results indicate that aromatic AAs exhibit the strongest total interactions with the PG surfaces due to π-π stacking. Tryptophan (Trp) has the highest aromaticity due to its indole side chain and, hence, has the strongest interaction among all AAs (-16.66 kcal/mol). Aliphatic, polar, and charged AAs show various levels of affinity to the PG sheets depending on the strength of their side chain hydrophobic interactions. For example, arginine (Arg) with its guanidinium side chain exhibits the strongest interaction with the PG sheets (-13.81 kcal/mol) following aromatic AAs. Also, glycine (Gly; a polar AA) has the weakest interaction with the PG sheets (-7.29 kcal/mol). When oxygen-containing functional groups are added to the graphene sheets, the π-π stacking in aromatic AAs becomes disrupted and perfect parallelism of the aromatic rings is lost. Moreover, hydrogen bonding and/or electrostatic interactions become more pronounced. Charged AAs exhibit the strongest interactions with the GO surfaces. In general, the AA-GO interactions increase with increasing surface oxygen density, and the effect is more pronounced at higher O/C ratios. This study provides a quantitative measure of AA-graphene interactions for the design and tuning of biomolecular systems suitable for biosensing, drug delivery, and gene delivery applications.

  14. Differential levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in women with preeclampsia delivering male and female babies.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suchitra; Dhobale, Madhavi; Dangat, Kamini; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Lalwani, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-11-01

    Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) play a key role in fetal growth and development. This study for the first time examines the maternal and cord LCPUFA levels in preeclamptic mothers delivering male and female infants. In this study 122 normotensive control pregnant women (gestation≥37 weeks) and 90 women with preeclampsia were recruited. Results indicate lower maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels (p<0.05) in women with preeclampsia delivering male babies as compared to normotensive control women delivering male babies. Similarly, cord nervonic acid levels were lower (p<0.01) in women with preeclampsia delivering male babies as compared to normotensive control group. However, cord nervonic acid levels were comparable in women with preeclampsia and normotensive control women delivering female babies. This data suggests that male babies born to mothers with preeclampsia may be at an increased risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders as compared to female babies. Future studies need to follow up both male and female children born to mothers with preeclampsia since altered levels of LCPUFA at birth may have differential implications for the growth and development.

  15. Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Julia; Demmelmair, Hans; Hornstra, Gerard; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-02-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy not only improves maternal and neonatal DHA status, but often reduces gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels also, which may compromise foetal and infant development. The present study investigated the effects of a fish oil/evening primrose oil (FSO/EPO) blend (456 mg DHA/d and 353 mg GLA/d) compared to a placebo (mixture of habitual dietary fatty acids) on the plasma fatty acid (FA) composition in two groups of twenty non-pregnant women using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. FA were quantified in plasma total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and TAG at weeks 0, 4, 6 and 8. After 8 weeks of intervention, percentage changes from baseline values of plasma total lipid FA were significantly different between FSO/EPO and placebo for GLA (+49.9 % v. +2.1 %, means), DGLA (+13.8 % v. +0.7 %) and DHA (+59.6 % v. +5.5 %), while there was no significant difference for ARA ( - 2.2 % v. - 5.9 %). FA changes were largely comparable between plasma lipid fractions. In both groups three subjects reported mild adverse effects. As compared with placebo, FSO/EPO supplementation did not result in any physiologically relevant changes of safety parameters (blood cell count, liver enzymes). In women of childbearing age the tested FSO/EPO blend was well tolerated and appears safe. It increases plasma GLA, DGLA, and DHA levels without impairing ARA status. These data provide a basis for testing this FSO/EPO blend in pregnant women for its effects on maternal and neonatal FA status and infant development.

  16. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  17. Transcriptome analysis highlights changes in the leaves of maize plants cultivated in acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al(3+).

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Lucia; Begcy, Kevin; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Jorge, Renato A; Menossi, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Soil acidity limits crop yields worldwide and is a common result of aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity, which is known to inhibit root growth. Here, we compared the transcriptome of leaves from maize seedlings grown under control conditions (soil without free Al) and under acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al. This study reports, for the first time, the complex transcriptional changes that occur in the leaves of maize plants grown in acidic soil with phytotoxic levels of Al. Our data indicate that 668 genes were differentially expressed in the leaves of plants grown in acidic soil, which is significantly greater than that observed in our previous work with roots. Genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes were upregulated, although no specific transporter of organic acids was differentially expressed in leaves. We also provide evidence for positive roles for auxin and brassinosteroids in Al tolerance, whereas gibberellin and jasmonate may have negative roles. Our data indicate that plant responses to acidic soil with high Al content are not restricted to the root; tolerance mechanisms are also displayed in the aerial parts of the plant, thus indicating that the entire plant responds to stress.

  18. Type IV resistant starch increases cecum short chain fatty acids level in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Anioła, Jacek; Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Zaborowska, Zofia; Lewandowicz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Resistant starches are type of dietary fibers. However, their physiological effects depend on the way they resist digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that new type of RS4 preparations, of in vitro digestibility of about 50%, obtained by cross-linking and acetylation, acts as a prebiotic by increasing short chain fatty acids content in cecum digesta. The rats were fed with diet containing pregelatinized, cross-linked and acetylated starches as a main carbohydrate source. Pregelatinized, but not chemically modified, potato starch was used in the composition of the control diet. After two weeks of experiment the increase of short chain fatty acids contents in ceceum digesta was observed. The intake of starch A, cross-linked only with adipic acid, resulted in increase of about 40% of short chain fatty acids content, whereas starch PA cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate and adipic acid of about 50%. The utmost twofold increase was observed in the case of the production of propionic acid. In contrast, the content of butyric acid increased (12%) only as an effect of consumption of starch PA and even decreased (about 30%) in case of starch A. Both RS4 starches caused an increase of the production of acetic acid by more than 40%. No changes in serum biochemistry, liver cholesterol and organ weights of rats were stated.

  19. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  20. Childrens' Learning and Behaviour and the Association with Cheek Cell Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),…

  1. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-02-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS). A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA) and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA)), 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14) ng m-3, accounting for 7 (±2)% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3) ng m-3 (accounting for 1 (±1)% of total organic matter) observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4) ng m-3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6)% of total organic matter) in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1) ng m-3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4)% of total organic matter) during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  2. Colchicine use in isolated renal AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carlos F; Egües, César A; Uriarte, Miren; Belzunegui, Joaquín; Rezola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old woman, with two-year history of chronic renal insufficiency and proteinuria. A kidney biopsy showed the presence of AA amyloidosis (positive Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry). There was no evidence of amyloid deposits in other organs and there was no underlying disease. AA amyloidosis normally is secondary to chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases. High levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α play a role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis and induce the synthesis of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a precursor of tissue amyloid deposits. We empirically treated the patient with a low dose colchicine. The patient responded well. Colchicine has been used for the treatment of Familiar Mediterranean Fever and related auto-inflammatory diseases. To monitor treatment responses, we measured SAA finding low titers. Soon after treatment onset there were signs of improvement pertaining to proteinuria and stabilization of renal function.

  3. Health beneficial long chain omega-3 fatty acid levels in Australian lamb managed under extensive finishing systems.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Butler, Kym L; Jacob, Robin H; Pethick, David W; Ball, Alex J; Edwards, Janelle E Hocking; Geesink, Geert; Hopkins, David L

    2014-02-01

    The variation in levels of the health claimable long chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) across production regions of Australia was studied in 5726 lambs over 3 years completed in 87 slaughter groups. The median level of EPA plus DHA differed dramatically between locations and sometimes between slaughters from the same location. The ratio of EPA plus DHA from lambs with high values (97.5% quantile) to lambs with low values (2.5% quantile) also differed dramatically between locations, and between slaughters from the same location. Consistency between years, at a location, was less for the high to low value ratio of EPA plus DHA than for the median value of EPA plus DHA. To consistently obtain high levels of omega-3 fatty acids in Australian lamb, there must be a focus on lamb finishing diets which are likely to need a supply of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), the precursor for EPA and DHA.

  4. Determination of trace levels of haloacetic acids and perchlorate in drinking water by ion chromatography with direct injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjian; Mou, Shifen

    2003-05-16

    Disinfection by products of haloacetic acids and perchlorate pose significant health risks, even at low microg/l levels in drinking water. A new method for the simultaneous determination of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and perchlorate as well as some common anions in one run with ion chromatography was developed. The HAAs tested included mono-, di-, trichloroacetic acids, mono, di-, tribromoacetic acids, bromochloroacetic acid, dibromochloroacetic acid, and bromodichloroacetic acid. Two high-capacity anion-exchange columns, a carbonate-selective column and a hydroxide-selective hydrophilic one, were used for the investigation. With the carbonate-selective column, the nine HAAs as well as fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate could be well separated and determined in one run. With the very hydrophilic column and a gradient elution of sodium hydroxide, methanol and deionized water, the nine HAAs, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate as well as perchlorate could be simultaneously determined in one run within 34 min. The detection limits for HAAs were between 1.11 and 9.32 microg/l. For perchlorate, it was 0.60 microg/l.

  5. Effect of modification of the kilning regimen on levels of free ferulic acid and antioxidant activity in malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2011-09-14

    Barley phenolic antioxidants change in response to the kilning regimen used to prepare malt. Green malt was kilned using four different regimens. There were no major differences among the finished malts in parameters routinely used by the malting industry, including, moisture, color, and diastatic activity. Ferulic acid esterase activity and free ferulic acid were higher in malts subjected to the coolest kilning regimen, but malt ethyl acetate extracts (containing ferulic acid) contributed only ∼5% of the total malt antioxidant activity. Finished malt from the hottest kilning regimen possessed the highest antioxidant activity, attributed to higher levels of Maillard reaction products. Modifying kilning conditions leads to changes in release of bound ferulic acid and antioxidant activity with potential beneficial effects on flavor stability in malt and beer.

  6. Two Acyltransferases Contribute Differently to Linolenic Acid Levels in Seed Oil1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stymne, Sten

    2017-01-01

    Acyltransferases are key contributors to triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and, thus, are of great importance for seed oil quality. The effects of increased or decreased expression of ACYL-COENZYME A:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) or PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) on seed lipid composition were assessed in several Camelina sativa lines. Furthermore, in vitro assays of acyltransferases in microsomal fractions prepared from developing seeds of some of these lines were performed. Decreased expression of DGAT1 led to an increased percentage of 18:3n-3 without any change in total lipid content of the seed. The tri-18:3 TAG increase occurred predominantly in the cotyledon, as determined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry, whereas species with two 18:3n-3 acyl groups were elevated in both cotyledon and embryonal axis. PDAT overexpression led to a relative increase of 18:2n-6 at the expense of 18:3n-3, also without affecting the total lipid content. Differential distributions of TAG species also were observed in different parts of the seed. The microsomal assays revealed that C. sativa seeds have very high activity of diacylglycerol-phosphatidylcholine interconversion. The combination of analytical and biochemical data suggests that the higher 18:2n-6 content in the seed oil of the PDAT overexpressors is due to the channeling of fatty acids from phosphatidylcholine into TAG before being desaturated to 18:3n-3, caused by the high activity of PDAT in general and by PDAT specificity for 18:2n-6. The higher levels of 18:3n-3 in DGAT1-silencing lines are likely due to the compensatory activity of a TAG-synthesizing enzyme with specificity for this acyl group and more desaturation of acyl groups occurring on phosphatidylcholine. PMID:28235891

  7. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Harrell, John W; Johansson, Rebecca E; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-15

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise - rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and a greater reduction in MRT with AA infusion (r = -0.43, P = 0.02). We concluded that AA infusion during moderate-intensity, rhythmic forearm exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA.

  8. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  9. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid and other medium-chain fatty acids acutely reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Orabi, Benoit; Deranieh, Rania M; Dham, Manik; Hoeller, Oliver; Shimshoni, Jakob A; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Greenberg, Miriam L; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In our current study, we show that the reduction in phosphoinositide [PtdInsP (also known as PIP) and PtdInsP(2) (also known as PIP(2))] production caused by VPA is acute and dose dependent, and that this effect occurs independently of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, inositol recycling and inositol synthesis. In characterising the structural requirements for this effect, we also identify a family of medium-chain fatty acids that show increased efficacy compared with VPA. Within the group of active compounds is a little-studied group previously associated with seizure control, and analysis of two of these compounds (nonanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid) shows around a threefold enhanced potency compared with VPA for protection in an in vitro acute rat seizure model. Together, our data show that VPA and a newly identified group of medium-chain fatty acids reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol regulation, and suggest the reinvestigation of these compounds as treatments for epilepsy.

  10. The impact of a ketogenic diet and liver dysfunction on serum very long-chain fatty acids levels.

    PubMed

    Stradomska, T J; Bachański, M; Pawłowska, J; Syczewska, M; Stolarczyk, A; Tylki-Szymańska, A

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in mammalian cellular metabolism, particularly in oxidation fatty acid pathways. Serum very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), the main biochemical diagnostic parameters for peroxisomal disorders, were examined in 25 neurological patients with epilepsy on a ketogenic diet and 27 patients with liver dysfunction. The data show that patients on a ketogenic diet have increased levels of C22:0 and C24:0, but not C26:0, and normal C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0. Patients with liver insufficiency showed a slightly elevated level of C26:0, a normal level of C24:0 and a decreased level of C22:0; thus in 21/27 the ratio of C24:0/C22:0 was increased and 15/27 the ratio of C26:0/C22:0 was increased.

  11. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( < 0.001) for RC than for grass. For both forage species, 18:3-3 and TFA content decreased linearly ( < 0.001) with advancing growth stage, with the highest abundance at the vegetative stage. Most of lipid in fresh RC and grass herbage (97%) was esterified, whereas NEFA accounted for 71% of TFA in both silages. Ensiling resulted in marginal increases in TFA content and the amounts of individual fatty acids compared with fresh herbages. Herbage total PPO activity was higher ( < 0.001) for RC than grass (11 vs. 0.11 μkatal/g leaf fresh weight). Net lipolysis during ensiling was extensive for both forage species (660 to 759 g/kg fatty acid for grass and 563 to 737 g/kg fatty acid for RC). Formic acid application (0 vs. 6 L/t) resulted in a marked decrease ( = 0.026) in net lipolysis during the ensiling of RC, whereas the opposite was true ( = 0.026) for grass

  12. Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar contents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize shortday onions of 3 pungency levels with regard to the composition of flavor related compounds. A total of 9 onion breeding lines/cultivars were selected, per each of low, medium, and high pungency level, with pyruvic acid contents of 1.9 to 2.8, 4.8 to 5.4, and 7.2 to 8.3 micromoles/mL, respectively. The contents of flavor precursors (S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide [1-PeCSO] and S-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide [MCSO]), free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. The flavor precursor contents ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 mg/g fresh weight (FW) for MCSO, 0.07 to 0.65 mg for 1-PeCSO, and 0.12 to 0.77 mg in total, and precursor contents increased with the pungency levels. Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most abundant amino acids were glutamine and arginine. The total sugar contents ranged from 50 to 75 mg/g FW, and total S contents (3.5 to 5.1 mg/g dry weight) were not correlated with the pungency levels. However, pungency levels were correlated inversely with bulb weight and positively with SSC, presumably by the effect of dilution. This study indicates that onion pungency is primarily determined by the content of flavor precursor compounds and not by total S, total sugars, or individual/total free amino acids in shortday bulbs.

  13. Shallow hypothermia depends on the level of fatty acid unsaturation in adipose and liver tissues in a tropical heterothermic primate.

    PubMed

    Vuarin, Pauline; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Perret, Martine; Pifferi, Fabien

    2014-07-01

    Optimal levels of unsaturated fatty acids have positive impacts on the use of prolonged bouts of hypothermia in mammalian hibernators, which generally have to face low winter ambient temperatures. Unsaturated fatty acids can maintain the fluidity of fat and membrane phospholipids at low body temperatures. However, less attention has been paid to their role in the regulation of shallow hypothermia, and in tropical species, which may be challenged more by seasonal energetic and/or water shortages than by low temperatures. The present study assessed the relationship between the fatty acids content of white adipose and liver tissues and the expression of shallow hypothermia in a tropical heterothermic primate, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). The adipose tissue is the main tissue for fat storage and the liver is involved in lipid metabolism, so both tissues were expected to influence hypothermia dependence on fatty acids. As mouse lemurs largely avoid deep hypothermia (i.e. torpor) use under standard captive conditions, the expression of hypothermia was triggered by food-restricting experimental animals. Hypothermia depth increased with time, with a stronger increase for individuals that exhibited higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids suggesting that they were more flexible in their use of hypothermia. However these same animals delayed the use of long hypothermia bouts relative to individuals with a higher level of saturated fatty acids. This study evidences for the first time that body fatty acids unsaturation levels influence the regulation of body temperature not only in cold-exposed hibernators but also in tropical, facultative heterotherms.

  14. Mutations in a delta9-Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase Gene Are Associated with Enhanced Stearic Acid Levels in Soybean Seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Shanklin, J.; Burton, J. W.; Upchurch, R. G.; Whittle, E.; Dewey, R. E.

    2008-11-01

    Stearic acid (18:0) is typically a minor component of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil, accounting for only 2 to 4% of the total fatty acid content. Increasing stearic acid levels of soybean oil would lead to enhanced oxidative stability, potentially reducing the need for hydrogenation, a process leading to the formation of undesirable trans fatty acids. Although mutagenesis strategies have been successful in developing soybean germplasm with elevated 18:0 levels in the seed oil, the specific gene mutations responsible for this phenotype were not known. We report a newly identified soybean gene, designated SACPD-C, that encodes a unique isoform of {Delta}{sup 9}-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase, the enzyme responsible for converting stearic acid to oleic acid (18:1). High levels of SACPD-C transcript were only detected in developing seed tissue, suggesting that the encoded desaturase functions to enhance oleic acid biosynthetic capacity as the immature seed is actively engaged in triacylglycerol production and storage. The participation of SACPD-C in storage triacylglycerol synthesis is further supported by the observation of mutations in this gene in two independent sources of elevated 18:0 soybean germplasm, A6 (30% 18:0) and FAM94-41 (9% 18:0). A molecular marker diagnostic for the FAM94-41 SACPD-C gene mutation strictly associates with the elevated 18:0 phenotype in a segregating population, and could thus serve as a useful tool in the development of cultivars with oils possessing enhanced oxidative stability.

  15. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Ann-Caroline; Jacobs, Fernando Alvarado; Eliasson, Lennart

    1991-01-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  16. Nadroparin sodium activates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yalniz, Mehmet; Demirel, Ulvi; Orhan, Cemal; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim Halil; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Aygun, Cem; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Kazim

    2012-06-01

    Effects of nadroparin sodium, a low molecular weight heparin, in colitis was investigated by analyzing proteins implicated in nuclear factor E2-related factor-2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Twenty-eight rats were used. Colitis was induced by acetic acid (AA). Nadroparin sodium was given to prevention and treatment groups in addition to AA. Colitis was assessed histologically and levels of proteins were analyzed with Western blot. Nadroparin not only prevented and ameliorated the AA-induced colitis histopathologically but also decreased expression of colon NF-κB, activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6, which were significantly increased in group AA compared to control. The accumulation of Nrf2 in nuclear fraction and HO-1 found low in group AA was increased with nadroparin (p < 0.05). The mean malondialdehyde level increased with AA and was decreased significantly with nadroparin prevention and treatment (p < 0.001). Nadroparin sodium has both protective and therapeutic effects against colonic inflammation via exerting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects by modulating Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways.

  17. Aristolochic acid exposure in Romania and implications for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Dana; Jinga, Viorel; Harnden, Patricia; Banks, Rosamonde E; Blanche, Helene; Bihoreau, Marie-Therese; Chopard, Priscilia; Letourneau, Louis; Lathrop, G Mark; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aristolochic acid (AA) is a nephrotoxicant associated with AA nephropathy (AAN) and upper urothelial tract cancer (UUTC). Whole-genome sequences of 14 Romanian cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) recently exhibited mutational signatures consistent with AA exposure, although RCC had not been previously linked with AAN and AA exposure was previously reported only in localised rural areas. Methods: We performed mass spectrometric measurements of the aristolactam (AL) DNA adduct 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl) aristolactam I (dA-AL-I) in nontumour renal tissues of the 14 Romanian RCC cases and 15 cases from 3 other countries. Results: We detected dA-AL-I in the 14 Romanian cases at levels ranging from 0.7 to 27 adducts per 108 DNA bases, in line with levels reported in Asian and Balkan populations exposed through herbal remedies or food contamination. The 15 cases from other countries were negative. Interpretation: Although the source of exposure is uncertain and likely different in AAN regions than elsewhere, our results demonstrate that AA exposure in Romania exists outside localised AAN regions and provide further evidence implicating AA in RCC. PMID:26657656

  18. At the same hepatic amino acid load, portal infusion of amino acids is more efficient than peripheral infusion in stimulating liver protein synthesis in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Dardevet, Dominique; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S; Cherrington, Alan D; Rémond, Didier; DiCostanzo, Catherine A; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatic glucose uptake is enhanced by portal delivery of glucose which creates a negative arterio-portal substrate gradient. Hepatic amino acid (AA) utilization may be regulated by the same phenomenon, but this has not been proven. Objective We aimed to assess hepatic AA balance and protein synthesis with or without a negative arterio-portal AA gradient. Design Somatostatin was infused IV, and insulin and glucagon were replaced intraportally at 4- and 3-fold basal rates, respectively, in 3 groups (n=9 each) of conscious dogs with catheters for hepatic balance measurement. Arterial glucose concentrations were clamped at 9 mM. An AA mixture was infused IV to maintain basal concentrations (EuAA), intraportally to mimic the post-meal AA increase (PoAA), or IV (PeAA) to match the hepatic AA load in PoAA. Protein synthesis was assessed with a primed, continuous [14C]leucine infusion. Results Net hepatic glucose uptake in PoAA was ≤50% of that in EuAA and PeAA (P<0.05). The hepatic intracellular leucine concentration was 2- to 2.5-fold greater in PoAA and PeAA than EuAA (P<0.05); net hepatic leucine uptake and 14C leucine utilization were ≈2-fold greater (P<0.05) and albumin synthesis was 30% greater (P<0.05) in PoAA than EuAA and PeAA, Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (downstream of the mammalian target of Rapamycin complex 1 [mTORC1]) was significantly increased in PoAA, but not PeAA, vs EuAA. Conclusions Portal, but not peripheral, AA delivery significantly enhanced hepatic protein synthesis under conditions where AA, glucose, insulin and glucagon did not differ at the liver, an effect apparently mediated by mTORC1 signalling. PMID:18842785

  19. Osteo-maturation of adipose-derived stem cells required the combined action of vitamin D3, beta-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anurag; Leong, David Tai; Bai, Hui Fen; Singh, Shiv Brat; Lim, Thiam-Chye; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2007-10-12

    This study investigated the effects of various components [vitamin D3 (VD3), beta-glycerophosphate (BGP), and ascorbic acid (AA)] on the potential of human adipose-derived progenitor cells (ADPCs) to transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells. ADPCs were induced under four different supplement groups: (1) VD3+BGP+AA, (2) VD3 alone, (3) BGP+AA, and (4) no VD3, BGP or AA. Mineralization studies and presence of bone matrix-related proteins by immunostaining showed that the Group 1 ADPCs showed their ability to undergo osteoblastic differentiation. Further evaluation was made by estimation of levels of RUNX-2 and TAZ genes. Group 1 ADPCs showed the consistent expression of RUNX-2 and TAZ levels over the study period of 28days. The study showed good correlation among various parameters evaluated to conclude that ADPCs could be an alternative source for generating osteoblast-like cells.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of protein, on the performance of sows during first and subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 ± 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 ± 0.2 ...

  2. Comparison of physiological and acid-base balance response during uphill, level and downhill running performed at constant velocity.

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, M; Szymura, J; Szyguła, Z

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological and the acid-base balance response to running at various slope angles. Ten healthy men 22.3 ± 1.56 years old participated in the study. The study consisted of completing the graded test until exhaustion and three 45-minute runs. For the first 30 minutes, runs were performed with an intensity of approximately 50% VO2max, while in the final 15 minutes the slope angle of treadmill was adjusted (0°; +4.5°; -4.5°), and a fixed velocity of running was maintained. During concentric exercise, a significant increase in the levels of physiological indicators was reported; during eccentric exercise, a significant decrease in the level of the analyzed indicators was observed. Level running did not cause significant changes in the indicators of acid-base balance. The indicators of acid-base balance changed significantly in the case of concentric muscle work (in comparison to level running) and after the eccentric work, significant and beneficial changes were observed in most of the biochemical indicators. The downhill run can be used for a partial regeneration of the body during exercise, because during this kind of effort an improvement of running economy was observed, and this type of effort did not impair the acid-base balance of body.

  3. Method development for liquid chromatographic/triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis of trace level perfluorocarboxylic acids in articles of commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method to identify and quantify trace levels of C5 to C12 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in articles of commerce (AOC) is developed and rigorously validated. Solid samples were extracted in methanol, and liquid samples were diluted with a solvent consisting of 60...