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Sample records for acid amide derivatives

  1. Synthesis and proapoptotic activity of oleanolic acid derived amides.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lucie; Knorrscheidt, Anja; Flemming, Franziska; Wiemann, Jana; Sommerwerk, Sven; Pavel, Ioana Z; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Csuk, René

    2016-10-01

    Thirty-one different 3-O-acetyl-OA derived amides have been prepared and screened for their cytotoxic activity. In the SRB assays nearly all the carboxamides displayed good cytotoxicity in the low μM range for several human tumor cell lines. Low EC50 values were obtained especially for the picolinylamides 14-16, for a N-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl] derivative 27 and a N-[2-(pyrrolinyl)-ethyl] carboxamide 28. These compounds were submitted to an extensive biological testing and proved compound 15 to act mainly by an arrest of the tumor cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Cell death occurred by autophagy while compounds 27 and 28 triggered apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluations of (+)-isocampholenic acid-derived amides.

    PubMed

    Grošelj, Uroš; Golobič, Amalija; Knez, Damijan; Hrast, Martina; Gobec, Stanislav; Ričko, Sebastijan; Svete, Jurij

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of two novel (+)-isocampholenic acid-derived amines has been realized starting from commercially available (1S)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid. The novel amines as well as (+)-isocampholenic acid have been used as building blocks in the construction of a library of amides using various aliphatic, aromatic, and amino acid-derived coupling partners using BPC and CDI as activating agents. Amide derivatives have been assayed against several enzymes that hold potential for the development of new drugs to battle bacterial infections and Alzheimer's disease. Compounds 20c and 20e showed promising selective sub-micromolar inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] values [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively).

  3. In Vitro Anti-Toxoplasma gondii and Antimicrobial Activity of Amides Derived from Cinnamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Graziela Rangel; Campelo, Karoline Azerêdo; Lima, Gleice Rangel Silveira; Carvalho, Lais Pessanha; Samarão, Solange Silva; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Mathias, Leda; Matos, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Melo, Edesio José Tenório de; Maria, Edmilson José

    2018-03-28

    Most cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes, and alcohols present several therapeutic actions through anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and inhibitory activity against a great variety of microorganisms. In this work, eight amines derived from cinnamic acid were synthesized and tested against host cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii and the bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and three strains of Staphylococcus aureus . Compounds 3 and 4 showed the best result against intracellular T. gondii , presenting antiparasitic activity at low concentrations (0.38 and 0.77 mM). The antibacterial activity of these compounds was also evaluated by the agar microdilution method, and amides 2 and 5 had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 250 µg mL -1 against two strains of S. aureus (ATCC 25923 and bovine strain LSA 88). These also showed synergistic action along with a variety of antibiotics, demonstrating that amines derived from cinnamic acid have potential as pharmacological agents.

  4. New Umami Amides: Structure-Taste Relationship Studies of Cinnamic Acid Derived Amides and the Natural Occurrence of an Intense Umami Amide in Zanthoxylum piperitum.

    PubMed

    Frerot, Eric; Neirynck, Nathalie; Cayeux, Isabelle; Yuan, Yoyo Hui-Juan; Yuan, Yong-Ming

    2015-08-19

    A series of aromatic amides were synthesized from various acids and amines selected from naturally occurring structural frameworks. These synthetic amides were evaluated for umami taste in comparison with monosodium glutamate. The effect of the substitution pattern of both the acid and the amine parts on umami taste was investigated. The only intensely umami-tasting amides were those made from 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The amine part was more tolerant to structural changes. Amides bearing an alkyl- or alkoxy-substituted phenylethylamine residue displayed a clean umami taste as 20 ppm solutions in water. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a high quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC/MS) was subsequently used to show the natural occurrence of these amides. (E)-3-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)acrylamide was shown to occur in the roots and stems of Zanthoxylum piperitum, a plant of the family Rutaceae growing in Korea, Japan, and China.

  5. Synthesis of a Series of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Amide (CAPA) Fluorinated Derivatives: Comparison of Cytoprotective Effects to Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    the cinnamic acid phenyl ring. Although compound 4c proved to be very cytotoxic in HUVEC over a 24 h period, the toxicity is less apparent over a 5 h...drug development process, as it determines how much of the initial dose actually reaches the target site. Cinnamic acid -derived amides are known to...Synthesis of a series of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) fluorinated derivatives: Comparison of cytoprotective effects to caffeic acid phenethyl

  6. Synthesis of valproic acid amides of a melatonin derivative, a piracetam and amantadine for biological tests.

    PubMed

    Chatterjie, N; Alexander, G; Wang, H

    2001-10-01

    Three new amide derivatives of valproic acid have been synthesized and characterized by spectrophotometric studies. The rationale for the preparation of such agents has been based on the observation that chemical combination of the anticonvulsant pharmacophore, valproic acid with amine moieties produces more effective and less toxic amides. The amine components selected in this work also exhibit neuroactivity with the prospect of these agents being biologically active in controlling not just seizures and but also possessing neuroprotective properties. We report here the synthesis and properties of the valproylamides of 5-methoxytryptamine, related to melatonin (1), of N-substituted 2-pyrrolidinone related to piracetam (2), and of adamantylamine related to amantadine (3). In preliminary tests these compounds showed low toxicity and a variety of anticonvulsive properties, including a delay in onset of activity. These compounds and their derivatives are now available to be tested additionally for control of subclinical seizures, enhancement of cognition, behavior modification and alleviation of symptoms and disorders due to neuronal damage.

  7. Biomimetic L-aspartic acid-derived functional poly(ester amide)s for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Knight, Darryl K; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-08-01

    Functionalization of polymeric biomaterials permits the conjugation of cell signaling molecules capable of directing cell function. In this study, l-phenylalanine and l-aspartic acid were used to synthesize poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) with pendant carboxylic acid groups through an interfacial polycondensation approach. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cell (HCASMC) attachment, spreading and proliferation was observed on all PEA films. Vinculin expression at the cell periphery suggested that HCASMCs formed focal adhesions on the functional PEAs, while the absence of smooth muscle α-actin (SMαA) expression implied the cells adopted a proliferative phenotype. The PEAs were also electrospun to yield nanoscale three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds with average fiber diameters ranging from 130 to 294nm. Immunoblotting studies suggested a potential increase in SMαA and calponin expression from HCASMCs cultured on 3-D fibrous scaffolds when compared to 2-D films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and immunofluorescence demonstrated the conjugation of transforming growth factor-β1 to the surface of the functional PEA through the pendant carboxylic acid groups. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PEAs containing aspartic acid are viable biomaterials for further investigation in vascular tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Diols and Dicarboxylic Acids: From Polyesters to Poly(ester amide)s

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Angélica; Katsarava, Ramaz; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)s constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amide)s derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed. PMID:24776758

  9. Chemoselective amide formation using O-(4-nitrophenyl)hydroxylamines and pyruvic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sonali; Sharma, Rashi; Garcia, Megan; Kamel, Joseph; McCarthy, Caroline; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto

    2012-12-07

    A series of O-(4-nitrophenyl)hydroxylamines were synthesized from their respective oximes using a pulsed addition of excess NaBH(3)CN at pH 3 in 65-75% yield. Steric hindrance near the oxime functional group played a key role in both the ease by which the oxime could be reduced and the subsequent reactivity of the respective hydroxylamine. Reaction of the respective hydroxylamines with pyruvic acid derivatives generated the desired amides in good yields. A comparison of phenethylamine systems bearing different leaving groups revealed significant differences in the rates of these systems and suggested that the leaving group ability of the N-OR substituent plays an important role in determining their reactivity with pyruvic acid. Competition experiments (in 68% DMSO/phosphate buffered saline) using 1 equiv of N-phenethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)hydroxylamine and 2 equiv of pyruvic acid in the presence of other nucleophiles such as glycine, cysteine, phenol, hexanoic acid, and lysine demonstrated that significant chemoselectivity is present in this reaction. The results suggest that this chemoselective reaction can occur in the presence of excess α-amino acids, phenols, acids, thiols, and amines.

  10. Dehydroacetic Acid Derivatives Bearing Amide or Urea Moieties as Effective Anion Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bregović, Nikola; Cindro, Nikola; Bertoša, Branimir; Barišić, Dajana; Frkanec, Leo; Užarević, Krunoslav; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    Derivatives of dehydroacetic acid comprising amide or urea subunits have been synthesized and their anion-binding properties investigated. Among a series of halides and oxyanions, the studied compounds selectively bind acetate and dihydrogen phosphate in acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide. The corresponding complexation processes were characterized by means of 1 H NMR titrations, which revealed a 1:1 complex stoichiometry in most cases, with the exception of dihydrogen phosphate, which formed 2:1 (anion/ligand) complexes in acetonitrile. The complex stability constants were determined and are discussed with respect to the structural properties of the receptors, the hydrogen-bond-forming potential of the anions, and the characteristics of the solvents used. Based on the spectroscopic data and results of Monte Carlo simulations, the amide or urea groups were affirmed as the primary binding sites in all cases. The results of the computational methods indicate that an array of both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds can form in the studied systems, and these were shown to play an important role in defining the overall stability of the complexes. Solubility measurements were carried out in both solvents and the thermodynamics of transfer from acetonitrile to dimethyl sulfoxide were characterized on a quantitative level. This has afforded a detailed insight into the impact of the medium on the complexation reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Antimycobacterial activity generated by the amide coupling of (-)-fenchone derived aminoalcohol with cinnamic acids and analogues.

    PubMed

    Slavchev, Ivaylo; Dobrikov, Georgi M; Valcheva, Violeta; Ugrinova, Iva; Pasheva, Evdokia; Dimitrov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    Aminoethyl substituted 2-endo-fenchol prepared from (-)-fenchone was used as scaffold for the synthesis of series of 31 amide structures by N-acylation applying cinnamic acids and analogues. The evaluation of their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv showed for some of them promising activity-up to 0.2 μg/ml, combined with relatively low cytotoxicity of the selected active compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antitumor activity of newly synthesized oxo and ethylidene derivatives of bile acids and their amides and oxazolines.

    PubMed

    Bjedov, Srđan; Jakimov, Dimitar; Pilipović, Ana; Poša, Mihalj; Sakač, Marija

    2017-04-01

    Bile acid derivatives with modifications in side chain and modifications on steroid skeleton were synthetized and their antitumor activity against five human cancer cell lines was investigated. Modifications in side chain include amid group, formed in reaction with 2-amino-2-methylpropanol, and 4,4-dimethyloxazoline group, obtained after cyclization of amides. In the steroid skeleton oxo groups were introduced in position 7 (2, 2a, 2b) and 7,12 (3, 3a, 3b). Ethylidene groups were introduced regio- and stereoselectively on C-7, and/or without stereoselectivity on C-3 by Wittig reaction. By combination of these modifications, a series of 19 bile acid derivatives were synthesized. Compounds containing both C-7 ethylidene and C-12 carbonyl groups (6, 6a, 6b) shown very good antitumor activity with IC 50 <5µM. Altering carboxylic group to amide or oxazoline group has positive effect on cytotoxicity. Different molecular descriptors were determined in silico and after principal component analysis was found that molecular descriptor BLTF96 can be used for fast assessment of experimental cytotoxicity of bile acid derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Teratology study of derivatives of tetramethylcyclopropyl amide analogues of valproic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Akinobu; Onishi, Yuko; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Yagen, Boris; Sobol, Eyal; Bialer, Meir; Fujiwara, Michio

    2006-06-01

    Although valproic acid (VPA) is used extensively for treating various kinds of epilepsies, it is well known that it causes neural tube and skeletal defects in both humans and animals. The amide and urea derivatives of the tetramethylcylcopropyl VPA analogue, N-methoxy-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (N-methoxy-TMCD) and 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarbonylurea (TMC-urea), were synthesized and shown to have a more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA. The objective of this study was to investigate the teratogenic effects of these compounds in NMRI mice. Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of either VPA, N-methoxy-TMCD, or TMC-urea at 1.8 and 3.6 mmol/kg on gestation day (GD) 8. Cesarean section was performed on GD 18. First, the live fetuses were examined to detect any external malformations, then their skeletons were double-stained for bone and cartilage and subsequently examined. Significant increases in fetal losses and neural tube defects were observed with administration of VPA at 3.6 mmol/kg when compared to the vehicle control. In contrast, upon cesarean section, there were no significant differences between either N-methoxy-TMCD or TMC-urea and the control groups for any parameter. Skeletal examination revealed that a number of the abnormalities were induced by VPA dose-dependently at high rates of incidence. These abnormalities were mainly at the axial skeletal level. However, lower frequencies of skeletal abnormality were observed with N-methoxy-TMCD and TMC-urea than with VPA. In addition to their more potent antiepileptic activity, these findings clearly indicate that N-methoxy-TMCD and TMC-urea are distinctly less teratogenic than VPA in NMRI mice.

  14. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of cyclic amide/imide-bearing hydroxamic acid derivatives as class-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shinji, Chihiro; Maeda, Satoko; Imai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hiroyuki

    2006-11-15

    A series of hydroxamic acid derivatives bearing a cyclic amide/imide group as a linker and/or cap structure, prepared during our structural development studies based on thalidomide, showed class-selective potent histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that the steric character of the substituent introduced at the cyclic amide/imide nitrogen atom, the presence of the amide/imide carbonyl group, the hydroxamic acid structure, the shape of the linking group, and the distance between the zinc-binding hydroxamic acid group and the cap structure are all important for HDAC-inhibitory activity and class selectivity. A representative compound (30w) showed potent p21 promoter activity, comparable with that of trichostatin A (TSA), and its cytostatic activity against cells of the human prostate cell line LNCaP was more potent than that of the well-known HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA).

  15. Teratology study of amide derivatives of branched aliphatic carboxylic acids with 4-aminobenzensulfonamide in NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yuko; Okada, Akinobu; Noyori, Hiroko; Okamura, Ai; Hen, Naama; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Fujiwara, Michio

    2013-08-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), widely used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorders, and migraine prophylaxis, is known to cause neural tube and skeletal defects in humans and animals. Aminobenzensulfonamide derivatives of VPA with branched aliphatic carboxylic acids, namely 2-methyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-pentanamide (MSP), 2-ethyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-butyramide (ESB), 2-ethyl-4-methyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-pentanamide (EMSP), and 2-ethyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-benzyl)-butyramide (ESBB), have shown more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA in preclinical testing. Here, we investigated the teratogenic effects of these analogous compounds of VPA in NMRI mice. Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of either VPA at 1.8 or 3.6 mmol/kg, or MSP, ESB, EMSP, or ESBB at 1.8, 3.6, or 4.8 mmol/kg on gestation day (GD) 8. Cesarean section was performed on GD 18, and the live fetuses were examined for external and skeletal malformations. Compared with VPA, which induced neural tube defects (NTDs) in fetuses at 1.8 and 3.6 mmol/kg, the analog derivatives induced no NTDs at dose levels up to 4.8 mmol/kg (except for a single case of exencephaly at 4.8 mmol/kg MSP). Skeletal examination showed several abnormalities mainly at the axial skeletal level with VPA at 1.8 mmol/kg. Fused vertebrae and/or fused ribs were also observed with MSP, ESB, EMSP, and ESBB, they were less severe and seen at a lower incidence that those induced by VPA at the same dose level. In addition to exerting more potent preclinical antiepileptic activity, teratology comparison indicates that aminobenzensulfonamide analogs are generally more weakly teratogenic than VPA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Metal cation dependence of interactions with amino acids: bond dissociation energies of Rb(+) and Cs(+) to the acidic amino acids and their amide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, P B; Yang, Bo; Rodgers, M T

    2014-04-24

    Metal cation-amino acid interactions are key components controlling the secondary structure and biological function of proteins, enzymes, and macromolecular complexes comprising these species. Determination of pairwise interactions of alkali metal cations with amino acids provides a thermodynamic vocabulary that begins to quantify these fundamental processes. In the present work, we expand a systematic study of such interactions by examining rubidium and cesium cations binding with the acidic amino acids (AA), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu), and their amide derivatives, asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln). These eight complexes are formed using electrospray ionization and their bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are determined experimentally using threshold collision-induced dissociation with xenon in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. Analyses of the energy-dependent cross sections include consideration of unimolecular decay rates, internal energy of the reactant ions, and multiple ion-neutral collisions. Quantum chemical calculations are conducted at the B3LYP, MP2(full), and M06 levels of theory using def2-TZVPPD basis sets, with results showing reasonable agreement with experiment. At 0 and 298 K, most levels of theory predict that the ground-state conformers for M(+)(Asp) and M(+)(Asn) involve tridentate binding of the metal cation to the backbone carbonyl, amino, and side-chain carbonyl groups, although tridentate binding to the carboxylic acid group and side-chain carbonyl is competitive for M(+)(Asn). For the two longer side-chain amino acids, Glu and Gln, multiple structures are competitive. A comparison of these results to those for the smaller alkali cations, Na(+) and K(+), provides insight into the trends in binding energies associated with the molecular polarizability and dipole moment of the side chain. For all four metal cations, the BDEs are inversely correlated with the size of the metal cation and follow the order Asp < Glu

  17. Synthesis of Amide and Ester Derivatives of Cinnamic Acid and Its Analogs: Evaluation of Their Free Radical Scavenging and Monoamine Oxidase and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Toda, Kazuhiro; Saito, Takayuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid derivatives, amides (1-12) and esters (13-22), were synthesized, and structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activity, and monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were analyzed. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds 1-10, 12-18, and rosmarinic acid (23), which contained catechol, o-methoxyphenol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 9-11, 15, 17-22 showed potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity. Compound 20 was the most potent inhibitor of MAO-B. Compounds 18 and 21 showed moderate BChE inhibitory activity. In addition, compound 18 showed potent antioxidant activity and MAO-B inhibitory activity. In a comparison of the cinnamic acid amides and esters, the amides exhibited more potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity, while the esters showed stronger inhibitory activities against MAO-B and BChE. These results suggested that cinnamic acid derivatives such as compound 18, p-coumaric acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester, and compound 20, p-coumaric acid phenethyl ester, may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel MAO-B inhibitors and candidate lead compounds for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    D'Oca, Caroline Da Ros Montes; Coelho, Tatiane; Marinho, Tamara Germani; Hack, Carolina Rosa Lopes; Duarte, Rodrigo da Costa; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes

    2010-09-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new fatty acid amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:1 (OH), and 18:2 fatty acids families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time the activity of these compounds as antituberculosis agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, M. tuberculosis rifampicin resistance (ATCC 35338), and M. tuberculosis isoniazid resistance (ATCC 35822). The fatty acid amides derivate from ricinoleic acid were the most potent one among a series of tested compounds, with a MIC 6.25 microg/mL for resistance strains. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protecting‐Group‐Free Amidation of Amino Acids using Lewis Acid Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Marco T.; Karaluka, Valerija; Lanigan, Rachel M.; Boulton, Lee T.; Badland, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Amidation of unprotected amino acids has been investigated using a variety of ‘classical“ coupling reagents, stoichiometric or catalytic group(IV) metal salts, and boron Lewis acids. The scope of the reaction was explored through the attempted synthesis of amides derived from twenty natural, and several unnatural, amino acids, as well as a wide selection of primary and secondary amines. The study also examines the synthesis of medicinally relevant compounds, and the scalability of this direct amidation approach. Finally, we provide insight into the chemoselectivity observed in these reactions. PMID:29505683

  20. Quantitative determination of a synthetic amide derivative of gallic acid, SG-HQ2, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and its pharmacokinetics in rats.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Yong; Kang, Wonku

    2016-11-30

    An amide derivative of gallic acid (GA), 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-(8-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzamide) (SG-HQ2) was recently synthesized, and its inhibitory actions were previously shown on histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In this study, a simultaneous quantification method was developed for the determination of SG-HQ2 and its possible metabolite, GA, in rat plasma using liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile including diclofenac (internal standard, IS), the analytes were chromatographed on a reversed phased column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (60:40, v/v, including 0.1% formic acid). The ion transitions of the precursor to the product ion were principally protonated ion [M+H] + at m/z 313.2→160.6 for SG-HQ2, and deprotonated ions [M-H] - at m/z 168.7→124.9 for GA and 296.0→251.6 for the IS. The accuracy and precision of the assay were in accordance with FDA regulations for the validation of bioanalytical methods. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of SG-HQ2 after intravenous administration in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microorganisms hydrolyse amide bonds; knowledge enabling read-across of biodegradability of fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Roy; Kuijer, Patrick; van Ginkel, Cornelis G; Plugge, Caroline M

    2014-07-01

    To get insight in the biodegradation and potential read-across of fatty acid amides, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide were used as model compounds. Two bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PK1 and Pseudomonas putida PK2 were isolated with N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and its hydrolysis product N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, respectively. In mixed culture, both strains accomplished complete mineralization of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide. Aeromonas hydrophila PK3 was enriched with N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide and subsequently isolated using agar plates containing dodecanoate. N-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazine, the hydrolysis product of N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide, was not degraded. The aerobic biodegradation pathway for primary and secondary fatty acid amides of P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila involved initial hydrolysis of the amide bond producing ammonium, or amines, where the fatty acids formed were immediately metabolized. Complete mineralization of secondary fatty acid amides depended on the biodegradability of the released amine. Tertiary fatty acid amides were not transformed by P. aeruginosa or A. hydrophila. These strains were able to utilize all tested primary and secondary fatty acid amides independent of the amine structure and fatty acid. Read-across of previous reported ready biodegradability results of primary and secondary fatty acid amides is justified based on the broad substrate specificity and the initial hydrolytic attack of the two isolates PK1 and PK3.

  2. Synthesis, and anticonvulsant activity of new amides derived from 3-methyl- or 3-ethyl-3-methyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Obniska, Jolanta; Rapacz, Anna; Rybka, Sabina; Góra, Małgorzata; Kamiński, Krzysztof; Sałat, Kinga; Żmudzki, Paweł

    2016-04-15

    This paper describes the synthesis of the library of 22 new 3-methyl- and 3-ethyl-3-methyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetamides as potential anticonvulsant agents. The maximal electroshock (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure models were used for screening all the compounds. The 6 Hz model of pharmacoresistant limbic seizures was applied for studying selected derivatives. Six amides were chosen for pharmacological characterization of their antinociceptive activity in the formalin model of tonic pain as well as local anesthetic activity was assessed in mice. The pharmacological data indicate on the broad spectra of activity across the preclinical seizure models. Compounds 10 (ED50=32.08 mg/kg, MES test) and 9 (ED50=40.34 mg/kg, scPTZ test) demonstrated the highest potency. These compounds displayed considerably better safety profiles than clinically relevant antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, ethosuximide, or valproic acid. Several molecules showed antinociceptive and local anesthetic properties. The in vitro radioligand binding studies demonstrated that the influence on the sodium and calcium channels may be one of the essential mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Facile access to amides and hydroxamic acids directly from nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shreyans K; Aravinda Kumar, K A; Bharate, Sandip B; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2014-09-07

    A new method for synthesis of amides and hydroxamic acids from nitroarenes and aldehydes is described. The MnO2 catalyzed thermal deoxygenation of nitrobenzene resulted in formation of a reactive nitroso intermediate which on reaction with aldehydes provided amides and hydroxamic acids. The thermal neat reaction in the presence of 0.01 mmol KOH predominantly led to formation of hydroxamic acid whereas reaction in the presence of 1 mmol acetic acid produced amides as the only product.

  4. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ester and amide derivatives of titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Melánová, Klára, E-mail: klara.melanova@upce.cz; Beneš, Ludvík; Trchová, Miroslava

    2013-06-15

    A set of layered ester and amide derivatives of titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate was prepared by solvothermal treatment of amorphous titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate with corresponding 1-alkanols, 1,ω-alkanediols, 1-aminoalkanes, 1,ω-diaminoalkanes and 1,ω-amino alcohols and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Whereas alkyl chains with one functional group form bilayers tilted to the layers, 1,ω-diaminoalkanes and most of 1,ω-alkanediols form bridges connecting the adjacent layers. In the case of amino alcohols, the alkyl chains form bilayer and either hydroxyl or amino group is used for bonding. This simple method for the synthesis of ester and amide derivatives does not require preparationmore » of acid chloride derivative as a precursor or pre-intercalation with alkylamines and can be used also for the preparation of ester and amide derivatives of titanium carboxyethylphosphonate and zirconium carboxymethylphosphonate. - Graphical abstract: Ester and amide derivatives of layered titanium carboxymethylphosphonate were prepared by solvothermal treatment of amorphous solid with alkanol or alkylamine. - Highlights: • Ester and amide derivatives of titanium carboxymethylphosphonate. • Solvothermal treatment of amorphous solid with alkanol or alkylamine. • Ester and amide formation confirmed by IR spectroscopy.« less

  6. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  7. One-pot synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acid amides with anti-proliferative properties.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Hugo; St-Georges, Catherine; Legault, Marc-André; Morin, Caroline; Fortin, Samuel; Marsault, Eric

    2014-12-15

    A one-pot environmentally friendly transamidation of ω-3 fatty acid ethyl esters to amides and mono- or diacylglycerols was investigated via the use of a polymer-supported lipase. The method was used to synthesize a library of fatty acid monoglyceryl esters and amides. These new derivatives were found to have potent growth inhibition effects against A549 lung cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosynthesis, degradation, and pharmacological importance of the fatty acid amides

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Emma K.; Merkler, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of two biologically active fatty acid amides, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and oleamide, has generated a great deal of excitement and stimulated considerable research. However, anandamide and oleamide are merely the best-known and best-understood members of a much larger family of biologically-occurring fatty acid amides. In this review, we will outline which fatty acid amides have been isolated from mammalian sources, detail what is known about how these molecules are made and degraded in vivo, and highlight their potential for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:18598910

  9. Biosynthesis, degradation and pharmacological importance of the fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Emma K; Merkler, David J

    2008-07-01

    The identification of two biologically active fatty acid amides, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and oleamide, has generated a great deal of excitement and stimulated considerable research. However, anandamide and oleamide are merely the best-known and best-understood members of a much larger family of biologically occurring fatty acid amides. In this review, we will outline which fatty acid amides have been isolated from mammalian sources, detail what is known about how these molecules are made and degraded in vivo, and highlight their potential for the development of novel therapeutics.

  10. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity.

    PubMed

    Mofford, David M; Adams, Spencer T; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C

    2015-07-15

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain.

  11. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain. PMID:26120870

  12. C-terminal Amidation of an Osteocalcin-derived Peptide Promotes Hydroxyapatite Crystallization*

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Samaneh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Mountassif, Driss; Cerruti, Marta; Vali, Hojatollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-01-01

    Genesis of natural biocomposite-based materials, such as bone, cartilage, and teeth, involves interactions between organic and inorganic systems. Natural biopolymers, such as peptide motif sequences, can be used as a template to direct the nucleation and crystallization of hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, a natural motif sequence consisting of 13 amino acids present in the first helix of osteocalcin was selected based on its calcium binding ability and used as substrate for nucleation of HA crystals. The acidic (acidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSC)) and amidic (amidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSN)) forms of this sequence were synthesized to investigate the effects of different C termini on the process of biomineralization. Electron microscopy analyses show the formation of plate-like HA crystals with random size and shape in the presence of OSN. In contrast, spherical amorphous calcium phosphate is formed in the presence of OSC. Circular dichroism experiments indicate conformational changes of amidic peptide to an open and regular structure as a consequence of interaction with calcium and phosphate. There is no conformational change detectable in OSC. It is concluded that HA crystal formation, which only occurred in OSN, is attributable to C-terminal amidation of a natural peptide derived from osteocalcin. It is also proposed that natural peptides with the ability to promote biomineralization have the potential to be utilized in hard tissue regeneration. PMID:23362258

  13. Unexpected Hydrolytic Instability of N-Acylated Amino Acid Amides and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Remote amide bonds in simple N-acyl amino acid amide or peptide derivatives 1 can be surprisingly unstable hydrolytically, affording, in solution, variable amounts of 3 under mild acidic conditions, such as trifluoroacetic acid/water mixtures at room temperature. This observation has important implications for the synthesis of this class of compounds, which includes N-terminal-acylated peptides. We describe the factors contributing to this instability and how to predict and control it. The instability is a function of the remote acyl group, R2CO, four bonds away from the site of hydrolysis. Electron-rich acyl R2 groups accelerate this reaction. In the case of acyl groups derived from substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, the acceleration is predictable from the substituent’s Hammett σ value. N-Acyl dipeptides are also hydrolyzed under typical cleavage conditions. This suggests that unwanted peptide truncation may occur during synthesis or prolonged standing in solution when dipeptides or longer peptides are acylated on the N-terminus with electron-rich aromatic groups. When amide hydrolysis is an undesired secondary reaction, as can be the case in the trifluoroacetic acid-catalyzed cleavage of amino acid amide or peptide derivatives 1 from solid-phase resins, conditions are provided to minimize that hydrolysis. PMID:24617596

  14. Predicting protein amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuqiu; Yu, Hua; Gong, Xiujun

    2017-08-01

    Amidation is the fourth major category of post-translational modifications, which plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Identifying amidation sites can help us understanding the amidation and recognizing the original reason of many kinds of diseases. But the traditional experimental methods for predicting amidation sites are often time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we propose a computational method for predicting amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features. Three kinds of feature extraction methods are used to build a feature vector enabling to capture not only the physicochemical properties but also position related information of the amino acids. An extremely randomized trees algorithm is applied to choose the optimal features to remove redundancy and dependence among components of the feature vector by a supervised fashion. Finally the support vector machine classifier is used to label the amidation sites. When tested on an independent data set, it shows that the proposed method performs better than all the previous ones with the prediction accuracy of 0.962 at the Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.89 and area under curve of 0.964.

  15. Porphyrin amino acids-amide coupling, redox and photophysical properties of bis(porphyrin) amides.

    PubMed

    Melomedov, Jascha; Wünsche von Leupoldt, Anica; Meister, Michael; Laquai, Frédéric; Heinze, Katja

    2013-07-14

    New trans-AB2C meso-substituted porphyrin amino acid esters with meso-substituents of tunable electron withdrawing power (B = mesityl, 4-C6H4F, 4-C6H4CF3, C6F5) were prepared as free amines 3a-3d, as N-acetylated derivatives Ac-3a-Ac-3d and corresponding zinc(II) complexes Zn-Ac-3a-Zn-Ac-3d. Several amide-linked bis(porphyrins) with a tunable electron density at each porphyrin site were obtained from the amino porphyrin precursors by condensation reactions (4a-4d) and mono- and bis(zinc(II)) complexes Zn(2)-4d and Zn(1)Zn(2)-4d were prepared. The electronic interaction between individual porphyrin units in bis(porphyrins) 4 is probed by electrochemical experiments (CV, EPR), electronic absorption spectroscopy, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with DFT/PCM calculations on diamagnetic neutral bis(porphyrins) 4 and on respective charged mixed-valent radicals 4(+/-). The interaction via the -C6H4-NHCO-C6H4- bridge, the site of oxidation and reduction and the lowest excited singlet state S1, is tuned by the substituents on the individual porphyrins and the metalation state.

  16. Analysis of some chlorophenoxy acids and carbamate herbicides in water and soil as amide derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salem, A A

    2007-03-01

    A newly developed method for determining three phenoxy acids and one carbamate herbicide in water and soil samples using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection is developed. Phenoxy acids are derivatized through a condensation reaction with a suitable aromatic amine. 1,1-Carbonyldiimidazole is used as a condensation reagent. Derivatization conditions are optimized with respect to the amount of analyte, amine, solvent, and derivatization reagent. The optimum derivatization yield is accomplished in acetonitrile. 4-Methoxy aniline is used as a derivatizing agent. Obtained derivatives are stable indefinitely. Enhancement in sensitivity is achieved by using the single-ion monitoring mass spectrometric mode. The effectiveness of the developed method is tested by determining investigated compounds in water and soil samples. Analytes are concentrated from water samples using liquid-phase extraction and solid-phase extraction. Soil samples are extracted using methanol. Detection limits of 1.00, 50.00, 100.00, and 1.00 ng/mL are obtained for 2-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl methylcarbamate (Baygon), 2-(3-chlorophenoxy)-propionic acid (Cloprop), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid, respectively. LPE for spiked water samples yields recoveries in the range of 60.6-95.7%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.07-7.85% using single component calibration curves. Recoveries of 44.8-275.5%, with RSD values ranging from 1.43% to 8.61% were obtained using a mixed component calibration curves. SPE from water samples and soil samples showed low recoveries. The reason is attributed to the weak sorption capabilities of soil and Al(2)O(3).

  17. Reaction mechanism of the acidic hydrolysis of highly twisted amides: Rate acceleration caused by the twist of the amide bond.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Jon I; Formoso, Elena; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier

    2006-08-03

    We present an ab initio study of the acid hydrolysis of a highly twisted amide and a planar amide analogue. The aim of these studies is to investigate the effect that the twist of the amide bond has on the reaction barriers and mechanism of acid hydrolysis. Concerted and stepwise mechanisms were investigated using density functional theory and polarizable continuum model calculations. Remarkable differences were observed between the mechanism of twisted and planar amide, due mainly to the preference for N-protonation of the former and O-protonation of the latter. In addition, we were also able to determine that the hydrolytic mechanism of the twisted amide will be pH dependent. Thus, there is a preference for a stepwise mechanism with formation of an intermediate in the acid hydrolysis, whereas the neutral hydrolysis undergoes a concerted-type mechanism. There is a nice agreement between the characterized intermediate and available X-ray data and a good agreement with the kinetically estimated rate acceleration of hydrolysis with respect to analogous undistorted amide compounds. This work, along with previous ab initio calculations, describes a complex and rich chemistry for the hydrolysis of highly twisted amides as a function of pH. The theoretical data provided will allow for a better understanding of the available kinetic data of the rate acceleration of amides upon twisting and the relation of the observed rate acceleration with intrinsic differential reactivity upon loss of amide bond resonance.

  18. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacyl-ethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings.

  19. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    DOEpatents

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  20. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting under...

  2. Gas-Phase Amidation of Carboxylic Acids with Woodward’s Reagent K Ions

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhou; Pilo, Alice L.; Luongo, Carl A.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas-phase amidation of carboxylic acids in multiply-charged peptides is demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with Woodward’s reagent K (wrk) in both positive and negative mode. Woodward’s reagent K, N-ethyl-3-phenylisoxazolium-3′-sulfonate, is a commonly used reagent that activates carboxylates to form amide bonds with amines in solution. Here, we demonstrate that the analogous gas-phase chemistry occurs upon reaction of the wrk ions and doubly protonated (or doubly deprotonated) peptide ions containing the carboxylic acid functionality. The reaction involves the formation of the enol ester intermediate in the electrostatic complex. Upon collisional activation, the ethyl amine on the reagent is transferred to the activated carbonyl carbon on the peptide, resulting in the formation of an ethyl amide (addition of 27 Da to the peptide) with loss of a neutral ketene derivative. Further collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the products and comparison with solution-phase amidation product confirms the structure of the ethyl amide. PMID:26122523

  3. Fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters as cosmetic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Petter, P J

    1984-10-01

    Synopsis A review is given of the manufacture, properties and applications of the anionic surfactants commonly known as taurates and isethionates (fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters, respectively). Originally developed in the 1930s for textile processing, these surfactants are used increasingly in the cosmetic field, particularly those derived from coconut fatty acid. Both types are produced from sodium isethionate, HO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na. The acyl isethionate, R degrees COO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by reaction with a fatty acid ('direct process'). or fatty acid chloride ('indirect process'). The direct process is cheaper but requires extreme conditions which can lead to discoloration of the product and a loss of shorter chain fatty acid components. The N-methyl-N-acyltaurate, R degrees CON(R(1))C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by Schotten-Baumann reaction of a fatty acid chloride with N-methyltaurine, which is derived from sodium isethionate via methylamine. Taurates and isethionates retain the benefits of the soaps to which they are structurally similar, but chemical modifications have eliminated many undesirable features. Thus they combine good detergency and wetting with high foaming, and maintain their performance in hard or salt water. Taurates are stable to hydrolysis over the whole pH range. Isethionates are prone to hydrolysis at high (>8) or low (<5) pH, but this does not normally present a problem in cosmetic formulations. Above all, these surfactants are characterized by their extreme mildness to skin. Syndet and syndet/soap bars based on isethionate can be formulated at neutral pH ('Dove type'bars) instead of the alkaline pH of soap, and have been shown in various studies to be milder than soap and better tolerated by the young, the old and those with sensitive skins. Similarly, isethionates have been shown to be less irritating than other anionic or amphoteric surfactants used in cosmetics. The difference has been related to the

  4. Novel propanamides as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deplano, Alessandro; Morgillo, Carmine Marco; Demurtas, Monica; Björklund, Emmelie; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Svensson, Mona; Hashemian, Sanaz; Smaldone, Giovanni; Pedone, Emilia; Luque, F Javier; Cabiddu, Maria G; Novellino, Ettore; Fowler, Christopher J; Catalanotti, Bruno; Onnis, Valentina

    2017-08-18

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has a key role in the control of the cannabinoid signaling, through the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoids anandamide and in some tissues 2-arachidonoylglycerol. FAAH inhibition represents a promising strategy to activate the cannabinoid system, since it does not result in the psychotropic and peripheral side effects characterizing the agonists of the cannabinoid receptors. Here we present the discovery of a novel class of profen derivatives, the N-(heteroaryl)-2-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)propanamides, as FAAH inhibitors. Enzymatic assays showed potencies toward FAAH ranging from nanomolar to micromolar range, and the most compounds lack activity toward the two isoforms of cyclooxygenase. Extensive structure-activity studies and the definition of the binding mode for the lead compound of the series are also presented. Kinetic assays in rat and mouse FAAH on selected compounds of the series demonstrated that slight modifications of the chemical structure could influence the binding mode and give rise to competitive (TPA1) or non-competitive (TPA14) inhibition modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Simple amides of oleanolic acid as effective penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented.

  6. Simple Amides of Oleanolic Acid as Effective Penetration Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented. PMID:26010090

  7. Pain and beyond: fatty acid amides and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pillarisetti, Sivaram; Alexander, Christopher W; Khanna, Ish

    2009-12-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is responsible for the hydrolysis of several important endogenous fatty acid amides (FAAs), including anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Because specific FAAs interact with cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors, they are often referred to as 'endocannabinoids' or 'endovanilloids'. Initial interest in this area, therefore, has focused on developing FAAH inhibitors to augment the actions of FAAs and reduce pain. However, recent literature has shown that these FAAs - through interactions with unique receptors (extracellular and intracellular) - can induce a diverse array of effects that include appetite suppression, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, vasodilation, cardiac function and inflammation. This review gives an overview of FAAs and diverse FAAH inhibitors and their potential therapeutic utility in pain and non-pain indications.

  8. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydroboration of γ,δ-unsaturated amide derivatives: δ-borylated amides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, G L; Zhang, S; Takacs, J M

    2018-05-08

    γ,δ-Unsaturated amides in which the alkene moiety bears an aryl or heteroaryl substituent undergo regioselective rhodium-catalyzed δ-borylation by pinacolborane to afford chiral secondary benzylic boronic esters. The results contrast the γ-borylation of γ,δ-unsaturated amides in which the disubstituted alkene moiety bears only alkyl substituents; the reversal in regiochemistry is coupled with a reversal in the sense of π-facial selectivity.

  9. Selective Formation of Secondary Amides via the Copper-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Alkylboronic Acids with Primary Amides

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Steven A.; Shimkin, Kirk W.; Xu, Qun; Mori-Quiroz, Luis M.; Watson, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a general catalytic procedure for the cross coupling of primary amides and alkylboronic acids is demonstrated. The key to the success of this reaction was the identification of a mild base (NaOSiMe3) and oxidant (di-tert-butyl peroxide) to promote the copper-catalyzed reaction in high yield. This transformation provides a facile, high-yielding method for the mono-alkylation of amides. PMID:23611591

  10. Selective rhodium-catalyzed reduction of tertiary amides in amino acid esters and peptides.

    PubMed

    Das, Shoubhik; Li, Yuehui; Bornschein, Christoph; Pisiewicz, Sabine; Kiersch, Konstanze; Michalik, Dirk; Gallou, Fabrice; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-10-12

    Efficient reduction of the tertiary amide bond in amino acid derivatives and peptides is described. Functional group selectivity has been achieved by applying a commercially available rhodium precursor and bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (dppp) ligand together with phenyl silane as a reductant. This methodology allows for specific reductive derivatization of biologically interesting peptides and offers straightforward access to a variety of novel peptide derivatives for chemical biology studies and potential pharmaceutical applications. The catalytic system tolerates a variety of functional groups including secondary amides, ester, nitrile, thiomethyl, and hydroxy groups. This convenient hydrosilylation reaction proceeds at ambient conditions and is operationally safe because no air-sensitive reagents or highly reactive metal hydrides are needed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Properties of Ferrocenyl Bis-Amide Derivatives Yielded via the Ugi Four-Component Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Shao, Guang-Kui; Huang, Dan-Dan; Lv, Xue-Xin; Guo, Dian-Shun

    2017-05-04

    Ten ferrocenyl bis-amide derivatives were successfully synthesized via the Ugi four-component reaction by treating ferrocenecarboxylic acid with diverse aldehydes, amines, and isocyanides in methanol solution. Their chemical structures were fully characterized by IR, NMR, HR-MS, and X-ray diffraction analyses. They feature unique molecular morphologies and create a 14-membered ring motif in the centro-symmetric dimers generated in the solid state. Moreover, the electrochemical behavior of these ferrocenyl bis-amides was assessed by cyclic voltammetry.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of bile acid amides of [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbenes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Devesh S; Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Lohitesh, K; Jha, Prabhat N; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Sakhuja, Rajeev

    2017-12-13

    A series of amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene derivatives and their bile acid (cholic and deoxycholic acid) amides were designed and synthesized. A comparative study on the anticancer and antibacterial activity evaluation on the synthesized analogs was carried against the human osteosarcoma (HOS) cancer cell line, and two gram -ve (E. coli and S. typhi) and two gram [Formula: see text]ve (B. subtilis and S. aureus) bacterial strains. All the cholic acid [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene amides showed an [Formula: see text] in the range 2-13 [Formula: see text] against human osteosarcoma cells (HOS) with the most active analog (6g) possessing an [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]. One of the amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene, 4e, was found to possess an [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]. An increase in the number of cells at the sub-[Formula: see text] phase of the cell was observed in the in vitro cell cycle analysis of two most active compounds in the series (4e, 6g) suggesting a clear indication toward induction of apoptotic cascade. With respect to antibacterial screening, amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbenes were found to be more active than their corresponding bile acid amides. The synthesized compounds were also subjected to in silico study to predict their physiochemical properties and drug-likeness score.

  13. [Psychoactive effects of 'legal high': About lysergic acid amide (LSA)].

    PubMed

    Ponté, Camille; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2017-10-01

    Lysergic acid amide (LSA) is a natural psychoactive substance consumed as a psychedelic drug. In 2016, 4 cases were reported to the Toulouse Addictovigilance Centre, resulting in unintended psychic effects and led to a hospitalisation in 2 cases. Other cases of serious LSA intoxication are published, including a death. It is important to inform about the risks related to LSA consumption, a substance which is freely available and sometimes hidden behind various plant names. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation and identification of fatty acid amides from Shengli coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ming-Jie Ding; Zhi-Min Zong; Ying Zong

    Shengli coal, a Chinese brown coal, was extracted with carbon disulfide and the extract was gradiently eluted with n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EA)/n-hexane mixed solvents with different concentrations of EA in a silica gel-filled column. A series of fatty acid amides, including fourteen alkanamides (C{sub 15}-C{sub 28}) and three alkenamides (C{sub 18} and C{sub 22}), were isolated from the coal by this method and analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Synthesis, screening, and nanocrystals preparation of rhein amide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijiang; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Jinghong; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Jinhua; Cui, Qingguo; Wang, Xin; Liang, Xiao; Pan, Hao; Liu, Hongsheng

    2018-04-23

    Rhein (RH) have many bioactivities, but the application was limited of its poor solubility. The present study aimed to establish an efficient method for the synthesis of rhein amide derivatives (RAD) to increase the solubility and anti-tumor activity. RAD exhibited stronger anti-tumor activity than RH in MTT assay. The solubility and oil/water partition coefficient results indicated that rhein-phenylalanine and rhein-isoleucine have better absorption effect, which was consolidated in pharmacokinetic study. Then, rhein-phenylalanine and rhein-isoleucine were prepared into nanocrystals via the precipitation-high pressure homogenization method. Additionally, the nanocrystals both displayed much higher dissolution profiles than the bulk drugs. Pharmacokinetics study indicated that the AUC 0-∞ and C max of nanocrystals increased markedly (p < 0.01). However, the concentration of RH-Phe-NC was far less than RH-Ile-NC in plasma. Consequently, RH-Ile-NC was validated to be an applicable way to improve the bioavailability of RH, which owns a promising future in clinical application.

  16. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  17. Quantitative structure-cytotoxicity relationship of piperic acid amides.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Chiyako; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Mariko; Kagaya, Hajime; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Takao, Koichi; Miyashiro, Takaki; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    A total of 12 piperic acid amides, including piperine, were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, based on their cytotoxicity, tumor selectivity and anti-HIV activity, in order to find new biological activities. Cytotoxicity against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and three human oral normal cells was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Tumor selectivity was evaluated by the ratio of the mean 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) against normal oral cells to that against OSCC cell lines. Anti-HIV activity was evaluated by the ratio of the CC50 to 50% HIV infection-cytoprotective concentration (EC50). Physicochemical, structural, and quantum-chemical parameters were calculated based on the conformations optimized by LowModeMD method followed by density functional theory method. All compounds showed low-to-moderate tumor selectivity, but no anti-HIV activity. N-Piperoyldopamine ( 8: ) which has a catechol moiety, showed the highest tumor selectivity, possibly due to its unique molecular shape and electrostatic interaction, especially its largest partial equalization of orbital electronegativities and vsurf descriptors. The present study suggests that molecular shape and ability for electrostatic interaction are useful parameters for estimating the tumor selectivity of piperic acid amides. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Poly(ester amide)s based on (L)-lactic acid oligomers and α-amino acids: influence of the α-amino acid side chain in the poly(ester amide)s properties.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana C; Coelho, Jorge F J; Valente, Joana F A; Correia, Tiago R; Correia, Ilídio J; Gil, Maria H; Simões, Pedro N

    2013-01-01

    Novel biodegradable and low cytotoxic poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) based on α-amino acids and (L)-lactic acid (L-LA) oligomers were successfully synthesized by interfacial polymerization. The chemical structure of the new polymers was confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. Further characterization suggests that the α-amino acid plays a critical role on the final properties of the PEA. L-phenylalanine provides PEAs with higher glass transition temperature, whereas glycine enhances the crystallinity. The hydrolytic degradation in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37 °C also depends on the α-amino acid, being faster for glycine-based PEAs. The cytotoxic profiles using fibroblast human cells indicate that the PEAs did not elicit an acute cytotoxic effect. The strategy presented in this work opens the possibility of synthesizing biodegradable PEAs with low citotoxicity by an easy and fast method. It is worth to mention also that the properties of these materials can be fine-tuned only by changing the α-amino acid.

  19. Engineering Escherichia coli Nicotinic Acid Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase for Fully Active Amidated NAD Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Zhou, Yongjin J; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wujun; Liu, Yuxue; Peng, Chang; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2017-07-01

    NAD and its reduced form NADH function as essential redox cofactors and have major roles in determining cellular metabolic features. NAD can be synthesized through the deamidated and amidated pathways, for which the key reaction involves adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively. In Escherichia coli , NAD de novo biosynthesis depends on the protein NadD-catalyzed adenylylation of NaMN to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), followed by NAD synthase-catalyzed amidation. In this study, we engineered NadD to favor NMN for improved amidated pathway activity. We designed NadD mutant libraries, screened by a malic enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay, and identified two variants, 11B4 (Y84V/Y118D) and 16D8 (A86W/Y118N), with a high preference for NMN. Whereas in the presence of NMN both variants were capable of enabling the viability of cells of E. coli BW25113-derived NAD-auxotrophic strain YJE003, for which the last step of the deamidated pathway is blocked, the 16D8 expression strain could grow without exogenous NMN and accumulated a higher cellular NAD(H) level than BW25113 in the stationary phase. These mutants established fully active amidated NAD biosynthesis and offered a new opportunity to manipulate NAD metabolism for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering. IMPORTANCE Adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and adenylylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively, are the key steps in the deamidated and amidated pathways for NAD biosynthesis. In most organisms, canonical NAD biosynthesis follows the deamidated pathway. Here we engineered Escherichia coli NaMN adenylyltransferase to favor NMN and expressed the mutant enzyme in an NAD-auxotrophic E. coli strain that has the last step of the deamidated pathway blocked. The engineered strain survived in M9 medium, which indicated the implementation of a functional amidated pathway for NAD biosynthesis. These results enrich

  20. Identification of fatty acids and fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kelly K; Ham, Bryan M; Nichols, Jason J; Ziegler, Corrie; Green-Church, Kari B

    2007-01-01

    The complex superficial lipid layer of the tear film functions to prevent evaporation and maintain tear stability. Although classes of lipids found in the tear film have been reported, individual lipid species are currently being studied with more sophisticated. The purpose of this work was to show the identification of fatty acids and the fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions by using electrospray mass spectrometry. methods. Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (positive- and negative-ion mode). Accurate mass determination and collision-induced dissociation of meibum, and lipid standards were used to identify lipid species. Mass analysis of meibum in an acidic chloroform-methanol solution in positive-ion mode revealed a mass peak of m/z 282.3, which was identified as the protonated molecule of oleamide [C(18)H(35)NO+H](+). The high-resolution mass analysis of the m/z 282.2788 peak (oleamide) demonstrated a mass accuracy of 3.2 parts per million (ppm). Collision-induced dissociation of this species from meibum, compared with an oleamide standard, confirmed its identification. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic free fatty acids were identified in a similar manner, as were the other fatty acid amides (myristamide, palmitamide, stearamide, and erucamide). The findings indicate that oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide), an endogenous fatty acid primary amide, is a predominant component of meibum when examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The novel finding of oleamide and other members of the fatty acid amide family in the tear film could lead to additional insights into the role of fatty acid amide activity in human biological systems and may indicate a new function for this lipid class of molecules in ocular surface signaling and/or in the maintenance of the complex tear film.

  1. Visible-light-promoted redox neutral C-H amidation of heteroarenes with hydroxylamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qixue; Yu, Shouyun

    2014-07-03

    A room temperature redox neutral direct C-H amidation of heteroarenes has been achieved. Hydroxylamine derivatives, which are easily accessed, have been employed as tunable nitrogen sources. These reactions were enabled by a visible-light-promoted single-electron transfer pathway without a directing group. A variety of heteroarenes, such as indoles, pyrroles, and furans, could go through this amidation with high yields (up to 98%). These reactions are highly regioselective, and all the products were isolated as a single regioisomer.

  2. Proteins regulating the biosynthesis and inactivation of neuromodulatory fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Patricelli, M P; Cravatt, B F

    2001-01-01

    Fatty acid amides (FAAs) represent a growing family of biologically active lipids implicated in a diverse range of cellular and physiological processes. At present, two general types of fatty acid amides, the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and the fatty acid primary amides (FAPAs), have been identified as potential physiological neuromodulators/neurotransmitters in mammals. Representative members of these two subfamilies include the endocannabinoid NAE anandamide and the sleep-inducing FAPA oleamide. In this Chapter, molecular mechanisms proposed for the biosynthesis and inactivation of FAAs are critically evaluated, with an emphasis placed on the biochemical and cell biological properties of proteins thought to mediate these processes.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid amides from the Zanthoxylum genus - from culinary curiosities to probes for chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Chruma, Jason J; Cullen, Douglas J; Bowman, Lydia; Toy, Patrick H

    2018-01-25

    Covering up to February 2017The pericarps of several species from the Zanthoxylum genus, a.k.a. the "prickly ash", have long been used for culinary purposes throughout Asia, most notably in the Sichuan (previously Szechuan) cuisine of Southwestern China, due to the unique tingling and numbing orosensations arising from a collection of polyunsaturated fatty acid amide (alkamide) constituents. The past decade has experienced dramatically increased academic and industrial interest in these pungent Zanthoxylum-derived alkamides, with a concomitant explosion in studies aimed at elucidating the specific biochemical mechanisms behind several medically-relevant biological activities exhibited by the natural products. This rapid increase in interest is partially fueled by advances in organic synthesis reported within the past few years that finally have allowed for the production of diastereomerically-pure Zanthoxylum alkamides and related analogs in multigram quantities. Herein is a comprehensive review of the discovery, total synthesis, and biological evaluation of Zanthoxylum-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid amides and synthetic analogues. Critical insights into how chemical synthesis can further benefit future chemical biology efforts in the field are also provided.

  4. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    van Kooten, Maria J.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; de Araujo, Ivan E.; O’Malley, Stephanie; Small, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, Intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers. PMID:26656766

  5. Homochiral coordination polymers constructed from aminocarboxylate derivates: Effect of bipyridine on the amidation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jianshan; Sheng Tianlu; Hu Shengmin

    2012-08-15

    Using aminocarboxylate derivates (S)-N-(4-cyanobenzoic)-glutamic acid (denoted as cbg, 1a) and (S)-N-(4-nitrobenzoic)-glutamic acid (denoted as nbg, 1b) as chiral ligands, five new homochiral coordination polymers formulated as [Cu(cbg)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (3), [Cu(cbop){sub 2}(4,4 Prime -bipy)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) (cbop=(S)-N-(4-cyanobenzoic)-5-oxoproline, 4,4 Prime -bipy=4,4 Prime -bipyridine), {l_brace}[Cu(nbop){sub 2}(4,4 Prime -bipy)]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (5) (nbop=(S)-N-(4-nitrobenzoic)-5-oxoproline), {l_brace}[Cd(nbop){sub 2}(4,4 Prime -bipy)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (6), and [Ni(nbop){sub 2}(4,4 Prime -bipy)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (7) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the original chirality of aminocarboxylate derivates is maintained in all these complexes. Complexes 3, 4, and 7 are one-dimensionalmore » infinite chain coordination polymers, while complexes 5 and 6 possess two-dimensional network structures. In situ cyclization of 1a and 1b was taken place in the formation of complexes 4-7, which may be due to the competition of 4,4 Prime -bipyridine with chiral ligands during the coordination process. Preliminary optical behavior investigation indicates that ligands 1a, 1b, and complexes 6, 7 are nonlinear optical active. - Graphical abstract: Using aminocarboxylate derivates as chiral ligands, five new homochiral coordination polymers possessing second harmonic generation activities have been hydrothermally synthesized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two new chiral aminocarboxylate derivates were firstly synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five new homochiral metal organic complexes were obtained hydrothermally based on these ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intramolecular amidation was taken place on the aminocarboxylate derivates during the formation of these complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In

  6. Characterization of fatty acid amide hydrolase activity by a fluorescence-based assay.

    PubMed

    Dato, Florian M; Maaßen, Andreas; Goldfuß, Bernd; Pietsch, Markus

    2018-04-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is involved in many human diseases, particularly cancer, pain and inflammation as well as neurological, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, FAAH is an attractive target for the development of low-molecular-weight inhibitors as therapeutics, which requires robust assays that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries. Here, we report the development of a fluorometric assay based on FAAH's ability to effectively hydrolyze medium-chain fatty acid amides, introducing N-decanoyl-substituted 5-amino-2-methoxypyridine (D-MAP) as new amide substrate. D-MAP is cleaved by FAAH with an 8-fold larger specificity constant than the previously reported octanoyl-analog Oc-MAP (V max /K m of 1.09 and 0.134 mL min -1 mg -1 , respectively), with both MAP derivatives possessing superior substrate properties and much increased aqueous solubility compared to the respective p-nitroaniline compounds D-pNA and Oc-pNA. The new assay with D-MAP as substrate is highly sensitive using a lower enzyme concentration (1 μg mL -1 ) than literature-reported fluorimetric FAAH assays. In addition, D-MAP was validated in comparison to the substrate Oc-MAP for the characterization of FAAH inhibitors by means of the reference compounds URB597 and TC-F2 and was shown to be highly suitable for HTS in both kinetic and endpoint assays (Z' factors of 0.81 and 0.78, respectively). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oleamide: a fatty acid amide signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed

    Hiley, C Robin; Hoi, Pui Man

    2007-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide), a fatty acid primary amide discovered in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, has a variety of actions that give it potential as a signaling molecule, although these actions have not been extensively investigated in the cardiovascular system. The synthetic pathway probably involves synthesis of oleoylglycine and then conversion to oleamide by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM); breakdown of oleamide is by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Oleamide interacts with voltage-gated Na(+) channels and allosterically with GABA(A) and 5-HT(7) receptors as well as having cannabinoid-like actions. The latter have been suggested to be due to potentiation of the effects of endocannabinoids such as anandamide by inhibiting FAAH-mediated hydrolysis. This might underlie an "entourage effect" whereby co-released endogenous nonagonist congeners of endocannabinoids protect the active molecule from hydrolysis by FAAH. However, oleamide has direct agonist actions at CB(1) cannabinoid receptors and also activates the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor. Other actions include inhibition of gap-junctional communication, and this might give oleamide a role in myocardial development. Many of these actions are absent from the trans isomer of 9,10-octadecenoamide. One of the most potent actions of oleamide is vasodilation. In rat small mesenteric artery the response does not involve CB(1) cannabinoid receptors but another pertussis toxin-sensitive, G protein-coupled receptor, as yet unidentified. This receptor is sensitive to rimonabant and O-1918, an antagonist at the putative "abnormal-cannabidiol" or endothelial "anandamide" receptors. Vasodilation is mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, and also through activation of TRPV1 receptors. A physiological role for oleamide in the heart and circulation has yet to be demonstrated, as has production by cells of the cardiovascular system, but

  8. Cinnamic acid amides from Tribulus terrestris displaying uncompetitive α-glucosidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong Hun; Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Park, Chanin; Son, Minky; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Yuk, Heung Joo; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2016-05-23

    The α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Tribulus terrestris extracts has been reported but as yet the active ingredients are unknown. This study attempted to isolate the responsible metabolites and elucidate their inhibition mechanism of α-glucosidase. By fractionating T. terristris extracts, three cinnamic acid amide derivatives (1-3) were ascertained to be active components against α-glucosidase. The lead structure, N-trans-coumaroyltyramine 1, showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.42 μM). Moreover, all active compounds displayed uncompetitive inhibition mechanisms that have rarely been reported for α-glucosidase inhibitors. This kinetic behavior was fully demonstrated by showing a decrease of both Km and Vmax, and Kik/Kiv ratio ranging between 1.029 and 1.053. We progressed to study how chemical modifications to the lead structure 1 may impact inhibition. An α, β-unsaturation carbonyl group and hydroxyl group in A-ring of cinnamic acid amide emerged to be critical functionalities for α-glucosidase inhibition. The molecular modeling study revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to π-π interaction as well as hydrogen bond interaction between enzyme and inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. An Experimental and Computational Study of the Gas-Phase Acidities of the Common Amino Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Chelsea E; Stover, Michele L; Bokatzian, Samantha S; Davis, John T M; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2015-07-30

    Using proton-transfer reactions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and correlated molecular orbital theory at the G3(MP2) level, gas-phase acidities (GAs) and the associated structures for amides corresponding to the common amino acids have been determined for the first time. These values are important because amino acid amides are models for residues in peptides and proteins. For compounds whose most acidic site is the C-terminal amide nitrogen, two ions populations were observed experimentally with GAs that differ by 4-7 kcal/mol. The lower energy, more acidic structure accounts for the majority of the ions formed by electrospray ionization. G3(MP2) calculations predict that the lowest energy anionic conformer has a cis-like orientation of the [-C(═O)NH](-) group whereas the higher energy, less acidic conformer has a trans-like orientation of this group. These two distinct conformers were predicted for compounds with aliphatic, amide, basic, hydroxyl, and thioether side chains. For the most acidic amino acid amides (tyrosine, cysteine, tryptophan, histidine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid amides) only one conformer was observed experimentally, and its experimental GA correlates with the theoretical GA related to side chain deprotonation.

  10. Synthesis of chlorophyll-a derivatives possessing various amides as potential sensitizers for photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuxiao; Ogasawara, Shin; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    32-Carboxy-pyropheophorbides-a possessing a variety of N-substituted carbamoyl groups at the 172-position were prepared by modifying naturally occurring chlorophyll-a. 32-Methoxycarbonyl-pyropheophorbide-a was obtained via the protection of the 172-carboxy group with an allyl group, and amidated with various primary and secondary amines at the free 17-propionate residue, followed by the acidic hydrolysis of the methyl ester in the 3-substituent to give the desired pyropheophorbide-a secondary and tertiary amides, respectively, bearing the trans-32-COOH. The synthetic pigments potentially usable for dye-sensitized solar cells gave almost the same optical properties in a solution. 32-Carboxy-pyropheophorbide-a N-monosubstituted or N,N-disubstituted amides were prepared from chemical modification of chlorophyll-a, which are potentially promising as available and environmentally friendly pigments for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Jonathan E [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  12. Identification and characterization of carprofen as a multitarget fatty acid amide hydrolase/cyclooxygenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Favia, Angelo D; Habrant, Damien; Scarpelli, Rita; Migliore, Marco; Albani, Clara; Bertozzi, Sine Mandrup; Dionisi, Mauro; Tarozzo, Glauco; Piomelli, Daniele; Cavalli, Andrea; De Vivo, Marco

    2012-10-25

    Pain and inflammation are major therapeutic areas for drug discovery. Current drugs for these pathologies have limited efficacy, however, and often cause a number of unwanted side effects. In the present study, we identify the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen as a multitarget-directed ligand that simultaneously inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), COX-2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Additionally, we synthesized and tested several derivatives of carprofen, sharing this multitarget activity. This may result in improved analgesic efficacy and reduced side effects (Naidu et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.2009, 329, 48-56; Fowler, C. J.; et al. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem.2012, in press; Sasso et al. Pharmacol. Res.2012, 65, 553). The new compounds are among the most potent multitarget FAAH/COX inhibitors reported so far in the literature and thus may represent promising starting points for the discovery of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  13. Kinetics of reactions of aquacobalamin with aspartic and glutamic acids and their amides in water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, T. T. T.; Sal'nikov, D. S.; Dereven'kov, I. A.; Makarov, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    The kinetics of aquacobalamin reaction with aspartic and glutamic acids, and with their amides in water solutions, is studied via spectrophotometry. The kinetic and activation parameters of the process are determined. It is shown that the reaction product is cobalamin-amino acid complex. The data are compared to results on the reaction between aquacobalamin and primary amines.

  14. Characterization of a novel alpha-amidated decapeptide derived from proopiomelanocortin-A in the trout pituitary.

    PubMed

    Tollemer, H; Leprince, J; Bailhache, T; Chauveau, I; Vandesande, F; Tonon, M C; Jego, P; Vaudry, H

    1997-01-01

    Two complementary DNAs encoding distinct forms of POMC have been characterized in the trout pituitary. One of the POMC variants (POMC-A) possesses a C-terminal extension of 25 amino acids, which has no equivalent in other POMCs described to date. This C-terminal peptide contains three pairs of basic amino acids, suggesting that it may be the precursor of multiple processed peptides. In addition, the presence of a C-terminal glycine residue suggests that some of the processing products may be alpha-amidated. To characterize the molecular forms of the peptides generated from the C-terminal domain of trout POMC-A, we have developed specific antibodies against the C-terminal pentapeptide YHFQG and its alpha-amidated derivative YHFQ-NH2. Immunocytochemical labeling of pituitary sections with antibodies against YHFQ-NH2 revealed the presence of numerous immunoreactive cells in the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis. In contrast, the antibodies against YHFQG produced only weak immunostaining. HPLC analysis combined with RIA detection revealed that extracts of the pars intermedia and pars distalis contain several peptides derived from the C-terminal extension of trout POMC-A, with the predominant molecular form exhibiting the same retention time as ALGERKYHFQ-NH2. Tryptic digestion of this major form produced a peptide that coeluted with YHFQ-NH2. These data indicate that the processing of the C-terminal extension of trout POMC-A generates several novel peptides including the decapeptide amide ALGERKYHFQ-NH2.

  15. Molecular characterization of an enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty-acid amides.

    PubMed

    Cravatt, B F; Giang, D K; Mayfield, S P; Boger, D L; Lerner, R A; Gilula, N B

    1996-11-07

    Endogenous neuromodulatory molecules are commonly coupled to specific metabolic enzymes to ensure rapid signal inactivation. Thus, acetylcholine is hydrolysed by acetylcholine esterase and tryptamine neurotransmitters like serotonin are degraded by monoamine oxidases. Previously, we reported the structure and sleep-inducing properties of cis-9-octadecenamide, a lipid isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats. cis-9-Octadecenamide, or oleamide, has since been shown to affect serotonergic systems and block gap-junction communication in glial cells (our unpublished results). We also identified a membrane-bound enzyme activity that hydrolyses oleamide to its inactive acid, oleic acid. We now report the mechanism-based isolation, cloning and expression of this enzyme activity, originally named oleamide hydrolase, from rat liver plasma membranes. We also show that oleamide hydrolase converts anandamide, a fatty-acid amide identified as the endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor, to arachidonic acid, indicating that oleamide hydrolase may serve as the general inactivating enzyme for a growing family of bioactive signalling molecules, the fatty-acid amides. Therefore we will hereafter refer to oleamide hydrolase as fatty-acid amide hydrolase, in recognition of the plurality of fatty-acid amides that the enzyme can accept as substrates.

  16. A new feruloyl amide derivative from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopo; Wei, Na; Huang, Jian; Tan, Yinfeng; Jin, Dejun

    2012-01-01

    A new feruloyl amide derivative, named tribulusamide C, was isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including IR, 1-D-, 2-D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. The structure of tribulusamide C was characterised by a unit of pyrrolidine-2,5-dione, which distinguished it from other lignanamides previously isolated from the fruits of T. terrestris.

  17. Safety Assessment of Amino Acid Alkyl Amides as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the product use, formulation, and safety data of 115 amino acid alkyl amides, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents and as surfactants-cleansing agents in personal care products. Safety test data on dermal irritation and sensitization for the ingredients with the highest use concentrations, lauroyl lysine and sodium lauroyl glutamate, were reviewed and determined to adequately support the safe use of the ingredients in this report. The Panel concluded that amino acid alkyl amides are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics, when formulated to be nonirritating.

  18. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peperidou, Aikaterini; Pontiki, Eleni; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Voulgari, Efstathia; Avgoustakis, Konstantinos

    2017-07-25

    Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino) ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition (IC 50 = 6 μΜ) and antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.425 μΜ). The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.315 μΜ) and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 66 μΜ). Compounds 3a and 3b , derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro . Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  19. On the relationship between NMR-derived amide order parameters and protein backbone entropy changes

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Kim A.; O’Brien, Evan; Kasinath, Vignesh; Wand, A. Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to analyze the relationship between NMR-derived squared generalized order parameters of amide NH groups and backbone entropy. Amide order parameters (O2NH) are largely determined by the secondary structure and average values appear unrelated to the overall flexibility of the protein. However, analysis of the more flexible subset (O2NH < 0.8) shows that these report both on the local flexibility of the protein and on a different component of the conformational entropy than that reported by the side chain methyl axis order parameters, O2axis. A calibration curve for backbone entropy vs. O2NH is developed which accounts for both correlations between amide group motions of different residues, and correlations between backbone and side chain motions. This calibration curve can be used with experimental values of O2NH changes obtained by NMR relaxation measurements to extract backbone entropy changes, e.g. upon ligand binding. In conjunction with our previous calibration for side chain entropy derived from measured O2axis values this provides a prescription for determination of the total protein conformational entropy changes from NMR relaxation measurements. PMID:25739366

  20. On the relationship between NMR-derived amide order parameters and protein backbone entropy changes.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Kim A; O'Brien, Evan; Kasinath, Vignesh; Wand, A Joshua

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to analyze the relationship between NMR-derived squared generalized order parameters of amide NH groups and backbone entropy. Amide order parameters (O(2) NH ) are largely determined by the secondary structure and average values appear unrelated to the overall flexibility of the protein. However, analysis of the more flexible subset (O(2) NH  < 0.8) shows that these report both on the local flexibility of the protein and on a different component of the conformational entropy than that reported by the side chain methyl axis order parameters, O(2) axis . A calibration curve for backbone entropy vs. O(2) NH is developed, which accounts for both correlations between amide group motions of different residues, and correlations between backbone and side chain motions. This calibration curve can be used with experimental values of O(2) NH changes obtained by NMR relaxation measurements to extract backbone entropy changes, for example, upon ligand binding. In conjunction with our previous calibration for side chain entropy derived from measured O(2) axis values this provides a prescription for determination of the total protein conformational entropy changes from NMR relaxation measurements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sova, M

    2012-07-01

    Cinnamic acid is an organic acid occurring naturally in plants that has low toxicity and a broad spectrum of biological activities. In the search for novel pharmacologically active compounds, cinnamic acid derivatives are important and promising compounds with high potential for development into drugs. Many cinnamic acid derivatives, especially those with the phenolic hydroxyl group, are well-known antioxidants and are supposed to have several health benefits due to their strong free radical scavenging properties. It is also well known that cinnamic acid has antimicrobial activity. Cinnamic acid derivatives, both isolated from plant material and synthesized, have been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. Acids, esters, amides, hydrazides and related derivatives of cinnamic acid with such activities are here reviewed.

  2. Ameliorative effects of amide derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles on scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Akanksha; Piplani, Poonam

    2016-10-21

    The present study reports the effect of amide derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadizoles on scopolamine induced deficit cholinergic neurotransmission and oxidative stress serving as promising leads for the therapeutics of cognitive dysfunction. Fourteen compounds (2c-8d) have been synthesised and evaluated against behavioural alterations using step down passive avoidance protocol and morris water maze and at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg with reference to the standard, Rivastigmine. All the synthesised compounds were evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at five different concentrations using mice brain homogenate as the source of the enzyme. Biochemical estimation of markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, plasma nitrite, catalase) has also been carried out to assess the role of synthesised molecules on the oxidative damage induced by scopolamine. The compounds 5c, 6c and 8c displayed appreciable activity with an IC50 value of 3 μM, 3.033 μM and 2.743 μM, respectively towards acetylcholinesterase inhibition. These compounds also decreased scopolamine induced oxidative stress, thus serving as promising leads for the amelioration of oxidative stress induced cognitive decline. The molecular docking study performed to predict the binding mode of the compounds also suggested that these compounds bind appreciably with the amino acids present in the active site of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rhAChE). The results indicated that these compounds could be further traversed as inhibitors of AChE and oxidative stress for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Amide and Ester-Functionalized Humic Acid for Fuel Combustion Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, Mark

    Humic acid is a class of naturally occurring molecules composed of large sheet-like regions of cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon networks with surface and edge functional groups including phenols, carboxylic acids, and epoxides. These naturally occurring molecules are found in brown coal deposits near lignite formations. Humic acid has gained attention from the scientific community as a precursor for graphene. Graphene is a 2-dimensional honeycomb structure of fully unsaturated carbon atoms that has exceptional material properties and inherent aromaticity. Graphene's incredible properties are matched by the difficulty associated with reproducibly manufacturing it on a large scale. This issue has limited the use of graphene for commercial applications. The polar functional groups of humic acid contribute to the hydrophilic nature of the molecule, limiting its miscibility in any alkyl-based solvent. Surfactants containing long alkyl chains can affect the miscibility of the molecule in an organic solvent. Surfactants are often difficult to remove from the system. It is theorized that alkylation of the functional sites of humic acid can affect the hydrophilic nature of the molecule, and effectively enable its dispersion into organic solvents without simultaneous incorporation of surfactants. This dissertation investigated the amidation and esterification of humic acid molecules extracted from leonardite. The resulting change in the modified humic acid dispersibility in organic solvents and its potential usage as a fuel additive were evaluated. Butyl, hexyl, octyl, and decyl amide-modified and ester-modified humic acids were synthesized. These products were characterized to confirm successful chemical reaction through thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The decyl-modified humic acids remained suspended in kerosene mixtures for longer than 1 week. Other organo-humic acids showed varying degrees of flocculation

  4. Skeletal lipidomics: regulation of bone metabolism by fatty acid amide family.

    PubMed

    Bab, Itai; Smoum, Reem; Bradshaw, Heather; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating that fatty acid derivatives play a key regulatory role in a variety of tissues. However, the study of skeletal lipidomics is just emerging and global strategies, such as targeted lipidomics, have not been applied to bone tissue. Such strategies hold great promises as in the case of genomics and proteomics. A partial profile of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds has demonstrated the presence of several long-chain fatty acid amides (FAAs), some of which displaying potent effects on osteoblasts, the bone forming cells and osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. In the skeleton, the FAAs activate the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor present in sympathetic nerve terminals as well as CB(2) cannabinoid receptor, the Gi-protein coupled receptor GPR55, and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type ion channel expressed by osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts. This review on the skeletal FAA system focuses on the production of FAAs in the skeleton and their net bone anabolic and anti-catabolic activity resulting from the stimulation of bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. As the FAA family holds great promise as a basis for the treatment of osteoporosis and other diseases involving bone, further studies should aim towards the complete profiling of these lipids and their receptors in bone tissue, followed by elucidation of their function and mechanism of action. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Direct Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Carboxylic Acids with Chiral Lithium Amides as Traceless Auxiliaries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  6. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 173-dicarboxylethyl-pyropheophorbide-a amide derivatives for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lai-Xing; Chen, Dan-Ye; Gao, Ying-Hua; Yan, Yi-Jia; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Mi; Han, Yi-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Long

    2017-12-19

    Three novel 17 3 -dicarboxylethyl-pyropheophorbide-a amide derivatives as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) were synthesized from pyropheophorbide-a (Ppa). Their photophysical and photochemical properties, intracellular localization, photocytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo were investigated. All target compounds exhibited low cytotoxicity in the dark and remarkable photocytotoxicity against human esophageal cancer cells. Among them, 1a showed highest singlet oxygen quantum yield. Upon light activation, 1a exhibited significant photocytotoxicity. After PDT treatment, the growth of Eca-109 tumor in nude mice was significantly inhibited. Therefore, 1a is a powerful and promising antitumor photosensitizer for PDT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stereoselective reactions. XXXII. Enantioselective deprotonation of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone by fluorine-containing chiral lithium amides derived from 1-phenylethylamine and 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Koga, K

    2000-04-01

    Enantioselective deprotonation of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone was examined using 1-phenylethylamine- and 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine-derived chiral lithium amides having an alkyl or a fluoroalkyl substituent at the amide nitrogen. The lithium amides having a 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl group on the amide nitrogen are easily accessible in both enantiomeric forms, and were found to induce good enantioselectivity in the present reaction.

  9. Synthesis of antimalarial amide analogues based on the plant serrulatane diterpenoid 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohitesh; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M; Davis, Rohan A

    2017-09-01

    A plant-derived natural product scaffold, 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (1) was isolated in high yield from the aerial parts of the endemic Australian desert plant Eremophila microtheca. This scaffold (1) was subsequently used in the generation of a series of new amide analogues via a one-pot mixed anhydride amidation using pivaloyl chloride. The structures of all analogues were characterized using MS, NMR, and UV data. The major serrulatane natural products (1-3), isolated from the plant extract, and all amide analogues (6-15) together with several pivaloylated derivatives of 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (16-18) were evaluated for their antimalarial activity against 3D7 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant) Plasmodium falciparum strains, and preliminary cytotoxicity data were also acquired using the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293. The natural product scaffold (1) did not display any antimalarial activity at 10µM. Replacing the carboxylic acid of 1 with various amides resulted in moderate activity against the P. falciparum 3D7 strain with IC 50 values ranging from 1.25 to 5.65µM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decarbonylative Phosphorylation of Amides by Palladium and Nickel Catalysis: The Hirao Cross-Coupling of Amide Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengwei; Szostak, Michal

    2017-10-02

    Considering the ubiquity of organophosphorus compounds in organic synthesis, pharmaceutical discovery agrochemical crop protection and materials chemistry, new methods for their construction hold particular significance. A conventional method for the synthesis of C-P bonds involves cross-coupling of aryl halides and dialkyl phosphites (the Hirao reaction). We report a catalytic deamidative phosphorylation of a wide range of amides using a palladium or nickel catalyst giving aryl phosphonates in good to excellent yields. The present method tolerates a wide range of functional groups. The reaction constitutes the first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed generation of C-P bonds from amides. This redox-neutral protocol can be combined with site-selective conventional cross-coupling for the regioselective synthesis of potential pharmacophores. Mechanistic studies suggest an oxidative addition/transmetallation pathway. In light of the importance of amides and phosphonates as synthetic intermediates, we envision that this Pd and Ni-catalyzed C-P bond forming method will find broad application. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis and Study of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Amide Derivatives of Ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Khalili, Mohsen; Olama, Zahra; Karami, Shirin; Nahri-Niknafs, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and represent a mainstay in the therapy of acute and chronic pain and inflammation. The traditional NSAIDs like ibuprofen (I) contain free carboxylic acid group which can produce gastrointestinal (GI) damage for long-term use. In order to obtain the novel NSAIDs with less side effects; carboxylic acid moiety has been modified into various amide groups which is the most active area of research in this family. In this research, synthesis of various pharmacological heterocyclic amides of ibuprofen is described. All the new compounds were tested for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and compared with standard (Ibuprofen) and control (saline) groups. The results revealed that all the synthesized compounds (III-VI) exhibited more analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in tail immersion (as a model of acute thermal pain), formalin (as a model of acute chemical and chronic pain) and paw edema (as a model of acute inflammation) tests when compared with standard and control animals. These pharmacological activities were significant for VI compared to other new compounds (III-V) which may be concern to more effective role of morpholin for the reduction of pain and inflammation compared to other used heterocyclic amines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Primary fatty acid amide metabolism: conversion of fatty acids and an ethanolamine in N18TG2 and SCP cells.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Emma K; Chen, Yuden; Barazanji, Muna; Jeffries, Kristen A; Cameroamortegui, Felipe; Merkler, David J

    2012-02-01

    Primary fatty acid amides (PFAM) are important signaling molecules in the mammalian nervous system, binding to many drug receptors and demonstrating control over sleep, locomotion, angiogenesis, and many other processes. Oleamide is the best-studied of the primary fatty acid amides, whereas the other known PFAMs are significantly less studied. Herein, quantitative assays were used to examine the endogenous amounts of a panel of PFAMs, as well as the amounts produced after incubation of mouse neuroblastoma N(18)TG(2) and sheep choroid plexus (SCP) cells with the corresponding fatty acids or N-tridecanoylethanolamine. Although five endogenous primary amides were discovered in the N(18)TG(2) and SCP cells, a different pattern of relative amounts were found between the two cell lines. Higher amounts of primary amides were found in SCP cells, and the conversion of N-tridecanoylethanolamine to tridecanamide was observed in the two cell lines. The data reported here show that the N(18)TG(2) and SCP cells are excellent model systems for the study of PFAM metabolism. Furthermore, the data support a role for the N-acylethanolamines as precursors for the PFAMs and provide valuable new kinetic results useful in modeling the metabolic flux through the pathways for PFAM biosynthesis and degradation.

  13. Characterization of the sleep-wake patterns in mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Wills, Derek N; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Henriksen, Steven J

    2004-08-01

    Oleamide and anandamide are fatty acid amides implicated in the regulatory mechanisms of sleep processes. However, due to their prompt catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), their pharmacologic and behavioral effects, in vivo, disappear rapidly. To determine if, in the absence of FAAH, the hypnogenic fatty acid amides induce an increase of sleep, we characterized the sleep-wake patters in FAAH-knockout mice [FAAH (-/-)] before and after sleep deprivation. FAAH (-/-), FAAH (+/-), and FAAH (+/+) mice were implanted chronically for sleep, body temperature (Tb), and locomotor activity (LMA) recordings. Sleep-wake states were recorded during a 24-hour baseline session followed by 8 hours of sleep deprivation. Recovery recordings were done during the 16 hours following sleep deprivation. Total amount of wake, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep were calculated and compared between genotypes. The electroencephalographic spectral analysis was performed by fast Fourier transform analysis. Telemetry recordings of Tb and LMA were carried out continuously during 4 days under baseline conditions. N/A. FAAH (-/-) mice and their heterozygote (+/-) and control (+/+) littermates were used. Sleep deprivation. FAAH (-/-) mice possess higher values of slow-wave sleep and more intense episodes of slow-wave sleep than do control littermates under baseline conditions that are not related to differences in Tb and LMA. A rebound of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep as well an increase in the levels of slow-wave activity were observed after sleep deprivation in all genotypes. These findings support the role of fatty acid amides as possible modulators of sleep and indicate that the homeostatic mechanisms of sleep in FAAH (-/-) mice are not disrupted.

  14. First LC/MS determination of cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and cyanazine in groundwater samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E.M.; Barceló, Damià

    2000-01-01

    Cyanazine and two of its major metabolites, cyanazine amide and cyanazine acid, were measured at trace levels in groundwater using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/APCI/MS). Solid-phase extraction was carried out by passing 20 mL of groundwater sample through a cartridge containing a polymeric phase (PLRP-s), with recoveries ranging from 99 to 108% (n = 5). Using LC/MS detection in positive ion mode, useful structural information was obtained by increasing the fragmentor voltage, thus permitting the unequivocal identification of these compounds in groundwater samples with low sample volumes. The fragmentation of the amide, carboxylic acid, and cyano group was observed for both metabolites and cyanazine, respectively, leading to a diagnostic ion at m/z 214. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002−0.005 μg/L for the three compounds. Finally, the newly developed method was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater samples from New York containing the compounds under study and presents evidence that the metabolites, cyanazine acid, and cyanazine amide may leach to groundwater and serve as sources for deisopropylatrazine. The combination of on-line SPE and LC/APCI/MS represents an important advance in environmental analysis of herbicide metabolites in groundwater since it demonstrates that trace amounts of polar metabolites may be determined rapidly. Furthermore, the presence of both cyanazine amide and cyanazine acid indicate that another degradation product, deisopropylatrazine, may be occurring at depth because of the subsequent degradation of cyanazine.

  15. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of caffeic acid amides as synergists to sensitize fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans to fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Zang, Chengxu; Tian, Shujuan; Liu, Wei; Tan, Shanlun; Cai, Zhan; Ni, Tingjunhong; An, Maomao; Li, Ran; Gao, Yue; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    A series of caffeic acid amides were designed, synthesized, and their synergistic activity with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans was evaluated in vitro. The title caffeic acid amides 3-30 except 26 exhibited potent activity, and the subsequent SAR study was conducted. Compound 3, 5, 21, and 34c, at a concentration of 1.0 μg/ml, decreased the MIC₈₀ of fluconazole from 128.0 μg/ml to 1.0-0.5 μg/ml against the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. This result suggests that the caffeic acid amides, as synergists, can sensitize drug-resistant fungi to fluconazole. The SAR study indicated that the dihydroxyl groups and the amido groups linking to phenyl or heterocyclic rings are the important pharmacophores of the caffeic acid amides.

  16. Synthesis, biological activity, and bioavailability of moschamine, a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide found in Centaurea cyanus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moschamine is a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide originally isolated from Centaurea cyanus. This paper describes the synthesis, detection of serotoninergic and COX inhibitory activities, and bioavailability of moschamine. Moschamine was chemically synthesized and identified using NMR spect...

  17. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural cinnamic acids, synthetic derivatives and hybrids with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan David

    2014-11-25

    Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  19. Skeletal lipidomics: regulation of bone metabolism by fatty acid amide family

    PubMed Central

    Bab, Itai; Smoum, Reem; Bradshaw, Heather; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating that fatty acid derivatives play a key regulatory role in a variety of tissues. However, the study of skeletal lipidomics is just emerging and global strategies, such as targeted lipidomics, have not been applied to bone tissue. Such strategies hold great promises as in the case of genomics and proteomics. A partial profile of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds has demonstrated the presence of several long-chain fatty acid amides (FAAs), some of which displaying potent effects on osteoblasts, the bone forming cells and osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. In the skeleton, the FAAs activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor present in sympathetic nerve terminals as well as CB2 cannabinoid receptor, the Gi-protein coupled receptor GPR55, and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type ion channel expressed by osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts. This review on the skeletal FAA system focuses on the production of FAAs in the skeleton and their net bone anabolic and anti-catabolic activity resulting from the stimulation of bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. As the FAA family holds great promise as a basis for the treatment of osteoporosis and other diseases involving bone, further studies should aim towards the complete profiling of these lipids and their receptors in bone tissue, followed by elucidation of their function and mechanism of action. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21557736

  20. Evaluation of unsaturated alkanoic acid amides as maskers of epigallocatechin gallate astringency.

    PubMed

    Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Backes, Michael; Reichelt, Katharina V; Ley, Jakob P; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-05-08

    Some foods, beverages, and food ingredients show characteristic long-lasting aftertastes. The sweet, lingering taste of high intensity sweeteners or the astringency of tea catechins are typical examples. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, causes a long-lasting astringency and bitterness. These sensations are mostly perceived as aversive and are only accepted in a few foods (e.g., tea and red wine). For the evaluation of the aftertaste of such constituents over a certain period of time, Intensity Variation Descriptive Methodology (IVDM) was used. The approach allows the measurement of different descriptors in parallel in one panel session. IVDM was evaluated concerning the inter- and intraindividual differences of panelists for bitterness and astringency of EGCG. Subsequently, the test method was used as a screening tool for the identification of potential modality-selective masking compounds. In particular, the intensity of the astringency of EGCG (750 mg kg(-1)) could be significantly lowered by 18-33% during the time course by adding the trigeminal-active compound trans-pellitorine (2E,4E-decadienoic acid N-isobutyl amide 1, 5 mg kg(-1)) without significantly affecting bitterness perception. Further, structurally related compounds were evaluated on EGCG to gain evidence for possible structure-activity relationships. A more polar derivative of 1, (2S)-2-[[(2E,4E)-deca-2,4-dienoyl]amino]propanoic acid 9, was also able to reduce the astringency of EGCG similar to trans-pellitorine but without showing the strong tingling effect.

  1. Frozen Chirality of Tertiary Aromatic Amides: Access to Enantioenriched Tertiary α-Amino Acid or Amino Alcohol without Chiral Reagent.

    PubMed

    Mai, Thi Thoa; Viswambharan, Baby; Gori, Didier; Guillot, Régis; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Kouklovsky, Cyrille; Alezra, Valérie

    2017-04-27

    One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. In this field, the absolute asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids is a major challenge. Herein, we report access, by chemical means, to tertiary α-amino acid derivatives in up to 96 % ee without using any chiral reagent. In our strategy, the dynamic axial chirality of tertiary aromatic amides is frozen in a crystal and is responsible for the stereoselectivity of the subsequent steps. Furthermore, we could control the configuration of the final product by manually sorting and selecting the initial crystals. Based on vibrational circular dichroism studies, we could rationalize the observed stereoselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Influence of the amino acid moiety on deconjugation of bile acid amidates by cholylglycine hydrolase or human fecal cultures.

    PubMed

    Huijghebaert, S M; Hofmann, A F

    1986-07-01

    The influence of the chemical structure of the amino acid (or amino acid analogue) moiety of a number of synthetic cholyl amidates on deconjugation by cholylglycine hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens was studied in vitro at pH 5.4. Conjugates with alkyl homologues of glycine were hydrolyzed more slowly as the number of methylene units increased (cholylglycine greater than cholyl-beta-alanine greater than cholyl-gamma-aminobutyrate). In contrast, for conjugates with the alkyl homologues of taurine, cholylaminopropane sulfonate was hydrolyzed slightly faster than cholyltaurine, whereas cholylaminomethane sulfonate was hydrolyzed much more slowly. When glycine was replaced by other neutral alpha-amino acids, rates of hydrolysis decreased with increasing steric hindrance near the amide bond (cholyl-L-alpha-alanine much much greater than cholyl-L-leucine much greater than cholyl-L-valine greater than cholyl-L-tyrosine much greater than cholyl-D-valine). Conjugation with acidic or basic amino acids also greatly reduced the rates of hydrolysis, as cholyl-L-aspartate, cholyl-L-cysteate, cholyl-L-lysine, and cholyl-L-histidine were all hydrolyzed at a rate less than one-tenth that of cholylglycine. Methyl esterification of the carboxylic group of the amino acid moiety reduced the hydrolysis, but such substrates (cholylglycine methyl ester and cholyl-beta-alanine methyl ester) were completely hydrolyzed after overnight incubation with excess of enzyme. In contrast, cholyl-cholamine was not hydrolyzed at all, suggesting that a negative charge at the end of the side chain is required for optimal hydrolysis. Despite the lack of specificity for the amino acid moiety, a bile salt moiety was required, as the cholylglycine hydrolase did not display general carboxypeptidase activity for other non-bile acid substrates containing a terminal amide bond: hippuryl-L-phenylalanine and hippuryl-L-arginine, as well as oleyltaurine and oleylglycine, were not hydrolyzed. Fecal bacterial

  3. Expanding the Library of Uranyl Amide Derivatives: New Complexes Featuring the tert-Butyldimethylsilylamide Ligand.

    PubMed

    Pattenaude, Scott A; Coughlin, Ezra J; Collins, Tyler S; Zeller, Matthias; Bart, Suzanne C

    2018-04-16

    New uranyl derivatives featuring the amide ligand, -N(SiHMe 2 ) t Bu, were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and absorption spectroscopies. Steric properties of these complexes were also quantified using the computational program Solid-G. The increased basicity of the free ligand -N(SiHMe 2 ) t Bu was demonstrated by direct comparison to -N(SiMe 3 ) 2 , a popular supporting ligand for uranyl. Substitutional lability on a uranyl center was also demonstrated by exchange with the -N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ligand. The increased basicity of this ligand and diverse characterization handles discussed here will make these compounds useful synthons for future reactivity.

  4. Synthesis, Anti-HCV, Antioxidant and Reduction of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Generation of a Chlorogenic Acid Analogue with an Amide Bond Replacing the Ester Bond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Na; Wang, Wei; Hattori, Masao; Daneshtalab, Mohsen; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2016-06-08

    Chlorogenic acid is a well known natural product with important bioactivities. It contains an ester bond formed between the COOH of caffeic acid and the 3-OH of quinic acid. We synthesized a chlorogenic acid analogue, 3α-caffeoylquinic acid amide, using caffeic and quinic acids as starting materials. The caffeoylquinc acid amide was found to be much more stable than chlorogenic acid and showed anti-Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) activity with a potency similar to chlorogenic acid. The caffeoylquinc acid amide potently protected HepG2 cells against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

  5. Characterization of dicarboxylic naphthenic acid fraction compounds utilizing amide derivatization: Proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Kovalchik, Kevin A; MacLennan, Matthew S; Peru, Kerry M; Ajaero, Chukwuemeka; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V; Chen, David D Y

    2017-12-30

    The characterization of naphthenic acid fraction compounds (NAFCs) in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) is of interest for both toxicology studies and regulatory reasons. Previous studies utilizing authentic standards have identified dicarboxylic naphthenic acids using two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS). The selective derivatization of hydroxyl groups has also recently aided in the characterization of oxy-NAFCs, and indirectly the characterization of dicarboxylic NAFCs. However, there has been no previous report of derivatization being used to directly aid in the standard-free characterization of NAFCs with multiple carboxylic acid functional groups. Herein we present proof-of-concept for the characterization of dicarboxylic NAFCs utilizing amide derivatization. Carboxylic acid groups in OSPW extract and in a dicarboxylic acidstandard were derivatized to amides using a previously described method. The derivatized extract and derivatized standard were analyzed by direct-injection positive-mode electrospray ionization ((+)ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and the underivatized extract was analyzed by (-)ESI MS. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was carried out on selected ions of the derivatized standard and derivatized OSPW. Data analysis was carried out using the Python programming language. The distribution of monocarboxylic NAFCs observed in the amide-derivatized OSPW sample by (+)ESI-MS was generally similar to that seen in underivatized OSPW by (-)ESI-MS. The dicarboxylic acid standard shows evidence of being doubly derivatized, although the second derivatization appears to be inefficient. Furthermore, a spectrum of potential diacid NAFCs is presented, identified by both charge state and derivatization mass. Interference due to the presence of multiple derivatization products is noted, but can be eliminated using on-line separation or an isotopically labelled derivatization

  6. Discovery of novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of (3R)-quinuclidinyl amides as potent and long acting muscarinic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Prat, Maria; Buil, María Antonia; Fernández, Maria Dolors; Tort, Laia; Monleón, Juan Manuel; Casals, Gaspar; Ferrer, Manuel; Castro, Jordi; Gavaldà, Amadeu; Miralpeix, Montserrat; Ramos, Israel; Vilella, Dolors; Huerta, Josep Maria; Espinosa, Sònia; Hernández, Begoña; Segarra, Victor; Córdoba, Mònica

    2015-04-15

    Novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of (3R)-quinuclidinyl amides have been identified as potent M3 muscarinic antagonists with a long duration of action in an in vivo model of bronchoconstriction. The synthesis, structure-activity relationships and biological evaluation of this series of compounds are reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Picolyl amides of betulinic acid as antitumor agents causing tumor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bildziukevich, Uladzimir; Rárová, Lucie; Šaman, David; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2018-02-10

    A series of picolyl amides of betulinic acid (3a-3c and 6a-6c) was prepared and subjected to the cytotoxicity screening tests. Structure-activity relationships studies resulted in finding differences in biological activity in dependence on o-, m- and p-substitution of the pyridine ring in the target amides, when cytotoxicity data of 3a-3c and 6a-6c were obtained and compared. The amides 3b and 3a displayed cytotoxicity (given in the IC 50 values) in G-361 (0.5 ± 0.1 μM and 2.4 ± 0.0 μM, respectively), MCF7 (1.4 ± 0.1 μM and 2.2 ± 0.2 μM, respectively), HeLa (2.4 ± 0.4 μM and 2.3 ± 0.5 μM, respectively) and CEM (6.5 ± 1.5 μM and 6.9 ± 0.4 μM, respectively) tumor cell lines, and showed weak effect in the normal human fibroblasts (BJ). Selectivity against all tested cancer cells was determined and compared to normal cells with therapeutic index (TI) between 7 and 100 for compounds 3a and 3b. The therapeutic index (TI = 100) was calculated for human malignant melanoma cell line (G-361) versus normal human fibroblasts (BJ). The cytotoxicity of other target amides (3c and 6a-6c) revealed lower effects than 3a and 3b in the tested cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunomodulatory lipids in plants: plant fatty acid amides and the human endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Gertsch, Jürg

    2008-05-01

    Since the discovery that endogenous lipid mediators show similar cannabimimetic effects as phytocannabinoids from CANNABIS SATIVA, our knowledge about the endocannabinoid system has rapidly expanded. Today, endocannabinoid action is known to be involved in various diseases, including inflammation and pain. As a consequence, the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoid transport, as well as endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes represent targets to block or enhance cannabinoid receptor-mediated signalling for therapeutic intervention. Based on the finding that certain endocannabinoid-like fatty acid N-alkylamides from purple coneflower ( ECHINACEA spp.) potently activate CB2 cannabinoid receptors we have focused our interest on plant fatty acid amides (FAAs) and their overall cannabinomodulatory effects. Certain FAAs are also able to partially inhibit the action of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which controls the breakdown of endocannabinoids. Intriguingly, plants lack CB receptors and do not synthesize endocannabinoids, but express FAAH homologues capable of metabolizing plant endogenous N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). While the site of action of these NAEs in plants is unknown, endogenous NAEs and arachidonic acid glycerols in animals interact with distinct physiological lipid receptors, including cannabinoid receptors. There is increasing evidence that also plant FAAs other than NAEs can pharmacologically modulate the action of these endogenous lipid signals. The interference of plant FAAs with the animal endocannabinoid system could thus be a fortunate evolutionary cross point with yet unexplored therapeutic potential.

  9. Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hae; Park, Yong-Kyu; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Hammock, Bruce D; Nishi, Kosuke

    2015-11-15

    Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were investigated. First, a series of alkyl or aryl groups were substituted on the carbon alpha to the phosphonate function in amide compounds to see whether substituted phosphonates can act as a secondary pharmacophore. A tert-butyl group (16) on the alpha carbon was found to yield most potent inhibition on the target enzyme. A 4-50-fold drop in inhibition was induced by other substituents such as aryls, substituted aryls, cycloalkyls, and alkyls. Then, the modification of the O-substituents on the phosphonate function revealed that diethyl groups (16 and 23) were preferable for inhibition to other longer alkyls or substituted alkyls. In amide compounds with the optimized diethylphosphonate moiety and an alkyl substitution such as adamantane (16), tetrahydronaphthalene (31), or adamantanemethane (36), highly potent inhibitions were gained. In addition, the resulting potent amide-phosphonate compounds had reasonable water solubility, suggesting that substituted phosphonates in amide inhibitors are effective for both inhibition potency on the human sEH and water solubility as a secondary pharmacophore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of new opioid derivatives with a propellane skeleton and their pharmacologies: Part 5, novel pentacyclic propellane derivatives with a 6-amide side chain.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryo; Yamamoto, Naoshi; Hirayama, Shigeto; Iwai, Takashi; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Nagumo, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We designed and synthesized pentacyclic propellane derivatives with a 6-amide side chain to afford compounds with higher MOR/KOR ratio and lower sedative effects than nalfurafine. The obtained etheno-bridged derivative with a β-amide side chain, YNT-854, showed a higher MOR/KOR ratio than nalfurafine. YNT-854 also exhibited a higher dose ratio between the sedative effect and the analgesic effect than observed with nalfurafine, which may guide the future design of useful analgesics with a weaker sedative effect than nalfurafine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. An Iterative O-Methyltransferase Catalyzes 1,11-Dimethylation of Aspergillus fumigatus Fumaric Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Daniel; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Schieferdecker, Sebastian; Nett, Markus; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2016-10-04

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransfer is a common biosynthetic strategy to modify natural products. We investigated the previously uncharacterized Aspergillus fumigatus methyltransferase FtpM, which is encoded next to the bimodular fumaric acid amide synthetase FtpA. Structure elucidation of two new A. fumigatus natural products, the 1,11-dimethyl esters of fumaryl-l-tyrosine and fumaryl-l-phenylalanine, together with ftpM gene disruption suggested that FtpM catalyzes iterative methylation. Final evidence that a single enzyme repeatedly acts on fumaric acid amides came from an in vitro biochemical investigation with recombinantly produced FtpM. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that this methyltransferase is active as a dimer. As ftpA and ftpM homologues are found clustered in other fungi, we expect our work will help to identify and annotate natural product biosynthesis genes in various species. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel α,β-unsaturated amide derivatives bearing α-amino phosphonate moiety as potential antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xianmin; Xie, Dandan; Yin, Limin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Awei; Song, Baoan; Hu, Deyu

    2017-09-15

    Based on flexible construction and broad bioactivity of ferulic acid, a series of novel α,β-unsaturated amide derivatives bearing α-aminophosphonate moiety were designed, synthesized and systematically evaluated for their antiviral activity. Bioassay results indicated that some compounds exhibited good antiviral activities against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in vivo. Especially, compound g18 showed excellent curative and protective activities against CMV, with half-maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) values of 284.67μg/mL and 216.30μg/mL, which were obviously superior to that of Ningnanmycin (352.08μg/mL and 262.53μg/mL). Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) analysis revealed that the introduction of electron-withdrawing group at the 2-position or 4-position of the aromatic ring is favorable for antiviral activity. Present work provides a promising template for development of potential inhibitor of plant virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydroalumination of Ketenimines and Subsequent Reactions with Heterocumulenes: Synthesis of Unsaturated Amide Derivatives and 1,3-Diimines.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Willeke, Matthias; Lucchesi, Ralph; Daniliuc, Constantin-Gabriel; Fröhlich, Roland; Wibbeling, Birgit; Uhl, Werner; Würthwein, Ernst-Ulrich

    2015-06-19

    The series of differently substituted ketenimines 1 was hydroluminated using di-iso-butyl aluminum hydride. For the sterically congested ketenimine 1a, preferred hydroalumination of the C═N-bond was proven by X-ray crystallography (compound 5a). In situ treatment of the hydroaluminated ketenimines 5 with various heterocumulenes like carbodiimides, isocycanates, isothiocyanates and ketenimines as electrophiles and subsequent hydrolytic workup resulted in novel enamine derived amide species in case of N-attack (sterically less hindered ketenimines) under formation of a new C-N-bond or in 1,3-diimines by C-C-bond-formation in case of bulky substituents at the ketenimine-nitrogen atom. Furthermore, domino reactions with more than 1 equiv of the electrophile or by subsequent addition of two different electrophiles are possible and lead to polyfunctional amide derivatives of the biuret type which are otherwise not easily accessible.

  15. HPLC/ELSD analysis of amidated bile acids: an effective and rapid way to assist continuous flow chemistry processes.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Roccaldo; Gioiello, Antimo; Ianni, Federica; Venturoni, Francesco; Natalini, Benedetto

    2012-10-15

    The employment of the flow N-acyl amidation of natural bile acids (BAs) required the in-line connection with suitable analytical tools enabling the determination of reaction yields as well as of the purity grade of the synthesized glyco- and tauro-conjugated derivatives. In this framework, a unique HPLC method was successfully established and validated for ursodeoxycholic (UDCA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), deoxycholic (DCA) and cholic (CA) acids, as well as the corresponding glyco- and tauro-conjugated forms. Because of the shared absence of relevant chromophoric moieties in the sample structure, an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was profitably utilized for the analysis of such steroidal species. For each of the investigated compounds, all the runs were contemporarily carried out on the acidic free and the two relative conjugated variants. The different ELSD response of the free and the corresponding conjugated BAs, imposed to build-up separate calibration curves. In all the cases, very good precision (RSD% values ranging from 1.04 to 6.40% in the long-period) and accuracy (Recovery% values ranging from 96.03 to 111.14% in the long-period) values along with appreciably low LOD and LOQ values (the former being within the range 1-27 ng mL(-1) and the latter within the range 2-44 ng mL(-1)) turned out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enzymatically and reductively degradable α-amino acid-based poly(ester amide)s: synthesis, cell compatibility, and intracellular anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanli; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao; Meng, Fenghua; Dias, Aylvin A; Hendriks, Marc; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-02-09

    A novel and versatile family of enzymatically and reductively degradable α-amino acid-based poly(ester amide)s (SS-PEAs) were developed from solution polycondensation of disulfide-containing di-p-toluenesulfonic acid salts of bis-l-phenylalanine diesters (SS-Phe-2TsOH) with di-p-nitrophenyl adipate (NA) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). SS-PEAs with Mn ranging from 16.6 to 23.6 kg/mol were obtained, depending on NA/SS-Phe-2TsOH molar ratios. The chemical structures of SS-PEAs were confirmed by (1)H NMR and FTIR spectra. Thermal analyses showed that the obtained SS-PEAs were amorphous with a glass transition temperature (Tg) in the range of 35.2-39.5 °C. The in vitro degradation studies of SS-PEA films revealed that SS-PEAs underwent surface erosion in the presence of 0.1 mg/mL α-chymotrypsin and bulk degradation under a reductive environment containing 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). The preliminary cell culture studies displayed that SS-PEA films could well support adhesion and proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells, indicating that SS-PEAs have excellent cell compatibility. The nanoparticles prepared from SS-PEA with PVA as a surfactant had an average size of 167 nm in phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM, pH 7.4). SS-PEA nanoparticles while stable under physiological environment undergo rapid disintegration under an enzymatic or reductive condition. The in vitro drug release studies showed that DOX release was accelerated in the presence of 0.1 mg/mL α-chymotrypsin or 10 mM DTT. Confocal microscopy observation displayed that SS-PEA nanoparticles effectively transported DOX into both drug-sensitive and -resistant MCF-7 cells. MTT assays revealed that DOX-loaded SS-PEA nanoparticles had a high antitumor activity approaching that of free DOX in drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells, while more than 10 times higher than free DOX in drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. These enzymatically and reductively degradable α-amino acid-based poly(ester amide)s have provided an appealing platform for

  17. Synthesis of pyroglutamic acid derivatives via double michael reactions of alkynones.

    PubMed

    Scansetti, Myriam; Hu, Xiangping; McDermott, Benjamin P; Lam, Hon Wai

    2007-05-24

    In the presence of substoichiometric quantities of potassium tert-butoxide and an additional metal salt, amide-tethered diacids undergo double Michael reactions with alkynones to provide highly functionalized pyroglutamic acid derivatives. The metal salt was found to play an important role in improving the diastereoselectivities of the reactions.

  18. A spectrophotometric assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase suitable for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    De Bank, Paul A; Kendall, David A; Alexander, Stephen P H

    2005-04-15

    Signalling via the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol appears to be terminated largely through the action of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In this report, we describe a simple spectrophotometric assay to detect FAAH activity in vitro using the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze oleamide and measuring the resultant production of ammonia with a NADH/NAD+-coupled enzyme reaction. This dual-enzyme assay was used to determine Km and Vmax values of 104 microM and 5.7 nmol/min/mgprotein, respectively, for rat liver FAAH-catalyzed oleamide hydrolysis. Inhibitor potency was determined with the resultant rank order of methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate>phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride>anandamide. This assay system was also adapted for use in microtiter plates and its ability to detect a known inhibitor of FAAH demonstrated, highlighting its potential for use in high-throughput screening.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of bile acid-aromatic/heteroaromatic amides linked via amino acids as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Devesh S; Anantaraju, Hasitha Shilpa; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Nanjegowda, Shankara H; Mallu, P; Sakhuja, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    A series of bile acid (Cholic acid and Deoxycholic acid) aryl/heteroaryl amides linked via α-amino acid were synthesized and tested against 3 human cancer cell-lines (HT29, MDAMB231, U87MG) and 1 human normal cell line (HEK293T). Some of the conjugates showed promising results to be new anticancer agents with good in vitro results. More specifically, Cholic acid derivatives 6a (1.35 μM), 6c (1.41 μM) and 6m (4.52 μM) possessing phenyl, benzothiazole and 4-methylphenyl groups showed fairly good activity against the breast cancer cell line with respect to Cisplatin (7.21 μM) and comparable with respect to Doxorubicin (1 μM), while 6e (2.49μM), 6i (2.46 μM) and 6m (1.62 μM) showed better activity against glioblastoma cancer cell line with respect to both Cisplatin (2.60 μM) and Doxorubicin (3.78 μM) drugs used as standards. Greater than 65% of the compounds were found to be safer on human normal cell line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

  1. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  2. Amino acid amides of piperic acid (PA) and 4-ethylpiperic acid (EPA) as NorA efflux pump inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Singh, Samsher; Farooq, Saleem; Shankar, Sudha; Koul, Surrinder; Khan, Inshad Ali; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-09-01

    A total of eighteen piperic acid (PA) and 4-ethylpiperic acid (EPA) amides (C1-C18) with α-, β- and γ-amino acids were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their efflux pump inhibitory activity against ciprofloxacin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The amides were screened against NorA overexpressing S. aureus SA-1199B and wild type S. aureus SA-1199 using ethidium bromide as NorA efflux pump substrate. EPI C6 was found to be most potent and reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin by 16 fold followed by C18 which showed 4 fold reduction of MIC. Ethidium bromide efflux inhibition and accumulation assay proved these compounds as NorA inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors on working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Thorndike, Eric B; Nikas, Spyros P; Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R; Justinova, Zuzana

    2016-05-01

    Manipulations of the endocannabinoid system could potentially produce therapeutic effects with minimal risk of adverse cannabis-like side effects. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist, anandamide, and show promise for treating a wide range of disorders. However, their effects on learning and memory have not been fully characterized. We determined the effects of five structurally different FAAH inhibitors in an animal model of working memory known to be sensitive to impairment by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A delayed nonmatching-to-position procedure was used in rats. Illuminated nosepoke holes were used to provide sample cues (left versus right) and record responses (correct versus incorrect) after delays ranging from 0 to 28 s. Various test drugs were given acutely up to two times per week before daily sessions. One FAAH inhibitor, AM3506 (3 mg/kg), decreased accuracy in the memory task. Four other FAAH inhibitors (URB597, URB694, PF-04457845, and ARN14633) and a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor (JZL184, which blocks the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol) had no effect. Testing of AM3506 in combination with antagonists for receptors known to be affected by anandamide and other fatty acid amides indicated that the impairment induced by AM3506 was mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and not by alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-alpha) or vanilloid transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPV1). FAAH inhibitors differ with respect to their potential for memory impairment, abuse liability, and probably other cannabis-like effects, and they should be evaluated individually for specific therapeutic and adverse effects.

  4. Effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors on working memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Panlilio, Leigh V.; Thorndike, Eric B.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R.; Justinova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Manipulations of the endocannabinoid system could potentially produce therapeutic effects with minimal risk of adverse cannabis-like side effects. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist, anandamide, and show promise for treating a wide range of disorders. However, their effects on learning and memory have not been fully characterized. Objectives We determined the effects of five structurally different FAAH inhibitors in an animal model of working memory known to be sensitive to impairment by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Methods A delayed nonmatching-to-position procedure was used in rats. Illuminated nosepoke holes were used to provide sample cues (left versus right) and record responses (correct versus incorrect) after delays ranging from 0-28 seconds. Various test drugs were given acutely up to two times per week before daily sessions. Results One FAAH inhibitor, AM3506 (3 mg/kg), decreased accuracy in the memory task. Four other FAAH inhibitors (URB597, URB694, PF-04457845, and ARN14633) and a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor (JZL184, which blocks the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol) had no effect. Testing of AM3506 in combination with antagonists for receptors known to be affected by anandamide and other fatty-acid amides indicated that the impairment induced by AM3506 was mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and not by alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-alpha) or vanilloid transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPV1). Conclusions FAAH inhibitors differ with respect to their potential for memory impairment, abuse liability, and probably other cannabis-like effects, and they should be evaluated individually for specific therapeutic and adverse effects. PMID:26558620

  5. Evaluation of fatty acid amides in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Laura E.; Cannavacciulo, Roberta; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Martin, Billy F.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    While it has long been recognized that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and other cannabinoid receptor agonists possess anti-inflammatory properties, their well known CNS effects have dampened enthusiasm for therapeutic development. On the other hand, genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for degradation of fatty acid amides, including endogenous cannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide; AEA), N-palmitoyl ethanolamine (PEA), N-oleoyl ethanolamine (OEA), and oleamide, also elicits anti-edema, but does not produce any apparent cannabinoid effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exogenous administration of FAAs would augment the anti-inflammatory phenotype of FAAH (-/-) mice in the carrageenan model. Thus, we evaluated the effects of the FAAs AEA, PEA, OEA, and oleamide in wild-type and FAAH (-/-) mice. For comparison, we evaluated the anti-edema effects of THC, dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, diclofenac (DIC), a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, in both genotypes. A final study determined if tolerance to the anti-edema effects of PEA occurs after repeated dosing. PEA, THC, DEX, DIC elicited significant decreases in carrageenan-induced paw edema in wild type mice. In contrast OEA produced a less reliable anti-edema effect than these other drugs, and AEA and oleamide failed to produce any significant decreases in paw edema. Moreover, none of the agents evaluated augmented the anti-edema phenotype of FAAH (-/-) mice, suggesting that maximal anti-edema effects had already been established. PEA was the most effective FAA in preventing paw edema and its effects did not undergo tolerance. While the present findings do not support a role for AEA in preventing carrageenan-induced edema, PEA administration and FAAH blockade elicited anti-edema effects of an equivalent magnitude as produced by THC, DEX, and DIC in this

  6. Evaluation of fatty acid amides in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model.

    PubMed

    Wise, Laura E; Cannavacciulo, Roberta; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Martin, Billy F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2008-01-01

    While it has long been recognized that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and other cannabinoid receptor agonists possess anti-inflammatory properties, their well known CNS effects have dampened enthusiasm for therapeutic development. On the other hand, genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for degradation of fatty acid amides, including endogenous cannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide; AEA), N-palmitoyl ethanolamine (PEA), N-oleoyl ethanolamine (OEA), and oleamide, also elicits anti-edema, but does not produce any apparent cannabinoid effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exogenous administration of FAAs would augment the anti-inflammatory phenotype of FAAH (-/-) mice in the carrageenan model. Thus, we evaluated the effects of the FAAs AEA, PEA, OEA, and oleamide in wild-type and FAAH (-/-) mice. For comparison, we evaluated the anti-edema effects of THC, dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, diclofenac (DIC), a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, in both genotypes. A final study determined if tolerance to the anti-edema effects of PEA occurs after repeated dosing. PEA, THC, DEX, DIC elicited significant decreases in carrageenan-induced paw edema in wild-type mice. In contrast OEA produced a less reliable anti-edema effect than these other drugs, and AEA and oleamide failed to produce any significant decreases in paw edema. Moreover, none of the agents evaluated augmented the anti-edema phenotype of FAAH (-/-) mice, suggesting that maximal anti-edema effects had already been established. PEA was the most effective FAA in preventing paw edema and its effects did not undergo tolerance. While the present findings do not support a role for AEA in preventing carrageenan-induced edema, PEA administration and FAAH blockade elicited anti-edema effects of an equivalent magnitude as produced by THC, DEX, and DIC in this

  7. [Synthetic transformations of higher terpenoids. XXX. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of betulonic acid amides with a piperidine or pyrrolidine nitroxide moiety].

    PubMed

    Antimonova, A N; Petrenko, N I; Shults, E E; Polienko, Iu F; Shakirov, M M; Irtegova, I G; Pokrovskiĭ, M A; Sherman, K M; Grigor'ev, I A; Pokrovskiĭ, A G; Tolstikov, G A

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of betulonic acid chloride with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpeperidine-1-oxyl, 3-amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl and 3-aminomethyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl gave corresponding triterpenoid amides. It was found that new derivatives exhibit cytotoxic activity against tumor cells CEM-13, U-937, MT-4. CCID50 value for most activity compound--N-[3-oxolup-20(29)-en-30-yl]-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-yl)-1-oxyl--was 5.7-33.1 microM.

  8. A sensitive and specific radiochromatographic assay of fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, M; Bari, M; Agrò, A F

    1999-02-15

    A radiochromatographic method has been set up in order to determine fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity, based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and on-line scintillation counting. The reaction products were separated using a C18 column eluted with methanol-water-acetic acid and quantitated with an external standard. Baseline separation of the acid product from the substrate was completed in less than 4 min, with a detection limit of 2.5 fmol arachidonic acid at a signal to noise ratio of 4:1. The method enabled to determine the kinetic constants (i.e., apparent Km of 2.0 +/- 0.2 microM and Vmax of 800 +/- 75 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1 toward anandamide) and the substrate specificity of human brain FAAH, as well as the extent of enzyme inhibition by some anandamide congeners. The femtomole sensitivity and the accuracy of the method allow detection and characterization of the activity of FAAH in very minute tissue samples or in samples where the enzymatic activity is very low. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Vinblastine 20' Amides: Synthetic Analogues That Maintain or Improve Potency and Simultaneously Overcome Pgp-Derived Efflux and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lukesh, John C; Carney, Daniel W; Dong, Huijun; Cross, R Matthew; Shukla, Vyom; Duncan, Katharine K; Yang, Shouliang; Brody, Daniel M; Brütsch, Manuela M; Radakovic, Aleksandar; Boger, Dale L

    2017-09-14

    A series of 180 vinblastine 20' amides were prepared in three steps from commercially available starting materials, systematically exploring a typically inaccessible site in the molecule enlisting a powerful functionalization strategy. Clear structure-activity relationships and a structural model were developed in the studies which provided many such 20' amides that exhibit substantial and some even remarkable enhancements in potency, many that exhibit further improvements in activity against a Pgp overexpressing resistant cancer cell line, and an important subset of the vinblastine analogues that display little or no differential in activity against a matched pair of vinblastine sensitive and resistant (Pgp overexpressing) cell lines. The improvements in potency directly correlated with target tubulin binding affinity, and the reduction in differential functional activity against the sensitive and Pgp overexpressing resistant cell lines was found to correlate directly with an impact on Pgp-derived efflux.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of novel amide amino-β-lactam derivatives as cholesterol absorption inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dražić, Tonko; Sachdev, Vinay; Leopold, Christina; Patankar, Jay V; Malnar, Martina; Hećimović, Silva; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Habuš, Ivan; Kratky, Dagmar

    2015-05-15

    The β-lactam cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe is so far the only representative of this class of compounds on the market today. The goal of this work was to synthesize new amide ezetimibe analogs from trans-3-amino-(3R,4R)-β-lactam and to test their cytotoxicity and activity as cholesterol absorption inhibitors. We synthesized six new amide ezetimibe analogs. All new compounds exhibited low toxicity in MDCKIIwt, hNPC1L1/MDCKII and HepG2 cell lines and showed significant inhibition of cholesterol uptake in hNPC1L1/MDCKII cells. In addition, we determined the activity of the three compounds to inhibit cholesterol absorption in vivo. Our results demonstrate that these compounds considerably reduce cholesterol concentrations in liver and small intestine of mice. Thus, our newly synthesized amide ezetimibe analogs are cholesterol absorption inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. New Enzymatic Method of Chiral Amino Acid Synthesis by Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Amino Acid Amides: Use of Stereoselective Amino Acid Amidases in the Presence of α-Amino-ɛ-Caprolactam Racemase▿

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shigenori; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2007-01-01

    d- and l-amino acids were produced from l- and d-amino acid amides by d-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi C1-38 and l-amino acid amidase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603, respectively, in the presence of α-amino-ɛ-caprolactam racemase from Achromobacter obae as the catalyst by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides. PMID:17586677

  12. Engineering an ATP-dependent D-Ala:D-Ala ligase for synthesizing amino acid amides from amino acids.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuta; Okazaki, Seiji; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-05-01

    We successfully engineered a new enzyme that catalyzes the formation of D-Ala amide (D-AlaNH 2 ) from D-Ala by modifying ATP-dependent D-Ala:D-Ala ligase (EC 6.3.2.4) from Thermus thermophilus, which catalyzes the formation of D-Ala-D-Ala from two molecules of D-Ala. The new enzyme was created by the replacement of the Ser293 residue with acidic amino acids, as it was speculated to bind to the second D-Ala of D-Ala-D-Ala. In addition, a replacement of the position with Glu performed better than that with Asp with regards to specificity for D-AlaNH 2 production. The S293E variant, which was selected as the best enzyme for D-AlaNH 2 production, exhibited an optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 40 °C for D-AlaNH 2 production. The apparent K m values of this variant for D-Ala and NH 3 were 7.35 mM and 1.58 M, respectively. The S293E variant could catalyze the synthesis of 9.3 and 35.7 mM of D-AlaNH 2 from 10 and 50 mM D-Ala and 3 M NH 4 Cl with conversion yields of 93 and 71.4 %, respectively. This is the first report showing the enzymatic formation of amino acid amides from amino acids.

  13. Complex investigation of the effects of lambertianic acid amide in female mice under conditions of social discomfort.

    PubMed

    Avgustinovich, D F; Fomina, M K; Sorokina, I V; Tolstikova, T G

    2014-09-01

    The effects of chronic administration of a new substance lambertianic acid amide and previously synthesized methyl ester of this acid were compared in female mice living under conditions of social discomfort. For modeling social discomfort, female mouse was housed for 30 days in a cage with aggressive male mouse kept behind a transparent perforated partition and observed its confrontations with another male mouse daily placed to the cage. The new agent more effectively than lambertianic acid methyl ester improved communicativeness and motor activity of animals, reduced hypertrophy of the adrenal glands, and enhanced catalase activity in the blood. These changes suggest that lambertianic acid amide produces a pronounced stress-protective effect under conditions of social discomfort.

  14. Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Deters, A M; Müller, G; Stark, T; Wittschier, N; Hofmann, T

    2007-02-01

    Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica archangelica, fruits of Cassia angustifolia, C. senna, Coriandrum sativum, leaves from Hedera helix, flowers from Lavandula spec. and from Sambucus nigra contained high amounts (1 to 11 microg/g) of mixtures of the different amides 1 to 12. For functional investigations on potential activity in cellular physiology, two amides with an aliphatic (8) and an aromatic amino acid residue (5) were used. N-(E)-Caffeic acid L-aspartic acid amide (8) and N-(E)-caffeic acid L-tryptophan amide (5) stimulated mitochondrial activity as well as the proliferation rate of human liver cells (HepG2) at 10 microg/mL significantly. When monitoring the influence of selected phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, both compounds did not influence CYP3A4 gene expression, but stimulated CYP1A2 gene expression and inhibited GST expression. Also, the proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK) was increased up to 150% by both amides 5 and 8; this stimulation was also detectable on the level of gene expression by an up-regulation of the transcription factor STAT6. The aliphatic aspartic compound 8 showed strong antiadhesive properties on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human stomach tissue.

  15. The Molecular Basis for Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH)/Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Favia, Angelo D; Convertino, Marino; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-06-20

    The design of multitarget-directed ligands is a promising strategy for discovering innovative drugs. Here, we report a mechanistic study that clarifies key aspects of the dual inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes by a new multitarget-directed ligand named ARN2508 (2-[3-fluoro-4-[3-(hexylcarbamoyloxy)phenyl]phenyl]propanoic acid). This potent dual inhibitor combines, in a single scaffold, the pharmacophoric elements often needed to block FAAH and COX, that is, a carbamate moiety and the 2-arylpropionic acid functionality, respectively. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that ARN2508 uses a noncovalent mechanism of inhibition to block COXs, while inhibiting FAAH via the acetylation of the catalytic Ser241, in line with previous experimental evidence for covalent FAAH inhibition. This study proposes the molecular basis for the dual FAAH/COX inhibition by this novel hybrid scaffold, stimulating further experimental studies and offering new insights for the rational design of novel anti-inflammatory agents that simultaneously act on FAAH and COX. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Insights into the molecular mechanism of tolerance to carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides in Pythium aphanidermatum.

    PubMed

    Blum, Mathias; Gisi, Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    Tolerance to the oomycete-specific carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides is a poorly understood mechanism in Pythium species. The root-rot and damping-off causative agent Pythium aphanidermatum and the CAA fungicide mandipropamid (MPD) were used to investigate the molecular basis of CAA tolerance. Five genes putatively involved in carbohydrate synthesis were identified and characterised: one chitin synthase gene, PaChs, and four cellulose synthase genes PaCesA1 to PaCesA4, of which PaCesA3 encodes the MPD target enzyme. These genes were differentially expressed throughout the life cycle of P. aphanidermatum. Mycelium treated with MPD concentrations slightly affecting mycelial growth did not cause a change in PaCesA3 expression nor a strong upregulation of PaCesA homologues. The high tolerance level of P. aphanidermatum and the lack of PaCesA upregulation imply that MPD tolerance is the result of a specific amino acid configuration in the cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) target enzyme. Indeed, P. aphanidermatum displays the amino acid L1109 which is also associated with MPD resistance in artificial mutants of Phytophthora species. It is concluded that MPD tolerance in P. aphanidermatum is not caused by compensatory mechanisms but most likely by an inherent target-site configuration in PaCesA3 that hinders MPD binding to the enzyme pocket. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Using parahydrogen to hyperpolarize amines, amides, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phosphates, and carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Iali, Wissam; Rayner, Peter J.; Duckett, Simon B.

    2018-01-01

    Hyperpolarization turns weak nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses into strong signals, so normally impractical measurements are possible. We use parahydrogen to rapidly hyperpolarize appropriate 1H, 13C, 15N, and 31P responses of analytes (such as NH3) and important amines (such as phenylethylamine), amides (such as acetamide, urea, and methacrylamide), alcohols spanning methanol through octanol and glucose, the sodium salts of carboxylic acids (such as acetic acid and pyruvic acid), sodium phosphate, disodium adenosine 5′-triphosphate, and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The associated signal gains are used to demonstrate that it is possible to collect informative single-shot NMR spectra of these analytes in seconds at the micromole level in a 9.4-T observation field. To achieve these wide-ranging signal gains, we first use the signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) process to hyperpolarize an amine or ammonia and then use their exchangeable NH protons to relay polarization into the analyte without changing its identity. We found that the 1H signal gains reach as high as 650-fold per proton, whereas for 13C, the corresponding signal gains achieved in a 1H-13C refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) experiment exceed 570-fold and those in a direct-detected 13C measurement exceed 400-fold. Thirty-one examples are described to demonstrate the applicability of this technique. PMID:29326984

  18. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ferulic Acid Amides: Curcumin-Based Design and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Badavath, Vishnu N; Baysal, İpek; Uçar, Gülberk; Mondal, Susanta K; Sinha, Barij N; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid has structural similarity with curcumin which is being reported for its monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity. Based on this similarity, we designed a series of ferulic acid amides 6a-m and tested for their inhibitory activity on human MAO (hMAO) isoforms. All the compounds were found to inhibit the hMAO isoforms either selectively or non-selectively. Nine compounds (6a, 6b, 6g-m) were found to inhibit hMAO-B selectively, whereas the other four (6c-f) were found to be non-selective. There is a gradual shift from hMAO-B selectivity (6a,b) to non-selectivity (6c-f) as there is an increase in chain length at the amino terminus. In case of compounds having an aromatic nucleus at the amino terminus, increasing the carbon number between N and the aromatic ring increases the potency as well as selectivity toward hMAO-B. Compounds 6f, 6j, and 6k were subjected to membrane permeability and metabolic stability studies by in vitro assay methods. They were found to have a better pharmacokinetic profile than curcumin, ferulic acid, and selegiline. In order to understand the structural features responsible for the potency and selectivity of 6k, we carried out a molecular docking simulation study. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. New Class of Algicidal Compounds and Fungicidal Activities Derived from a Chromene Amide of Amyris texana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In our continuing search for natural algicides with selective toxicity towards the 2-methyl- isoborneol (MIB) -producing blue-green alga Oscillatoria perornata , the ethyl acetate extract from Amyris texana leaves was investigated by bioassay-guided fractionation. A chromene amide was isolated and i...

  20. Phenethyl ester and amide of Ferulic Acids: Synthesis and bioactivity against P388 Leukemia Murine Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus; Soekamto, N. H.; Seniwati; Islam, M. F.; Sultan

    2018-03-01

    Bioactivity of a compound is closely related to the molecular structure of the compound concerned, its strength being the quantitative relation of the strength of the activity of the group it possesses. The combining of moieties of the active compounds will produce more active compounds. Most phenolic compounds as well as compounds containing moiety phenethyl groups have potential activity as anticancer. Combining phenolic groups and phenethyl groups in a compound will result in compounds having strong anticancer bioactivity. This study aims to combine the feruloyl and phenethyl groups to form esters and amides by synthesize of phenethyl trans-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (5) and trans-3-(4- hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-phenethylacrylamide (6) from ferulic acid with phenethyl alcohol and phenethylamine, and to study their bioactivity as anticancer. The synthesis of both compounds was conducted via indirect reaction, including acetylation, chlorination, esterfication/amidation, and deacetylation. Structures of products were characterized by FTIR and NMR data, and their bioactivity assay of the compounds against P388 Leukemia Murine Cells was conducted by an MTT method. Results showed that the compound 5 was obtained as a yellow gel with the IC50 of 10.79 μg/mL (36.21 μΜ), and the compound 6 was a yellowish solid with a melting point of 118-120°C and the IC50 of 29.14 μg/mL (97.79 μΜ). These compounds were more active than the analog compounds.

  1. Direct amidation of carboxylic acids catalyzed by ortho-iodo arylboronic acids: catalyst optimization, scope, and preliminary mechanistic study supporting a peculiar halogen acceleration effect.

    PubMed

    Gernigon, Nicolas; Al-Zoubi, Raed M; Hall, Dennis G

    2012-10-05

    The importance of amides as a component of biomolecules and synthetic products motivates the development of catalytic, direct amidation methods employing free carboxylic acids and amines that circumvent the need for stoichiometric activation or coupling reagents. ortho-Iodophenylboronic acid 4a has recently been shown to catalyze direct amidation reactions at room temperature in the presence of 4A molecular sieves as dehydrating agent. Herein, the arene core of ortho-iodoarylboronic acid catalysts has been optimized with regards to the electronic effects of ring substitution. Contrary to the expectation, it was found that electron-donating substituents are preferable, in particular, an alkoxy substituent positioned para to the iodide. The optimal new catalyst, 5-methoxy-2-iodophenylboronic acid (MIBA, 4f), was demonstrated to be kinetically more active than the parent des-methoxy catalyst 4a, providing higher yields of amide products in shorter reaction times under mild conditions at ambient temperature. Catalyst 4f is recyclable and promotes the formation of amides from aliphatic carboxylic acids and amines, and from heteroaromatic carboxylic acids and other functionalized substrates containing moieties like a free phenol, indole and pyridine. Mechanistic studies demonstrated the essential role of molecular sieves in this complex amidation process. The effect of substrate stoichiometry, concentration, and measurement of the catalyst order led to a possible catalytic cycle based on the presumed formation of an acylborate intermediate. The need for an electronically enriched ortho-iodo substituent in catalyst 4f supports a recent theoretical study (Marcelli, T. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2010, 49, 6840-6843) with a purported role for the iodide as a hydrogen-bond acceptor in the orthoaminal transition state.

  2. Conversion of Weinreb amides into benzene rings incorporating the amide carbonyl carbon.

    PubMed

    Clive, Derrick L J; Pham, Mai P

    2009-02-20

    Esters, acids and acid chlorides can be converted via the intermediacy of their corresponding Weinreb amides into benzene derivatives that incorporate the original carbonyl carbon as part of the benzene ring. The process involves treatment of the derived Weinreb amides with 3-butenylmagnesium bromide and an allylic Grignard reagent, followed by ring-closing metathesis, dehydration and dehydrogenation. The dehydration-dehydrogenation can be done under acidic conditions with a mixture of TsOH x H(2)O and DDQ or in two steps with SOCl(2)/pyridine, followed by treatment with DDQ. Application of the method to carbohydrates provides a convenient route to C-5 aryl pyranosides.

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Amino Amides by Catalytic Enantioconvergent 2-Aza-Cope Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, C. Guy; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic kinetic resolutions of α-stereogenic-β-formyl amides in asymmetric 2-aza-Cope rearrangements are described. Chiral phosphoric acids catalyze this rare example of a non-hydrogenative DKR of a β-oxo acid derivative. The [3,3]-rearrangement occurs with high diastereo- and enantiocontrol, forming β-imino amides that can be deprotected to the primary β-amino amide or reduced to the corresponding diamine. PMID:26561873

  4. Water-stable helical structure of tertiary amides of bicyclic β-amino acid bearing 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane. Full control of amide cis-trans equilibrium by bridgehead substitution.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Masahiro; Otani, Yuko; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2010-10-27

    Helical structures of oligomers of non-natural β-amino acids are significantly stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between main-chain amide moieties in many cases, but the structures are generally susceptible to the environment; that is, helices may unfold in protic solvents such as water. For the generation of non-hydrogen-bonded ordered structures of amides (tertiary amides in most cases), control of cis-trans isomerization is crucial, even though there is only a small sterical difference with respect to cis and trans orientations. We have established methods for synthesis of conformationally constrained β-proline mimics, that is, bridgehead-substituted 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-endo-carboxylic acids. Our crystallographic, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and CD spectroscopic studies in solution revealed that a bridgehead methoxymethyl substituent completely biased the cis-trans equilibrium to the cis-amide structure along the main chain, and helical structures based on the cis-amide linkage were generated independently of the number of residues, from the minimalist dimer through the tetramer, hexamer, and up to the octamer, and irrespective of the solvent (e.g., water, alcohol, halogenated solvents, and cyclohexane). Generality of the control of the amide equilibrium by bridgehead substitution was also examined.

  5. Dysfunction in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Is Associated with Depressive-Like Behavior in Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K. Yaragudri; Xie, Shan; Psychoyos, Delphine; Hungund, Basalingappa L.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.

    2012-01-01

    Background While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. Methodology/Principal Findings The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD). Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA) were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder. PMID:22606285

  6. Dysfunction in fatty acid amide hydrolase is associated with depressive-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K Yaragudri; Xie, Shan; Psychoyos, Delphine; Hungund, Basalingappa L; Cooper, Thomas B; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M

    2012-01-01

    While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD). Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA) were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder.

  7. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of two diastereomeric lignan amides serving as dimeric caffeic acid-l-DOPA hybrids.

    PubMed

    Magoulas, George E; Rigopoulos, Andreas; Piperigkou, Zoi; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K; Takis, Panteleimon G; Troganis, Anastassios N; Chrissanthopoulos, Athanassios; Maroulis, George; Papaioannou, Dionissios

    2016-06-01

    Two new diastereomeric lignan amides (4 and 5) serving as dimeric caffeic acid-l-DOPA hybrids were synthesized. The synthesis involved the FeCl3-mediated phenol oxidative coupling of methyl caffeate to afford trans-diester 1a as a mixture of enantiomers, protection of the catechol units, regioselective saponification, coupling with a suitably protected l-DOPA derivative, separation of the two diastereomers thus obtained by flash column chromatography and finally global chemoselective deprotection of the catechol units. The effect of hybrids 4 and 5 and related compounds on the proliferation of two breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential and estrogen receptor status (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and of one epithelial lung cancer cell line, namely A-549, was evaluated for concentrations ranging from 1 to 256μM and periods of treatment of 24, 48 and 72h. Both hybrids showed interesting and almost equipotent antiproliferative activities (IC50 64-70μM) for the MDA-MB-231 cell line after 24-48h of treatment, but they were more selective and much more potent (IC50 4-16μM) for the MCF-7 cells after 48h of treatment. The highest activity for both hybrids and both breast cancer lines was observed after 72h of treatment (IC50 1-2μM), probably as the result of slow hydrolysis of their methyl ester functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potent and selective alpha-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors of the anandamide and oleamide catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Romero, F Anthony; Du, Wu; Hwang, Inkyu; Rayl, Thomas J; Kimball, F Scott; Leung, Donmienne; Hoover, Heather S; Apodaca, Richard L; Breitenbucher, J Guy; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Boger, Dale L

    2007-03-08

    A study of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 2f (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed, targeting the 5-position of the oxazole. Examination of a series of substituted benzene derivatives (12-14) revealed that the optimal position for substitution was the meta-position with selected members approaching or exceeding the potency of 2f. Concurrent with these studies, the effect of substitution on the pyridine ring of 2f was also examined. A series of small, nonaromatic C5-substituents was also explored and revealed that the K(i) follows a well-defined correlation with the Hammett sigma(p) constant (rho = 3.01, R2 = 0.91) in which electron-withdrawing substituents enhance potency, leading to inhibitors with K(i)s as low as 400 pM (20n). Proteomic-wide screening of the inhibitors revealed that most are exquisitely selective for FAAH over all other mammalian proteases, reversing the 100-fold preference of 20a (C5 substituent = H) for the enzyme TGH.

  9. Comparing Amide-Forming Reactions Using Green Chemistry Metrics in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennie, Michael W.; Roth, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, upper-division undergraduate chemistry and biochemistry majors investigate amide-bond-forming reactions from a green chemistry perspective. Using hydrocinnamic acid and benzylamine as reactants, students perform three types of amide-forming reactions: an acid chloride derivative route; a coupling reagent promoted…

  10. New class of algicidal compounds and fungicidal activities derived from a chromene amide of Amyris texana.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Schrader, Kevin K; Burandt, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2010-09-08

    A chromene amide, N-[2-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl)ethyl]-N,3-dimethylbutanamide, was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the leaves of Amyris texana and found to have moderate antifungal activity against Colletotrichum spp. and selective algicidal activity against Planktothrix perornata, a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) that causes musty off-flavor in farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). To improve the selective algicidal activity and provide water solubility, a series of chromene analogues were synthesized and evaluated for algicidal activity using a 96-well microplate rapid bioassay. In addition, the chromene analogues were evaluated for antifungal and phytotoxic activities. Hydrochloride salts of a chromene amine analogue showed improved water solubility and selectivity toward P. perornata with activity comparable to that of the naturally occurring chromene amide.

  11. Protein Structure Validation and Refinement Using Amide Proton Chemical Shifts Derived from Quantum Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Anders S.; Linnet, Troels E.; Borg, Mikael; Boomsma, Wouter; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Hamelryck, Thomas; Jensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    We present the ProCS method for the rapid and accurate prediction of protein backbone amide proton chemical shifts - sensitive probes of the geometry of key hydrogen bonds that determine protein structure. ProCS is parameterized against quantum mechanical (QM) calculations and reproduces high level QM results obtained for a small protein with an RMSD of 0.25 ppm (r = 0.94). ProCS is interfaced with the PHAISTOS protein simulation program and is used to infer statistical protein ensembles that reflect experimentally measured amide proton chemical shift values. Such chemical shift-based structural refinements, starting from high-resolution X-ray structures of Protein G, ubiquitin, and SMN Tudor Domain, result in average chemical shifts, hydrogen bond geometries, and trans-hydrogen bond (h3 JNC') spin-spin coupling constants that are in excellent agreement with experiment. We show that the structural sensitivity of the QM-based amide proton chemical shift predictions is needed to obtain this agreement. The ProCS method thus offers a powerful new tool for refining the structures of hydrogen bonding networks to high accuracy with many potential applications such as protein flexibility in ligand binding. PMID:24391900

  12. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B): Importance of steric and electronic effects on the unusual cyclization of the sulfenic acid intermediate to a sulfenyl amide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bani Kanta

    2013-09-01

    The redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) via the unusual transformation of its sulfenic acid (PTP1B-SOH) to a cyclic sulfenyl amide intermediate is studied by using small molecule chemical models. These studies suggest that the sulfenic acids derived from the H2O2-mediated reactions o-amido thiophenols do not efficiently cyclize to sulfenyl amides and the sulfenic acids produced in situ can be trapped by using methyl iodide. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most stable conformer of such sulfenic acids are stabilized by nO → σ*S-OH orbital interactions, which force the -OH group to adopt a position trans to the S⋯O interaction, leading to an almost linear arrangement of the O⋯S-O moiety and this may be the reason for the slow cyclization of such sulfenic acids to their corresponding sulfenyl amides. On the other hand, additional substituents at the 6-position of o-amido phenylsulfenic acids that can induce steric environment and alter the electronic properties around the sulfenic acid moiety by S⋯N or S⋯O nonbonded interactions destabilize the sulfenic acids by inducing strain in the molecule. This may lead to efficient the cyclization of such sulfenic acids. This model study suggests that the amino acid residues in the close proximity of the sulfenic acid moiety in PTP1B may play an important role in the cyclization of PTP1B-SOH to produce the corresponding sulfenyl amide.

  13. Amide Neighbouring-Group Effects in Peptides: Phenylalanine as Relay Amino Acid in Long-Distance Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Nathanael, Joses G; Gamon, Luke F; Cordes, Meike; Rablen, Paul R; Bally, Thomas; Fromm, Katharina M; Giese, Bernd; Wille, Uta

    2018-05-04

    In nature, proteins serve as media for long-distance electron transfer (ET) to carry out redox reactions in distant compartments. This ET occurs either by a single-step superexchange or through a multi-step charge hopping process, which uses side chains of amino acids as stepping stones. In this study we demonstrate that Phe can act as a relay amino acid for long-distance electron hole transfer through peptides. The considerably increased susceptibility of the aromatic ring to oxidation is caused by the lone pairs of neighbouring amide carbonyl groups, which stabilise the Phe radical cation. This neighbouring-amide-group effect helps improve understanding of the mechanism of extracellular electron transfer through conductive protein filaments (pili) of anaerobic bacteria during mineral respiration. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors' therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted.

  15. Yakushinamides, Polyoxygenated Fatty Acid Amides That Inhibit HDACs and SIRTs, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kentaro; Imae, Yasufumi; Ise, Yuji; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ito, Akihiro; Okada, Shigeru; Yoshida, Minoru; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-09-23

    Yakushinamides A (1) and B (2), prolyl amides of polyoxygenated fatty acids, have been isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei as inhibitors of HDACs and SIRTs. Their planar structures were determined by interpretation of the NMR data of the intact molecules and tandem FABMS data of the methanolysis products. For the assignment of the relative configurations of the three contiguous oxymethine carbons in 1 and 2, Kishi's universal NMR database was applied to the methanolysis products. During the assignments of relative configurations of the isolated 1-hydroxy-3-methyl moiety in 1 and the isolated 1-hydroxy-2-methyl moiety in 2, we found diagnostic NMR features to distinguish each pair of diastereomers. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by a combination of the modified Mosher's method and Marfey's method. Although the modified Mosher's method was successfully applied to the methanolysis product of 1, this method gave an ambiguous result at C-20 when applied to the methanolysis product of 2, even after oxidative cleavage of the C-14 and C-15 bond.

  16. Analysis of lysergic acid amide in human serum and urine after ingestion of Argyreia nervosa seeds.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W

    2012-08-01

    The ergot alkaloid lysergic acid amide (LSA) is a secondary plant constituent in a number of plants, but it is mainly present in considerable amounts in Convolvulaceae, like Argyreia nervosa. Due to its close structural similarity to lysergic acid diethylamide, LSA is considered as psychedelic and therefore promoted as so-called "legal high" in various internet forums. During a human behavioral study with orally administered seeds of A. nervosa, blood and urine samples were obtained. The present study describes the validation of a sensitive and robust high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection, which was applied to the study samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification in human serum were 0.05 and 0.17 ng/mL, respectively, and in urine, the LOD was 0.15 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision and accuracy were below 15 % relative standard deviation with a bias better than ±15 %. No conversion of LSA to its epimer iso-LSA was noted during analyses. The LSA concentrations in the authentic human serum samples were in the range of 0.66 to 3.15 ng/mL approximately 2 h after ingestion. In urine, LSA could be found 1-24 h after ingestion; after 48 h, no LSA could be detected. The LSA epimer iso-LSA was also detected in serum and urine in varying ratios. In conclusion, LSA serum levels in the low nanogram per milliliter range correlated with severe vegetative adverse effects (nausea, weakness, fatigue, tremor, blood pressure elevation) and a psychosis-like state, which led to study termination.

  17. Friedel-Crafts Acylation with Amides

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erum K.; DeSchepper, Daniel J.; Nilsson Lill, Sten O.; Klumpp, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Friedel-Crafts acylation has been known since the 1870s and it is an important organic synthetic reaction leading to aromatic ketone products. Friedel-Crafts acylation is usually done with carboxylic acid chlorides or anhydrides while amides are generally not useful substrates in these reactions. Despite being the least reactive carboxylic acid derivative, we have found a series of amides capable of providing aromatic ketones in good yields (55–96%, 17 examples). We propose a mechanism involving diminished C-N resonance through superelectrophilic activation and subsequent cleavage to acyl cations. PMID:22690740

  18. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jiang; Meng-Xia, Xie; Dong, Zheng; Yuan, Liu; Xiao-Yu, Li; Xing, Chen

    2004-04-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives possess various biological effects in remedy of many diseases. Interaction of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, with human serum albumin (HSA), and concomitant changes in its conformation were studied using fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed the presence of one binding site on HSA for cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives, and their binding constants ( KA) are caffeic acid> p-coumaric acid> cinnamic acid when Cdrug/ CHSA ranging from 1 to 10. The changes of the secondary structure of HSA after interacting with the three drugs are estimated, respectively by combining the curve-fitting results of amid I and amid III bands. The α-helix structure has a decrease of ≈9, 5 and 3% after HSA interacted with caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, respectively. It was found that the hydroxyls substituted on aromatic ring of the drugs play an important role in the changes of protein's secondary structure. Combining the result of fluorescence quenching and the changes of secondary structure of HSA after interaction with the three drugs, the drug-HSA interaction mode was discussed.

  19. Primary fatty acid amide metabolism: conversion of fatty acids and an ethanolamine in N18TG2 and SCP cells1[S

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Emma K.; Chen, Yuden; Barazanji, Muna; Jeffries, Kristen A.; Cameroamortegui, Felipe; Merkler, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Primary fatty acid amides (PFAM) are important signaling molecules in the mammalian nervous system, binding to many drug receptors and demonstrating control over sleep, locomotion, angiogenesis, and many other processes. Oleamide is the best-studied of the primary fatty acid amides, whereas the other known PFAMs are significantly less studied. Herein, quantitative assays were used to examine the endogenous amounts of a panel of PFAMs, as well as the amounts produced after incubation of mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 and sheep choroid plexus (SCP) cells with the corresponding fatty acids or N-tridecanoylethanolamine. Although five endogenous primary amides were discovered in the N18TG2 and SCP cells, a different pattern of relative amounts were found between the two cell lines. Higher amounts of primary amides were found in SCP cells, and the conversion of N-tridecanoylethanolamine to tridecanamide was observed in the two cell lines. The data reported here show that the N18TG2 and SCP cells are excellent model systems for the study of PFAM metabolism. Furthermore, the data support a role for the N-acylethanolamines as precursors for the PFAMs and provide valuable new kinetic results useful in modeling the metabolic flux through the pathways for PFAM biosynthesis and degradation. PMID:22095832

  20. Microencapsulation of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and caffeic acid phenethyl amide by inclusion in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Garrido, E Manuela P J; Cerqueira, Ana S; Chavarria, Daniel; Silva, Tiago; Borges, Fernanda; Garrido, Jorge M P J

    2018-07-15

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive polyphenolic compound obtained from propolis extract. Although it has a broad therapeutic potential, the bioavailability of CAPE is limited, due to reduced solubility and poor plasmatic stability. Efforts to reduce these pharmacokinetic drawbacks resulted in the synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA). Cyclodextrins have been proved as promising excipients for the formulation of active ingredients. Herein, we report the inclusion complexation behavior and binding ability of CAPE and CAPA with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). The supramolecular interactions were examined through UV and FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, 1 H NMR and 2D ROESY. The CAPE/HP-β-CD and CAPA/HP-β-CD inclusion complexes stability constants were determined to be, respectively, 2911.6 and 584.6 M -1 in water and 2866.2 and 700.1 M -1 at physiological pH. The aqueous solubility increased notably, proving that HP-β-CD can be potentially useful to improve the biological, chemical and physical properties of CAPE and CAPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Saturated N-Heterocycles by Enantioselective Amidation with Chiral Hydroxamic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kreituss, Imants; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-12-20

    The preparation of enantioenriched chiral compounds by kinetic resolution dates back to the laboratories of Louis Pasteur in the middle of the 19th century. Unlike asymmetric synthesis, this process can always deliver enantiopure material (ee > 99%) if the reactions are allowed to proceed to sufficient conversion and the selectivity of the process is not unity (s > 1). One of the most appealing and practical variants is acylative kinetic resolution, which affords easily separable reaction products, and several highly efficient enzymatic and small molecule catalysts are available. Unfortunately, this method is applicable to limited substrate classes such as alcohols and primary benzylamines. This Account focuses on our work in catalytic acylative kinetic resolution of saturated N-heterocycles, a class of molecules that has been notoriously difficult to access via asymmetric synthesis. We document the development of hydroxamic acids as suitable catalysts for enantioselective acylation of amines through relay catalysis. Alongside catalyst optimization and reaction development, we present mechanistic studies and theoretical calculation accounting for the origins of selectivity and revealing the concerted nature of many amide-bond forming reactions. Immobilization of the hydroxamic acid to form a polymer supported reagent allows simplification of the experimental setup, improvement in product purification, and extension of the substrate scope. The kinetic resolutions are operationally straight forward: reactions proceed at room temperature and open to air conditions, without generation of difficult-to-remove side products. This was utilized to achieve decagram scale resolution of antimalarial drug mefloquine to prepare more than 50 g of (+)-erythro-meflqouine (er > 99:1) from the racemate. The immobilized quasienantiomeric acyl hydroxamic acid reagents were also exploited for a rare practical implementation of parallel kinetic resolution that affords both enantiomers of

  2. Synthesis, antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of α,β-unsaturated amides and 2,4-disubstituted oxazoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Avalos-Alanís, Francisco G; Hernández-Fernández, Eugenio; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; López-Cortina, Susana; Hernández-Fernández, Jorge; Ordóñez, Mario; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy E; Morales-Vargas, Alejandro; Velázquez-Moreno, Víctor M; Santiago-Mauricio, María G

    2017-02-15

    The synthesis of six α,β,-unsaturated amides and six 2,4-disubstituted oxazolines derivatives and their evaluation against two Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (sensitive H37Rv and a resistant clinical isolate) is reported. 2,4-Disubstituted oxazolines (S)-3b,d,e were the most active in the sensitive strain with a MIC of 14.2, 13.6 and 10.8μM, respectively, and the compounds (S)-3d,f were the most active against resistant strain with a MIC of 6.8 and 7.4μM. The ex-vivo evaluation of hepatotoxicity on precision-cut rat liver slices was also tested for the α,β-unsaturated amides (S)-2b and (S)-2d,f and for the oxazolines (S)-3b and (S)-3d,f at different concentrations (5, 15 and 30μg/mL). The results indicate that these compounds possess promising antimycobacterial activity and at the same time are not hepatotoxic. These findings open the possibility for development of new drugs against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct methylation procedure for converting fatty amides to fatty acid methyl esters in feed and digesta samples.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C; Thies, E J; Mosley, E E

    2001-05-01

    Two direct methylation procedures often used for the analysis of total fatty acids in biological samples were evaluated for their application to samples containing fatty amides. Methylation of 5 mg of oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) in a one-step (methanolic HCl for 2 h at 70 degrees C) or a two-step (sodium methoxide for 10 min at 50 degrees C followed by methanolic HCl for 10 min at 80 degrees C) procedure gave 59 and 16% conversions of oleamide to oleic acid, respectively. Oleic acid recovery from oleamide was increased to 100% when the incubation in methanolic HCl was lengthened to 16 h and increased to 103% when the incubation in methoxide was modified to 24 h at 100 degrees C. However, conversion of oleamide to oleic acid in an animal feed sample was incomplete for the modified (24 h) two-step procedure but complete for the modified (16 h) one-step procedure. Unsaturated fatty amides in feed and digesta samples can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters by incubation in methanolic HCl if the time of exposure to the acid catalyst is extended from 2 to 16 h.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted green bromination of N-cinnamoyl amino acid amides - Structural characterization and antimicrobial evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Boyka; Chochkova, Maya; Ivanova, Galya; Markova, Nadezhda; Enchev, Venelin; Tsvetkova, Iva; Najdenski, Hristo; Štícha, Martin; Milkova, Tsenka

    2017-05-01

    N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid amides have been brominated using two alternative sonochemically activated green chemistry procedures. The first synthetic procedure has involved an ultrasound assisted bromination in an aqueous medium using ionic liquid as a catalyst of the reaction, whereas in the second one an in situ formation of Br2 via oxidation of HBr by H2O2 has been used. For comparison, the conventional bromination procedure was also used. The newly brominated compounds were characterized by appropriate analytical techniques. A detailed NMR spectroscopic analysis and quantum chemical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods have been used to define the stereochemistry of the products. The results confirmed the physicochemical identity and similar yields of the products obtained by the three synthetic procedures employed, and reveal the co-existence of two diastereoisomeric forms of the newly synthesized products. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the dibrominated amides were evaluated.

  5. The palmitoylethanolamide and oleamide enigmas : are these two fatty acid amides cannabimimetic?

    PubMed

    Lambert, D M; Di Marzo, V

    1999-08-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleamide are two fatty acid amides which 1) share some cannabimimetic actions with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and 2) may interact with proteins involved in the biosynthesis, action and inactivation of endocannabinoids. Due to its pharmacological actions and its accumulation in damaged cells, PEA may have a physio-pathological role as an analgesic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mediator. However, its mechanism of action is puzzling. In fact, PEA does not bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors transfected into host cells, but might be a ligand for a putative CBn receptor present in the RBL-2H3 cell line. On the other hand, the analgesic effect of PEA is reversed by SR144528, a CB2 antagonist. PEA may act as an entourage compound for endocannabinoids, i.e. it may enhance their action for example by inhibiting their inactivation. Oleamide is a sleep inducing lipid whose mechanism of action is far from being understood. Although it does not bind with high affinity to CB1 or CB2 receptors, it exhibits some cannabimimetic actions which could be explained at least in part by entourage effects. It is likely that oleamide and anandamide have common as well as distinct pathways of action. The 5-HT2A receptor appears to be a target for oleamide but the possibility of the existence of specific receptors for this compound is open. The biosynthesis and tissue distribution of oleamide remain to be assessed in order to both substantiate its role as a sleep-inducing factor and investigate its participation in other physiopathological situations.

  6. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and cannabinoid activity of a new diazabicyclic amide of phenylacetylricinoleic acid.

    PubMed

    López-Ortíz, Manuel; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Luviano-Jardón, Axel; Reyes-Prieto, Nidia; Castillo, Ivan; Monsalvo, Ivan; Demare, Patricia; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Regla, Ignacio; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-06-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous neuromodulators of synaptic transmission. Their dysfunction may cause debilitating disorders of diverse clinical manifestation. For example, drug addiction, lack of sex desire, eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia and dyssomnias. eCBs also participate in the regulation of core temperature and pain perception. In this context, it is important to recognize the utility of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) agonists, natural as Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or synthetic as Nabilone as useful drugs to alleviate this kind of patients' suffering. Therefore, we have developed a new drug, (R,Z)-18-((1S,4S)-5-methyl-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)-18-oxooctadec-9-en-7-yl phenylacetate (PhAR-DBH-Me), that appears to bind and activate the CB1R. This diazabicyclic amide was synthesized from phenylacetylricinoleic acid and (1S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane. To test its cannabinergic properties we evaluated its effects on core temperature, pain perception, and the sleep-waking cycle of rats. Results indicate that 20 and 40mg/kg of PhAR-DBH-Me readily reduced core temperature and increased pain perception threshold. In addition, 20mg/kg increased REM sleep in otherwise normal rats. All these effects were prevented or attenuated by AM251, a CB1R antagonist. Place preference conditioning studies indicated that this molecule does not produce rewarding effects. These results strongly support that PhAR-DBH-Me possesses cannabinoid activity without the reinforcement effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition heightens anandamide signaling without producing reinforcing effects in primates

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mangieri, Regina A.; Bortolato, Marco; Chefer, Svetlana I.; Mukhin, Alexey G.; Clapper, Jason R.; King, Alvin R.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Yasar, Sevil; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Background CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain are known to participate in the regulation of reward-based behaviors, however, the contribution of each of the endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), to these behaviors remains undefined. To address this question, we assessed the effects of URB597, a selective anandamide deactivation inhibitor, as a reinforcer of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior in squirrel monkeys. Methods We investigated the reinforcing effects of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 in monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide or cocaine, and quantified brain endocannabinoid levels using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We measured brain FAAH activity using an ex vivo enzyme assay. Results URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, intravenous) blocked FAAH activity and increased anandamide levels throughout the monkey brain. This effect was accompanied by a marked compensatory decrease in 2-AG levels. Monkeys did not self-administer URB597 and the drug did not promote reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior previously maintained by THC, anandamide, or cocaine. Pretreatment with URB597 did not modify self-administration of THC or cocaine even though, as expected, it significantly potentiated anandamide self-administration. Conclusions In the monkey brain, the FAAH inhibitor URB597 increases anandamide levels while causing a compensatory down-regulation in 2-AG levels. These effects are accompanied by a striking lack of reinforcing properties, which distinguishes URB597 from direct-acting cannabinoid agonists such as THC. Our results reveal an unexpected functional heterogeneity within the endocannabinoid signaling system, and suggest that FAAH inhibitors might be used therapeutically without risk of abuse or triggering of relapse to drug abuse. PMID:18814866

  9. Metal-free one-pot oxidative amination of aldehydes to amides.

    PubMed

    Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Wolf, Christian

    2007-08-16

    Metal-free oxidative amination of aromatic aldehydes in the presence of TBHP provides convenient access to amides in 85-99% under mild reaction conditions within 5 h. This method avoids free carboxylic acid intermediates and integrates aldehyde oxidation and amide bond formation, which are usually accomplished separately, into a single operation. Proline-derived amides can be prepared in excellent yields without noticeable racemization.

  10. Antinociceptive activity of novel amide derivatives of imidazolidine-2,4-dione in a mouse model of acute pain.

    PubMed

    Czopek, Anna; Sałat, Kinga; Byrtus, Hanna; Rychtyk, Joanna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Siwek, Agata; Soluch, Joanna; Mureddu, Valentina; Filipek, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in non-epileptic disorders. For example, phenytoin and levetiracetam demonstrate analgesic properties in rodent models of pain. In order to enhance their antinociceptive activity, structural features of phenytoin and levetiracetam, such as imidazolidine-2,4-dione and amide bond in alkyl chain, were combined in one molecule. Furthermore, in preliminary studies, methoxyphenylpiperazinpropyl derivatives of imidazolidine-2,4-dione acted as antinociceptive agents in several rodent models of acute pain. The final compounds and the reference drugs - levetiracetam and phenytoin were evaluated in the hot plate test to assess their antinociceptive activity in this acute pain model. Furthermore, for the analgesic active compounds the impact on animals' locomotor activity and motor performance were estimated and the affinity to serotonergic (5-HT1A, 5-HT7) and adrenergic (α1) receptors was determined. Three of the tested compounds: 7, 15 and 18 showed statistically significant antinociceptive properties at the dose of 30mg/kg. Among them, compound 18, 1-methyl-3-[1-(morpholin-4-yl)-1-oxobutan-2-yl]imidazolidine-2,4-dione, exhibited the most significant and long-lasting antinociceptive activity. Noteworthy, this activity was not associated with a negative effect on animals' motor functions. Serotonergic or adrenergic neurotransmission is not involved in this antinociceptive effect. Some amide derivatives of imidazolidine-2,4-diones possess antinociceptive properties in mice but further studies are needed to explain their mechanism of action and assess their toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Design, synthesis and optimization of bis-amide derivatives as CSF1R inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sreekanth A; Jadhavar, Pradeep S; Miglani, Sandeep K; Singh, Manvendra P; Kalane, Deepak P; Agarwal, Anil K; Sathe, Balaji D; Mukherjee, Kakoli; Gupta, Ashu; Haldar, Srijan; Raja, Mohd; Singh, Siddhartha; Pham, Son M; Chakravarty, Sarvajit; Quinn, Kevin; Belmar, Sebastian; Alfaro, Ivan E; Higgs, Christopher; Bernales, Sebastian; Herrera, Francisco J; Rai, Roopa

    2017-05-15

    Signaling via the receptor tyrosine kinase CSF1R is thought to play an important role in recruitment and differentiation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs play pro-tumorigenic roles, including the suppression of anti-tumor immune response, promotion of angiogenesis and tumor cell metastasis. Because of the role of this signaling pathway in the tumor microenvironment, several small molecule CSF1R kinase inhibitors are undergoing clinical evaluation for cancer therapy, either as a single agent or in combination with other cancer therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Herein we describe our lead optimization effort that resulted in the identification of a potent, cellular active and orally bioavailable bis-amide CSF1R inhibitor. Docking and biochemical analysis allowed the removal of a metabolically labile and poorly permeable methyl piperazine group from an early lead compound. Optimization led to improved metabolic stability and Caco2 permeability, which in turn resulted in good oral bioavailability in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An efficient phase-selective gelator for aromatic solvents recovery based on a cyanostilbene amide derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Ma, Yao; Deng, Mengyu; Shang, Hongxing; Liang, Chunshuang; Jiang, Shimei

    2015-07-07

    Two novel low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) 1 and 2 composed of a cholesteryl group, an amide group and various terminal cyanostilbene moieties were synthesized. They could form stable gels in p-xylene. In particular, 2 with more extended π-conjugation length showed remarkable gelation ability in many aromatic solvents, chloroform and chloroform-containing mixed solvents at a relatively low concentration. FT-IR and XRD spectra indicated that the difference between 1 and 2 in the gelation properties may result from the deviation of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking as driving forces for the formation of the gels. Significantly, 2 can function as an efficient room-temperature phase-selective gelator (PSG) for potential application in the separation and recovery of various aromatic solvents from its mixture with water. Meanwhile, the gelator can be easily recovered and reused several times. Furthermore, the phase-selective gelation properties of 2 can provide a simple and feasible approach for the removal of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye from water.

  13. Quantification and enzyme targets of fatty acid amides from duckweed root exudates involved in the stimulation of denitrification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Lu, Yufang; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Fatty acid amides from plant root exudates, such as oleamide and erucamide, have the ability to participate in strong plant-microbe interactions, stimulating nitrogen metabolism in rhizospheric bacteria. However, mechanisms of secretion of such fatty acid amides, and the nature of their stimulatory activities on microbial metabolism, have not been examined. In the present study, collection, pre-treatment, and determination methods of oleamide and erucamide in duckweed root exudates are compared. The detection limits of oleamide and erucamide by gas chromatography (GC) (10.3ngmL(-1) and 16.1ngmL(-1), respectively) are shown to be much lower than those by liquid chromatography (LC) (1.7 and 5.0μgmL(-1), respectively). Quantitative GC analysis yielded five times larger amounts of oleamide and erucamide in root exudates of Spirodela polyrrhiza when using a continuous collection method (50.20±4.32 and 76.79±13.92μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)), compared to static collection (10.88±0.66 and 15.27±0.58μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)). Furthermore, fatty acid amide secretion was significantly enhanced under elevated nitrogen conditions (>300mgL(-1)), and was negatively correlated with the relative growth rate of duckweed. Mechanistic assays were conducted to show that erucamide stimulates nitrogen removal by enhancing denitrification, targeting two key denitrifying enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases, in bacteria. Our findings significantly contribute to our understanding of the regulation of nitrogen dynamics by plant root exudates in natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. PET Imaging of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase with [ 18F]DOPP in Nonhuman Primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Wey, Hsiao -Ying; Shoup, Timothy M.

    Here, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates endocannabinoid signaling. [ 11C]CURB, an irreversibly binding FAAH inhibitor, has been developed for clinical research imaging with PET. However, no fluorine-18 labeled radiotracer for FAAH has yet advanced to human studies. [ 18F]DOPP ([ 18F]3-(4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)phenyl (5-fluoropentyl)carbamate) has been identified as a promising 18F-labeled analogue based on rodent studies. The goal of this work is to evaluate [ 18F]DOPP in nonhuman primates to support its clinical translation. High specific activity [ 18F]DOPP (5–6 Ci·μmol –1) was administered intravenously (iv) to three baboons (2M/1F, 3–4 years old). The distribution and pharmacokinetics were quantified followingmore » a 2 h dynamic imaging session using a simultaneous PET/MR scanner. Pretreatment with the FAAH-selective inhibitor, URB597, was carried out at 200 or 300 μg/kg iv, 10 min prior to [ 18F]DOPP administration. Rapid arterial blood sampling for the first 3 min was followed by interval sampling with metabolite analysis to provide a parent radiotracer plasma input function that indicated ~95% baseline metabolism at 60 min and a reduced rate of metabolism after pretreatment with URB597. Regional distribution data were analyzed with 1-, 2-, and 3-tissue compartment models (TCMs), with and without irreversible trapping since [ 18F]DOPP covalently links to the active site of FAAH. Consistent with previous findings for [ 11C]CURB, the 2TCM with irreversible binding was found to provide the best fit for modeling the data in all regions. The composite parameter λk 3 was therefore used to evaluate whole brain (WB) and regional binding of [ 18F]DOPP. Pretreatment studies showed inhibition of λk 3 across all brain regions (WB baseline: 0.112 mL/cm3/min; 300 μg/kg URB597: 0.058 mL/cm 3/min), suggesting that [ 18F]DOPP binding is specific for FAAH, consistent with previous rodent data.« less

  15. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  16. PET Imaging of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase with [ 18F]DOPP in Nonhuman Primates

    DOE PAGES

    Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Wey, Hsiao -Ying; Shoup, Timothy M.; ...

    2014-07-08

    Here, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates endocannabinoid signaling. [ 11C]CURB, an irreversibly binding FAAH inhibitor, has been developed for clinical research imaging with PET. However, no fluorine-18 labeled radiotracer for FAAH has yet advanced to human studies. [ 18F]DOPP ([ 18F]3-(4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)phenyl (5-fluoropentyl)carbamate) has been identified as a promising 18F-labeled analogue based on rodent studies. The goal of this work is to evaluate [ 18F]DOPP in nonhuman primates to support its clinical translation. High specific activity [ 18F]DOPP (5–6 Ci·μmol –1) was administered intravenously (iv) to three baboons (2M/1F, 3–4 years old). The distribution and pharmacokinetics were quantified followingmore » a 2 h dynamic imaging session using a simultaneous PET/MR scanner. Pretreatment with the FAAH-selective inhibitor, URB597, was carried out at 200 or 300 μg/kg iv, 10 min prior to [ 18F]DOPP administration. Rapid arterial blood sampling for the first 3 min was followed by interval sampling with metabolite analysis to provide a parent radiotracer plasma input function that indicated ~95% baseline metabolism at 60 min and a reduced rate of metabolism after pretreatment with URB597. Regional distribution data were analyzed with 1-, 2-, and 3-tissue compartment models (TCMs), with and without irreversible trapping since [ 18F]DOPP covalently links to the active site of FAAH. Consistent with previous findings for [ 11C]CURB, the 2TCM with irreversible binding was found to provide the best fit for modeling the data in all regions. The composite parameter λk 3 was therefore used to evaluate whole brain (WB) and regional binding of [ 18F]DOPP. Pretreatment studies showed inhibition of λk 3 across all brain regions (WB baseline: 0.112 mL/cm3/min; 300 μg/kg URB597: 0.058 mL/cm 3/min), suggesting that [ 18F]DOPP binding is specific for FAAH, consistent with previous rodent data.« less

  17. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase produces analgesia by multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Leon; Luo, Lin; Palmer, James A; Sutton, Steven; Wilson, Sandy J; Barbier, Ann J; Breitenbucher, James Guy; Chaplan, Sandra R; Webb, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The reversible fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor OL135 reverses mechanical allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and mild thermal injury (MTI) models in the rat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the cannabinoid and opioid systems in mediating this analgesic effect. Elevated brain concentrations of anandamide (350 pmol g−1 of tissue vs 60 pmol g−1 in vehicle-treated controls) were found in brains of rats given OL135 (20 mg kg−1) i.p. 15 min prior to 20 mg kg−1 i.p. anandamide. Predosing rats with OL135 (2–60 mg kg−1 i.p.) 30 min before administration of an irreversible FAAH inhibitor (URB597: 0.3 mg kg−1 intracardiac) was found to protect brain FAAH from irreversible inactivation. The level of enzyme protection was correlated with the OL135 concentrations in the same brains. OL135 (100 mg kg−1 i.p.) reduced by 50% of the maximum possible efficacy (MPE) mechanical allodynia induced by MTI in FAAH+/+mice (von Frey filament measurement) 30 min after dosing, but was without effect in FAAH−/− mice. OL135 given i.p. resulted in a dose-responsive reversal of mechanical allodynia in both MTI and SNL models in the rat with an ED50 between 6 and 9 mg kg−1. The plasma concentration at the ED50 in both models was 0.7 μM (240 ng ml−1). In the rat SNL model, coadministration of the selective CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (5 mg kg−1 i.p.), with 20 mg kg−1 OL135 blocked the OL135-induced reversal of mechanical allodynia, but the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716A (5 mg kg−1 i.p.) was without effect. In the rat MTI model neither SR141716A or SR144528 (both at 5 mg kg−1 i.p.), or a combination of both antagonists coadministered with OL135 (20 mg kg−1) blocked reversal of mechanical allodynia assessed 30 min after dosing. In both the MTI model and SNL models in rats, naloxone (1 mg kg−1, i.p. 30 min after OL135) reversed the analgesia

  18. New losartan-hydrocaffeic acid hybrids as antihypertensive-antioxidant dual drugs: Ester, amide and amine linkers.

    PubMed

    García, Gonzalo; Serrano, Isabel; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Alajarín, Ramón; Griera, Mercedes; Vaquero, Juan J; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Alvarez-Builla, Julio; Díez-Marqués, María L

    2012-04-01

    We report new examples of a series of losartan-hydrocaffeic hybrids that bear novel ester, amide and amine linkers. These compounds were made by linking hydrocaffeic acid to the side chain of losartan at the C-5 position of the imidazole ring through different strategies. Experiments performed in cultured cells demonstrate that these new hybrids retain the ability to block the angiotensin II effect and have increased antioxidant ability. Most of them reduced arterial pressure in rats better or as much as losartan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of fatty acid amides on the N-oleoylethanolamide-like activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Noguchi, Kaori; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shirahata, Akira; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of fatty acid amides were synthesized and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) agonistic activities were evaluated in a normal rat liver cell line, clone 9. The mRNAs of the PPAR-α downstream genes, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1 and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as PPAR-α agonistic activities. We prepared nine oleic acid amides. Their PPAR-α agonistic activities were, in decreasing order, N-oleoylhistamine (OLHA), N-oleoylglycine, Oleamide, N-oleoyltyramine, N-oleoylsertonin, and Olvanil. The highest activity was found with OLHA. We prepared and evaluated nine N-acylhistamines (N-acyl-HAs). Of these, OLHA, C16:0-HA, and C18:1Δ(9)-trans-HA showed similar activity. Activity due to the different chain length of the saturated fatty acid peaked at C16:0-HA. The PPAR-α antagonist, GW6471, inhibited the induction of the PPAR-α downstream genes by OLHA and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA). These data suggest that N-acyl-HAs could be considered new PPAR-α agonists.

  20. Expression of Flk-1 and Cyclin D2 mRNA in the Myocardium of Rats with Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy and after Treatment with Betulonic Acid Amide.

    PubMed

    Mzhelskaya, M M; Klinnikova, M G; Koldysheva, E V; Lushnikova, E L

    2017-10-01

    The expression of VEGFR2 (Flk-1, according to immunohistochemistry) and of cyclin D2 mRNA (according to real-time PCR) in the myocardium of rats is studied in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and in response to betulonic acid amide. Doxorubicin alone and in combination with betulonic acid amide causes after 3 days a manifest reduction of cyclin D2 mRNA expression (by 38 and 63%, respectively), while injection of betulonic acid amide alone causes a 23-fold increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression. An increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression has been detected in all experimental groups after 14 days of experiment, the most pronounced in response to betulonic acid amide (63 times). The expression of Flk-1 in cardiomyocytes increases significantly in response to both chemical agents starting from day 3 of experiment. These results indicate that doxorubicin and betulonic acid amide induce cytoprotective reactions in the myocardium, first at the intracellular, then at the cellular levels.

  1. SPPS of protected peptidyl aminoalkyl amides.

    PubMed

    Karavoltsos, Manolis; Mourtas, Spyros; Gatos, Dimitrios; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2002-11-01

    Monophthaloyl diamines derived from naturally occurring amino acids were attached through their free amino functions to resins of the trityl type. The phthaloyl groups were removed by hydrazinolysis, and peptide chains were assembled using Fmoc/tBu-amino acids on the liberated amino functions. The peptidyl aminoalkyl amides obtained were cleaved from the resins by mild acidolysis, with the tBu-side chain protection remaining intact.

  2. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide shares discriminative stimulus effects with ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Gamage, Thomas F; Warner, Jonathan A; Nguyen, Thanh K; Grainger, Darren B; Wiley, Jenny L; Vann, Robert E

    2011-04-10

    The endogenous cannabinoid system has been noted for its therapeutic potential, as well as the psychoactivity of cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, less is known about the psychoactivity of anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid ligand. Thus, the goals of this study were to establish AEA as a discriminative stimulus in transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (i.e., FAAH -/- mice unable to rapidly metabolize AEA), evaluate whether THC or oleamide, a fatty acid amide, produced AEA-like responding, and assess for CB(1) mediation of AEA's discriminative stimulus. Mice readily discriminated between 6mg/kg AEA and vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task. AEA dose-dependently generalized to itself. THC elicited full AEA-like responding, whereas oleamide failed to substitute. The CB(1) antagonist rimonabant attenuated AEA- and THC-induced AEA-appropriate responding, demonstrating CB(1) mediation of AEA's discriminative stimulus. These findings suggest that, in the absence of FAAH, AEA produces intoxication comparable to THC, and consequently to marijuana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors Bound to a Humanized Variant of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine

    2010-11-03

    Three cocrystal X-ray structures of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors 3-5 bound to a humanized variant of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed and comparatively discussed alongside those of 1 (OL-135) and its isomer 2. These five X-ray structures systematically probe each of the three active site regions key to substrate or inhibitor binding: (1) the conformationally mobile acyl chain-binding pocket and membrane access channel responsible for fatty acid amide substrate and inhibitor acyl chain binding, (2) the atypical active site catalytic residues and surrounding oxyanion hole that covalently binds the core of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors captured as deprotonated hemiketals mimickingmore » the tetrahedral intermediate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, and (3) the cytosolic port and its uniquely important imbedded ordered water molecules and a newly identified anion binding site. The detailed analysis of their key active site interactions and their implications on the interpretation of the available structure-activity relationships are discussed providing important insights for future design.« less

  4. Borate esters: Simple catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of complex amides

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Marco T.; Boulton, Lee T.; Sheppard, Tom D.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical reactions for the formation of amide bonds are among the most commonly used transformations in organic chemistry, yet they are often highly inefficient. A novel protocol for amidation using a simple borate ester catalyst is reported. The process presents significant improvements over other catalytic amidation methods in terms of efficiency and safety, with an unprecedented substrate scope including functionalized heterocycles and even unprotected amino acids. The method was used to access a wide range of functionalized amide derivatives, including pharmaceutically relevant targets, important synthetic intermediates, a catalyst, and a natural product. PMID:28948222

  5. Anticancer agents derived from natural cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Wang, Jinfeng; Shen, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the most dangerous disease that causes deaths all over the world. Natural products have afforded a rich source of drugs in a number of therapeutic fields including anticancer agents. Many significant drugs have been derived from natural sources by structural optimization of natural products. Cinnamic acid has gained great interest due to its antiproliferative, antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic potency. Currently it has been observed that cinnamic acid and its analogs such as caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and isoferulic acid display various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, anticancer and antioxidant. They have served to be the major sources of potential leading anticancer compounds. In this review, we focus on the anticancer potency of cinnamic acid derivatives and novel strategies to design these derivatives. We hope this review will be useful for researchers who are interested in developing anticancer agents.

  6. A comprehensive study of the complexation of alkali metal cations by lower rim calix[4]arene amide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Gordan; Frkanec, Leo; Cindro, Nikola; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2017-09-13

    The complexation of alkali metal cations by lower rim N,N-dihexylacetamide (L1) and newly synthesized N-hexyl-N-methylacetamide (L2) calix[4]arene tertiary-amide derivatives was thoroughly studied at 25 °C in acetonitrile (MeCN), benzonitrile (PhCN), and methanol (MeOH) by means of direct and competitive microcalorimetric titrations, and UV and 1 H NMR spectroscopies. In addition, by measuring the ligands' solubilities, the solution (transfer) Gibbs energies of the ligands and their alkali metal complexes were obtained. The inclusion of solvent molecules in the free and complexed calixarene hydrophobic cavities was also investigated. Computational (classical molecular dynamics) investigations of the studied systems were also carried out. The obtained results were compared with those previously obtained by studying the complexation ability of an N-hexylacetamidecalix[4]arene secondary-amide derivative (L3). The stability constants of 1 : 1 complexes were determined in all solvents used (the values obtained by different methods being in excellent agreement), as were the corresponding complexation enthalpies and entropies. Almost all of the examined reactions were enthalpically controlled. The most striking exceptions were reactions of Li + with both ligands in methanol, for which the entropic contribution to the reaction Gibbs energy was substantial due the entropically favourable desolvation of the smallest lithium cation. The thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes were quite solvent dependent (the stability decreased in the solvent order: MeCN > PhCN ≫ MeOH), which could be accounted for by considering the differences in the solvation of the ligand and free and complexed alkali metal cations in the solvents used. Comparison of the stability constants of the ligand L1 and L2 complexes clearly revealed that the higher electron-donating ability of the hexyl with respect to the methyl group is of considerable importance in determining the equilibria of the

  7. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714). 721.10410 Section 721.10410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... amide (PMN P-05-714) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  8. Novel amide and sulphonamide derivatives of 6-(piperazin-1-yl)phenanthridine as potent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Kalaga Mahalakshmi; Nagesh, Hunsur Nagendra; Singh, Manjeet; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Gowri Chandra Sekhar, Kondapalli Venkata

    2015-03-06

    A series of thirty three novel 6-(piperazin-1-yl)phenanthridine amide and sulphonamide analogues were synthesized, characterized and screened for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv strain. These compounds exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 1.56 and ≥50 μg/mL. Out of these derivatives, few compounds 6l, 6r, 7b, 7f, 7g and 7k exhibited moderate activity (MIC = 6.25 μg/mL) and compounds 6b, 6e, 6k, 6n, 7h, 7i and 7n displayed good activity (MIC = 3.13 μg/mL), whereas compounds 6m, 6s and 7d exhibited excellent anti-tubercular activity (MIC = 1.56 μg/mL). In addition, MTT assay was accomplished on the active analogues of the series against mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells to evaluate the toxicity profile of the newly synthesized compounds and selectivity index of the compounds was determined. Additionally, compounds 6b and 7d were docked to the ATPase domain of M. tuberculosis GyrB protein to know the interaction profile and structures of compounds 6b and 7d were further substantiated through single crystal XRD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel sila-amide derivatives of N-acetylcysteine protects platelets from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Manoj; Thushara, Ram M; Jagadish, Swamy; Zakai, Uzma I; West, Robert; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis is one among the many causes for the development and progression of many disorders like cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and many chronic inflammatory responses. Many studies have demonstrated the less optimal effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. This could be due to its less lipophilicity which makes it difficult to enter the cellular membrane. Therefore in the present study, lipophilic sila-amide derivatives (6a and 6b) synthesized through the reaction of NAC with 3-Aminopropyltrimethylsilane and aminomethyltrimethylsilane were used to determine their protective property against oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis. At a concentration of 10 µM, compound 6a and 6b were able to significantly inhibit Rotenone/H 2 O 2 induced platelet apoptotic markers like reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium level, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release from mitochondrial to the cytosol, caspase-9 and -3 activity and phosphatidylserine externalization. Therefore, the compounds can be extrapolated as therapeutic agents to protect platelets from oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis and its associated complications.

  10. Isolation and characterization of racemase from Ensifer sp. 23-3 that acts on α-aminolactams and α-amino acid amides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daisuke; Fuhshuku, Ken-Ichi; Nagamori, Shingo; Takata, Momoko; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-11-01

    Limited information is available on α-amino-ε-caprolactam (ACL) racemase (ACLR), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme that acts on ACL and α-amino acid amides. In the present study, eight bacterial strains with the ability to racemize α-amino-ε-caprolactam were isolated and one of them was identified as Ensifer sp. strain 23-3. The gene for ACLR from Ensifer sp. 23-3 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant ACLR was then purified to homogeneity from the E. coli transformant harboring the ACLR gene from Ensifer sp. 23-3, and its properties were characterized. This enzyme acted not only on ACL but also on α-amino-δ-valerolactam, α-amino-ω-octalactam, α-aminobutyric acid amide, and alanine amide.

  11. Elucidation of hydrolysis mechanisms for fatty acid amide hydrolase and its Lys142Ala variant via QM/MM simulations.

    PubMed

    Tubert-Brohman, Ivan; Acevedo, Orlando; Jorgensen, William L

    2006-12-27

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a serine hydrolase that degrades anandamide, an endocannabinoid, and oleamide, a sleep-inducing lipid, and has potential applications as a therapeutic target for neurological disorders. Remarkably, FAAH hydrolyzes amides and esters with similar rates; however, the normal preference for esters reemerges when Lys142 is mutated to alanine. To elucidate the hydrolysis mechanisms and the causes behind this variation of selectivity, mixed quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations were carried out to obtain free-energy profiles for alternative mechanisms for the enzymatic hydrolyses. The methodology features free-energy perturbation calculations in Monte Carlo simulations with PDDG/PM3 as the QM method. For wild-type FAAH, the results support a mechanism, which features proton transfer from Ser217 to Lys142, simultaneous proton transfer from Ser241 to Ser217, and attack of Ser241 on the substrate's carbonyl carbon to yield a tetrahedral intermediate, which subsequently undergoes elimination with simultaneous protonation of the leaving group by a Lys142-Ser217 proton shuttle. For the Lys142Ala mutant, a striking multistep sequence is proposed with simultaneous proton transfer from Ser241 to Ser217, attack of Ser241 on the carbonyl carbon of the substrate, and elimination of the leaving group and its protonation by Ser217. Support comes from the free-energy results, which well reproduce the observation that the Lys142Ala mutation in FAAH decreases the rate of hydrolysis for oleamide significantly more than for methyl oleate.

  12. Spirocyclic systems derived from pyroglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Andrew R; Hill, Thomas J; Kocis, Petr; Moloney, Mark G; Stevenson, Robert D; Thompson, Amber L

    2011-10-21

    The synthesis and likely conformational structure of rigid spirocyclic bislactams and lactam-lactones derived from pyroglutamic acid, and their suitability as lead structures for applications in drug development programmes using cheminformatic analysis, has been investgated.

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cis-locked vinylogous combretastatin-A4 analogues: derivatives with a cyclopropyl-vinyl or a cyclopropyl-amide bridge.

    PubMed

    Ty, Nancy; Kaffy, Julia; Arrault, Alban; Thoret, Sylviane; Pontikis, Renée; Dubois, Joelle; Morin-Allory, Luc; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2009-03-01

    A series of novel combretastatin A4 analogues, in which the cis-olefinic bridge is replaced by a cyclopropyl-vinyl or a cyclopropyl-amide moiety, were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin polymerization and antiproliferative activity. The derivative 9a with a (cis,E)-cyclopropyl-vinyl unit is the most promising compound. As expected, molecular docking of 9a has shown that only one of the cis-cyclopropyl enantiomers is a good ligand for tubulin.

  14. Methacrylate derivatives incorporating pyroglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tara J; Mathias, Lon J

    2002-01-01

    Methacrylates containing pyroglutamic acid were synthesized in good yields. Methyl alpha-pyroglutamyl methylacrylate (PyMM) and methyl alpha-pyroglutamidoundecanoyl methylacrylate (PyUM) give very fast photopolymerization rates both in homopolymerizations and with widely used commercial monomers N-vinyl pyrrolidinone (NVP) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Soluble or cross-linked homopolymers can be obtained depending upon polymerization temperature. Pyroglutamic methacrylates polymerize without added initiator in the melt. Solution cast, photocured, and thermally cured coatings gave good to excellent adhesion to poly(ethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces.

  15. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition enhances memory acquisition through activation of PPAR-α nuclear receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB1-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for α-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-α) when and where they are naturally released in the brain. Using a passive-avoidance task in rats, we found that memory acquisition was enhanced by the FAAH inhibitor URB597 or by the PPAR-α agonist WY14643, and these enhancements were blocked by the PPAR-α antagonist MK886. These findings demonstrate novel mechanisms for memory enhancement by activation of PPAR-α, either directly by administering a PPAR-α agonist or indirectly by administering a FAAH inhibitor. PMID:19403796

  16. Fatty acid amide hydrolase-morphine interaction influences ventilatory response to hypercapnia and postoperative opioid outcomes in children.

    PubMed

    Chidambaran, Vidya; Pilipenko, Valentina; Spruance, Kristie; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Niu, Jing; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Zhang, Kejian; Kaufman, Kenneth; Vinks, Alexander A; Martin, Lisa J; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid. We hypothesized that FAAH variants will predict risk of morphine-related adverse outcomes due to opioid-endocannabinoid interactions. In 101 postsurgical adolescents receiving morphine analgesia, we prospectively studied ventilatory response to 5% CO 2 (HCVR), respiratory depression (RD) and vomiting. Blood was collected for genotyping and morphine pharmacokinetics. We found significant FAAH-morphine interaction for missense (rs324420) and several regulatory variants, with HCVR (p < 0.0001) and vomiting (p = 0.0339). HCVR was more depressed in patients who developed RD compared with those who did not (p = 0.0034), thus FAAH-HCVR association predicts risk of impending RD from morphine use. FAAH genotypes predict risk for morphine-related adverse outcomes.

  17. Fatty acid amide hydrolase–morphine interaction influences ventilatory response to hypercapnia and postoperative opioid outcomes in children

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaran, Vidya; Pilipenko, Valentina; Spruance, Kristie; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Niu, Jing; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Zhang, Kejian; Kaufman, Kenneth; Vinks, Alexander A; Martin, Lisa J; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid. We hypothesized that FAAH variants will predict risk of morphine-related adverse outcomes due to opioid–endocannabinoid interactions. Patients & methods: In 101 postsurgical adolescents receiving morphine analgesia, we prospectively studied ventilatory response to 5% CO2 (HCVR), respiratory depression (RD) and vomiting. Blood was collected for genotyping and morphine pharmacokinetics. Results: We found significant FAAH–morphine interaction for missense (rs324420) and several regulatory variants, with HCVR (p < 0.0001) and vomiting (p = 0.0339). HCVR was more depressed in patients who developed RD compared with those who did not (p = 0.0034), thus FAAH–HCVR association predicts risk of impending RD from morphine use. Conclusion: FAAH genotypes predict risk for morphine-related adverse outcomes. PMID:27977335

  18. Exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase: The enzyme responsible for degradation of endogenous oleamide and anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Boger, Dale L.; Sato, Haruhiko; Lerner, Aaron E.; Hedrick, Michael P.; Fecik, Robert A.; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Wilkie, Gordon D.; Austin, Bryce J.; Patricelli, Matthew P.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2000-01-01

    The development of exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of oleamide (an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid), and anandamide (an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors) is detailed. The inhibitors may serve as useful tools to clarify the role of endogenous oleamide and anandamide and may prove to be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of sleep disorders or pain. The combination of several features—an optimal C12–C8 chain length, π-unsaturation introduction at the corresponding arachidonoyl Δ8,9/Δ11,12 and oleoyl Δ9,10 location, and an α-keto N4 oxazolopyridine with incorporation of a second weakly basic nitrogen provided FAAH inhibitors with Kis that drop below 200 pM and are 102–103 times more potent than the corresponding trifluoromethyl ketones. PMID:10805767

  19. "Newton's cradle" proton relay with amide-imidic acid tautomerization in inverting cellulase visualized by neutron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Ishida, Takuya; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Yamada, Taro; Fushinobu, Shinya; Tanaka, Ichiro; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ohta, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Inaka, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Niimura, Nobuo; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko

    2015-08-01

    Hydrolysis of carbohydrates is a major bioreaction in nature, catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases (GHs). We used neutron diffraction and high-resolution x-ray diffraction analyses to investigate the hydrogen bond network in inverting cellulase PcCel45A, which is an endoglucanase belonging to subfamily C of GH family 45, isolated from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Examination of the enzyme and enzyme-ligand structures indicates a key role of multiple tautomerizations of asparagine residues and peptide bonds, which are finally connected to the other catalytic residue via typical side-chain hydrogen bonds, in forming the "Newton's cradle"-like proton relay pathway of the catalytic cycle. Amide-imidic acid tautomerization of asparagine has not been taken into account in recent molecular dynamics simulations of not only cellulases but also general enzyme catalysis, and it may be necessary to reconsider our interpretation of many enzymatic reactions.

  20. Microwave-induced facile synthesis of water-soluble fluorogenic alginic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Meena, Ramavatar; Prasad, Kamalesh; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Siddhanta, A K

    2011-04-01

    A facile microwave-induced method was developed for synthesizing water-soluble fluorescent derivatives of alginic acid (ALG) with four different diamines, hydrazine (HY), ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA), and 1,4-cyclohexanediamine (CHDA), followed by a cross-linking reaction with a natural cross linker genipin. The ethylenediamine derivative of alginic acid (ALG-EDA) exhibited good fluorescent activity, which upon cross linking was enhanced threefold. The other amide derivatives, for example, ALG-HY, ALG-HDA, and ALG-CHDA, were not fluorescent, but their respective crosslinked products exhibited excellent fluorescent activity. The fluorescence intensity had an inverse correlation with the number of carbon atoms present in the amine, which in turn was a function of degree of substitution (DS). These fluorescent polysaccharide derivatives are of potential utility in the domain of sensor applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of Procarcinogen Activating Enzyme CYP1A2 Activity and Free Radical Formation by Caffeic Acid and its Amide Analogues.

    PubMed

    Narongchai, Paitoon; Niwatananun, Kanokporn; Narongchai, Siripun; Kusirisin, Winthana; Jaikang, Churdsak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CAF) and its amide analogues, ethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (EDPA), phenethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PEDPA), phenmethyl 1- (3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PMDPA) and octyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (ODPA) were investigated for the inhibition of procarcinogen activating enzyme. CYP1A2 and scavenging activity on formation of nitric oxide, superoxide anion, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical. It was found that they inhibited CYP1A2 enzyme by uncompetitive inhibition. Apparent Ki values of CAF, EDPA, PEDPA, PMDPA and ODPA were 0.59, 0.39, 0.45, 0.75 and 0.80 µM, respectively suggesting potent inhibitors of CYP1A2. Moreover, they potentially scavenged nitric oxide radical with IC 50 values of 0.12, 0.22, 0.28, 0.22 and 0.51 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of superoxide anion scavenging were 0.20, 0.22, 0.44, 2.18 and 2.50 mM, respectively. 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability, shown as IC50 values, were 0.41, 0.29, 0.30, 0.89 and 0.84 mM, respectively. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical scavenging in vitro model was shown as IC50 values of 23.22, 21.06, 17.10, 17.21 and 15.81 µM, respectively. From our results, caffeic acid and its amide analogues are in vitro inhibitors of human CYP1A2 catalytic activity and free radical formation. They may be useful to be developed as potential chemopreventive agents that block CYP1A2-mediated chemical carcinogenesis.

  2. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and biological characterization of a series of azetidine-derived tertiary amides.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Lamsal, Atin; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Jeffrey Conn, P; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-12-01

    Herein we describe the continued optimization of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) within the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series of compounds. In this letter, we disclose our studies on tertiary amides derived from substituted azetidines. This series provided excellent CNS penetration, which had been challenging to consistently achieve in other amide series. Efforts to mitigate high clearance, aided by metabolic softspot analysis, were unsuccessful and precluded this series from further consideration as a preclinical candidate. In the course of this study, we found that potassium tetrafluoroborate salts could be engaged in a tosyl hydrazone reductive cross coupling reaction, a previously unreported transformation, which expands the synthetic utility of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arginine-based poly(ester amide) nanoparticle platform: From structure-property relationship to nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    You, Xinru; Gu, Zhipeng; Huang, Jun; Kang, Yang; Chu, Chih-Chang; Wu, Jun

    2018-05-25

    Many different types of polycations have been vigorously studied for nucleic acid delivery, but a systematical investigation of the structure-property relationships of polycations for nucleic acid delivery is still lacking. In this study, a new library of biodegradable and biocompatible arginine-based poly(ester amide) (Arg-PEA) biomaterials was designed and synthesized with a tunable structure for such a comprehensive structure-property research. Nanoparticle (NP) complexes were formed through the electrostatic interactions between the polycationic Arg-PEAs and anionic nucleic acids. The following structure effects of the Arg-PEAs on the transfection efficiency of nucleic acids were investigated: 1) the linker/spacer length (length effect and odd-even effect); 2) salt type of arginine; 3) the side chain; 4) chain stiffness; 5) molecular weight (MW). The data obtained revealed that a slight change in the Arg-PEA structure could finely tune its physicochemical property such as hydrophobicity, and this could subsequently affect the nanoparticle size and zeta potential, which, in turn, regulate the transfection efficiency and silencing outcomes. A further study of the Arg-PEA/CpG oligodeoxynucleotide NP complexes indicated that the polymer structure could precisily regulate the immune response of CpG, thus providing a new potential nano-immunotherapy strategy. The in vitro data have further confirmed that the Arg-PEA NPs showed a satisfactory delivery performance for a variety of nucleic acids. Therefore, the data from the current study provide comprehensive information about the Arg-PEA structure-transfection property relationship; the tunable property of the library of Arg-PEA biomaterials can be one of the promising candidates for nucleic acid delivery and other biomedical applications. Polycations have being intensive utilized for nucleic acid delivery. However, there has not been elucidated about the relationship between polycation's structure and the

  4. Ab initio molecular orbital and infrared spectroscopic study of the conformation of secondary amides: derivatives of formanilide, acetanilide and benzylamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, S.; Hadjieva, B.; Galabov, B.

    1999-09-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations at HF/4-31G level and infrared spectroscopic data for the frequencies are applied to analyse the grouping in a series model aromatic secondary amides: formanilide; acetanilide; o-methylacetanilide; 2,6-dimethylformanilide, 2,6-dimethylacetanilide; N-benzylacetamide and N-benzylformamide. The theoretical and experimental data obtained show that the conformational state of the molecules studied is determined by the fine balance of several intramolecular factors: resonance effect between the amide group and the aromatic ring, steric interaction between various substituents around the -NH-CO- grouping in the aromatic ring, conjugation between the carbonyl bond and the nitrogen lone pair as well as direct field influences inside the amide group.

  5. Application of cyanuric chloride-based six new chiral derivatizing reagents having amino acids and amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries for enantioresolution of proteinogenic amino acids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dixit, Shuchi

    2012-04-01

    Six dichloro-s-triazine (DCT) reagents having L-Leu, D-Phg, L-Val, L-Met, L-Ala and L-Met-NH(2) as chiral auxiliaries in cyanuric chloride were introduced for enantioseparation of 13 proteinogenic amino acids. Four other DCTs and six monochloro-s-triazine (MCT) reagents having amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries were also synthesized. These 16 chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) were used for synthesis of diastereomers of all the 13 analytes using microwave irradiation, which were resolved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using C18 column and gradient eluting mixture of aqueous TFA and acetonitrile with UV detection at 230 nm. It required only 60-90 s for derivatization using microwave irradiation. Better resolution and lower retention times were observed for the diastereomers prepared with CDRs having amino acids as chiral auxiliaries as compared to counterparts prepared with reagents having amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries. As the best resolution of all the 13 analytes was observed for their diastereomers prepared using the DCT reagent having L-Leu as chiral auxiliary, this CDR was further employed for derivatization of Lys, Tyr, His and Arg followed by RP-HPLC analysis of resulting diastereomers. The results are discussed in light of acid and amide groups of chiral auxiliaries constituting CDRs, electronegativities of the atoms of achiral moieties constituting CDRs and hydrophobicities of side chains of amino acids constituting CDRs and analytes.

  6. Identification of N-acylethanolamines in Dictyostelium discoideum and confirmation of their hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Alexander C.; Stupak, Jacek; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-based signaling molecules best known for their role in the endocannabinoid system in mammals, but they are also known to play roles in signaling pathways in plants. The regulation of NAEs in vivo is partly accomplished by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyses NAEs to ethanolamine and their corresponding fatty acid. Inhibition of FAAH has been shown to increase the levels of NAEs in vivo and to produce desirable phenotypes. This has led to the development of pharmaceutical-based therapies for a variety of conditions targeting FAAH. Recently, our group identified a functional FAAH homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, leading to our hypothesis that D. discoideum also possesses NAEs. In this study, we provide a further characterization of FAAH and identify NAEs in D. discoideum for the first time. We also demonstrate the ability to modulate their levels in vivo through the use of a semispecific FAAH inhibitor and confirm that these NAEs are FAAH substrates through in vitro studies. We believe the demonstration of the in vivo modulation of NAE levels suggests that D. discoideum could be a good simple model organism in which to study NAE-mediated signaling. PMID:23187822

  7. Novel cajaninstilbene acid derivatives as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jing; Huang, Mei-Yan; An, Lin-Kun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Sun, Ping-Hua; Ye, Wen-Cai; Chen, Wei-Min

    2015-07-15

    Discovery of novel antibacterial agents with new structural scaffolds that combat drug-resistant pathogens is an urgent task. Cajaninstilbene acid, which is isolated from pigeonpea leaves, has shown antibacterial activity. In this study, a series of cajaninstilbene acid derivatives were designed and synthesized. The antibacterial activities of these compounds against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as nine strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are evaluated,and the related structure-activity relationships are discussed. Assays suggest that some of the synthetic cajaninstilbene acid derivatives exhibit potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacterial strains and MRSA. Among these compounds, 5b, 5c, 5j and 5k show better antibacterial activity than the positive control compounds. The results of MTT assays illustrate the low cytotoxicity of the active compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Binding in Brain of Cannabis Users: Imaging with the Novel Radiotracer [11C]CURB

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Isabelle; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Williams, Belinda; Le Foll, Bernard; Rusjan, Pablo; Mizrahi, Romina; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Payer, Doris E.; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J.; Tong, Junchao

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the major mechanisms for terminating the actions of the endocannabinoid anandamide is hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and inhibitors of the enzyme were suggested as potential treatment for human cannabis dependence. However, the status of brain FAAH in cannabis use disorder is unknown. Methods Brain FAAH binding was measured with positron emission tomography and [11C]CURB in 22 healthy control subjects and ten chronic, frequent cannabis users during early abstinence. The FAAH genetic polymorphism (rs324420) and blood, urine and hair levels of cannabinoids and metabolites were determined. Results In cannabis users FAAH binding was significantly lower by 14–20% across the brain regions examined as compared to matched control subjects (overall Cohen’s d=0.96). Lower binding was negatively correlated with cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine and was associated with higher trait impulsiveness. Conclusions Lower FAAH binding levels in the brain may be a consequence of chronic and recent cannabis exposure and could contribute to cannabis withdrawal. This effect should be considered in the development of novel treatment strategies for cannabis use disorder that target FAAH and endocannabinoids. Further studies are needed to examine possible changes in FAAH binding during prolonged cannabis abstinence and whether lower FAAH binding predates drug use. PMID:27345297

  9. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Binding in Brain of Cannabis Users: Imaging With the Novel Radiotracer [11C]CURB.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Williams, Belinda; Le Foll, Bernard; Rusjan, Pablo; Mizrahi, Romina; Tyndale, Rachel F; Huestis, Marilyn A; Payer, Doris E; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao

    2016-11-01

    One of the major mechanisms for terminating the actions of the endocannabinoid anandamide is hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and inhibitors of the enzyme were suggested as potential treatment for human cannabis dependence. However, the status of brain FAAH in cannabis use disorder is unknown. Brain FAAH binding was measured with positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]CURB in 22 healthy control subjects and ten chronic cannabis users during early abstinence. The FAAH genetic polymorphism (rs324420) and blood, urine, and hair levels of cannabinoids and metabolites were determined. In cannabis users, FAAH binding was significantly lower by 14%-20% across the brain regions examined than in matched control subjects (overall Cohen's d = 0.96). Lower binding was negatively correlated with cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine and was associated with higher trait impulsiveness. Lower FAAH binding levels in the brain may be a consequence of chronic and recent cannabis exposure and could contribute to cannabis withdrawal. This effect should be considered in the development of novel treatment strategies for cannabis use disorder that target FAAH and endocannabinoids. Further studies are needed to examine possible changes in FAAH binding during prolonged cannabis abstinence and whether lower FAAH binding predates drug use. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694, in a rodent model of trait anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Neumann, Inga D.; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In humans, chronic anxiety represents an independent risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Here we evaluate in male Wistar rats bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior, as well as non-selected (NAB) animals, the relationship between trait anxiety and cardiac electrical instability and investigate whether pharmacological augmentation of endocannabinoid anandamide-mediated signaling exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects. HAB rats displayed (i) a higher incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by isoproterenol, and (ii) a larger spatial dispersion of ventricular refractoriness assessed by means of an epicardial mapping protocol. In HAB rats, acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), with URB694 (0.3 mg/kg), (i) decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, (ii) increased anandamide levels in the heart, (iii) reduced isoproterenol-induced occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and (iv) corrected alterations of ventricular refractoriness. The anti-arrhythmic effect of URB694 was prevented by pharmacological blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1), but not of the CB2, receptor. These findings suggest that URB694 exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects in HAB rats, the latter via anandamide-mediated activation of CB1 receptors. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH might be a viable pharmacological strategy for the treatment of anxiety-related cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26656183

  11. Discovery and structure-activity relationships of a series of pyroglutamic acid amide antagonists of the P2X7 receptor.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Muna H; Beswick, Paul J; Billinton, Andy; Chambers, Laura J; Charlton, Andrew; Collins, Sue D; Collis, Katharine L; Dean, David K; Fonfria, Elena; Gleave, Robert J; Lejeune, Clarisse L; Livermore, David G; Medhurst, Stephen J; Michel, Anton D; Moses, Andrew P; Page, Lee; Patel, Sadhana; Roman, Shilina A; Senger, Stefan; Slingsby, Brian; Steadman, Jon G A; Stevens, Alexander J; Walter, Daryl S

    2010-09-01

    A computational lead-hopping exercise identified compound 4 as a structurally distinct P2X(7) receptor antagonist. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a series of pyroglutamic acid amide analogues of 4 were investigated and compound 31 was identified as a potent P2X(7) antagonist with excellent in vivo activity in animal models of pain, and a profile suitable for progression to clinical studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Picolinamide-Based Iridium Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid in Water: Effect of Amide N Substituent on Activity and Stability

    DOE PAGES

    Kanega, Ryoichi; Onishi, Naoya; Wang, Lin; ...

    2018-03-01

    To develop highly efficient catalysts for dehydrogenation of formic acid in water, we investigated in this paper several Cp*Ir catalysts with various amide ligands. The catalyst with an N-phenylpicolinamide ligand exhibited a TOF of 118 000 h -1 at 60 °C. A constant rate (TOF>35 000 h -1) was maintained for six hours, and a TON of 1 000 000 was achieved at 50 °C.

  13. Insights into the mechanism and inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modelling.

    PubMed

    Lodola, Alessio; Mor, Marco; Sirirak, Jitnapa; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2009-04-01

    FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) is a promising target for the treatment of several central nervous system and peripheral disorders. Combined QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) calculations have elucidated the role of its unusual catalytic triad in the hydrolysis of oleamide and oleoylmethyl ester substrates, and have identified the productive inhibitor-binding orientation for the carbamoylating compound URB524. These are potentially crucial insights for designing new covalent inhibitors of this drug target.

  14. Possible Evidence of Amide Bond Formation Between Sinapinic Acid and Lysine-Containing Bacterial Proteins by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Sultan, Omar; Carter, Michelle Q.

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, Hde, and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and post-source decay (PSD). We also reported the absence of adduct formation when using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix. Further mass spectrometric analysis of disulfide-intact and disulfide-reduced over-expressed HdeA and HdeB proteins from lysates of gene-inserted E. coli plasmids suggests covalent attachment of SA occurs not at cysteine residues but at lysine residues. In this revised hypothesis, the attachment of SA is preceded by formation of a solid phase ammonium carboxylate salt between SA and accessible lysine residues of the protein during sample preparation under acidic conditions. Laser irradiation at 355 nm of the dried sample spot results in equilibrium retrogradation followed by nucleophilic attack by the amine group of lysine at the carbonyl group of SA and subsequent amide bond formation and loss of water. The absence of CHCA adducts suggests that the electron-withdrawing effect of the α-cyano group of this matrix may inhibit salt formation and/or amide bond formation. This revised hypothesis is supported by dissociative loss of SA (-224 Da) and the amide-bound SA (-206 Da) from SA-adducted HdeA and HdeB ions by MS/MS (PSD). It is proposed that cleavage of the amide-bound SA from the lysine side-chain occurs via rearrangement involving a pentacyclic transition state followed by hydrogen abstraction/migration and loss of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-ynal (-206 Da).

  15. Picolinamide-Based Iridium Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid in Water: Effect of Amide N Substituent on Activity and Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kanega, Ryoichi; Onishi, Naoya; Wang, Lin

    To develop highly efficient catalysts for dehydrogenation of formic acid in water, we investigated in this paper several Cp*Ir catalysts with various amide ligands. The catalyst with an N-phenylpicolinamide ligand exhibited a TOF of 118 000 h -1 at 60 °C. A constant rate (TOF>35 000 h -1) was maintained for six hours, and a TON of 1 000 000 was achieved at 50 °C.

  16. Dianthosaponins G-I, triterpene saponins, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a flavonoid glycoside from the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Extensive isolation work on the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus afforded three further triterpene glycosyl estsers, termed dianthosaponins G-I, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a C-glycosyl flavonoid along with one known triterpene saponin. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds toward A549 cells was evaluated.

  17. Amino acids derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  18. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuxin; Liu, Weirui; Lu, Yi; Wang, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yicheng; He, Ting; Lao, Fengxue; Shang, Yinghui; Guo, Yu; She, Gaimei

    2016-10-24

    Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs) are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3',6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM), presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae . This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  19. Cinnamic acid derivatives induce cell cycle arrest in carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sova, Matej; Žižak, Željko; Stanković, Jelena A Antic; Prijatelj, Matevž; Turk, Samo; Juranić, Zorica D; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Gobec, Stanislav

    2013-08-01

    Cinnamic acid derivatives can be found in plant material, and they possess a remarkable variety of biological effects. In the present study, we have investigated the cytotoxic effects of representative cinnamic acid esters and amides. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT test on human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), myelogenous leukemia (K562), malignant melanoma (Fem-x), and estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) without or with the addition of the plant lectin phytohemaglutinin (PHA). The compounds tested showed significant cytotoxicity (IC50s between 42 and 166 µM) and furthermore selectivity of these cytotoxic effects on the malignant cell lines versus the PBMCs was also seen, especially when electron-withdrawing groups, such as a cyano group (compound 5), were present on the aromatic rings of the alcohol or amine parts of the cinnamic acid derivatives. The additional study on cell cycle phase distribution indicated that novel cinnamic acid derivatives inhibit cell growth by induction of cell death. Thus, cinnamic acids derivatives represent important lead compounds for further development of antineoplastic agents.

  20. Halochromism, ionochromism, solvatochromism and density functional study of a synthesized copper(II) complex containing hemilabile amide derivative ligand.

    PubMed

    Golchoubian, Hamid; Moayyedi, Golasa; Reisi, Neda

    2015-03-05

    This study investigates chromotropism of newly synthesized 3,3'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(benzylazanediyl))dipropanamide copper(II) perchlorate complex. The compound was structurally characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystallography of the complex showed that the copper atom achieved a distorted square pyramidal environment through coordination of two amine N atoms and two O atoms of the amide moieties. The pH effect on the visible absorption spectrum of the complex was studied which functions as pH-induced "off-on-off" switches through protonation and deprotonation of amide moieties along with the CuO to CuN bond rearrangement at room temperature. The complex was also observed to show solvatochromism and ionochromism. The distinct solution color changes mainly associated with hemilability of the amide groups. The solvatochromism of the complex was investigated with different solvent parameter models using stepwise multiple linear regression method. The results suggested that the basicity power of the solvent has a dominant contribution to the shift of the d-d absorption band of the complex. Density functional theory, DFT calculations were performed in order to study the electronic structure of the complex, the relative stabilities of the CuN/CuO isomers, and to understand the nature of the halochromism processes taking place. DFT computational results buttressed the experimental observations indicating that in the natural pH (5.8) the CuO isomer is more stable than its linkage isomer and conversely in alkaline aqueous solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  2. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  3. Increasing human Th17 differentiation through activation of orphan nuclear receptor retinoid acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) by a class of aryl amide compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Leiping; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Shuai; Xiang, Zhijun; Li, Yuan; Wisely, Bruce; Zhang, Guifeng; An, Gang; Wang, Yonghui; Leung, Stewart; Zhong, Zhong

    2012-10-01

    In a screen for small-molecule inhibitors of retinoid acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ), we fortuitously discovered that a class of aryl amide compounds behaved as functional activators of the interleukin 17 (IL-17) reporter in Jurkat cells. Three of these compounds were selected for further analysis and found to activate the IL-17 reporter with potencies of ∼0.1 μM measured by EC₅₀. These compounds were shown to directly bind to RORγ by circular dichroism-based thermal stability experiments. Furthermore, they can enhance an in vitro Th17 differentiation process in human primary T cells. As RORγ remains an orphan nuclear receptor, discovery of these aryl amide compounds as functional agonists will now provide pharmacological tools for us to dissect functions of RORγ and facilitate drug discovery efforts for immune-modulating therapies.

  4. Disruption of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity Prevents the Effects of Chronic Stress on Anxiety and Amygdalar Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew N.; Kumar, Shobha Anil; Filipski, Sarah B.; Iverson, Moriah; Stuhr, Kara L.; Keith, John M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Chattarji, Sumantra; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the amygdala following chronic stress is believed to be one of the primary mechanisms underlying the increased propensity for anxiety-like behaviors and pathological states; however, the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates amygdalar function are not well characterized. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the endocannabinoid system, which is known to regulate emotional behavior and neuroplasticity, contributes to changes in amygdalar structure and function following chronic stress. To examine the hypothesis, we have exposed C57/Bl6 mice to chronic restraint stress which results in an increase in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity and a reduction in the concentration of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) within the amygdala. Chronic restraint stress also increased dendritic arborization, complexity and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and increased anxiety-like behavior in wild-type mice. All of the stress-induced changes in amygdalar structure and function were absent in mice deficient in FAAH. Further, the anti-anxiety effect of FAAH deletion was recapitulated in rats treated orally with a novel pharmacological inhibitor of FAAH, JNJ5003 (50 mg/kg/day), during exposure to chronic stress. These studies suggest that FAAH is required for chronic stress to induce hyperactivity and structural remodeling of the amygdala. Collectively, these studies indicate that FAAH-mediated decreases in AEA occur following chronic stress and that this loss of AEA signaling is functionally relevant to the effects of chronic stress. These data support the hypothesis that inhibition of FAAH has therapeutic potential in the treatment of anxiety disorders, possibly by maintaining normal amygdalar function in the face of chronic stress. PMID:22776900

  5. Binding and Inactivation Mechanism of a Humanized Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase by [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors Revealed from Cocrystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; DeMartino, Jessica K.

    The cocrystal X-ray structures of two isomeric {alpha}-ketooxazole inhibitors (1 (OL-135) and 2) bound to fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a key enzymatic regulator of endocannabinoid signaling, are disclosed. The active site catalytic Ser241 is covalently bound to the inhibitors electrophilic carbonyl groups, providing the first structures of FAAH bound to an inhibitor as a deprotonated hemiketal mimicking the enzymatic tetrahedral intermediate. The work also offers a detailed view of the oxyanion hole and an exceptional 'in-action' depiction of the unusual Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. These structures capture the first picture of inhibitors that span the active site into the cytosolicmore » port providing new insights that help to explain FAAH's interaction with substrate leaving groups and their role in modulating inhibitor potency and selectivity. The role for the activating central heterocycle is clearly defined and distinguished from that observed in prior applications with serine proteases, reconciling the large electronic effect of attached substituents found unique to this class of inhibitors with FAAH. Additional striking active site flexibility is seen upon binding of the inhibitors, providing insights into the existence of a now well-defined membrane access channel with the disappearance of a spatially independent portion of the acyl chain-binding pocket. Finally, comparison of the structures of OL-135 (1) and its isomer 2 indicates that they bind identically to FAAH, albeit with reversed orientations of the central activating heterocycle, revealing that the terminal 2-pyridyl substituent and the acyl chain phenyl group provide key anchoring interactions and confirming the distinguishing role of the activating oxazole.« less

  6. Towards Tartaric-Acid-Derived Asymmetric Organocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Gratzer, Katharina; Gururaja, Guddeangadi N; Waser, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Tartaric acid is one of the most prominent naturally occurring chiral compounds. Whereas its application in the production of chiral ligands for metal-catalysed reactions has been exhaustively investigated, its potential to provide new organocatalysts has been less extensively explored. Nevertheless, some impressive results, such as the use of TADDOLs as chiral H-bonding catalysts or of tartrate-derived asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt catalysts, have been reported over the last decade. The goal of this article is to provide a representative overview of the potential and the limitations of tartaric acid or TADDOLs in the creation of new organocatalysts and to highlight some of the most spectacular applications of these catalysts, as well as to summarize case studies in which other classes of chiral backbones were better suited. PMID:24194674

  7. A tandem conjugate addition/cyclization protocol for the asymmetric synthesis of 2-aryl-4-aminotetrahydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Davies, Stephen G; Mujtaba, Nadeam; Roberts, Paul M; Smith, Andrew D; Thomson, James E

    2009-05-07

    Condensation of tert-butyl (E)-3-(2'-aminophenyl)propenoate with a range of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes gives the corresponding imines as single diastereoisomers (>98% de). Addition of lithium (R)-N-benzyl-N-(alpha-methylbenzyl)amide initiates a tandem conjugate addition/cyclization reaction to generate 2-aryl-4-aminotetrahydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives in >98% de, >98% ee and high isolated yield. Hydrogenolysis of an N(1)-Boc protected derivative allows selective cleavage of the N-benzyl-N-alpha-methylbenzyl protecting groups without compromise of the diastereo- or enantiopurity.

  8. A validated UHPLC method for the determination of caffeoylquinic and di-caffeoylquinic acids in green coffee extracts using an RP-Amide fused-core column.

    PubMed

    Fibigr, Jakub; Majorová, Michaela; Kočová Vlčková, Hana; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2018-03-20

    The presented work describes the development and validation of a rapid UHPLC-UV method using a fused core particle column with an RP-Amide stationary phase for the separation and quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic and di-caffeoylquinic acids in green coffee extracts. Three caffeoylquinic acids (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid) and two di-caffeoylquinic acids (1,3-di-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid) were separated and analyzed in 8 min. That was possible due to the unique selectivity of the RP-Amide stationary phase for the analyzed acids. The retention behavior of all analytes under different compositions of the mobile phase on different columns was evaluated in this study. The optimal chromatographic separation was performed using an Ascentis Express RP-Amide (100 × 2.1 mm) fused-core column with a particle size of 2.7 μm at a temperature of 30 °C. For validation of the newly developed method, acetonitrile was used as mobile phase B and 5% formic acid, filtrated through a 0.22 μm filter, was used as mobile phase A. They were delivered at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min -1 according to the elution gradient program. The detection wavelength was set at 325 nm. A solid-liquid extraction with a solution of methanol and a 5% water solution of formic acid (25 + 75 v/v) using an ultrasonic bath was chosen for the preparation of the available commercial samples of food supplements containing a green coffee extract. Recoveries for all analyzed acids were 98.2-101.0% and the relative standard deviation ranged from 0.3% to 1.4% for intra-day and from 0.3% to 3.0% for inter-day repeatability. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.30-0.53 μg mL -1 . Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Recognition of RNA by amide modified backbone nucleic acids: molecular dynamics simulations of DNA-RNA hybrids in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Nina, Mafalda; Fonné-Pfister, Raymonde; Beaudegnies, Renaud; Chekatt, Habiba; Jung, Pierre M J; Murphy-Kessabi, Fiona; De Mesmaeker, Alain; Wendeborn, Sebastian

    2005-04-27

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of a chemically modified DNA-RNA hybrid in which a phosphodiester linkage is replaced by a neutral amide-3 linkage (3'-CH(2)-CONH-5') were investigated using UV melting experiments, molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water, and continuum solvent models. van't Hoff analysis of the experimental UV melting curves suggests that the significant increase of the thermodynamic stability of a 15-mer DNA-RNA with seven alternated amide-3 modifications (+11 degrees C) is mainly due to an increased binding enthalpy. To further evaluate the origin in the observed affinities differences, the electrostatic contribution to the binding free energy was calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation numerically. The nonelectrostatic contribution was estimated as the product of a hydrophobic surface tension coefficient and the surface area that is buried upon double strand formation. Structures were taken from 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations computed in a consistent fashion using explicit solvent, counterions, and the particle-mesh Ewald procedure. The present preliminary thermodynamic study suggests that the favorable binding free energy of the amide-3 DNA single strand to the complementary RNA is equally driven by electrostatic and nonpolar contributions to the binding compared to their natural analogues. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water were performed on an amide-3 DNA single strand and the corresponding natural DNA. Results from the conformations cluster analysis of the simulated amide-3 DNA single strand ensembles suggest that the 25% of the population sampled within 10 ns has a pre-organized conformation where the sugar C3' endo pucker is favored at the 3'-flanking nucleotides. These structural and thermodynamic features contribute to the understanding of the observed increased affinities of the amide-3 DNA-RNA hybrids at the microscopic level.

  10. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase-Dependent Generation of Antinociceptive Drug Metabolites Acting on TRPV1 in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Blomgren, Anders; Simonsen, Charlotte; Daulhac, Laurence; Libert, Frédéric; Chapuy, Eric; Etienne, Monique; Högestätt, Edward D.; Zygmunt, Peter M.; Eschalier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that paracetamol is metabolized to the potent TRPV1 activator N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide (AM404) and that this metabolite contributes to paracetamol’s antinociceptive effect in rodents via activation of TRPV1 in the central nervous system (CNS) has provided a potential strategy for developing novel analgesics. Here we validated this strategy by examining the metabolism and antinociceptive activity of the de-acetylated paracetamol metabolite 4-aminophenol and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine (HMBA), both of which may undergo a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)-dependent biotransformation to potent TRPV1 activators in the brain. Systemic administration of 4-aminophenol and HMBA led to a dose-dependent formation of AM404 plus N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-9Z-octadecenamide (HPODA) and arvanil plus olvanil in the mouse brain, respectively. The order of potency of these lipid metabolites as TRPV1 activators was arvanil = olvanil>>AM404> HPODA. Both 4-aminophenol and HMBA displayed antinociceptive activity in various rodent pain tests. The formation of AM404, arvanil and olvanil, but not HPODA, and the antinociceptive effects of 4-aminophenol and HMBA were substantially reduced or disappeared in FAAH null mice. The activity of 4-aminophenol in the mouse formalin, von Frey and tail immersion tests was also lost in TRPV1 null mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of the TRPV1 blocker capsazepine eliminated the antinociceptive effects of 4-aminophenol and HMBA in the mouse formalin test. In the rat, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH, TRPV1, cannabinoid CB1 receptors and spinal 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors, and chemical deletion of bulbospinal serotonergic pathways prevented the antinociceptive action of 4-aminophenol. Thus, the pharmacological profile of 4-aminophenol was identical to that previously reported for paracetamol, supporting our suggestion that this drug metabolite contributes to paracetamol’s analgesic activity via activation

  11. Simultaneous Inhibition of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase Shares Discriminative Stimulus Effects with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hruba, Lenka; Seillier, Alexandre; Zaki, Armia; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors exert preclinical effects indicative of therapeutic potential (i.e., analgesia). However, the extent to which MAGL and FAAH inhibitors produce unwanted effects remains unclear. Here, FAAH and MAGL inhibition was examined separately and together in a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; 5.6 mg/kg i.p.) discrimination assay predictive of subjective effects associated with cannabis use, and the relative contribution of N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen to those effects was examined. Δ9-THC dose-dependently increased Δ9-THC appropriate responses (ED50 value = 2.8 mg/kg), whereas the FAAH inhibitors PF-3845 [N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide] and URB597 [(3′-​(aminocarbonyl)[1,​1′-​biphenyl]-​3-​yl)-​cyclohexylcarbamate] or a MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-​nitrophenyl-​4-​(dibenzo[d][1,​3]dioxol-​5-​yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-​1-​carboxylate] alone did not substitute for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus. The nonselective FAAH/MAGL inhibitors SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] and JZL195 [4-​nitrophenyl 4-​(3-​phenoxybenzyl)piperazine-​1-​carboxylate] fully substituted for Δ9-THC with ED50 values equal to 2.4 and 17 mg/kg, respectively. Full substitution for Δ9-THC was also produced by a combination of JZL184 and PF-3845, but not by a combination of JZL184 and URB597 (i.e., 52% maximum). Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist rimonabant attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ9-THC, SA-57, JZL195, and the combined effects of JZL184 and PF-3845. Full substitution for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus occurred only when both 2-AG and AEA were significantly elevated, and the patterns of increased endocannabinoid content were

  12. Zinc(II) complexes with heterocyclic ether, acid and amide. Crystal structure, spectral, thermal and antibacterial activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabłońska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Rogala, Patrycja; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Hodorowicz, Maciej; Stadnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-02-01

    The reaction of zinc salts with heterocyclic ether (1-ethoxymethyl-2-methylimidazole (1-ExMe-2-MeIm)), acid (pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (2,3-pydcH2)) and amide (3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-carboxamide (3,5-DMePzCONH2)) yielded three new zinc complexes formulated as [Zn(1-ExMe-2-MeIm)2Cl2] 1, fac-[Zn(H2O)6][Zn(2,3-pydcH)3]22 and [Zn(3,5-DMePz)2(NCO)2] 3. Complexes of 1 and 3 are four-coordinated with a tetrahedron as coordination polyhedron. However, compound 2 forms an octahedral cation-anion complex. The complex 3 was prepared by eliminating of the carboxamide group from the ligand and then the 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-DMePz) and isocyanates formed were employed as new ligands. The IR and X-ray studies have confirmed a bidentate fashion of coordination of the 2,3-pydcH and monodentate fashion of coordination of the 1-ExMe-2-MeIm and 3,5-DMePz to the Zn(II) ions. The crystal packing of Zn(II) complexes are stabilized by intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O types. The most interesting feature of the supramolecular architecture of complexes is the existence of C-H⋯O, C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯π interactions and π⋯π stacking, which also contributes to structural stabilisation. The correlation between crystal structure and thermal stability of zinc complexes is observed. In all compounds the fragments of ligands donor-atom containing go in the last steps. Additionally, antimicrobial activities of compounds were carried out against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and counts of CFU (colony forming units) were also determined. The achieved results confirmed a significant antibacterial activity of some tested zinc complexes. On the basis of the Δ log CFU values the antibacterial activity of zinc complexes follows the order: 3 > 2 > 1. Influence a number of N-donor atoms in zinc environment on antibacterial activity is also observed.

  13. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. Novel endogenous N-acyl amides activate TRPV1-4 receptors, BV-2 microglia, and are regulated in brain in an acute model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raboune, Siham; Stuart, Jordyn M.; Leishman, Emma; Takacs, Sara M.; Rhodes, Brandon; Basnet, Arjun; Jameyfield, Evan; McHugh, Douglas; Widlanski, Theodore; Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    A family of endogenous lipids, structurally analogous to the endogenous cannabinoid, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide), and called N-acyl amides have emerged as a family of biologically active compounds at TRP receptors. N-acyl amides are constructed from an acyl group and an amine via an amide bond. This same structure can be modified by changing either the fatty acid or the amide to form potentially hundreds of lipids. More than 70 N-acyl amides have been identified in nature. We have ongoing studies aimed at isolating and characterizing additional members of the family of N-acyl amides in both central and peripheral tissues in mammalian systems. Here, using a unique in-house library of over 70 N-acyl amides we tested the following three hypotheses: (1) Additional N-acyl amides will have activity at TRPV1-4, (2) Acute peripheral injury will drive changes in CNS levels of N-acyl amides, and (3) N-acyl amides will regulate calcium in CNS-derived microglia. Through these studies, we have identified 20 novel N-acyl amides that collectively activate (stimulating or inhibiting) TRPV1-4. Using lipid extraction and HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry we showed that levels of at least 10 of these N-acyl amides that activate TRPVs are regulated in brain after intraplantar carrageenan injection. We then screened the BV2 microglial cell line for activity with this N-acyl amide library and found overlap with TRPV receptor activity as well as additional activators of calcium mobilization from these lipids. Together these data provide new insight into the family of N-acyl amides and their roles as signaling molecules at ion channels, in microglia, and in the brain in the context of inflammation. PMID:25136293

  16. Herbivore derived fatty acid-amides elicit reactive oxygen species burst in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The formation of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a central response of plants to many forms of stress including pathogen attack, several abiotic stresses, damage and insect infestation. These ROS act as a direct defense as well as signaling and regulatory molecules. Perception of microbe or...

  17. Picolinamide-Based Iridium Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid in Water: Effect of Amide N Substituent on Activity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Kanega, Ryoichi; Onishi, Naoya; Wang, Lin; Murata, Kazuhisa; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2018-03-01

    To develop highly efficient catalysts for dehydrogenation of formic acid in water, we investigated several Cp*Ir catalysts with various amide ligands. The catalyst with an N-phenylpicolinamide ligand exhibited a TOF of 118 000 h -1 at 60 °C. A constant rate (TOF>35 000 h -1 ) was maintained for six hours, and a TON of 1 000 000 was achieved at 50 °C. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A chemical genetic screen uncovers a small molecule enhancer of the N-acylethanolamine degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; Faure, Lionel; Chapman, Kent D.; ...

    2017-01-23

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of fatty acid amides that play signaling roles in diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. We used fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades NAE into ethanolamine and free fatty acid to terminate its signaling function. In animals, chemical inhibitors of FAAH for therapeutic treatment of pain and as tools to probe deeper into biochemical properties of FAAH. In a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that dampened the inhibitory effect of N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0) on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth, we identified 6-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-2,4(3 H,6 H)-dione (or MDPD). MDPD alleviated the growth inhibitory effects of NAE 12:0, inmore » part by enhancing the enzymatic activity of Arabidopsis FAAH (AtFAAH). In vitro, biochemical assays showed that MDPD enhanced the apparent Vmax of AtFAAH but did not alter the affinity of AtFAAH for its NAE substrates. Furthermore, structural analogs of MDPD did not affect AtFAAH activity or dampen the inhibitory effect of NAE 12:0 on seedling growth indicating that MDPD is a specific synthetic chemical activator of AtFAAH. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an unbiased chemical genetic approach to identify new pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH- and NAE-mediated physiological processes in plants.« less

  19. Synthesis and Structure-activity Relationship Studies of O-Biphenyl-3-yl Carbamates as Peripherally Restricted Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Duranti, Andrea; Melzig, Laurin; Fiorelli, Claudio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Colombano, Giampiero; Mestichelli, Paola; Sanchini, Silvano; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Scarpelli, Rita; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB937 (3, cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3’-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) is extruded from the brain and spinal cord by the Abcg2 efflux transporter. Despite its inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS), 3 exerts profound antinociceptive effects in mice and rats, which result from the inhibition of FAAH in peripheral tissues and the consequent enhancement of anandamide signaling at CB1 cannabinoid receptors localized on sensory nerve endings. In the present study, we examined the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the biphenyl region of compound 3, focusing on the carbamoyl and hydroxyl groups in the distal and proximal phenyl rings. Our SAR studies generated a new series of peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitors and identified compound 35 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3’-carbamoyl-5-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) as the most potent brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor disclosed to date. PMID:23822179

  20. Inhibitors of HIV-1 maturation: Development of structure-activity relationship for C-28 amides based on C-3 benzoic acid-modified triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Swidorski, Jacob J; Liu, Zheng; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L; Parker, Dawn D; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian J; Protack, Tricia; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Jenkins, Susan; Krystal, Mark; Dicker, Ira B; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia

    2016-04-15

    We have recently reported on the discovery of a C-3 benzoic acid (1) as a suitable replacement for the dimethyl succinate side chain of bevirimat (2), an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor that reached Phase II clinical trials before being discontinued. Recent SAR studies aimed at improving the antiviral properties of 2 have shown that the benzoic acid moiety conferred topographical constraint to the pharmacophore and was associated with a lower shift in potency in the presence of human serum albumin. In this manuscript, we describe efforts to improve the polymorphic coverage of the C-3 benzoic acid chemotype through modifications at the C-28 position of the triterpenoid core. The dimethylaminoethyl amides 17 and 23 delivered improved potency toward bevirimat-resistant viruses while increasing C24 in rat oral PK studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Promoting acid resistance and nisin yield of Lactococcus lactis F44 by genetically increasing D-Asp amidation level inside cell wall.

    PubMed

    Hao, Panlong; Liang, Dongmei; Cao, Lijie; Qiao, Bin; Wu, Hao; Caiyin, Qinggele; Zhu, Hongji; Qiao, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    Nisin fermentation by Lactococcus lactis requires a low pH to maintain a relatively higher nisin activity. However, the acidic environment will result in cell arrest, and eventually decrease the relative nisin production. Hence, constructing an acid-resistant L. lactis is crucial for nisin harvest in acidic nisin fermentation. In this paper, the first discovery of the relationship between D-Asp amidation-associated gene (asnH) and acid resistance was reported. Overexpression of asnH in L. lactis F44 (F44A) resulted in a sevenfold increase in survival capacity during acid shift (pH 3) and enhanced nisin desorption capacity compared to F44 (wild type), which subsequently contributed to higher nisin production, reaching 5346 IU/mL, 57.0% more than that of F44 in the fed-batch fermentation. Furthermore, the engineered F44A showed a moderate increase in D-Asp amidation level (from 82 to 92%) compared to F44. The concomitant decrease of the negative charge inside the cell wall was detected by a newly developed method based on the nisin adsorption amount onto cell surface. Meanwhile, peptidoglycan cross-linkage increased from 36.8% (F44) to 41.9% (F44A), and intracellular pH can be better maintained by blocking extracellular H + due to the maintenance of peptidoglycan integrity, which probably resulted from the action of inhibiting hydrolases activity. The inference was further supported by the acmC-overexpression strain F44C, which was characterized by uncontrolled peptidoglycan hydrolase activity. Our results provided a novel strategy for enhancing nisin yield through cell wall remodeling, which contributed to both continuous nisin synthesis and less nisin adsorption in acidic fermentation (dual enhancement).

  2. Design, synthesis, molecular docking, anti-Proteus mirabilis and urease inhibition of new fluoroquinolone carboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammed A A; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din A A; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M N; Hassan, Heba A; Abd El-Baky, Rehab M

    2017-02-01

    New hydroxamic acid, hydrazide and amide derivatives of ciprofloxacin in addition to their analogues of levofloxacin were prepared and identified by different spectroscopic techniques. Some of the prepared compounds revealed good activity against the urease splitting bacteria, Proteus mirabilis. The urease inhibitory activity was investigated using indophenol method. Most of the tested compounds showed better activity than the reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). The ciprofloxacin hydrazide derivative 3a and levofloxacin hydroxamic acid 7 experienced the highest activity (IC 50 =1.22μM and 2.20μM, respectively). Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of the tested compounds to the active site of urease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ferrocenylaniline based amide analogs of methoxybenzoic acids: Synthesis, structural characterization and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaf, Ataf Ali; Kausar, Samia; Hamayun, Muhammad; Lal, Bhajan; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Badshah, Amin

    2017-10-01

    Three new ferrocene based amides were synthesized with slight structural difference. The general formula of the amides is C5H5FeC5H4C6H4NHCOC6H4(OCH3). The synthesized compounds were characterized by instrumental techniques like elemental analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Structure of the two compounds was also studied by single crystal X-rays diffraction analysis. Structural studies provide the evidence that pMeO (one of the synthesized compounds) is an example of amides having no intermolecular hydrogen bonding in solid structure. In the BChE inhibition assay, compound (oMeO) having strong intermolecular force in the solid structure is less active than the compound (pMeO) with weak intermolecular forces in the solid structure. The docking studies proved that hydrogen bonding between inhibitor and BChE enzyme is of more importance for the activity, rather than intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the solid structure of inhibitor.

  4. Synthesis and Cytotoxicities of Royleanone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Ji; Xia, Fan; Wu, Rong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi; Xu, Gang; Qin, Hong-Bo

    2018-06-16

    Carnosic acid was used as starting material to synthesize royleanone derivatives featured C11-C14 para quinone. The importance of C-20 group of royleanone derivatives was verified by the cytotoxicity assay of royleanonic acid, miltionone I and deoxyneocrptotanshinone. Following our synthetic route, 15 amide derivatives were synthesized and 8 compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against three human cancer lines in vitro.

  5. Synthesis of new β-amidodehydroaminobutyric acid derivatives and of new tyrosine derivatives using copper catalyzed C-N and C-O coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G; Vilaça, H; Ferreira, P M T

    2013-02-01

    Several β-amidodehydroaminobutyric acid derivatives were prepared from N,C-diprotected β-bromodehydroaminobutyric acids and amides by a copper catalyzed C-N coupling reaction. The best reaction conditions include the use of a catalytic amount of CuI, N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine as ligand and K(2)CO(3) as base in toluene at 110 °C. The stereochemistry of the products was determined using NOE difference experiments and the results obtained are in agreement with an E-stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry is maintained in the case of the E-isomers of β-bromodehydroaminobutyric acid derivatives, but when the Z-isomers were used as substrates the reaction proceeds with inversion of configuration. The use of β-bromodehydrodipeptides as substrates was also tested. It was found that the reaction outcome depend on the stereochemistry of the β-bromodehydrodipeptide and on the nature of the first amino acid residue. The products isolated were the β-amidodehydrodipeptide derivatives and/or the corresponding dihydropyrazines. The same catalytic system (CuI/N,N'-dimethylethylene diamine) was used in the C-O coupling reactions between a tyrosine derivative and aryl bromides. The new O-aryltyrosine derivatives were isolated in moderate to good yields. The photophysical properties of two of these compounds were studied in four solvents of different polarity. The results show that these compounds after deprotection can be used as fluorescence markers.

  6. Synthesis, structural, conformational and pharmacological study of some amides derived from 3 -methyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9α-amine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriepa, I.; Bellanato, J.; Gálvez, E.; Gil-Alberdi, B.

    2010-07-01

    Some mono-substituted amides ( 2- 5) derived from 3-methyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9α-amine were synthesized and studied by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of 3-methyl-2,4-diphenyl-9α-(3,5-dichlorobenzamido)-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane ( 3) was determined by X-ray diffraction. NMR data showed that all compounds adopt in CDCl 3 a preferred flattened chair-chair conformation with the N-CH 3 group in equatorial disposition. X-ray data agreed with this conformation in the case of compound 3. IR data revealed that compounds 2 and 3 present a C dbnd O⋯HN intermolecular bond in the solid state. This conclusion was also confirmed by X-ray data of compound 3. In the case of compound 5, IR results suggested intermolecular NH⋯N-heterocyclic bonding. On the contrary, in the pyrazine derivative ( 4), IR, 1H and 13C NMR data showed the presence of an intramolecular NH⋯N1″-heterocyclic hydrogen bond in the solid state and solution. Moreover, NMR and IR data showed a preferred trans disposition for the NH-C dbnd O group. NMR also revealed free rotation of the -NH-CO-R group around C9-NH bond. Pharmacological assays on mice were drawn to evaluate analgesic activity.

  7. The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships associated with C28 amine-based betulinic acid derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 maturation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Jie; Swidorski, Jacob J; Liu, Zheng; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L; Parker, Dawn D; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Lin, Zeyu; Li, Zhufang; Terry, Brian J; Protack, Tricia; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Jenkins, Susan; Krystal, Mark; Dicker, Ira D; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia

    2018-05-15

    The design and synthesis of a series of C28 amine-based betulinic acid derivatives as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors is described. This series represents a continuation of efforts following on from previous studies of C-3 benzoic acid-substituted betulinic acid derivatives as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) that were explored in the context of C-28 amide substituents. Compared to the C-28 amide series, the C-28 amine derivatives exhibited further improvements in HIV-1 inhibitory activity toward polymorphisms in the Gag polyprotein as well as improved activity in the presence of human serum. However, plasma exposure of basic amines following oral administration to rats was generally low, leading to a focus on moderating the basicity of the amine moiety distal from the triterpene core. The thiomorpholine dioxide (TMD) 20 emerged from this study as a compound with the optimal antiviral activity and an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile in the C-28 amine series. Compared to the C-28 amide 3, 20 offers a 2- to 4-fold improvement in potency towards the screening viruses, exhibits low shifts in the EC 50 values toward the V370A and ΔV370 viruses in the presence of human serum or human serum albumin, and demonstrates improved potency towards the polymorphic T371A and V362I virus variants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amino acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for improving compatibility with chiral poly(amide-ester-imide) containing L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Borandeh, Sedigheh

    2013-12-01

    Amino acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs)/poly(amide-ester-imide) (PAEI) composites were fabricated by solution mixing method. Proper functionalization and mixing strategy of MWCNTs provides the best opportunity for better distribution and bonding of nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. MWCNTs have been chemically modified with L-phenylalanine to improve their compatibility with L-phenylalanine based PAEI. Field emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs of composite revealed that f-MWCNTs made a good interaction with polymer chains by wrapping the polymer around them, and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed well dispersion with nano size of f-MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. In addition, thermal analysis showed good enhancement in thermal properties of composites compared to pure polymer. Thermal stability of the composites containing f-MWCNTs was enhanced due to their good dispersion and improved interfacial interaction between the amino acid based PAEI matrix and f-MWCNTs.

  9. Synthesis of new kojic acid based unnatural α-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, C; Payili, Nagaraju; Yennam, Satyanarayana; Uma Devi, P; Behera, Manoranjan

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method for the preparation of kojic acid based α-amino acid derivatives by alkylation of glycinate schiff base with bromokojic acids have been described. Using this method, mono as well as di alkylated kojic acid-amino acid conjugates have been prepared. This is the first synthesis of C-linked kojic acid-amino acid conjugate where kojic acid is directly linked to amino acid through a C-C bond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid...

  12. Oleic acid derived metabolites in mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Merkler, David J; Chew, Geoffrey H; Gee, Andrew J; Merkler, Kathleen A; Sorondo, Jean-Paul O; Johnson, Mitchell E

    2004-10-05

    Oleamide is an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid that has been isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived mammals. Oleamide is the best-understood member of the primary fatty acid amide family. One key unanswered question regarding oleamide and all other primary acid amides is the pathway by which these molecules are produced. One proposed pathway involves oleoyl-CoA and N-oleoylglycine as intermediates: oleic acid --> oleoyl-CoA --> N-oleoylglycine --> oleamide. The first and third reactions are known reactions, catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetase and peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). Oleoyl-CoA formation from oleic acid has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo while, to date, N-oleoylglycine cleavage to oleamide has been established only in vitro. PAM catalyzes the final step in alpha-amidated peptide biosynthesis, and its proposed role in primary fatty acid amide biosynthesis has been controversial. Mouse neuroblastoma N(18)TG(2) cells are an excellent model system for the study of oleamide biosynthesis because these cells convert [(14)C]-oleic acid to [(14)C]-oleamide and express PAM in a regulated fashion. We report herein that growth of the N(18)TG(2) cells in the presence of [(14)C]-oleic acid under conditions known to stimulate PAM expression generates an increase in [(14)C]-oleamide or in the presence of a PAM inhibitor generates [(14)C]-N-oleoylglycine. This represents the first identification of N-oleoylglycine from a biological source. In addition, N(18)TG(2) cell growth in the presence of N-oleoylglycine yields oleamide. These results strongly indicate that N-oleoylglycine is an intermediate in oleamide biosynthesis and provide further evidence that PAM does have a role in primary fatty acid amide production in vivo.

  13. Peptaibols, tetramic acid derivatives, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes from a Bionectria sp. (MSX 47401).

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa; Falkinham, Joseph O; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-06-28

    An extract of the filamentous fungus Bionectria sp. (MSX 47401) showed both promising cytotoxic activity (>90% inhibition of H460 cell growth at 20 μg/mL) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A bioactivity-directed fractionation study yielded one new peptaibol (1) and one new tetramic acid derivative (2), and the fungus biosynthesized diverse secondary metabolites with mannose-derived units. Five known compounds were also isolated: clonostachin (3), virgineone (4), virgineone aglycone (5), AGI-7 (6), and 5,6-dihydroxybisabolol (7). Compounds 5 and 7 have not been described previously from natural sources. Compound 1 represents the second member of the peptaibol structural class that contains an ester-linked sugar alcohol (mannitol) instead of an amide-linked amino alcohol, and peptaibols and tetramic acid derivatives have not been isolated previously from the same fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated primarily by high-field NMR (950 and 700 MHz), HRESIMS/MS, and chemical degradations (Marfey's analysis). All compounds (except 6) were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and several MRSA isolates.

  14. Synthesis and Proteasome Inhibition of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Yu, Donglei; Ho, Phong; Qian, Keduo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Ho

    2008-01-01

    This study discovered that glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited the human 20S proteasome at 22.3 µM. Esterification of the C-3 hydroxyl group on glycyrrhetinic acid with various carboxylic acid reagents yielded a series of analogs with marked improved potency. Among the derivatives, glycyrrhetinic acid 3-O-isophthalate (17) was the most potent compound with IC50 of 0.22 µM, which was approximately 100-fold more potent than glycyrrhetinic acid. PMID:18562200

  15. gamma. -Preprotachykinin-(72-92)-peptide amide: An endogenous preprotachykinin I gene-derived peptide that preferentially binds to neurokinin-2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, T.V.; Takeda, Y.; Krause, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of N-terminally extended forms of neurokinin A has recently been reported in the mammalian brain. Among them, gamma-preprotachykinin-(72-92)-peptide amide (gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2), a peptide derived by posttranslational processing of gamma-preprotachykinin, is most prominent. We report here that this peptide most likely acts on neurokinin-2 receptor sites since neurokinin A (a putative neurokinin-2 agonist) and gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 are potent competitors of 125I-labeled gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 binding whereas selective neurokinin-1 and -3 agonists are not. Moreover, the distribution of 125I-labeled gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 and 125I-labeled neurokinin A binding sites are very similar in rat brain. On the other hand, 125I-labeled Bolton-Hunter-substance P (a neurokinin-1 ligand) and 125I-labeledmore » Bolton-Hunter-eledoisin (a neurokinin-3 ligand) binding sites are differentially located in this tissue. Thus, it appears that gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 binds to neurokinin-2 receptors and should be considered as a putative endogenous ligand for this receptor class.« less

  16. Investigation of Mechanistic Pathway for Trimethyl Borate Mediated Amidation of (R)-Mandelic Acid for the Synthesis of Mirabegron, an Antimuscarinic Agent.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Dattatray G; Bangal, Mukund N; Patekar, Mukunda R; Medhane, Vijay J; Mathad, Vijayavitthal Thippannachar

    2018-03-01

    The present work describes investigation of mechanistic pathway for trimethyl borate mediated amidation of (R)-mandelic acid (3) with 4-nitophenylethylamine (2) to provide (R)-2-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-2-phenylacetamide (4) during mirabegron synthesis. Plausible reaction mechanism is proposed by isolating and elucidating the active α-hydroxy ester intermediate 16 from the reaction mass. Trimethyl borate mediated approach proved to be selective in providing 4 without disturbing α-hydroxyl group and stereochemistry of the chiral center, and is also a greener, more economic and production friendly over the reported methods. The developed approach is rapid and efficient for the preparation of 4 with an overall yield of 85-87% and around 99.0% purity by HPLC at scale.

  17. Synthesis, Antifungal Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel 3-(Difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Du, Shijie; Tian, Zaimin; Yang, Dongyan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Jia, Changqing; Che, Chuanliang; Wang, Mian; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-05-08

    A series of novel 3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid amides were synthesized and their activities were tested against seven phytopathogenic fungi by an in vitro mycelia growth inhibition assay. Most of them displayed moderate to excellent activities. Among them N-(2-(5-bromo-1H-indazol-1-yl)phenyl)-3-(difluoro-methyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide (9m) exhibited higher antifungal activity against the seven phytopathogenic fungi than boscalid. Topomer CoMFA was employed to develop a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model for the compounds. In molecular docking, the carbonyl oxygen atom of 9m could form hydrogen bonds towards the hydroxyl of TYR58 and TRP173 on SDH.

  18. Association study between alcoholism and endocannabinoid metabolic enzyme genes encoding fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoglyceride lipase in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Ishiguro, Hiroki; Higuchi, Susumu; Onaivi, Emmanuel S; Arinami, Tadao

    2007-08-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) are the major endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Owing to the importance of endocannabinoid system in addiction, the Pro129Thr polymorphism in the FAAH gene has reportedly been associated with substance abuse and dependence in a Caucasian population. To determine whether the single nucleodtide polymorphisms of the FAAH and MGLL genes are associated with alcoholism in a Japanese population. We conducted case-control studies for total 14 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in those two genes using Japanese 729 patients with alcoholism and 799 healthy controls. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between these groups. None of these genetic markers, however, showed significant association with alcoholism in Japanese. Whereas we examined associations in a larger sample size between alcoholism and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered most regions of these endocannabinoid metabolic enzyme genes, we found that these are not associated with susceptibility to alcoholism in a Japanese population.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of some benzoic acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Melike; Kiliç, Deryanur; Ünver, Yaǧmur; Şentürk, Murat; Askin, Hakan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to acetic acid and choline. AChE inhibitors are used in treatment of several neurodegeneartive disorder and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, inhibition of AChE with some benzoic acid derivatives were investigated. 3-Chloro-benzoic acid (1), 2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid (2), 2-(sulfooxy) benzoic acid (3), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic (6) were calculated IC50 values AChE enzyme. Kinetic investigations showed that similarly to AChE inhibitors. Benzoic acid derivatives (1-6) investigated are encouraging agents which may be used as lead molecules in order to derivative novel AChE inhibitors that might be useful in medical applications.

  20. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (-/-) mice exhibit an increased sensitivity to the disruptive effects of anandamide or oleamide in a working memory water maze task.

    PubMed

    Varvel, Stephen A; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Engram, April E; Lichtman, Aron H

    2006-04-01

    Although recent evidence suggests that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) may represent a potential therapeutic target, few published studies have investigated FAAH or its fatty acid amide substrates (FAAs) in animal models of learning and memory. Therefore, our primary goal was to determine whether FAAH (-/-) mice, which possess elevated levels of anandamide and other FAAs, would display altered performance in four Morris water maze tasks: acquisition of a hidden fixed platform, reversal learning, working memory, and probe trials. FAAH (-/-) mice failed to exhibit deficits in any task; in fact, they initially acquired the working memory task more rapidly than FAAH (+/+) mice. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether the FAAH inhibitor OL-135 (1-oxo-1[5-(2-pyridyl)-2-yl]-7-phenylheptane), anandamide, other FAAs, and methanandamide would affect working memory in both genotypes. FAAH (-/-), but not (+/+), mice displayed working memory impairments following exogenous administration of anandamide (ED(50) = 6 mg/kg) or oleamide (50 mg/kg). However, the central cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)) receptor antagonist SR141716 [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide HCl] only blocked the disruptive effects of anandamide. Methanandamide, which is not metabolized by FAAH, disrupted working memory performance in both genotypes (ED(50) = 10 mg/kg), suggesting that CB(1) receptor signaling is unaltered by FAAH deletion. In contrast, OL-135 and other FAAs failed to affect working memory in either genotype. These results suggest that FAAH deletion does not impair spatial learning but may enhance acquisition under certain conditions. More generally, FAAH may represent a novel therapeutic target that circumvents the undesirable cognitive side effects commonly associated with direct-acting cannabinoid agonists.

  1. Catalytic synthesis of amides via aldoximes rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Crochet, Pascale; Cadierno, Victorio

    2015-02-14

    Amide bond formation reactions are among the most important transformations in organic chemistry because of the widespread occurrence of amides in pharmaceuticals, natural products and biologically active compounds. The Beckmann rearrangement is a well-known method to generate secondary amides from ketoximes. However, under the acidic conditions commonly employed, aldoximes RHC=NOH rarely rearrange into the corresponding primary amides RC(=O)NH2. In recent years, it was demonstrated that this atom-economical transformation can be carried out efficiently and selectively with the help of metal catalysts. Several homogeneous and heterogenous systems have been described. In addition, protocols offering the option to generate the aldoximes in situ from the corresponding aldehydes and hydroxylamine, or even from alcohols, have also been developed, as well as a series of tandem processes allowing the access to N-substituted amide products. In this Feature article a comprehensive overview of the advances achieved in this particular research area is presented.

  2. Hyperpolarized Amino Acid Derivatives as Multivalent Magnetic Resonance pH Sensor Molecules.

    PubMed

    Hundshammer, Christian; Düwel, Stephan; Ruseckas, David; Topping, Geoffrey; Dzien, Piotr; Müller, Christoph; Feuerecker, Benedikt; Hövener, Jan B; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Glaser, Steffen J; Schilling, Franz

    2018-02-15

    pH is a tightly regulated physiological parameter that is often altered in diseased states like cancer. The development of biosensors that can be used to non-invasively image pH with hyperpolarized (HP) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging has therefore recently gained tremendous interest. However, most of the known HP-sensors have only individually and not comprehensively been analyzed for their biocompatibility, their pH sensitivity under physiological conditions, and the effects of chemical derivatization on their logarithmic acid dissociation constant (p K a ). Proteinogenic amino acids are biocompatible, can be hyperpolarized and have at least two pH sensitive moieties. However, they do not exhibit a pH sensitivity in the physiologically relevant pH range. Here, we developed a systematic approach to tailor the p K a of molecules using modifications of carbon chain length and derivatization rendering these molecules interesting for pH biosensing. Notably, we identified several derivatives such as [1- 13 C]serine amide and [1- 13 C]-2,3-diaminopropionic acid as novel pH sensors. They bear several spin-1/2 nuclei ( 13 C, 15 N, 31 P) with high sensitivity up to 4.8 ppm/pH and we show that 13 C spins can be hyperpolarized with dissolution dynamic polarization (DNP). Our findings elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chemical shift pH sensors that might help to design tailored probes for specific pH in vivo imaging applications.

  3. Synthesis of 5'-deoxy-5'-nucleosideacetic acid derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    Several new 5'-deoxy-5'-nucleosideacetic acid derivatives have been synthesized by the reactions of alkoxycarbonylmethylene triphenylphosphoranes with nucleoside 5'-aldehydes. The oligomerization of adenine derivatives IIa, IIIa, IV, V and guanine derivatives IIc and IIIc in aqueous solution was studied using a water-soluble carbodiimide as a condensing agent. It is found that the saturated acid (IV) tends to cyclize to the lactone, while IIa and unsaturated acids (IIIa and V) oligomerized efficiently, especially in the presence of poly (U) as a template.

  4. Facile solvolysis of a surprisingly twisted tertiary amide

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, Aaron J.; Chaudhuri, Subhajyoti; Mercado, Brandon Q.

    2016-01-05

    In this study, a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative containing both a tertiary amide and a methyl ester was shown crystallographically to adopt a conformation in which the amide is in the cis configuration, which is sterically disfavored, but electronically favored. The steric strain induces a significant torsion (15.9°) of the amide, thereby greatly increasing the solvolytic lability of the amide to the extent that we see competitive amide solvolysis in the presence of the normally more labile methyl ester also present in the molecule.

  5. Quest for steroidomimetics: Amino acids derived steroidal and nonsteroidal architectures.

    PubMed

    Shagufta; Ahmad, Irshad; Panda, Gautam

    2017-06-16

    The chiral pool amino acids have been utilized for the construction of steroidal and non-steroidal architectures in the quest for steroidomimetics. Chirality derived from amino acid-based architectures provides new and easy to incorporate chiral chemical space, which is otherwise very difficult to introduce and comprised of several synthetic steps for asymmetric steroids. The different and exciting ligand-receptor interactions may arise from the use of each amino acid enantiomer that was introduced into the chiral steroidal backbone. The A and D rings of steroidal architectures can be mimicked by the phenyl group of the amino acid tyrosine. The Mitsunobu reaction, nucleophilic substitution and elimination, etc. were utilized for constructing diverse tri- and tetracyclic steroidal skeletons as well as benzofused seco-steroids from amino acids. These benzofused, amino acid-derived steroidal and nonsteroidal molecules had promising biological activity in hormonal related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Salicylic acid derivatives: synthesis, features and usage as therapeutic tools.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Deniz; Sentürk, Murat; Küfrevioğlu, Ömer İrfan

    2011-12-01

    In the field of medicinal chemistry, there is a growing interest in the use of small molecules. Although acetyl salicylic acid is well known for medical applications, little is known about other salicylic acid derivatives, and there is serious lack of data and information on the effects and biological evaluation that connect them. This review covers the synthesis and drug potencies of salicylic acid derivatives. After a brief overview of the information on salicylic acid and its features, a detailed review of salicylic acids as drugs and prodrugs, usage as cyclooxygenase inhibitors, properties in plants, synthesis and recent patents, is developed. Salicylic acid research is still an important area and innovations continue to arise, which offer hope for new therapeutics in related fields. It is anticipated that this review will guide the direction of long-term drug/nutraceutical safety trials and stimulate ideas for future research.

  7. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  8. Acid-catalyzed rearrangements of flavans to novelbenzofuran derivatives

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Weiling Peng; Anthony H. Conner; Petrus J. Steynberg; Jan P. Steynberg

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to define reactions that occur when proanthocyanidins and their derivatives are reacted in the presence of acid catalysts. Pure compounds (either as the free phenols, the methyl ether, or the methyl ether-acetate derivatives) were isolated by a variety of chromatographic methods. Proof of their structure was based mainly on 2D-NMR, as...

  9. The cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) gene of oomycetes: structure, phylogeny and influence on sensitivity to carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides.

    PubMed

    Blum, Mathias; Gamper, Hannes A; Waldner, Maya; Sierotzki, Helge; Gisi, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Proper disease control is very important to minimize yield losses caused by oomycetes in many crops. Today, oomycete control is partially achieved by breeding for resistance, but mainly by application of single-site mode of action fungicides including the carboxylic acid amides (CAAs). Despite having mostly specific targets, fungicidal activity can differ even in species belonging to the same phylum but the underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood. In an attempt to elucidate the phylogenetic basis and underlying molecular mechanism of sensitivity and tolerance to CAAs, the cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) gene was isolated and characterized, encoding the target site of this fungicide class. The CesA3 gene was present in all 25 species included in this study representing the orders Albuginales, Leptomitales, Peronosporales, Pythiales, Rhipidiales and Saprolegniales, and based on phylogenetic analyses, enabled good resolution of all the different taxonomic orders. Sensitivity assays using the CAA fungicide mandipropamid (MPD) demonstrated that only species belonging to the Peronosporales were inhibited by the fungicide. Molecular data provided evidence, that the observed difference in sensitivity to CAAs between Peronosporales and CAA tolerant species is most likely caused by an inherent amino acid configuration at position 1109 in CesA3 possibly affecting fungicide binding. The present study not only succeeded in linking CAA sensitivity of various oomycetes to the inherent CesA3 target site configuration, but could also relate it to the broader phylogenetic context. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Pharmacological Inhibition of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Prevents Excitotoxic Damage in the Rat Striatum: Possible Involvement of CB1 Receptors Regulation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Portillo, Gabriela; Rangel-López, Edgar; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Chavarría, Anahí; Castellanos, Pilar; Elmazoglu, Zubeyir; Karasu, Çimen; Túnez, Isaac; Pedraza, Gibrán; Königsberg, Mina; Santamaría, Abel

    2018-05-25

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) actively participates in several physiological processes within the central nervous system. Among such, its involvement in the downregulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) through a modulatory input at the cannabinoid receptors (CBr) has been established. After its production via the kynurenine pathway (KP), quinolinic acid (QUIN) can act as an excitotoxin through the selective overactivation of NMDAr, thus participating in the onset and development of neurological disorders. In this work, we evaluated whether the pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) by URB597, and the consequent increase in the endogenous levels of anandamide, can prevent the excitotoxic damage induced by QUIN. URB597 (0.3 mg/kg/day × 7 days, administered before, during and after the striatal lesion) exerted protective effects on the QUIN-induced motor (asymmetric behavior) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) alterations in rats. URB597 also preserved the structural integrity of the striatum and prevented the neuronal loss (assessed as microtubule-associated protein-2 and glutamate decarboxylase localization) induced by QUIN (1 μL intrastriatal, 240 nmol/μL), while modified the early localization patterns of CBr1 (CB1) and NMDAr subunit 1 (NR1). Altogether, these findings support the concept that the pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system plays a neuroprotective role against excitotoxic insults in the central nervous system.

  11. Acyl Meldrum's acid derivatives: application in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janikowska, K.; Rachoń, J.; Makowiec, S.

    2014-07-01

    This review is focused on an important class of Meldrum's acid derivatives commonly known as acyl Meldrum's acids. The preparation methods of these compounds are considered including the recently proposed and rather rarely used ones. The chemical properties of acyl Meldrum's acids are described in detail, including thermal stability and reactions with various nucleophiles. The possible mechanisms of these transformations are analyzed. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Oxy Amides via Umpolung Amide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leighty, Matthew W.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    α-Oxy amides are prepared through enantioselective synthesis using a sequence beginning with a Henry addition of bromonitromethane to aldehydes, and finishing with Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Key to high enantioselection is the finding that ortho-iodo benzoic acid salts of the chiral copper(II) bis(oxazoline) catalyst deliver both diastereomers of the Henry adduct with high enantiomeric excess, homochiral at the oxygen-bearing carbon. Overall, this approach to α-oxy amides provides an innovative complement to alternatives that focus almost entirely on the enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy carboxylic acids. PMID:22967461

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy amides via Umpolung amide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leighty, Matthew W; Shen, Bo; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2012-09-19

    α-Oxy amides are prepared through enantioselective synthesis using a sequence beginning with a Henry addition of bromonitromethane to aldehydes and finishing with Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Key to high enantioselection is the finding that ortho-iodo benzoic acid salts of the chiral copper(II) bis(oxazoline) catalyst deliver both diastereomers of the Henry adduct with high enantiomeric excess, homochiral at the oxygen-bearing carbon. Overall, this approach to α-oxy amides provides an innovative complement to alternatives that focus almost entirely on the enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy carboxylic acids.

  14. New Chemistry with Old Functional Groups: On the Reaction of Isonitriles with Carboxylic Acids - A Route to Various Amide Types

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuechen; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2008-01-01

    Thermolysis of isonitriles with carboxylic acids provides, in one step, N-formyl imides (see, for example 8 + 19 → 21). The resultant N-formyl group can be converted to N-H, NCH2OH or NCH3. This chemistry allows for a new route for synthesizing β-N (asparagine) linked glycosyl amino acids. PMID:18370392

  15. Reactions of glycidyl derivatives with ambident nucleophiles; part 2: amino acid derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Dyker, Gerald; Thöne, Andreas; Henkel, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    A three-step procedure for the synthesis of multifunctionalized heterocycles from a pyroglutamic acid derivative, glycidyl components and anilines by nucleophilic substitution and cobalt catalysis is presented. PMID:17900352

  16. Catalytic conversion of lactic acid and its derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Kokitkar, P.B.; Langford, R.; Miller, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The catalytic upgrading of lactic acid and methyl lactate is being investigated. With the commercialization of inexpensive starch fermentation technologies, US production of lactic acid is undergoing a surge. Dropping cost and increased availability offer a major opportunity to develop lactic acid as a renewable feedstock for chemicals production. IT can be catalytically converted into several important chemical intermediates currently derived from petroleum including acrylic acid, propanoic acid, and 2,3-pentanedione. The process can expand the potential of biomass as a substitute feedstock for petroleum and can benefit both the US chemical process industry and US agriculture via increased production ofmore » high-value, non-food products from crops and crop byproducts. Reaction studies of lactic acid and its ester are conducted in fixed bed reactors at 250-380{degrees}C and 0.1-0.5 MPa (1-5 atm) using salt catalysts on low surface area supports. Highest selectivities achieved are 42% to acrylic acid and 55% to 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid over NaNO{sub 3} catalyst on low surface area silica support. High surface area (microporous) or highly acidic supports promote fragmentation to acetaldehyde and thus reduce yields of desirable products. The support acidity gives rice to lactic acid from neat methyl lactate feed but the lactic acid yield goes down after the nitrate salt is impregnated on the support. Both lactic acid and methyl lactate form 2,3-pentanedione. Methyl lactate reactions are more complex since it forms all the products obtained from lactic acid as well as many corresponding esters of the acids obtained from lactic acid (mainly methyl acrylate, methyl propionate, methyl acetate). At high temperatures, methyl acetate and acetic acid yields become significant from methyl lactate whereas lactic acid gives significant amount of acetol at high temperatures.« less

  17. A novel synthetic Piper amide derivative NED-180 inhibits hyperpigmentation by activating the PI3K and ERK pathways and by regulating Ca2+ influx via TRPM1 channels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Taek Hwan; Lee, Wook-Joo; Shim, Won-Sik; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2016-01-01

    Piper amides have a characteristic, unsaturated amide group and exhibit diverse biological activities, including proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes, although the molecular mechanisms underlying its antimelanogenesis effect remain unknown. We screened a selected chemical library of newly synthesized Piper amide derivatives and identified (E)-3-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide (NED-180) as one of the most potent compounds in suppressing melanogenesis. In murine melan-a melanocytes, NED-180 downregulated the expression of melanogenic regulatory proteins including tyrosinase, Tyrp1, Dct, and MITF. PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3β by NED-180 decreases MITF phosphorylation and inhibits melanogenesis without any effects on cytotoxicity and proliferation. Furthermore, topical application of NED-180 significantly ameliorated UVB-induced skin hyperpigmentation in guinea pigs. Interestingly, data obtained using calcium imaging techniques suggested that NED-180 reduced the TPA-induced activation of TRPM1 (melastatin), which could explain the NED-180-induced inhibition of melanogenesis. All things taken together, NED-180 triggers activation of multiple pathways, such as PI3K and ERK, and inhibits TRPM1/TRPV1, leading to inhibition of melanogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A 2:1 co-crystal of p-nitro-benzoic acid and N,N'-bis-(pyridin-3-ylmeth-yl)ethanedi-amide: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sabrina; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-01-01

    The title 2:1 co-crystal, 2C7H5NO4·C14H14N4O2, in which the complete di-amide mol-ecule is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry, features a three-mol-ecule aggregate sustained by hydroxyl-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonds. The p-nitro-benzoic acid mol-ecule is non-planar, exhibiting twists of both the carb-oxy-lic acid and nitro groups, which form dihedral angles of 10.16 (9) and 4.24 (4)°, respectively, with the benzene ring. The di-amide mol-ecule has a conformation approximating to a Z shape, with the pyridyl rings lying to either side of the central, almost planar di-amide residue (r.m.s. deviation of the eight atoms being 0.025 Å), and forming dihedral angles of 77.22 (6)° with it. In the crystal, three-mol-ecule aggregates are linked into a linear supra-molecular ladder sustained by amide-N-H⋯O(nitro) hydrogen bonds and orientated along [10-4]. The ladders are connected into a double layer via pyridyl- and benzene-C-H⋯O(amide) inter-actions, which, in turn, are connected into a three-dimensional architecture via π-π stacking inter-actions between pyridyl and benzene rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.6947 (8) Å]. An evaluation of the Hirshfeld surfaces confirm the importance of inter-molecular inter-actions involving oxygen atoms as well as the π-π inter-actions.

  19. The effect of specific solvent-solute interactions on complexation of alkali-metal cations by a lower-rim calix[4]arene amide derivative.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Gordan; Stilinović, Vladimir; Kaitner, Branko; Frkanec, Leo; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2013-11-04

    Complexation of alkali-metal cations with calix[4]arene secondary-amide derivative, 5,11,17,23-tetra(tert-butyl)-25,26,27,28-tetra(N-hexylcarbamoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (L), in benzonitrile (PhCN) and methanol (MeOH) was studied by means of microcalorimetry, UV and NMR spectroscopies, and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. The inclusion of solvent molecules (including acetonitrile, MeCN) in the calixarene hydrophobic cavity was also investigated. The classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the systems studied were carried out. By combining the results obtained using the mentioned experimental and computational techniques, an attempt was made to get an as detailed insight into the complexation reactions as possible. The thermodynamic parameters, that is, equilibrium constants, reaction Gibbs energies, enthalpies, and entropies, of the investigated processes were determined and discussed. The stability constants of the 1:1 (metal:ligand) complexes measured by different methods were in very good agreement. Solution Gibbs energies of the ligand and its complexes with Na(+) and K(+) in methanol and acetonitrile were determined. It was established that from the thermodynamic point of view, apart from cation solvation, the most important reason for the huge difference in the stability of these complexes in the two solvents lay in the fact that the transfer of complex species from MeOH to MeCN was quite favorable. That could be at least partly explained by a more exergonic inclusion of the solvent molecule in the complexed calixarene cone in MeCN as compared to MeOH, which was supported by MD simulations. Molecular and crystal structures of the lithium cation complex of L with the benzonitrile molecule bound in the hydrophobic calixarene cavity were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As far as we are aware, for the first time the alkali-metal cation was found to be coordinated by the solvent nitrile group in a calixarene adduct. According to

  20. An efficient synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives with extended conjugation from L-Ascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Biswajit K; Bisht, Surendra S; Tripathi, Rama P

    2006-01-01

    Background Tetramic acids with polyenyl substituents are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry. Both solid and solution phase syntheses of such molecules have been reported recently. Thiolactomycin, a clinical candidate for treatment of tuberculosis has led to further explorations in this class. We have recently developed an efficient synthesis of tetramic acids derivatives from L- ascorbic acid. In continuation of this work, we have synthesised dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. Results 5,6-O-Isopropylidene-ascorbic acid on reaction with DBU led to the formation of tetronolactonyl allyl alcohol, which on oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave the respective tetranolactonyl allylic aldehydes. Wittig olefination followed by reaction of the resulting tetranolactonyl dienyl esters with different amines resulted in the respective 5-hydroxy lactams. Subsequent dehydration of the hydroxy lactams with p-toluene sulphonic acid afforded the dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. All reactions were performed at ambient temperature and the yields are good. Conclusion An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of dienyl tetramic acid derivatives from inexpensive and easily accessible ascorbic acid has been developed. The compounds bear structural similarities to the tetramic acid based polyenic antibiotics and thus this method offers a new and short route for the synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives of biological significance. PMID:17147830

  1. An efficient synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives with extended conjugation from L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Biswajit K; Bisht, Surendra S; Tripathi, Rama P

    2006-12-06

    Tetramic acids with polyenyl substituents are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry. Both solid and solution phase syntheses of such molecules have been reported recently. Thiolactomycin, a clinical candidate for treatment of tuberculosis has led to further explorations in this class. We have recently developed an efficient synthesis of tetramic acids derivatives from L-ascorbic acid. In continuation of this work, we have synthesised dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. 5,6-O-isopropylidene-ascorbic acid on reaction with DBU led to the formation of tetronolactonyl allyl alcohol, which on oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave the respective tetranolactonyl allylic aldehydes. Wittig olefination followed by reaction of the resulting tetranolactonyl dienyl esters with different amines resulted in the respective 5-hydroxy lactams. Subsequent dehydration of the hydroxy lactams with p-toluene sulphonic acid afforded the dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. All reactions were performed at ambient temperature and the yields are good. An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of dienyl tetramic acid derivatives from inexpensive and easily accessible ascorbic acid has been developed. The compounds bear structural similarities to the tetramic acid based polyenic antibiotics and thus this method offers a new and short route for the synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives of biological significance.

  2. Boronic acid-tethered amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivative-based nanoassemblies for tumor targeting and penetration.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Young; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Song Yi; Lee, Jae-Young; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Ko, Seung-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Choe, Sunghwa; Kim, Dae-Duk; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2017-04-15

    (3-Aminomethylphenyl)boronic acid (AMPB)-installed hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE)-based nanoparticles (NPs), including manassantin B (MB), were fabricated for tumor-targeted delivery. The amine group of AMPB was conjugated to the carboxylic acid group of hyaluronic acid (HA) via amide bond formation, and synthesis was confirmed by spectroscopic methods. HACE-AMPB/MB NPs with a 239-nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and >90% drug encapsulation efficiency were fabricated. Exposed AMPB in the outer surface of HACE-AMPB NPs (in the aqueous environment) may react with sialic acid of cancer cells. The improved cellular accumulation efficiency, in vitro antitumor efficacy, and tumor penetration efficiency of HACE-AMPB/MB NPs, compared with HACE/MB NPs, in MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44 receptor-positive human breast adenocarcinoma cells) may be based on the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and phenylboronic acid-sialic acid interaction. Enhanced in vivo tumor targetability, infiltration efficiency, and antitumor efficacies of HACE-AMPB NPs, compared with HACE NPs, were observed in a MDA-MB-231 tumor-xenografted mouse model. In addition to passive tumor targeting (based on an enhanced permeability and retention effect) and active tumor targeting (interaction between HA and CD44 receptor), the phenylboronic acid-sialic acid interaction can play important roles in augmented tumor targeting and penetration of HACE-AMPB NPs. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: (3-Aminomethylphenyl)boronic acid (AMPB)-tethered hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE)-based nanoparticles (NPs), including manassantin B (MB), were fabricated and their tumor targeting and penetration efficiencies were assessed in MDA-MB-231 (CD44 receptor-positive human adenocarcinoma) tumor models. MB, which exhibited antitumor efficacies via the inhibition of angiogenesis and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, was entrapped in HACE-AMPB NPs in this study. Phenylboronic acid located in the outer surface

  3. Oleic acid-derived oleoylethanolamide: A nutritional science perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kate J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Shearer, Gregory C; West, Sheila G; Reddivari, Lavanya; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-07-01

    The fatty acid ethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid. OEA is synthesized from membrane glycerophospholipids and is a high-affinity agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α). Dietary intake of oleic acid elevates circulating levels of OEA in humans by increasing substrate availability for OEA biosynthesis. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial relationship between high-oleic acid diets and body composition, with emerging evidence to suggest OEA may mediate this response through modulation of lipid metabolism and energy intake. OEA exposure has been shown to stimulate fatty acid uptake, lipolysis, and β-oxidation, and also promote food intake control. Future research on high-oleic acid diets and body composition is warranted to confirm these outcomes and elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which oleic acid exerts its biological effects. These findings have significant practical implications, as the oleic acid-derived OEA molecule may be a promising therapeutic agent for weight management and obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Restored Plasma Anandamide and Endometrial Expression of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome by the Combination Use of Diane-35 and Metformin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Na; Feng, Xiaoye; Zhao, Zhiming; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yueming; Wang, Luning; Hao, Guimin

    2017-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and endocrinal disorder affecting a number of women of reproductive age. We aimed to reveal the correlation between the endocannabinoid system and PCOS, which may provide a new therapeutic target for PCOS treatment. Serum levels of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol andexpression of cannabinoid receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the endometrium were compared between women with PCOS and infertile women without PCOS, as well as women with PCOS before and after treatment with Diane-35 and metformin. Cannabinoid receptors and FAAH in the endometrium were stained using the immunohistochemical method. Results were analyzed by calculating integrated optical density. Plasma anandamide was increased significantly in women with PCOS compared with infertile women without PCOS. Treatment with Diane-35 and metformin reversed this increase in women with PCOS. No significant difference in 2-arachidonoylglycerol was observed between the infertile women with or without PCOS. The women with PCOS had lower endometrial expression of FAAH compared with infertile women without PCOS, whereas no significant difference in endometrial expression of cannabinoid receptors was observed between the women with PCOS and infertile women without PCOS. We found that after treatment with Diane-35 and metformin, FAAH expression tended toward a significant increase compared with women before the treatment. Endocannabinoid system may be involved in the progression of PCOS, and serum anandamide could serve as a potential biomarker of clinical diagnosis of PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal Structures of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Bound to the Carbamate Inhibitor URB597: Discovery of a Deacylating Water Molecule and Insight into Enzyme Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Mileni, Mauro; Kamtekar, Satwik; Wood, David C.; Benson, Timothy E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system regulates a wide range of physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional states. URB597 is one of the best characterized covalent inhibitors of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we report the structure of the FAAH-URB597 complex at 2.3 Å resolution. The structure provides insights into mechanistic details of enzyme inactivation and experimental evidence of a previously uncharacterized active site water molecule that likely is involved in substrate deacylation. This water molecule is part of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network, and is coordinated indirectly to residues lining the cytosolic port of the enzyme. In order to corroborate our hypothesis concerning the role of this water molecule in FAAH’s catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of FAAH conjugated to a urea-based inhibitor, PF-3845, to a higher resolution (2.4 Å) than previously reported. The higher resolution structure confirms the presence of the water molecule in a virtually identical location in the active site. Examination of the structures of serine hydrolases that are non-homologous to FAAH, such as elastase, trypsin, or chymotrypsin, shows a similarly positioned hydrolytic water molecule and suggest a functional convergence between the amidase signature enzymes and serine proteases. PMID:20493882

  6. Influence of sulfur oxidation state and steric bulk upon trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK) binding kinetics to carboxylesterases and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Nishi, Kosuke; Ying, Andy; Jones, Paul D.; Colvin, Michael E.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Carboxylesterases metabolize numerous exogenous and endogenous ester-containing compounds including the chemotherapeutic agent CPT-11, anti-influenza viral agent oseltamivir and many agrochemicals. Trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK)-containing compounds with a sulfur atom beta to the ketone moiety are some of the most potent carboxylesterase and amidase inhibitors identified to date. This study examined the effects of alkyl chain length (i.e., steric effects) and sulfur oxidation state upon TFK inhibitor potency (IC50) and binding kinetics (ki). The selective carboxylesterase inhibitor benzil was used as a non-TFK containing control. These effects were examined using two commercial esterases (porcine and rabbit liver esterase) and two human recombinant esterases (hCE-1 and hCE-2) as well as human recombinant fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In addition, the inhibition mechanism was examined using a combination of 1H NMR, X-ray crystallography and ab initio calculations. Overall, the data show that while sulfur oxidation state profoundly affects both inhibitor potency and binding kinetics, the steric effects dominate and override the contributions of sulfur oxidation. In addition, the data suggest that inclusion of a sulfur atom beta to the ketone contributes an increase (~5-fold) in inhibitor potency due to effects upon ketone hydration and/or intramolecular hydrogen bond formation. These results provide further information on the nature of the TFK binding interaction and will be useful in increasing our understanding of this basic biochemical process. PMID:18023188

  7. Crystal structure of fatty acid amide hydrolase bound to the carbamate inhibitor URB597: discovery of a deacylating water molecule and insight into enzyme inactivation.

    PubMed

    Mileni, Mauro; Kamtekar, Satwik; Wood, David C; Benson, Timothy E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stevens, Raymond C

    2010-07-23

    The endocannabinoid system regulates a wide range of physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional states. URB597 is one of the best characterized covalent inhibitors of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we report the structure of the FAAH-URB597 complex at 2.3 A resolution. The structure provides insights into mechanistic details of enzyme inactivation and experimental evidence of a previously uncharacterized active site water molecule that likely is involved in substrate deacylation. This water molecule is part of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network and is coordinated indirectly to residues lining the cytosolic port of the enzyme. In order to corroborate our hypothesis concerning the role of this water molecule in FAAH's catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of FAAH conjugated to a urea-based inhibitor, PF-3845, to a higher resolution (2.4 A) than previously reported. The higher-resolution structure confirms the presence of the water molecule in a virtually identical location in the active site. Examination of the structures of serine hydrolases that are non-homologous to FAAH, such as elastase, trypsin, or chymotrypsin, shows a similarly positioned hydrolytic water molecule and suggests a functional convergence between the amidase signature enzymes and serine proteases. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 3-Nitroasterric Acid Derivatives from an Antarctic Sponge-Derived Pseudogymnoascus sp. Fungus.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Luis; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Areche, Carlos; Chávez, Renato; Henríquez, Marlene; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Díaz, Caridad; Segade, Yuri; Vaca, Inmaculada

    2015-04-24

    Four new nitroasterric acid derivatives, pseudogymnoascins A-C (1-3) and 3-nitroasterric acid (4), along with the two known compounds questin and pyriculamide, were obtained from the cultures of a Pseudogymnoascus sp. fungus isolated from an Antarctic marine sponge belonging to the genus Hymeniacidon. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR and MS analyses. These compounds are the first nitro derivatives of the known fungal metabolite asterric acid. Several asterric acid derivatives isolated from other fungal strains have shown antibacterial and antifungal activities. However, the new compounds described in this work were inactive against a panel of bacteria and fungi (MIC > 64 μg/mL).

  9. Cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics - current use and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gunia-Krzyżak, Agnieszka; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Popiół, Justyna; Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Marona, Henryk; Pękala, Elżbieta

    2018-06-05

    Cinnamic acid derivatives are widely used in cosmetics and possess various functions. This group of compounds includes both naturally occurring as well as synthetic substances. On the basis of the Cosmetic Ingredient Database (CosIng) and available literature, this review summarizes their functions in cosmetics, including their physicochemical and biological properties as well as reported adverse effects. A perfuming function is typical of many derivatives of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, dihydrocinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamic acid itself; these substances are commonly used in cosmetics all over the world. Some of them show allergic and photoallergic potential, resulting in restrictions in maximum concentrations and/or a requirement to indicate the presence of some substances in the list of ingredients when their concentrations exceed certain fixed values in a cosmetic product. Another important function of cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics is UV protection. Ester derivatives such as ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (octinoxate), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamte (amiloxiate), octocrylene, and cinoxate are used in cosmetics all over the world as UV filters. However, their maximum concentrations in cosmetic products are restricted due to their adverse effects, which include contact and a photocontact allergies, phototoxic contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis, estrogenic modulation, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Other rarely utilized functions of cinnamic acid derivatives are as an antioxidant, in skin conditioning, hair conditioning, as a tonic, and in antimicrobial activities. Moreover, some currently investigated natural and synthetic derivatives of cinnamic acid have shown skin lightening and anti-aging properties. Some of them may become new cosmetic ingredients in the future. In particular, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, which is currently indexed as a skin-conditioning cosmetics ingredient, has been widely tested in vitro and in vivo as a new drug candidate

  10. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited.

    PubMed

    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P

    2018-01-15

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P.

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR).

  12. Suppression of acute and anticipatory nausea by peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor in animal models: role of PPARα and CB1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Petrie, Gavin N; Angelini, Roberto; Piomelli, Daniele; Parker, Linda A

    2017-11-01

    Effective treatments of nausea are limited. In this study we evaluated the ability of the peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB937, to suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in rats and examined the pharmacological mechanism of this effect. We investigated the potential of URB937 (administered i.p.) to reduce the establishment of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (model of acute nausea) and to reduce the expression of contextually-elicited conditioned gaping (model of anticipatory nausea) in rats. The role of CB 1 receptors, CB 2 receptors and PPARα in the anti-nausea effect of URB937 was examined. The potential of URB937 to suppress FAAH activity in tissue collected from the area postrema (AP), prefrontal cortex (PFC), liver and duodenum and to elevate levels of FAAH substrates - anandamide (AEA), N-oleoylethanolamide (OEO) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) - in the AP was also evaluated. URB937 reduced acute nausea by a PPARα-dependent mechanism and reduced anticipatory nausea by a CB 1 receptor-dependent mechanism. The PPARα agonist, GW7647, similarly attenuated acute nausea. URB937 reduced FAAH activity in the liver and the duodenum but not in the PFC. In addition, URB937 reduced FAAH activity and elevated levels of fatty-acid ethanolamides in the AP, a brain region that is not protected by the blood-brain barrier. The anti-nausea action of URB937 may occur in the AP and may involve PPARα to suppress acute nausea and CB 1 receptors to suppress anticipatory nausea. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Recognition of the folded conformation of plant hormone (auxin, IAA) conjugates with glutamic and aspartic acids and their amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolić, S.; Kveder, M.; Klaić, B.; Magnus, V.; Kojić-Prodić, B.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular structure of the endogenous plant hormone (auxin) conjugate, N-(indol-3-ylacetyl)-L-glutamic acid, is deduced by comparison with N2-(indol-3-ylacetyl)glutamine (IAA-Gln), N2-(indol-3-ylacetyl)asparagine (IAA-Asn) and N-(indol-3-ylacetyl)-L-aspartic acid using X-ray structure analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy (NOE measurements) and molecular modelling. The significance of the overall molecular shape, and of the resulting amphiphilic properties, of the compounds studied are discussed in terms of possible implications for trafficking between cell compartments. Both in the solid state and in solution, the molecules are in the hair-pin (folded) conformation in which the side chain is folded over the indole ring. While extended conformations can be detected by molecular dynamics simulations, they are so short-lived that any major influence on the biological properties of the compounds studied is unlikely.

  14. A 2:1 co-crystal of 2-methyl-benzoic acid and N,N'-bis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)ethanedi-amide: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sabrina; Jotani, Mukesh M; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title 2:1 co-crystal, 2C8H8O2·C14H14N4O2, comprises an acid mol-ecule in a general position and half a di-amide mol-ecule, the latter being located about a centre of inversion. In the acid, the carb-oxy-lic acid group is twisted out of the plane of the benzene ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 28.51 (8)°] and the carbonyl O atom and methyl group lie approximately to the same side of the mol-ecule [hy-droxy-O-C-C-C(H) torsion angle = -27.92 (17)°]. In the di-amide, the central C4N2O2 core is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å), and the pyridyl rings are perpendicular, lying to either side of the central plane [central residue/pyridyl dihedral angle = 88.60 (5)°]. In the mol-ecular packing, three-mol-ecule aggregates are formed via hy-droxy-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonds. These are connected into a supra-molecular layer parallel to (12[Formula: see text]) via amide-N-H⋯O(carbon-yl) hydrogen bonds, as well as methyl-ene-C-H⋯O(amide) inter-actions. Significant π-π inter-actions occur between benzene/benzene, pyrid-yl/benzene and pyrid-yl/pyridyl rings within and between layers to consolidate the three-dimensional packing.

  15. A forward chemical screen in zebrafish identifies a retinoic acid derivative with receptor specificity.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhaskar C; McCartin, Kellie; Liu, Ting-Chun; Peterson, Randall T; Evans, Todd

    2010-04-02

    Retinoids regulate key developmental pathways throughout life, and have potential uses for differentiation therapy. It should be possible to identify novel retinoids by coupling new chemical reactions with screens using the zebrafish embryonic model. We synthesized novel retinoid analogues and derivatives by amide coupling, obtaining 80-92% yields. A small library of these compounds was screened for bioactivity in living zebrafish embryos. We found that several structurally related compounds significantly affect development. Distinct phenotypes are generated depending on time of exposure, and we characterize one compound (BT10) that produces specific cardiovascular defects when added 1 day post fertilization. When compared to retinoic acid (ATRA), BT10 shows similar but not identical changes in the expression pattern of embryonic genes that are known targets of the retinoid pathway. Reporter assays determined that BT10 interacts with all three RAR receptor sub-types, but has no activity for RXR receptors, at all concentrations tested. Our screen has identified a novel retinoid with specificity for retinoid receptors. This lead compound may be useful for manipulating components of retinoid signaling networks, and may be further derivatized for enhanced activity.

  16. A Novel Ellagic Acid Derivative from Desbordesia glaucescens.

    PubMed

    DongmoMafodong, Faustine L; Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Awouafack, Maurice D; Roland, Tchuenguem T; Dzoyem, Jean P; Tane, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    One novel ellagic acid derivative, desglauside (1), was isolated from the leaves of Desbordesia glaucescens together with three known compounds [3',4'-di-O-methylellagic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3) and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4)]. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and MS analysis, and by comparison with related published data. The crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds showed no activity against four yeast strains [Candida albicans (ATCC 9002), C. parapsilopsis (ATCC22019), C. tropicalis (ATCC750), Cryptococcus neoformans (IP95026) and one isolate of Candida guilliermondii].

  17. Cholic acid derivatives containing both 2-naphthylcarbamate and 3,5-dinitrophenylcarbamate groups: a combined circular dichroism-molecular mechanics approach to the definition of their molecular conformation.

    PubMed

    Alagona, Giuliano; Ghio, Caterina; Iuliano, Anna; Monti, Susanna; Pieraccini, Ilaria; Salvadori, Piero

    2003-04-18

    CD spectra of the chiral auxiliaries for enantioselective HPLC N-allyl-N'-methyl-3,12-bis(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxy-7-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (1), N-allyl-N'-methyl-3-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)carbamoyloxy-7,12-bis(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (2), N-allyl-N'-methyl-3,7-bis(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxy-12-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (3), and N-allyl-N'-methyl-3,7,12-tris(2-naphthyl)carbamoyloxycholan-24-amide (4) are presented. To determine the preferred conformations of those chiral auxiliaries, a random search based on the aromatic side-chain conformational degrees of freedom was performed and the energy was minimized using two different molecular mechanics force fields. The low energy structures presenting common features were arranged in groups and selected exploiting appropriate filters. The calculation of theoretical CD spectra according to the De Voe model has allowed a further discrimination among the conformations, specifying which of them gave calculated CD spectra in acceptable agreement with the experimental ones. Finally, taking into account the additivity of the contributions of each 2-naphthylcarbamate chromophore to the CD spectrum of the cholic acid derivatives, and, hence, choosing, for derivatives 1-3, those conformations in which the 2-naphthylcarbamate groups take a similar disposition as in 4, the preferentially assumed conformation of each compound was obtained. A molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of acetonitrile allowed the fluctuations of one of the structures, used as a test case, depending on environmental effects, to be examined.

  18. A new coruleoellagic acid derivative from stems of Rhodamnia dumetorum.

    PubMed

    Lakornwong, Waranya; Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej

    2018-07-01

    A new coruleoellagic acid derivative, 3,3',4,4',5'-pentamethylcoruleoellagic acid (1) together with nine known compounds, hexamethylcoruleoellagic acid (2), 3,4,3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (3), heptaphylline (4), 7-methoxymukonal (5), dentatin (6), sinapaldehyde (7), gallic acid (8), 2,6-dimethoxy-4H-pyran-4-one (9) and β-sitosterol (10) were isolated from the stems of Rhodamnia dumetorum. Their structures were identified by physical and spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and MS). Compounds 1, 2 and 7-10 were tested for antibacterial activity against six pathogenic bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA)).

  19. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-14

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  20. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  1. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  2. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  3. Aristolic Acid Derivatives from the Bark of Antidesma ghaesembilla.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sibylle; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    Antidesma ghaesembilla is an important medicinal and food plant in many Asian countries. Ten substances could be isolated from the dichloromethane and methanol extract: sitostenone ( 3 ), daucosterol ( 4 ), chavibetol ( 5 ), asperphenamate ( 6 ), protocatechuic acid ( 7 ), vanillic acid-4- O - β -D-glucoside ( 8 ), 1- O - β -D-glucopyranosyl-3- O -methyl-phloroglucinol ( 9 ), and aristolic acid II-8- O - β -D-glucoside ( 10 ), and two new aristolic acid derivatives, 10-amino-5,7-dimethoxy-aristolic acid II (= 6-amino-9,11-dimethoxyphenanthro[3,4- d ]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid; 1 ) and 5,7-dimethoxy-aristolochic acid II (= 9,11-dimethoxy-6-nitrophenantro[3,4- d ]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid; 2 ). Exposure to humans of some of these compounds is associated with a severe disease today known as aristolochic acid nephropathy. Therefore, the traditional usage of this plant has to be reconsidered carefully. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Derivatives of diphosphonic acids: synthesis and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhina, M. M.; Krutikov, V. I.; Lavrent'ev, A. N.

    1993-07-01

    The scientific-technical and patent literature on the synthesis of derivatives of diphosphonic acids is surveyed. Various methods of synthesis of diphosphonate, phosphonylphosphinyl, and phosphonophosphate compounds are described. The principal aspects of the use of the above compounds in medicine, biochemistry, and agriculture are examined. The bibliography includes 174 references.

  5. Development and optimisation of an HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-ToF method for the determination of phenolic acids and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Restivo, Annalaura; Degano, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2014-01-01

    A method for the HPLC-MS/MS analysis of phenols, including phenolic acids and naphtoquinones, using an amide-embedded phase column was developed and compared to the literature methods based on classical C18 stationary phase columns. RP-Amide is a recently developed polar embedded stationary phase, whose wetting properties mean that up to 100% water can be used as an eluent. The increased retention and selectivity for polar compounds and the possibility of working in 100% water conditions make this column particularly interesting for the HPLC analysis of phenolic acids and derivatives. In this study, the chromatographic separation was optimised on an HPLC-DAD, and was used to separate 13 standard phenolic acids and derivatives. The method was validated on an HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF. The acquisition was performed in negative polarity and MS/MS target mode. Ionisation conditions and acquisition parameters for the Q-ToF detector were investigated by working on collision energies and fragmentor potentials. The performance of the method was fully evaluated on standards. Moreover, several raw materials containing phenols were analysed: walnut, gall, wine, malbec grape, French oak, red henna and propolis. Our method allowed us to characterize the phenolic composition in a wide range of matrices and to highlight possible matrix effects.

  6. Development and Optimisation of an HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-ToF Method for the Determination of Phenolic Acids and Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Restivo, Annalaura; Degano, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2014-01-01

    A method for the HPLC-MS/MS analysis of phenols, including phenolic acids and naphtoquinones, using an amide-embedded phase column was developed and compared to the literature methods based on classical C18 stationary phase columns. RP-Amide is a recently developed polar embedded stationary phase, whose wetting properties mean that up to 100% water can be used as an eluent. The increased retention and selectivity for polar compounds and the possibility of working in 100% water conditions make this column particularly interesting for the HPLC analysis of phenolic acids and derivatives. In this study, the chromatographic separation was optimised on an HPLC-DAD, and was used to separate 13 standard phenolic acids and derivatives. The method was validated on an HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF. The acquisition was performed in negative polarity and MS/MS target mode. Ionisation conditions and acquisition parameters for the Q-ToF detector were investigated by working on collision energies and fragmentor potentials. The performance of the method was fully evaluated on standards. Moreover, several raw materials containing phenols were analysed: walnut, gall, wine, malbec grape, French oak, red henna and propolis. Our method allowed us to characterize the phenolic composition in a wide range of matrices and to highlight possible matrix effects. PMID:24551158

  7. Nonplanar tertiary amides in rigid chiral tricyclic dilactams. Peptide group distortions and vibrational optical activity.

    PubMed

    Pazderková, Markéta; Profant, Václav; Hodačová, Jana; Sebestík, Jaroslav; Pazderka, Tomáš; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Safařík, Martin; Buděšínský, Miloš; Tichý, Miloš; Bednárová, Lucie; Baumruk, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr

    2013-08-22

    We investigate amide nonplanarity in vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra of tricyclic spirodilactams 5,8-diazatricyclo[6,3,0,0(1,5)]undecan-4,9-dione (I) and its 6,6',7,7'-tetradeuterio derivative (II). These rigid molecules constrain amide groups to nonplanar geometries with twisted pyramidal arrangements of bonds to amide nitrogen atoms. We have collected a full range vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra including signals of C-H and C-D stretching vibrations. We report normal-mode analysis and a comparison of calculated to experimental VCD and ROA. The data provide band-to-band assignment and offer a possibility to evaluate roles of constrained nonplanar tertiary amide groups and rigid chiral skeletons. Nonplanarity shows as single-signed VCD and ROA amide I signals, prevailing the couplets expected to arise from the amide-amide interaction. Amide-amide coupling dominates amide II (mainly C'-N stretching, modified in tertiary amides by the absence of a N-H bond) transitions (strong couplet in VCD, no significant ROA) probably due to the close proximity of amide nitrogen atoms. At lower wavenumbers, ROA spectra exhibit another likely manifestation of amide nonplanarity, showing signals of amide V (δ(oop)(N-C) at ~570 cm(-1)) and amide VI (δ(oop)(C'═O) at ~700 cm(-1) and ~650 cm(-1)) vibrations.

  8. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  9. Benzoisothiazolone Organo/Copper-Cocatalyzed Redox Dehydrative Construction of Amides and Peptides from Carboxylic Acids using (EtO)3P as the Reductant and O2 in Air as the Terminal Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, Lanny S; Gangireddy, Pavankumar; Lindale, Matthew G

    2016-06-01

    Carboxylic acids and amine/amino acid reactants can be converted to amides and peptides at neutral pH within 5-36 h at 50 °C using catalytic quantities of a redox-active benzoisothiazolone and a copper complex. These catalytic "oxidation-reduction condensation" reactions are carried out open to dry air using O2 as the terminal oxidant and a slight excess of triethyl phosphite as the reductant. Triethyl phosphate is the easily removed byproduct. These simple-to-run catalytic reactions provide practical and economical procedures for the acylative construction of C-N bonds.

  10. Lysergic acid amide as chemical marker for the total ergot alkaloids in rye flour - Determination by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia

    2017-07-21

    Ergot alkaloids are generally determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) or mass selective detection, analyzing the individual compounds. However, fast and easy screening methods for the determination of the total ergot alkaloid content are more suitable, since for monitoring only the sum of the alkaloids is relevant. The herein presented screening uses lysergic acid amide (LSA) as chemical marker, formed from ergopeptine alkaloids, and ergometrine for the determination of the total ergot alkaloids in rye with high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). An ammonium acetate buffered extraction step was followed by liquid-liquid partition for clean-up before the ergopeptine alkaloids were selectively transformed to LSA and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD on silica gel with isopropyl acetate/methanol/water/25% ammonium hydroxide solution (80:10:3.8:1.1, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The enhanced native fluorescence of LSA and unaffected ergometrine was used for quantitation without any interfering matrix. Limits of detection and quantitation were 8 and 26μg LSA/kg rye, which enables the determination of the total ergot alkaloids far below the applied quality criterion limit for rye. Close to 100% recoveries for different rye flours at relevant spiking levels were obtained. Thus, reliable results were guaranteed, and the fast and efficient screening for the total ergot alkaloids in rye offers a rapid alternative to the HPLC analysis of the individual compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of novel, selective fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacyglycerol lipase (MAGL) or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors to suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models.

    PubMed

    Parker, Linda A; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Rock, Erin M; Sticht, Martin A; Ward, Jordan; Turvey, Greig; Benchama, Othman; Rajarshi, Girija; Wood, JodiAnne T; Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2016-06-01

    Drugs that block fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, which elevates anandamide [AEA]) and drugs which block monoacylglycerol (MAGL, which elevates 2-arachidonyl glycerol [2-AG]) have promise in treating both acute and anticipatory nausea in human patients. This study aims to evaluate the relative effectiveness of dual MAGL/FAAH inhibition with either alone to reduce acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models. AM4302, a new dual MAGL/FAAH inhibitor, was compared with a new selective MAGL inhibitor, AM4301, and new selective FAAH inhibitor, AM4303, for their potential to reduce acute nausea (gaping in taste reactivity) and anticipatory nausea (contextually elicited conditioned gaping) in two rat models. Our in vitro studies indicate that AM4302 blocks human and rat FAAH: IC50 60 and 31 nM, respectively, with comparable potencies against human MAGL (IC50 41 nM) and rat MAGL (IC50 200 nM). AM4301 selectively blocks human and rat MAGL (IC50 8.9 and 36 nM, respectively), while AM4303 selectively inhibits human and rat FAAH (IC50 2 and 1.9 nM), respectively. Our in vivo studies show that the MAGL inhibitor, AM4301, suppressed acute nausea in a CB1-mediated manner, when delivered systemically or into the interoceptive insular cortex. Although the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor, AM4302, was equally effective as the FAAH inhibitor or MAGL inhibitor in reducing acute nausea, it was more effective than both in suppressing anticipatory nausea. Dual FAAH and MAGL inhibition with AM4302 may be an especially effective treatment for the very difficult to treat symptom of anticipatory nausea.

  12. A comparison of novel, selective fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacyglycerol lipase (MAGL) or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors to suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models

    PubMed Central

    Limebeer, Cheryl L.; Rock, Erin M.; Sticht, Martin A.; Ward, Jordan; Turvey, Greig; Benchama, Othman; Rajarshi, Girija; Wood, JodiAnne T.; Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Drugs that block fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, which elevates anandamide [AEA]) and drugs which block monoacylglycerol (MAGL, which elevates 2-arachidonyl glycerol [2-AG]) have promise in treating both acute and anticipatory nausea in human patients. Objective This study aims to evaluate the relative effectiveness of dual MAGL/FAAH inhibition with either alone to reduce acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models. Materials and methods AM4302, a new dual MAGL/FAAH inhibitor, was compared with a new selective MAGL inhibitor, AM4301, and new selective FAAH inhibitor, AM4303, for their potential to reduce acute nausea (gaping in taste reactivity) and anticipatory nausea (contextually elicited conditioned gaping) in two rat models. Results Our in vitro studies indicate that AM4302 blocks human and rat FAAH: IC50 60 and 31 nM, respectively, with comparable potencies against human MAGL (IC50 41 nM) and rat MAGL (IC50 200 nM). AM4301 selectively blocks human and rat MAGL (IC50 8.9 and 36 nM, respectively), while AM4303 selectively inhibits human and rat FAAH (IC50 2 and 1.9 nM), respectively. Our in vivo studies show that the MAGL inhibitor, AM4301, suppressed acute nausea in a CB1-mediated manner, when delivered systemically or into the interoceptive insular cortex. Although the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor, AM4302, was equally effective as the FAAH inhibitor or MAGL inhibitor in reducing acute nausea, it was more effective than both in suppressing anticipatory nausea. Conclusions Dual FAAH and MAGL inhibition with AM4302 may be an especially effective treatment for the very difficult to treat symptom of anticipatory nausea. PMID:27048155

  13. Pharmacological blockade of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) alters neural proliferation, apoptosis and gliosis in the rat hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum in a negative energy context

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Patricia; Bindila, Laura; Pastor, Antoni; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; de la Torre, Rafael; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids participate in the control of neurogenesis, neural cell death and gliosis. The pharmacological effect of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which limits the endocannabinoid degradation, was investigated in the present study. Cell proliferation (phospho-H3+ or BrdU+ cells) of the main adult neurogenic zones as well as apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3+), astroglia (GFAP+), and microglia (Iba1+ cells) were analyzed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum of rats intraperitoneally treated with URB597 (0.3 mg/kg/day) at one dose/4-days resting or 5 doses (1 dose/day). Repeated URB597 treatment increased the plasma levels of the N-acylethanolamines oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide and arachidonoylethanolamine, reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, and induced a transitory body weight decrease. The hippocampi of repeated URB597-treated rats showed a reduced number of phospho-H3+ and BrdU+ subgranular cells as well as GFAP+, Iba1+ and cleaved caspase-3+ cells, which was accompanied with decreased hippocampal expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene Cnr1 and Faah. In the hypothalami of these rats, the number of phospho-H3+, GFAP+ and 3-weeks-old BrdU+ cells was specifically decreased. The reduced striatal expression of CB1 receptor in repeated URB597-treated rats was only associated with a reduced apoptosis. In contrast, the striatum of acute URB597-treated rats showed an increased number of subventricular proliferative, astroglial and apoptotic cells, which was accompanied with increased Faah expression. Main results indicated that FAAH inhibitor URB597 decreased neural proliferation, glia and apoptosis in a brain region-dependent manner, which were coupled to local changes in Faah and/or Cnr1 expression and a negative energy context. PMID:25870539

  14. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor Treatment in Men With Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: An Adaptive Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; van Till, J W Olivier; Houbiers, Jos G A; Martina, Reynaldo V; Cerneus, Dirk P; Melis, Joost H J M; Majek, Antoni; Vjaters, Egils; Urban, Michael; Ramonas, Henrikas; Shoskes, Daniel A; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-05-01

    To examine the effect of a peripherally active fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor ASP3652 on safety and efficacy outcomes in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Inhibition of FAAH is hypothesized to reduce the excitability of urinary tract afferents including nociceptors. In this adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, adult male patients with moderate to severe CP/CPPS were treated for 12 weeks with an oral dose of ASP3652 (25, 75, 150, or 300 mg twice daily, or 300 mg once daily), or placebo. A Bayesian model was used for adaptive prospective modeling of randomization, study continuation decisions, and analysis of the efficacy variables. The study was stopped for futility at preplanned interim analysis when 239 patients were randomized (226 were included in the intention-to-treat set): the 25 mg group showed the largest reduction of the primary end point National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total score (7.0 points), but the placebo group showed a mean reduction of 7.3 points (difference: 0.3 [95% confidence interval: -1.9, 2.6]). Micturition outcomes improved compared with placebo in all ASP3652 groups; for example, in the 300 mg twice daily group, voiding frequency decreased by -1.10 (95% CI: -2.0, -0.2) voids/24 hours vs placebo. Safety outcomes were comparable across the treatment groups. ASP3652 was generally safe and well-tolerated. It did not show efficacy on pain symptoms in patients with CP/CPPS. However, the results indicate that FAAH inhibition may attenuate lower urinary tract symptoms. Dedicated studies in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction are needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of URB597 as an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase on WIN55, 212-2-induced learning and memory deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Teimuri Far, Massoud

    2015-04-01

    Cannabinoid and endocannabinoid systems have been implicated in several physiological functions including modulation of cognition. In this study we evaluated the effects and interaction between fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 and CB1 receptor agonist WIN55, 212-2 on memory using object recognition and passive avoidance learning (PAL) tests. Learning and memory impairment was induced by WIN 55, 212-2 administration (1mg/kg, i.p.) 30min before the acquisition trial. URB597 (0.1, 0.3 and 1mg/kg, i.p.) or SR141716A (1mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to rats 10min before WIN 55, 212-2 or URB597 respectively. URB597 (0.3 and 1mg/kg) but not 0.1mg/kg induced higher discrimination index (DI) in object recognition test and enhanced memory acquisition in PAL test. The cognitive enhancing effect of URB597 was blocked by a CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A which at this dose alone had no effect on cognition. WIN55, 212-2 caused cognition deficits in both tests. URB597 (0.3 and 1mg/kg) treatment could alleviate the negative influence of WIN 55, 212-2 on cognition and memory. These results indicate URB597 potential to protect against memory deficits induced by cannabinoid. Therefore, in combination with URB597 beneficial effects, this study suggests that URB597 has recognition and acquisition memory enhancing effects. It may also constitute a novel approach for the treatment of cannabinoid induced memory deficits and lead to a better understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a component in the manufacture of food-grade additives in accordance with the following prescribed... component in the manufacture of other food-grade additives. (d) To assure safe use of the additive, the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172...

  17. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fibers as Efficient Heterogeneous Solid Acid Catalysts for Esterification of Oleic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Shiba P.; Hood, Zachary D.; Gallego, Nidia C.

    Here, the production of biodiesel by the esterification of oleic acid, as an example of free fatty acid (FFA), was explored by using a new solid acid catalyst derived from lignin, a highly abundant low-cost biomass material. The catalyst was synthesized from lignin-derived carbon fiber by straightforward sulfonation and contains 1.86 mmol/g of sulfonic acid (-SO 3H) groups. The catalyst was characterized by a variety of techniques including PXRD, TGA, TPD-MS, SEM, and XPS to understand the surface chemistry and the result of sulfonation. It was found that the sulfonated lignin-derived carbon fiber (CF-SO 3H) catalyst was very efficient atmore » esterifying oleic acid at 80 oC in 4 hours, with 10 wt. % catalyst (in terms of oleic acid content) and at a 10:1 molar ratio of methanol: oleic acid with a yield of 92%. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused with no significant loss in activity after 4 cycles. Hence, synthesizing solid acid catalysts from lignin-derived carbon fiber affords a novel strategy for producing biodiesel via ‘green chemistry’.« less

  18. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fibers as Efficient Heterogeneous Solid Acid Catalysts for Esterification of Oleic Acid

    DOE PAGES

    Adhikari, Shiba P.; Hood, Zachary D.; Gallego, Nidia C.; ...

    2018-06-04

    Here, the production of biodiesel by the esterification of oleic acid, as an example of free fatty acid (FFA), was explored by using a new solid acid catalyst derived from lignin, a highly abundant low-cost biomass material. The catalyst was synthesized from lignin-derived carbon fiber by straightforward sulfonation and contains 1.86 mmol/g of sulfonic acid (-SO 3H) groups. The catalyst was characterized by a variety of techniques including PXRD, TGA, TPD-MS, SEM, and XPS to understand the surface chemistry and the result of sulfonation. It was found that the sulfonated lignin-derived carbon fiber (CF-SO 3H) catalyst was very efficient atmore » esterifying oleic acid at 80 oC in 4 hours, with 10 wt. % catalyst (in terms of oleic acid content) and at a 10:1 molar ratio of methanol: oleic acid with a yield of 92%. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused with no significant loss in activity after 4 cycles. Hence, synthesizing solid acid catalysts from lignin-derived carbon fiber affords a novel strategy for producing biodiesel via ‘green chemistry’.« less

  19. Crystal engineering: co-crystals of cinnamic acid derivatives with a pyridyl derivative co-crystallizer.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Daniel A; Forrest, Sebastian J K; Sparkes, Hazel A

    2016-02-01

    A number of hydrogen-bonded co-crystals, consisting of a cinnamic acid derivative and a pyridyl co-crystallizer, have been synthesized and their properties investigated by X-ray diffraction. Samples were prepared by recrystallization or solvent drop grinding of trans-cinnamic acid (1), 4-methylcinnamic acid (2), 4-methoxy cinnamic acid (3) or 3,4-methoxy cinnamic acid (4), with 4,4-dipyridyl (A), iso-nicotinamide (B) or nicotinamide (C). The X-ray single-crystal structures of seven novel co-crystals, obtained through recrystallization, are examined and the hydrogen-bonding interactions discussed. Consistent hydrogen-bonding motifs were observed for samples prepared when using 4,4-dipyridyl (A) or iso-nicotinamide (B) as the co-crystallizing agent. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis of the samples prepared by solvent drop grinding suggests the formation of ten co-crystals.

  20. Mimics of pramanicin derived from pyroglutamic acid and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song Wei Benjamin; Chai, Christina L L; Moloney, Mark G

    2017-02-22

    Mono and dihydroxypyrrolidinones are readily available by direct oxygenation of a pyroglutamate-derived bicyclic lactam with high diastereoselectivity, and these may be manipulated further in protected or unprotected form by Grignard addition to a pendant Weinreb amide to give acylhydroxypyrrolidinones, which are analogues of the natural product, pramanicin. Preliminary bioassay against S. aureus and E. coli indicated that some compounds exhibit selective Gram-negative antibacterial activity, and may offer promise for the development of novel systems suitable for antibacterial drug development.

  1. Cellular Inhibition of Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) and Potentiation of Camptothecins and Radiation by the Novel Chk2 Inhibitor PV1019 [7-Nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl}-amide

    SciTech Connect

    Jobson, Andrew G.; Lountos, George T.; Lorenzi, Philip L.

    2010-04-05

    Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated pathway, which is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage, leading to either cell death (apoptosis) or cell cycle arrest. Chk2 provides an unexplored therapeutic target against cancer cells. We recently reported 4,4'-diacetyldiphenylurea-bis(guanylhydrazone) (NSC 109555) as a novel chemotype Chk2 inhibitor. We have now synthesized a derivative of NSC 109555, PV1019 (NSC 744039) [7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {l_brace}4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-amide], which is a selective submicromolar inhibitor of Chk2 in vitro. The cocrystal structure of PV1019 bound in the ATP binding pocket of Chk2 confirmed enzymatic/biochemical observations that PV1019 acts as a competitive inhibitormore » of Chk2 with respect to ATP. PV1019 was found to inhibit Chk2 in cells. It inhibits Chk2 autophosphorylation (which represents the cellular kinase activation of Chk2), Cdc25C phosphorylation, and HDMX degradation in response to DNA damage. PV1019 also protects normal mouse thymocytes against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and it shows synergistic antiproliferative activity with topotecan, camptothecin, and radiation in human tumor cell lines. We also show that PV1019 and Chk2 small interfering RNAs can exert antiproliferative activity themselves in the cancer cells with high Chk2 expression in the NCI-60 screen. These data indicate that PV1019 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Chk2 with chemotherapeutic and radiosensitization potential.« less

  2. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Catalytic amino acid production from biomass-derived intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Weiping; Wang, Yunzhu; Zhang, Sui

    Amino acids are the building blocks for protein biosynthesis and find use in myriad industrial applications including in food for humans, in animal feed, and as precursors for bio-based plastics, among others. However, the development of efficient chemical methods to convert abundant and renewable feedstocks into amino acids has been largely unsuccessful to date. To that end, here we report a heterogeneous catalyst that directly transforms lignocellulosic biomass-derived a-hydroxyl acids into a-amino acids, including alanine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid, and phenylalanine in high yields. The reaction follows a dehydrogenation-reductive amination pathway, with dehydrogenation as the rate-determining step. Ruthenium nanoparticles supportedmore » on carbon nanotubes (Ru/CNT) exhibit exceptional efficiency compared with catalysts based on other metals, due to the unique, reversible enhancement effect of NH 3 on Ru in dehydrogenation. Based on the catalytic system, a two-step chemical process was designed to convert glucose into alanine in 43% yield, comparable with the well-established microbial cultivation process, and therefore, the present strategy enables a route for the production of amino acids from renewable feedstocks. Moreover, a conceptual process design employing membrane distillation to facilitate product purification is proposed and validated. Overall, this study offers a rapid and potentially more efficient chemical method to produce amino acids from woody biomass components.« less

  4. Catalytic amino acid production from biomass-derived intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiping; Zhang, Sui; Gupta, Krishna M.; Hülsey, Max J.; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Liu, Lingmei; Han, Yu; Karp, Eric M.; Jiang, Jianwen; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Wang, Ye

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks for protein biosynthesis and find use in myriad industrial applications including in food for humans, in animal feed, and as precursors for bio-based plastics, among others. However, the development of efficient chemical methods to convert abundant and renewable feedstocks into amino acids has been largely unsuccessful to date. To that end, here we report a heterogeneous catalyst that directly transforms lignocellulosic biomass-derived α-hydroxyl acids into α-amino acids, including alanine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid, and phenylalanine in high yields. The reaction follows a dehydrogenation-reductive amination pathway, with dehydrogenation as the rate-determining step. Ruthenium nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Ru/CNT) exhibit exceptional efficiency compared with catalysts based on other metals, due to the unique, reversible enhancement effect of NH3 on Ru in dehydrogenation. Based on the catalytic system, a two-step chemical process was designed to convert glucose into alanine in 43% yield, comparable with the well-established microbial cultivation process, and therefore, the present strategy enables a route for the production of amino acids from renewable feedstocks. Moreover, a conceptual process design employing membrane distillation to facilitate product purification is proposed and validated. Overall, this study offers a rapid and potentially more efficient chemical method to produce amino acids from woody biomass components. PMID:29712826

  5. Catalytic amino acid production from biomass-derived intermediates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weiping; Wang, Yunzhu; Zhang, Sui; Gupta, Krishna M; Hülsey, Max J; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Liu, Lingmei; Han, Yu; Karp, Eric M; Beckham, Gregg T; Dyson, Paul J; Jiang, Jianwen; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Wang, Ye; Yan, Ning

    2018-05-15

    Amino acids are the building blocks for protein biosynthesis and find use in myriad industrial applications including in food for humans, in animal feed, and as precursors for bio-based plastics, among others. However, the development of efficient chemical methods to convert abundant and renewable feedstocks into amino acids has been largely unsuccessful to date. To that end, here we report a heterogeneous catalyst that directly transforms lignocellulosic biomass-derived α-hydroxyl acids into α-amino acids, including alanine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid, and phenylalanine in high yields. The reaction follows a dehydrogenation-reductive amination pathway, with dehydrogenation as the rate-determining step. Ruthenium nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Ru/CNT) exhibit exceptional efficiency compared with catalysts based on other metals, due to the unique, reversible enhancement effect of NH 3 on Ru in dehydrogenation. Based on the catalytic system, a two-step chemical process was designed to convert glucose into alanine in 43% yield, comparable with the well-established microbial cultivation process, and therefore, the present strategy enables a route for the production of amino acids from renewable feedstocks. Moreover, a conceptual process design employing membrane distillation to facilitate product purification is proposed and validated. Overall, this study offers a rapid and potentially more efficient chemical method to produce amino acids from woody biomass components. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Catalytic amino acid production from biomass-derived intermediates

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Weiping; Wang, Yunzhu; Zhang, Sui; ...

    2018-04-30

    Amino acids are the building blocks for protein biosynthesis and find use in myriad industrial applications including in food for humans, in animal feed, and as precursors for bio-based plastics, among others. However, the development of efficient chemical methods to convert abundant and renewable feedstocks into amino acids has been largely unsuccessful to date. To that end, here we report a heterogeneous catalyst that directly transforms lignocellulosic biomass-derived a-hydroxyl acids into a-amino acids, including alanine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid, and phenylalanine in high yields. The reaction follows a dehydrogenation-reductive amination pathway, with dehydrogenation as the rate-determining step. Ruthenium nanoparticles supportedmore » on carbon nanotubes (Ru/CNT) exhibit exceptional efficiency compared with catalysts based on other metals, due to the unique, reversible enhancement effect of NH 3 on Ru in dehydrogenation. Based on the catalytic system, a two-step chemical process was designed to convert glucose into alanine in 43% yield, comparable with the well-established microbial cultivation process, and therefore, the present strategy enables a route for the production of amino acids from renewable feedstocks. Moreover, a conceptual process design employing membrane distillation to facilitate product purification is proposed and validated. Overall, this study offers a rapid and potentially more efficient chemical method to produce amino acids from woody biomass components.« less

  7. Benzoylsalicylic acid derivatives as defense activators in tobacco and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kamatham, Samuel; Pallu, Reddanna; Pasupulati, Anil Kumar; Singh, Surya Satyanarayana; Gudipalli, Padmaja

    2017-11-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long lasting inducible whole plant immunity often induced by either pathogens or chemical elicitors. Salicylic acid (SA) is a known SAR signal against a broad spectrum of pathogens in plants. In a recent study, we have reported that benzoylsalicylic acid (BzSA) is a SAR inducer in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Here, we have synthesized BzSA derivatives using SA and benzoyl chlorides of various moieties as substrates. The chemical structures of BzSA derivatives were elucidated using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) and High-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) analysis. The bioefficacy of BzSA derivatives in inducing defense response against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was investigated in tobacco and SA abolished transgenic NahG Arabidopsis plants. Interestingly, pre-treatment of local leaves of tobacco with BzSA derivatives enhanced the expression of SAR genes such as NPR1 [Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes 1], PR and other defense marker genes (HSR203, SIPK, WIPK) in systemic leaves. Pre-treatment of BzSA derivatives reduced the spread of TMV infection to uninfected areas by restricting lesion number and diameter both in local and systemic leaves of tobacco in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, pre-treatment of BzSA derivatives in local leaves of SA deficient Arabidopsis NahG plants induced SAR through AtPR1 and AtPR5 gene expression and reduced leaf necrosis and curling symptoms in systemic leaves as compared to BzSA. These results suggest that BzSA derivatives are potent SAR inducers against TMV in tobacco and Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of alkynoic acids derivatives against mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Leung, Lawrence W.; Bittman, Robert; Jacobs, William R.

    2015-01-01

    2-alkynoic acids have bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis but their activity fall sharply as the length of the carbon chain increased. In this study, derivatives of 2- alkynoic acids were synthesized and tested against fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria. Their activity was first evaluated in M. smegmatis against their parental 2-alkynoic acids, as well as isoniazid, a first-line antituberculosis drug. The introduction of additional unsaturation or heteroatoms into the carbon chain enhanced the antimycobacterial activity of longer chain alkynoic acids (more than 19 carbons long). In contrast, although the modification of the carboxylic group did not improve the antimycobacterial activity, it significantly reduced the toxicity of the compounds against eukaryotic cells. Importantly, 4-(alkylthio)but-2-ynoic acids, had better bactericidal activity than the parental 2-alkynoic acids and on a par with isoniazid against the slow-grower Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These compounds had also low toxicity against eukaryotic cells, suggesting that they could be potential therapeutic agents against other types of topical mycobacterial infections causing skin diseases including Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and Mycobacterium leprae. Moreover, they provide a possible scaffold for future drug development. PMID:26256431

  9. Quantification of acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived streams

    DOE PAGES

    Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Deutch, Steve; ...

    2016-05-10

    Biomass-derived streams that contain acidic compounds from the degradation of lignin and polysaccharides (e.g. black liquor, pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic lignin, etc.) are chemically complex solutions prone to instability and degradation during analysis, making quantification of compounds within them challenging. Here we present a robust analytical method to quantify acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived mixtures using ion exchange, sample reconstitution in pyridine and derivatization with BSTFA. The procedure is based on an earlier method originally reported for kraft black liquors and, in this work, is applied to identify and quantify a large slate of acidic compounds in corn stover derived alkalinemore » pretreatment liquor (APL) as a function of pretreatment severity. Analysis of the samples is conducted with GCxGC-TOFMS to achieve good resolution of the components within the complex mixture. The results reveal the dominant low molecular weight components and their concentrations as a function of pretreatment severity. Application of this method is also demonstrated in the context of lignin conversion technologies by applying it to track the microbial conversion of an APL substrate. Here as well excellent results are achieved, and the appearance and disappearance of compounds is observed in agreement with the known metabolic pathways of two bacteria, indicating the sample integrity was maintained throughout analysis. Finally, it is shown that this method applies more generally to lignin-rich materials by demonstrating its usefulness in analysis of pyrolysis oil and pyrolytic lignin.« less

  10. Citric-Acid-Derived Photo-cross-Linked Biodegradable Elastomers

    PubMed Central

    Gyawali, Dipendra; Tran, Richard T.; Guleserian, Kristine J.; Tang, Liping; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Citric-acid-derived thermally cross-linked biodegradable elastomers (CABEs) have recently received significant attention in various biomedical applications, including tissue-engineering orthopedic devices, bioimaging and implant coatings. However, citric-acid-derived photo-cross-linked biodegradable elastomers are rarely reported. Herein, we report a novel photo-cross-linked biodegradable elastomer, referred to as poly(octamethylene maleate citrate) (POMC), which preserves pendant hydroxyl and carboxylic functionalities after cross-linking for the potential conjugation of biologically active molecules. POMC is a low-molecular-mass pre-polymer with a molecular mass average between 701 and 1291 Da. POMC networks are soft and elastic with an initial modulus of 0.07 to 1.3 MPa and an elongation at break between 38 and 382%. FT-IR–ATR results confirmed the successful surface immobilization of type-I collagen onto POMC films, which enhanced in vitro cellular attachment and proliferation. Photo-polymerized POMC films implanted subcutaneously into Sprague–Dawley rats demonstrated minimal in vivo inflammatory responses. The development of POMC enriches the family of citric-acid-derived biodegradable elastomers and expands the available biodegradable polymers for versatile needs in biomedical applications. PMID:20557687

  11. Direct amide formation using radiofrequency heating.

    PubMed

    Houlding, Thomas K; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Rahman, Md Taifur; Rebrov, Evgeny V

    2013-07-07

    We present a simple method for direct and solvent-free formation of amides from carboxylic acids and amines using radiofrequency heating. The direct energy coupling of the AC magnetic field via nickel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles enables fast and controllable heating, as well as enabling facile work-up via magnetic separation.

  12. Three amino acid derivatives of valproic acid: design, synthesis, theoretical and experimental evaluation as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Luna-Palencia, Gabriela R; Martinez-Ramos, Federico; Vasquez-Moctezuma, Ismael; Fragoso-Vazquez, Manuel Jonathan; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I; Sixto-Lopez, Yudibeth; Mendez-Luna, David; Trujillo-Ferrara, Jose; Meraz-Rios, Marco A; Fonseca-Sabater, Yadira; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is extensively used as an anticonvulsive agent and as a treatment for other neurological disorders. It has been shown that VPA exerts an anti-proliferative effect on several types of cancer cells by inhibiting the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are involved in replication and differentiation processes. However, VPA has some disadvantages, among which are poor water solubility and hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to design and synthesize three derivatives of VPA to improve its physicochemical properties and anti-proliferative effects. For this purpose, the amino acids aspartic acid, glutamic acid and proline were added to the molecular structure of VPA. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the mode of recognition of these three derivatives by different conformations of HDAC8. This receptor was used as the specific target because of its high affinity for this type of substrate. The results demonstrate that, compared to VPA, the test compounds bind to different sites on the enzyme and that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions play key roles in this difference. The IC50 values of the VPA derivatives, experimentally determined using HeLa cells, were in the mM range. This result indicates that the derivatives have greater antiproliferative effects than the parent compound. Hence, these results suggest that these amino acid derivatives may represent a good alternative for anticancer treatment.

  13. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and in vivo characterization of a series of 3-aminoazetidine-derived amides.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Bertron, Jeanette L; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-07-01

    This letter details the continued chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core by incorporating a 3-amino azetidine amide moiety. The analogs described within this work represent the most potent M 4 PAMs reported for this series to date. The SAR to address potency, clearance, subtype selectivity, CNS exposure, and P-gp efflux are described. This work culminated in the discovery of VU6000918, which demonstrated robust efficacy in a rat amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion reversal model at a minimum efficacious dose of 0.3mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Injectable gentamicin-loaded thermo-responsive hyaluronic acid derivative prevents infection in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Ter Boo, Gert-Jan A; Arens, Daniel; Metsemakers, Willem-Jan; Zeiter, Stephan; Richards, R Geoff; Grijpma, Dirk W; Eglin, David; Moriarty, T Fintan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the use of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, the surgical fixation of open fractures with osteosynthesis implants is associated with high infection rates. Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs) are increasingly used in implant surgeries across medical specialties to deliver high concentrations of antibiotics to the surgical site and reduce the risk of implant-associated infection. ALBs which are either less or not restricted in terms of spatial distribution and which may be applied throughout complex wounds could offer improved protection against infection in open fracture care. A thermo-responsive hyaluronic acid derivative (hyaluronic acid-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HApN)) was prepared by a direct amidation reaction between the tetrabutyl ammonium (TBA) salt of hyaluronic acid and amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pN). The degree of grafting, and gelation properties of this gel were characterized, and the composition was loaded with gentamicin. The rheological- and release properties of this gentamicin-loaded HApN composition were tested in vitro and its efficacy in preventing infection was tested in a rabbit model of osteosynthesis contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. The gentamicin-loaded HApN composition was able to prevent bacterial colonization of the implant site as shown by quantitative bacteriology. This finding was supported by histopathological evaluation of the humeri samples where no bacteria were found in the stained sections. In conclusion, this gentamicin-loaded HApN hydrogel effectively prevents infection in a complex wound, simulating a contaminated fracture treated with plating osteosynthesis. Fracture fixation after trauma is associated with high infection rates. Antibiotic loaded biomaterials (ALBs) can provide high local concentrations without systemic side effects. However, the currently available ALBs have limited accessibility to contaminated tissues in open fractures because of predetermined shape. Thus, a novel

  15. Salt forms of the pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is well known as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the study of polymorphism and the generation and comparison of cocrystal forms. The pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine (DCBZ) is a less well known material and is largely of interest here as a structural congener of CBZ. Reaction of DCBZ with strong acids results in protonation of the amide functionality at the O atom and gives the salt forms dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)}, dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O} and dihydrocarbamazepine hydrobromide monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium bromide monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Br(-)·H2O}. The anhydrous hydrochloride has a structure with two crystallographically independent ion pairs (Z' = 2), wherein both cations adopt syn conformations, whilst the two hydrated species are mutually isostructural and have cations with anti conformations. Compared to neutral dihydrocarbamazepine structures, protonation of the amide group is shown to cause changes to both the molecular (C=O bond lengthening and C-N bond shortening) and the supramolecular structures. The amide-to-amide and dimeric hydrogen-bonding motifs seen for neutral polymorphs and cocrystalline species are replaced here by one-dimensional polymeric constructs with no direct amide-to-amide bonds. The structures are also compared with, and shown to be closely related to, those of the salt forms of the structurally similar pharmaceutical carbamazepine.

  16. Conformation-Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy of the Amino Acid Glutamine: Amide-Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding in AN Important Residue in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; Dean, Jacob C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease (HD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). An intriguing aspect of the structure of glutamine is its incorporation of an amide group in its side chain, thereby opening up the possibility of forming amide-amide H-bonds between the peptide backbone and side chain. In this study the conformational preferences of two capped gluatamines Z(carboxybenzyl)-Glutamine-X (X=OH, NHMe) are studied under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase in order to unlock the intrinsic structural motifs that are favored by this flexible sidechain. Conformational assignments are made by comparing the hydride stretch ( 3100-3700 cm-1) and amide I and II ( 1400-1800 cm-1) resonant ion-dip infrared spectra with predictions from harmonic frequency calculations. Assigned structures will be compared to previously published results on both natural and unnatural residues. Particular emphasis will be placed on the comparison between glutamine and unconstrained γ-peptides due to the similar three-carbon spacing between backbone and side chain in glutamine to the backbone spacing in γ-peptides. The ability of the glutamine side-chain to form amide stacked conformations will be a main focus, along with the prevalence of extended backbone type structures. W. H. James, III, C W. Müller, E. G. Buchanan, M. G. D. Nix, L. Guo, L. Roskop, M. S. Gordon, L. V. Slipchenko, S. H. Gellman, and T. S. Zwier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131(40), 14243-14245.

  17. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Novel amide-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Dhar, T G Murali; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  19. Acylated apelin-13 amide analogues exhibit enzyme resistance and prolonged insulin releasing, glucose lowering and anorexic properties.

    PubMed

    O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R

    2017-12-15

    The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys 8 GluPAL(Tyr 13 )apelin-13 and Lys 8 GluPAL(Val 13 )apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro. pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was the most potent insulinotropic analogue in BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated islets with maximal stimulatory effects of up to 2.7-fold (p < .001). (Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (1.9-fold) and Lys 8 GluPAL(Tyr 13 )apelin-13 (1.7-fold) were less effective, whereas Lys 8 GluPAL(Val 13 )apelin-13 had an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Similarly, pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was most potent in increasing beta-cell intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations (1.8-fold, p < .001) and increasing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (2.3-fold, p < .01). Persistent biological action was observed with both pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide significantly reducing blood glucose (39-43%, p < .01) and enhancing insulin secretion (43-56%, p < .001) during glucose tolerance tests in diet-induced obese mice. pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide also inhibited feeding (28-40%, p < .001), whereas Lys 8 GluPAL(Val 13 )apelin-13 increased food intake (8%, p < .05) in mice. These data indicate that novel enzymatically stable analogues of apelin-13 may be suitable for future development as therapeutic agents for obesity-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Feng, Ling; Song, Zhi-Fang; Li, Hai-Bei; Huai, Qi-Yong

    2016-02-06

    A total of forty novel glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. The cytotoxic activity of the novel compounds was tested against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro by the MTT method. The evaluation results revealed that, in comparison with GA, compound 42 shows the most promising anticancer activity (IC50 1.88 ± 0.20 and 1.37 ± 0.18 µM for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively) and merits further exploration as a new anticancer agent.

  1. Arachidonic-acid-derived eicosanoids: roles in biology and immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Harizi, Hedi; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît; Gualde, Norbert

    2008-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids belong to a complex family of lipid mediators that regulate a wide variety of physiological responses and pathological processes. They are produced by various cell types through distinct enzymatic pathways and act on target cells via specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Although originally recognized for their capacity to elicit biological responses such as vascular homeostasis, protection of the gastric mucosa and platelet aggregation, eicosanoids are now understood to regulate immunopathological processes ranging from inflammatory responses to chronic tissue remodelling, cancer, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune disorders. Here, we review the major properties of eicosanoids and their expanding roles in biology and medicine.

  2. Esterification of fermentation-derived acids via pervaporation

    DOEpatents

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1998-03-03

    A low temperature method for esterifying ammonium- and amine-containing salts is provided whereby the salt is reacted with an alcohol in the presence of heat and a catalyst and then subjected to a dehydration and deamination process using pervaporation. The invention also provides for a method for producing esters of fermentation derived, organic acid salt comprising first cleaving the salt into its cationic part and anionic part, mixing the anionic part with an alcohol to create a mixture; heating the mixture in the presence of a catalyst to create an ester; dehydrating the now heated mixture; and separating the ester from the now-dehydrated mixture. 2 figs.

  3. Esterification of fermentation-derived acids via pervaporation

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Rathin; Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature method for esterifying ammonium- and amine-containing salts is provided whereby the salt is reacted with an alcohol in the presence of heat and a catalyst and then subjected to a dehydration and deamination process using pervaporation. The invention also provides for a method for producing esters of fermentation derived, organic acid salt comprising first cleaving the salt into its cationic part and anionic part, mixing the anionic part with an alcohol to create a mixture; heating the mixture in the presence of a catalyst to create an ester; dehydrating the now heated mixture; and separating the ester from the now-dehydrated mixture.

  4. Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.): receptor profiling of lysergic acid amide and other potential psychedelic LSD-like compounds by computational and binding assay approaches.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Achenbach, Janosch; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Elias, Anderson; Schwed, J Stefan; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Proschak, Ewgenij; Toennes, Stefan W; Stark, Holger

    2013-07-09

    The convolvulacea Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) is well known as an important medical plant in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine and it is used in numerous diseases (e.g. nervousness, bronchitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, and diabetes). Additionally, in the Indian state of Assam and in other regions Argyreia nervosa is part of the traditional tribal medicine (e.g. the Santali people, the Lodhas, and others). In the western hemisphere, Argyreia nervosa has been brought in attention as so called "legal high". In this context, the seeds are used as source of the psychoactive ergotalkaloid lysergic acid amide (LSA), which is considered as the main active ingredient. As the chemical structure of LSA is very similar to that of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), the seeds of Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) are often considered as natural substitute of LSD. In the present study, LSA and LSD have been compared concerning their potential pharmacological profiles based on the receptor binding affinities since our recent human study with four volunteers on p.o. application of Argyreia nervosa seeds has led to some ambiguous effects. In an initial step computer-aided in silico prediction models on receptor binding were employed to screen for serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, muscarine, and histamine receptor subtypes as potential targets for LSA. In addition, this screening was extended to accompany ergotalkaloids of Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.). In a verification step, selected LSA screening results were confirmed by in vitro binding assays with some extensions to LSD. In the in silico model LSA exhibited the highest affinity with a pKi of about 8.0 at α1A, and α1B. Clear affinity with pKi>7 was predicted for 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT6, 5-HT7, and D2. From these receptors the 5-HT1D subtype exhibited the highest pKi with 7.98 in the prediction model. From the other ergotalkaloids, agroclavine and festuclavine also seemed to be highly affine to the 5-HT1D

  5. Pyrrolidinones derived from (S)-pyroglutamic acid: penmacric acid and analogues.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammed; Bailey, Jonathan H; Dickinson, Laura C; Edwards, Hermia J; Goswami, Rajesh; Moloney, Mark G

    2003-07-07

    Alkylation reactions using alpha-halolactams or lactam enolates derived from bicyclic lactam templates can proceed with high endo- or exo- diastereoselectivity respectively. In the latter case, stereochemical correction by means of enolate generation and hindered phenol quench is possible with moderate efficiency. This protocol has been applied to the synthesis of protected penmacric acid and its analogues.

  6. Biosynthesis and function of simple amides in Xenorhabdus doucetiae.

    PubMed

    Bode, Edna; He, Yue; Vo, Tien Duy; Schultz, Roland; Kaiser, Marcel; Bode, Helge B

    2017-11-01

    Xenorhabdus doucetiae, the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema diaprepesi produces several different fatty acid amides. Their biosynthesis has been studied using a combination of analysis of gene deletions and promoter exchanges in X. doucetiae and heterologous expression of candidate genes in E. coli. While a decarboxylase is required for the formation of all observed phenylethylamides and tryptamides, the acyltransferase XrdE encoded in the xenorhabdin biosynthesis gene cluster is responsible for the formation of short chain acyl amides. Additionally, new, long-chain and cytotoxic acyl amides were identified in X. doucetiae infected insects and when X. doucetiae was grown in Galleria Instant Broth (GIB). When the bioactivity of selected amides was tested, a quorum sensing modulating activity was observed for the short chain acyl amides against the two different quorum sensing systems from Chromobacterium and Janthinobacterium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new higher amino acid Schiff base derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir (nee Güngör), Özlem; Gürkan, Perihan; Özçelik, Berrin; Oyardı, Özlem

    2016-02-01

    Novel β-lactam derivatives (1c-3c) (1d-3d) were produced by using 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) and the higher amino acid Schiff bases. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H/13C NMR and UV-vis spectra. Antibacterial activities of all the higher amino acid Schiff bases (1a-3a) (1b-3b) and β-lactam derivatives were screened against three gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Acinetobacter baumannii RSKK 02026), three gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 07005, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and their drug-resistant isolates by using broth microdilution method. Two fungi (Candida albicans and Candida krusei) were used for antifungal activity.

  13. Derivatives of xanthic acid are novel antioxidants: application to synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Lauderback, Christopher M; Drake, Jennifer; Zhou, Daohong; Hackett, Janna M; Castegna, Alessandra; Kanski, Jaroslaw; Tsoras, Maria; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-04-01

    Xanthic acids have long been known to act as reducing agents. Recently, D609, a tricyclodecanol derivative of xanthic acid, has been reported to have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties that are attributed to specific inhibition of phosphatidyl choline phospholipase C (PC-PLC). However, because oxidative stress is involved in both of these cellular responses, the possibility that xanthates may act as antioxidants was investigated in the current study. Finding that xanthates efficiently scavenge hydroxyl radicals, the mechanism by which D609 and other xanthate derivatives may protect against oxidative damage was further examined. The xanthates studied, especially D609, mimic glutathione (GSH). Xanthates scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, form disulfide bonds (dixanthogens), and react with electrophilic products of lipid oxidation (acrolein) in a manner similar to GSH. Further, upon disulfide formation, dixanthogens are reduced by glutathione reductase to a redox active xanthate. Supporting its role as an antioxidant, D609 significantly (p < 0.01) reduces free radical-induced changes in synaptosomal lipid peroxidation (TBARs), protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), and protein conformation. Thus, in addition to inhibitory effects on PC-PLC, D609 may prevent cellular apoptotic and inflammatory cascades by acting as antioxidants and novel GSH mimics. These results are discussed with reference to potential therapeutic application of D609 in oxidative stress conditions.

  14. Synthesis and cholinesterase inhibition of cativic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alza, Natalia P; Richmond, Victoria; Baier, Carlos J; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo; Murray, Ana Paula

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with memory impairment and cognitive deficit. Most of the drugs currently available for the treatment of AD are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. In a preliminary study, significant AChE inhibition was observed for the ethanolic extract of Grindelia ventanensis (IC₅₀=0.79 mg/mL). This result prompted us to isolate the active constituent, a normal labdane diterpenoid identified as 17-hydroxycativic acid (1), through a bioassay guided fractionation. Taking into account that 1 showed moderate inhibition of AChE (IC₅₀=21.1 μM), selectivity over butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (IC₅₀=171.1 μM) and that it was easily obtained from the plant extract in a very good yield (0.15% w/w), we decided to prepare semisynthetic derivatives of this natural diterpenoid through simple structural modifications. A set of twenty new cativic acid derivatives (3-6) was prepared from 1 through transformations on the carboxylic group at C-15, introducing a C2-C6 linker and a tertiary amine group. They were tested for their inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE and some structure-activity relationships were outlined. The most active derivative was compound 3c, with an IC₅₀ value of 3.2 μM for AChE. Enzyme kinetic studies and docking modeling revealed that this inhibitor targeted both the catalytic active site and the peripheral anionic site of this enzyme. Furthermore, 3c showed significant inhibition of AChE activity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, and was non-cytotoxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adipic acid production catalyzed by a combination of a solid acid and an iodide salt from biomass-derived tetrahydrofuran-2,5-dicarboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkey, Matthew J.; Balakumar, Rachana; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    We recently reported biomass-derived tetrahydrofuran-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (THFDCA) as a potential renewable feedstock for adipic acid (AA) production by combining HI and molecular H 2 in organic acid solvents.

  16. Adipic acid production catalyzed by a combination of a solid acid and an iodide salt from biomass-derived tetrahydrofuran-2,5-dicarboxylic acid

    DOE PAGES

    Gilkey, Matthew J.; Balakumar, Rachana; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; ...

    2018-01-01

    We recently reported biomass-derived tetrahydrofuran-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (THFDCA) as a potential renewable feedstock for adipic acid (AA) production by combining HI and molecular H 2 in organic acid solvents.

  17. Polyacrylic acid polymer brushes as substrates for the incorporation of anthraquinone derivatives. Unprecedented application of decorated polymer brushes on organocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Muelle, Ana Belén; Contreras-Cáceres, Rafael; Oña-Burgos, Pascual; Rodríguez-Dieguez, Antonio; López-Romero, Juan Manuel; Fernández, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of amino-terminated anthraquinone derivatives and their incorporation onto polymer brushes for the fabrication of silicon-based nanometric functional coatings are described for the first time. The general process involves the covalent grafting of anthraquinone 1 onto two different polymer-brushes by amidation reactions. They are composed by amino- and carboxy-terminated poly(acrylic acid) chains (PAA-NH2- and PAA-COOH, respectively) tethered by one end to an underlying silicon oxide (SiO2) substrate in a polymer brush configuration. A third substrate is fabricated by UV induced hydrosilylation reaction using undecenoic acid as adsorbate on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces. One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), FT-IR, MS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize anthraquinone 1. Ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrated the presence of the polymer brushes on the silicon wafers, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study its surface morphology. The covalent linkage between anthraquinone and polymer brushes was proven by XPS and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The resulting surfaces were assayed in the heterogenous organocatalytic transformation of (1H)-indole into 3-benzyl indole with moderate yields but with high recyclability.

  18. Cocrystal screening of hydroxybenzamides with benzoic acid derivatives: a comparative study of thermal and solution-based methods.

    PubMed

    Manin, Alex N; Voronin, Alexander P; Drozd, Ksenia V; Manin, Nikolay G; Bauer-Brandl, Annette; Perlovich, German L

    2014-12-18

    The main problem occurring at the early stages of cocrystal search is the choice of an effective screening technique. Among the most popular techniques of obtaining cocrystals are crystallization from solution, crystallization from melt and solvent-drop grinding. This paper represents a comparative analysis of the following screening techniques: DSC cocrystal screening method, thermal microscopy and saturation temperature method. The efficiency of different techniques of cocrystal screening was checked in 18 systems. Benzamide and benzoic acid derivatives were chosen as model systems due to their ability to form acid-amide supramolecular heterosynthon. The screening has confirmed the formation of 6 new cocrystals. The screening by the saturation temperature method has the highest screen-out rate but the smallest range of application. DSC screening has a satisfactory accuracy and allows screening over a short time. Thermal microscopy is most efficient as an additional technique used to interpret ambiguous DSC screening results. The study also included an analysis of the influence of solvent type and component solubility on cocrystal formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

  20. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney. PMID:26485038

  1. Nine of 16 stereoisomeric polyhydroxylated proline amides are potent β-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Benjamin J; Glawar, Andreas F G; Martínez, R Fernando; Ngo, Nigel; Liu, Zilei; Fleet, George W J; Butters, Terry D; Nash, Robert J; Yu, Chu-Yi; Wormald, Mark R; Nakagawa, Shinpei; Adachi, Isao; Kato, Atsushi; Jenkinson, Sarah F

    2014-04-18

    All 16 stereoisomeric N-methyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyproline amides have been synthesized from lactones accessible from the enantiomers of glucuronolactone. Nine stereoisomers, including all eight with a (3R)-hydroxyl configuration, are low to submicromolar inhibitors of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. A structural correlation between the proline amides is found with the ADMDP-acetamide analogues bearing an acetamidomethylpyrrolidine motif. The proline amides are generally more potent than their ADMDP-acetamide equivalents. β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase inhibition by an azetidine ADMDP-acetamide analogue is compared to an azetidine carboxylic acid amide. None of the amides are good α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase inhibitors.

  2. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cajaninstilbene Acid and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei-Yan; Lin, Jing; Lu, Kuo; Xu, Hong-Gui; Geng, Zhi-Zhong; Sun, Ping-Hua; Chen, Wei-Min

    2016-04-13

    Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) is one of the active components isolated from pigeon pea leaves. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of CSA and its synthesized derivatives were fully valued with regard to their activities on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro cell model, as well as their impacts on the migration of neutrophils and macrophages in fluorescent protein labeled zebrafish larvae model by live image analysis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this type of compounds was clarified by western-blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that CSA, as well as its synthesized derivatives 5c, 5e and 5h, exhibited strong inhibition activity on the release of NO and inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. CSA and 5c greatly inhibited the migration of neutrophils and macrophages in injury zebrafish larvae. CSA and 5c treatment greatly inhibited the phosphorylation of proteins involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Moreover, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) inhibitor GW9662 could reverse partly the roles of CSA and 5c, and CSA and 5c treatment greatly resist the decrease of PPARγ mRNA and protein induced by LPS stimulation. Our results identified the promising anti-inflammatory effects of CSA and its derivatives, which may serve as valuable anti-inflammatory lead compound. Additionally, the mechanism studies demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of CSA and its derivative is associated with the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK pathways, relying partly on resisting the LPS-induced decrease of PPARγ through improving its expression.

  5. meso-Dihydroguaiaretic acid derivatives with antibacterial and antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Melo, Karen; García, Abraham; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; Garza-González, Elvira; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica M; Miranda, Luis D; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Camacho-Corona, María Del Rayo

    2017-10-15

    Thirty-three meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (meso-DGA) derivatives bearing esters, ethers, and amino-ethers were synthesized. All derivatives were tested against twelve drug-resistant clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including sensitive (H37Rv) and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Among the tested compounds, four esters (7, 11, 13, and 17), one ether (23), and three amino-ethers (30, 31, and 33) exhibited moderate activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, whereas 30 and 31 showed better results than levofloxacin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Additionally, nineteen meso-DGA derivatives displayed moderate to potent activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 3.125 to 50µg/mL. Seven meso-DGA derivatives bearing amino-ethers (26-31 and 33) exhibited the lowest MICs against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and G122 strains, with 31 being as potent as ethambutol (MICs of 3.125 and 6.25µg/mL). The presence of positively charged group precursors possessing steric and hydrophobic features (e.g. N-ethylpiperidine moieties in meso-31) resulted essential to significantly increase the antimycobacterial properties of parent meso-DGA as supported by the R-group pharmacophoric and field-based QSAR analyses. To investigate the safety profile of the antimycobacterial compounds, cytotoxicity on Vero cells was determined. The amino-ether 31 exhibited a selectivity index value of 23, which indicate it was more toxic to M. tuberculosis than to mammalian cells. Therefore, 31 can be considered as a promising antitubercular agent for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  7. Three new amino acid derivatives from edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Jie; Feng, Bao-Min; Chen, Shao-Fei; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2017-12-01

    Three new amino acid derivatives, oxalamido-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (1), oxalamido-L-leucine methyl ester (2), and lumichrome hydrolyzate (3), together with nine known compounds (4-12), were isolated from the solid culture of edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by the chiral synthesis and confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) analysis of their total synthesis products and natural isolates. All new compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activities, and cytotoxic activity. Compounds 1-3 showed weak antifungal activities against Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 500 μg/ml.

  8. N-Acyl derivatives of Asn, new bacterial N-acyl D-amino acids with surfactant activity.

    PubMed

    Peypoux, F; Laprévote, O; Pagadoy, M; Wallach, J

    2004-03-01

    New N-acyl D-amino acids were isolated from Bacillus pumilus IM 1801. Their structures were determined by chemical analysis and mass spectrometry. The lipid part was identified as a mixture of fatty acids with 11, 12, 13, 15, and 16 carbon atoms in the iso, anteiso or n configuration linked by an amide bond with a D-asparagine. They exhibited surfactant properties.

  9. Amino derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid as potential inhibitors of cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Lucas, Susana Dias; Sommerwerk, Sven; Csuk, René

    2014-07-01

    The development of remedies against the Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the biggest challenges in medicinal chemistry nowadays. Although not completely understood, there are several strategies fighting this disease or at least bringing some relief. During the progress of AD, the level of acetylcholine (ACh) decreases; hence, a therapy using inhibitors should be of some benefit to the patients. Drugs presently used for the treatment of AD inhibit the two ACh controlling enzymes, acetylcholinesterase as well as butyrylcholinesterase; hence, the design of selective inhibitors is called for. Glycyrrhetinic acid seems to be an interesting starting point for the development of selective inhibitors. Although its glycon, glycyrrhetinic acid is known for being an AChE activator, several derivatives, altered in position C-3 and C-30, exhibited remarkable inhibition constants in micro-molar range. Furthermore, five representative compounds were subjected to three more enzyme assays (on carbonic anhydrase II, papain and the lipase from Candida antarctica) to gain information about the selectivity of the compounds in comparison to other enzymes. In addition, photometric sulforhodamine B assays using murine embryonic fibroblasts (NiH 3T3) were performed to study the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Two derivatives, bearing either a 1,3-diaminopropyl or a 1H-benzotriazolyl residue, showed a BChE selective inhibition in the single-digit micro-molar range without being cytotoxic up to 30μM. In silico molecular docking studies on the active sites of AChE and BChE were performed to gain a molecular insight into the mode of action of these compounds and to explain the pronounced selectivity for BChE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Titanocene(III)-Catalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Secondary Amides, Aldehydes, and Electrophilic Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; He, Jiang; Li, Heng-Hui; Wang, Ao; Dai, Xi-Jie; Wang, Ai-E; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2015-11-09

    An umpolung Mannich-type reaction of secondary amides, aliphatic aldehydes, and electrophilic alkenes has been disclosed. This reaction features the one-pot formation of C-N and C-C bonds by a titanocene-catalyzed radical coupling of the condensation products, from secondary amides and aldehydes, with electrophilic alkenes. N-substituted γ-amido-acid derivatives and γ-amido ketones can be efficiently prepared by the current method. Extension to the reaction between ketoamides and electrophilic alkenes allows rapid assembly of piperidine skeletons with α-amino quaternary carbon centers. Its synthetic utility has been demonstrated by a facile construction of the tricyclic core of marine alkaloids such as cylindricine C and polycitorol A. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Stability of Medium-Bridged Twisted Amides in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Szostak, Michal; Yao, Lei; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    “Twisted” amides containing non-standard dihedral angles are typically hypersensitive to hydrolysis, a feature that has stringently limited their utility in water. We have synthesized a series of bridged lactams that contain a twisted amide linkage but which exhibit enhanced stability in aqueous environments. Many of these compounds were extracted unchanged from aqueous mixtures ranging from the strongly basic to the strongly acidic. NMR experiments showed that tricyclic lactams undergo reversible hydrolysis at extreme pH ranges, but that a number of compounds in this structure class are indefinitely stable under physiologically relevant pH conditions; one bicyclic example was additionally water-soluble. We examined the effect of structure on the reversibility of amide bond hydrolysis, which we attributed to the transannular nature of the amino acid analogs. These data suggest that medium-bridged lactams of these types should provide useful platforms for studying the behavior of twisted amides in aqueous systems. PMID:19178141

  12. Functional nucleic acid entrapment in sol-gel derived materials.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, Carmen; Brennan, John D

    2013-10-01

    Functional nucleic acids (FNAs) are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules, typically generated through in vitro selection, that have the ability to act as receptors for target molecules (aptamers) or perform catalysis of a chemical reaction (deoxyribozymes and ribozymes). Fluorescence-signaling aptamers and deoxyribozymes have recently emerged as promising biological recognition and signaling elements, although little has been done to evaluate their potential for solid-phase assays, particularly with species made of RNA due to their lack of chemical stability and susceptibility to nuclease attack. Herein, we present a detailed overview of the methods utilized for solid-phase immobilization of FNAs using a sol-gel entrapment method that can provide protection from nuclease degradation and impart long-term chemical stability to the FNA reporter systems, while maintaining their signaling capabilities. This article will also provide a brief review of the results of such entrapment studies involving fluorescence-signaling versions of a DNA aptamer, selected RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes, and two different RNA aptamers in a series of sol-gel derived composites, ranging from highly polar silica to hydrophobic methylsilsesquioxane-based materials. Given the ability to produce sol-gel derived materials in a variety of configurations, particularly as thin film coatings on electrodes, optical fibers, and other devices, this entrapment method should provide a useful platform for numerous solid-phase FNA-based biosensing applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Efficient Amide-Aldehyde-Alkene Condensation: Synthesis for the N-Allyl Amides.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xi-Cun

    2016-02-01

    The allylamine skeleton represents a significant class of biologically active nitrogen compounds that are found in various natural products and drugs with well-recognized pharmacological properties. In this personal account, we will briefly discuss the synthesis of allylamine skeletons. We will focus on showing a general protocol for Lewis acid-catalyzed N-allylation of electron-poor N-heterocyclic amides and sulfonamide via an amide-aldehyde-alkene condensation reaction. The substrate scope with respect to N-heterocyclic amides, aldehydes, and alkenes will be discussed. This method is also capable of preparing the Naftifine motif from N-methyl-1-naphthamide or methyl (naphthalene-1-ylmethyl)carbamate, with paraformaldehyde and styrene in a one-pot manner. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Antioxidant and prooxidant nature of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ferulic and caffeic acids.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2010-12-01

    Dietary polyphenols are beneficial to human health by exerting various biological effects. Ferulic and caffeic acids are hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives widely distributed in plant-derived food products. Studies indicate that some dietary compounds may have concentration-dependent antioxidant or prooxidant activities. The present study concerns such activities of ferulic and caffeic acids. They have concentration-dependent antioxidant effects in terms of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species-scavenging after 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride-induced damage in mouse liver microsomes and splenic lymphocytes respectively. They also show differential scavenging of nitric oxide, superoxide and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS*(+)). In DPPH (1,1-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl) assay above 20 μM the absorbance start increasing due to the formation of an unknown adduct which has a shoulder at 517 nm. However, in Fenton reaction, above 5 μM, they behave as prooxidants and the possible mechanisms responsible for their prooxidant property may be related to their ferric reducing ability. These findings may have significant health implications where these natural compounds are being used/consumed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorogenic acid versus amaranth's caffeoylisocitric acid - Gut microbial degradation of caffeic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Maren; Schröter, David; Esders, Selma; Neugart, Susanne; Farquharson, Freda M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Schreiner, Monika; Louis, Petra; Maul, Ronald; Rohn, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    The almost forgotten crop amaranth has gained renewed interest in recent years due to its immense nutritive potential. Health beneficial effects of certain plants are often attributed to secondary plant metabolites such as phenolic compounds. As these compounds undergo significant metabolism after consumption and are in most cases not absorbed very well, it is important to gain knowledge about absorption, biotransformation, and further metabolism in the human body. Whilst being hardly found in other edible plants, caffeoylisocitric acid represents the most abundant low molecular weight phenolic compound in many leafy amaranth species. Given that this may be a potentially bioactive compound, gastrointestinal microbial degradation of this substance was investigated in the present study by performing in vitro fermentation tests using three different fecal samples as inocula. The (phenolic) metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were carried out to study the influence on the microbiome and its composition. The in vitro fermentations led to different metabolite profiles depending on the specific donor. For example, the metabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was observed in one fermentation as the main metabolite, whereas 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was identified in the other fermentations as important. A significant change in selected microorganisms of the gut microbiota however was not detected. In conclusion, caffeoylisocitric acid from amaranth, which is a source of several esterified phenolic acids in addition to chlorogenic acid, can be metabolized by the human gut microbiota, but the metabolites produced vary between individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of bis-thiourea having amino acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, Imran; Yamin, Bohari M.; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2016-11-01

    In this article four new symmetric bis-thiourea derivatives having amino acid linkers were reported with good yield. Isophthaloyl dichloride was used as spacer and L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, L-phenylalanine and L-glutamic acid were used as linkers. Bis-thiourea derivatives were prepared from relatively stable isophthaloyl isothiocyanate intermediate. Newly synthesized bis-thiourea derivatives were characterized by FTIR, H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CHNS-O elemental analysis techniques. Characterization data was in good agreement with the expected derivatives, hence confirmed the synthesis of four new derivatives of bis-thiourea having amino acids.

  17. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting under...

  2. Amides in Nature and Biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Julia; Steiner, Kerstin

    2016-10-10

    Amides are widespread in biologically active compounds with a broad range of applications in biotechnology, agriculture and medicine. Therefore, as alternative to chemical synthesis the biocatalytic amide synthesis is a very interesting field of research. As usual, Nature can serve as guide in the quest for novel biocatalysts. Several mechanisms for carboxylate activation involving mainly acyl-adenylate, acyl-phosphate or acyl-enzyme intermediates have been discovered, but also completely different pathways to amides are found. In addition to ribosomes, selected enzymes of almost all main enzyme classes are able to synthesize amides. In this review we give an overview about amide synthesis in Nature, as well as biotechnological applications of these enzymes. Moreover, several examples of biocatalytic amide synthesis are given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  8. Synthesis of a novel biologically active amide ester of 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecanoic acid (DOD) using lipase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) are known to have industrial potential because of their special properties such as high viscosity and reactivity. Among the hydroxy fatty acids, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) was successfully produced from oleic acid and lipid containing oleic acid by a bacter...

  9. Amides of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with thiomorpholine can yield hypolipidemic agents with improved anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Kourti, Malamati; Gavalas, Antonios; Rekka, Eleni A

    2016-02-01

    Novel amides of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), α-lipoic acid and indole-3-acetic acid with thiomorpholine were synthesised by a simple method and at high yields (60-92%). All the NSAID derivatives highly decreased lipidemic indices in the plasma of Triton treated hyperlipidemic rats. The most potent compound was the indomethacin derivative, which decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol by 73%, 80% and 83%, respectively. They reduced acute inflammation equally or more than most parent acids. Hence, it could be concluded that amides of common NSAIDs with thiomorpholine acquire considerable hypolipidemic potency, while they preserve or augment their anti-inflammatory activity, thus addressing significant risk factors for atherogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid sensitizes hepatocarcinoma cells to artemisinin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liping; Pang, Yilin; Qin, Guiqi; Xi, Gaina; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and artesunate (ARS), two artemisinin derivatives, have efficacious anticancer activities against human hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells. This study aims to study the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), a Ras inhibitor, in HCC cells (Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines). FTS pretreatment significantly enhanced DHA/ARS-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, Bak/Bax activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-8 and -9 activations, characteristics of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. Pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK (caspase-8 inhibitor) potently prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS, and pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) significantly inhibited the loss of ΔΨm induced by DHA/ARS treatment or the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS in HCC cells. Furthermore, silencing Bak/Bax modestly but significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS. Interestingly, pretreatment with an antioxidant N-Acetyle-Cysteine (NAC) significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS instead of the combination treatment of ARS and FTS, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) played a key role in the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS. Similar to FTS, DHA/ARS also significantly prevented Ras activation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that FTS potently sensitizes Huh-7 and HepG2 cells to artemisinin derivatives via accelerating the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:28182780

  11. Ascorbic acid derivatives as a new class of antiproliferative molecules.

    PubMed

    Bordignon, Benoit; Chiron, Julien; Fontés, Michel

    2013-09-28

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has long been described as an antiproliferative agent. However, the molecule has to be used at a very high concentrations, which necessitates i.v. injection, and the tight regulation of in-blood and in-cell AA concentrations making it impossible to hold very high concentrations for any substantial length of time. Here we report evidence that AA derivates are antiproliferative and cytotoxic molecules at an IC50 lower than AA itself. Among these new molecules, we selected K873 that has cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on different human tumor cells at tenth micromolar concentration. In a further step, we demonstrated that K873 selectively to kills only cancer cells without being toxic for normal non-dividing (or poorly dividing) cells. Finally, we tested the effect of treatment with K873 (5-10 mg/kg/d by i.p. route) on tumor progression in xenografted immunodeficient mice (BALB/c Nude). Our data suggest that K873 administration strongly inhibits tumor progression. In a previous study using microarrays, we demonstrated that AA decreases the expression of two genes families involved in cell cycle progression, i.e. initiation factor of translation and tRNA synthetases. Here we show that K873 treatment also decreases the expression of four of these genes in xenografted tumors, in proportions similar to that previously observed with AA. Taken together, our data suggest that AA and K873 share similar action. Our findings suggest that AA derivatives could be a promising new class of anti-cancer drugs, either alone or in combination with other molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 simultaneously to modulate colonic motility and visceral sensation in the mouse: A pharmacological intervention with N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT).

    PubMed

    Bashashati, M; Fichna, J; Piscitelli, F; Capasso, R; Izzo, A A; Sibaev, A; Timmermans, J-P; Cenac, N; Vergnolle, N; Di Marzo, V; Storr, M

    2017-12-01

    Endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) inhibits intestinal motility and visceral pain, but it may also be proalgesic through transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). AEA is degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). This study explored whether dual inhibition of FAAH and TRPV1 reduces diarrhea and abdominal pain. Immunostaining was performed on myenteric plexus of the mouse colon. The effects of the dual FAAH/TRPV1 inhibitor AA-5-HT on electrically induced contractility, excitatory junction potential (EJP) and fast (f) and slow (s) inhibitory junction potentials (IJP) in the mouse colon, colonic propulsion and visceromotor response (VMR) to rectal distension were studied. The colonic levels of endocannabinoids and fatty acid amides were measured. CB1-positive neurons exhibited TRPV1; only some TRPV1 positive neurons did not express CB1. CB1 and FAAH did not colocalize. AA-5-HT (100 nM-10 μM) decreased colonic contractility by ~60%; this effect was abolished by TRPV1 antagonist 5'-IRTX, but not by CB1 antagonist, SR141716. AA-5-HT (1 μM-10 μM) inhibited EJP by ~30% and IJPs by ~50%. The effects of AA-5-HT on junction potentials were reversed by SR141716 and 5`-IRTX. AA-5-HT (20 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited colonic propulsion by ~30%; SR141716 but not 5`-IRTX reversed this effect. AA-5-HT decreased VMR by ~50%-60%; these effects were not blocked by SR141716 or 5`-IRTX. AA-5-HT increased AEA in the colon. The effects of AA-5-HT on visceral sensation and colonic motility are differentially mediated by CB1, TRPV1 and non-CB1/TRPV1 mechanisms, possibly reflecting the distinct neuromodulatory roles of endocannabinoid and endovanilloid FAAH substrates in the mouse intestine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  14. Discovery of novel N-(5-(arylcarbonyl)thiazol-2-yl)amides and N-(5-(arylcarbonyl)thiophen-2-yl)amides as potent RORγt inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonghui; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Guifeng; Yang, Ting; Liu, Qian; Cheng, Yaobang; Zhou, Ling; Ma, Yingli; Cheng, Ziqiang; Lu, Sijie; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Zhijun; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Qianqian; Orband-Miller, Lisa A; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Ruina; Huxdorf, Melanie; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Zhong, Zhong; Elliott, John D; Leung, Stewart; Lin, Xichen

    2014-01-15

    Novel series of N-(5-(arylcarbonyl)thiazol-2-yl)amides and N-(5-(arylcarbonyl)thiophen-2-yl)amides were discovered as potent retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-gamma-t (RORγt) inhibitors. SAR studies of the RORγt HTS hit 6a led to identification of thiazole ketone amide 8h and thiophene ketone amide 9g with high binding affinity and inhibitory activity of Th17 cell differentiation. Compound 8h showed in vivo efficacy in both mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and collagen induced arthritis (CIA) models via oral administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Atypical cleavage of protonated N-fatty acyl amino acids derived from aspartic acid evidenced by sequential MS3 experiments.

    PubMed

    Boukerche, Toufik Taalibi; Alves, Sandra; Le Faouder, Pauline; Warnet, Anna; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bouchekara, Mohamed; Belbachir, Mohammed; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Lipidomics calls for information on detected lipids and conjugates whose structural elucidation by mass spectrometry requires to rationalization of their gas phase dissociations toward collision-induced dissociation (CID) processes. This study focused on activated dissociations of two lipoamino acid (LAA) systems composed of N-palmitoyl acyl coupled with aspartic and glutamic acid mono ethyl esters (as LAA (*D) and LAA (*E) ). Although in MS/MS, their CID spectra show similar trends, e.g., release of water and ethanol, the [(LAA (*D/*E) +H)-C 2 H 5 OH] + product ions dissociate via distinct pathways in sequential MS 3 experiments. The formation of all the product ions is rationalized by charge-promoted cleavages often involving stepwise processes with ion isomerization into ion-dipole prior to dissociation. The latter explains the maleic anhydride or ketene neutral losses from N-palmitoyl acyl aspartate and glutamate anhydride fragment ions, respectively. Consequently, protonated palmitoyl acid amide is generated from LAA (*D), whereas LAA (*E) leads to the [*E+H-H 2 O] + anhydride. The former releases ammonia to provide acylium, which gives the C n H (2n-1) and C n H (2n-3) carbenium series. This should offer structural information, e.g., to locate either unsaturation(s) or alkyl group branching present on the various fatty acyl moieties of lipo-aspartic acid in further studies based on MS n experiments.

  16. Composite fatty acid ether amides suppress growth of liver cancer cells in vitro and in an in vivo allograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengde; Prima, Victor; Nelson, David; Svetlov, Stanislav

    2013-06-01

    The heterogeneity of liver cancer, in particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), portrays the requirement of multiple targets for both its treatment and prevention. Multifaceted agents, minimally or non-toxic for normal hepatocytes, are required to address the molecular diversity of HCC, including the resistance of putative liver cancer stem cells to chemotherapy. We designed and synthesized two fatty acid ethers of isopropylamino propanol, C16:0-AIP-1 and C18:1-AIP-2 (jointly named AIPs), and evaluated their anti-proliferative effects on the human HCC cell line Huh7 and the murine hepatoma cell line BNL 1MEA.7R.1, both in vitro and in an in vivo allograft mouse model. We found that AIP-1 and AIP-2 inhibited proliferation and caused cell death in both Huh7 and BNL 1MEA.7R.1 cells. Importantly, AIP-1 and AIP-2 were found to block the activation of putative liver cancer stem cells as manifested by suppression of clonal 'carcinosphere' development in growth factor-free and anchorage-free medium. The AIPs exhibited a relatively low toxicity against normal human or rat hepatocytes in primary cultures. In addition, we found that the AIPs utilized multifaceted pathways that mediate both autophagy and apoptosis in HCC, including the inhibition of AKTs and CAMK-1. In immune-competent mice, the AIPs significantly reduced BNL 1MEA.7R.1 cell-driven tumor allograft development, with a higher efficiency than sorafenib. A combination of AIP-1 + AIP-2 was most effective in reducing the tumor allograft incidence. AIPs represent a novel class of simple fatty acid derivatives that are effective against liver tumors via diverse pathways. They show a low toxicity towards normal hepatocytes. The addition of AIPs may represent a new avenue towards the management of chronic liver injury and, ultimately, the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  17. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid from agricultural resource derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pires, Aline M B; Macedo, André C; Eguchi, Silvia Y; Santana, Maria H A

    2010-08-01

    Agricultural resource derivatives (ARDs) such as hydrolysate soy protein concentrate (HSPC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and cashew apple juice (CAJ) were studied with focus on the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Supplementation of the media with corn steep liquor (CSL) was also evaluated. Synthetic medium containing glucose and yeast extract was used as control. CAJ was a promising medium for the production of HA. It produced the highest amount of HA (0.89 g L(-1)), similar to that of the control (0.86 g L(-1)). WPC and HSPC media were the most effective for the production of biomass. CSL did not influence the production of HA when HSPC and WPC were used. However, in the synthetic medium it doubled the yield of HA from glucose. The average molecular weight of HA ranged from 10(3) to 10(4)Da for the ARDs and 10(7)Da for the synthetic medium. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The 5-HT(1A) agonism potential of substituted piperazine-ethyl-amide derivatives is conserved in the hexyl homologues: molecular modeling and pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Sébastien; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline; Wouters, Johan; Liégeois, Jean-François

    2011-11-28

    In a series of carboxamide and sulphonamide alkyl (ethyl to hexyl) piperazine analogues, although the size of the linker is very different, ethyl and hexyl derivatives possess a high affinity for 5-HT(1A) receptors. Docking studies clearly show that hexyl and ethyl compounds favorably interact with the binding site of the active conformation of 5-HT(1A) receptors, thus confirming a possible agonist profile. This activity is effectively detected in electrophysiological experiments in which all four compounds inhibit the activity of rat dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons.

  19. Synthesis of amide isosteres of schweinfurthin-based stilbenes.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, David P; Beutler, John A; Wiemer, David F

    2017-10-15

    The schweinfurthins are plant-derived stilbenes with an intriguing profile of anti-cancer activity. To obtain analogues of the schweinfurthins that might preserve the biological activity but have greater water solubility, a formal replacement of the central olefin with an amide has been explored. Two pairs of amides have been prepared, each containing the same hexahydroxanthene "left half" joined through an amide linkage to two different "right halves." In each series, the amide has been inserted in both possible orientations, placing the carbonyl group on the tricyclic ABC ring system and the amine on the D-ring, or placing the amine on the hexahydroxanthene and the carbonyl group on the D-ring. The four new schweinfurthin analogues have been tested in the NCI 60 cell line screen, and in both cases the more active isomer carried the carbonyl group on the C-ring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tanzawaic Acid Derivatives from a Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium steckii 108YD142

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Jae; Pil, Gam Bang; Heo, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jihoon; Won, Ho Shik

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation of a marine-derived fungus, Penicillium steckii 108YD142, resulted in the discovery of a new tanzawaic acid derivative, tanzawaic acid Q (1), together with four known analogues, tanzawaic acids A (2), C (3), D (4), and K (5). The structures of tanzawaic acid derivatives 1–5 were determined by the detailed analysis of 1D, 2D NMR and LC-MS data, along with chemical methods and literature data analysis. These compounds significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and the new tanzawaic acid Q (1) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and mRNA expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Additionally, compound 1 reduced the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that the new tanzawaic acid derivative inhibits LPS-induced inflammation. This is the first report on the anti-inflammatory activity of tanzawaic acid Q (1). PMID:26761016

  1. THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Perfluoroalkyl acids such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have applications in numerous industrial and consumer products. Although the toxicology of some of these compounds has been investigated in the past, the widespread pr...

  2. Design and evaluation of anacardic acid derivatives as anticavity agents.

    PubMed

    Green, Ivan R; Tocoli, Felismino E; Lee, Sang Hwa; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Isao

    2008-06-01

    On the basis of antibacterial anacardic acids, 6-pentadecenylsalicylic acids, isolated from the cashew apple, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), a series of 6-alk(en)ylsalicylic acids were synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. Among them, 6-(4',8'-dimethylnonyl)salicylic acid was found to exhibit the most potent antibacterial activity against this cariogenic bacterium with the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.78 microg/ml.

  3. Identification of ortho-Substituted Benzoic Acid/Ester Derivatives via the Gas-Phase Neighboring Group Participation Effect in (+)-ESI High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Blincoe, William D; Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Saurí, Josep; Pierson, Nicholas A; Joyce, Leo A; Mangion, Ian; Sheng, Huaming

    2018-04-01

    Benzoic acid/ester/amide derivatives are common moieties in pharmaceutical compounds and present a challenge in positional isomer identification by traditional tandem mass spectrometric analysis. A method is presented for exploiting the gas-phase neighboring group participation (NGP) effect to differentiate ortho-substituted benzoic acid/ester derivatives with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS 1 ). Significant water/alcohol loss (>30% abundance in MS 1 spectra) was observed for ortho-substituted nucleophilic groups; these fragment peaks are not observable for the corresponding para and meta-substituted analogs. Experiments were also extended to the analysis of two intermediates in the synthesis of suvorexant (Belsomra) with additional analysis conducted with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), density functional theory (DFT), and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) studies. Significant water/alcohol loss was also observed for 1-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles but not for the isomeric 2-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs. IMS-MS, NMR, and DFT studies were conducted to show that the preferred orientation of the 2-substituted triazole rotamer was away from the electrophilic center of the reaction, whereas the 1-subtituted triazole was oriented in close proximity to the center. Abundance of NGP product was determined to be a product of three factors: (1) proton affinity of the nucleophilic group; (2) steric impact of the nucleophile; and (3) proximity of the nucleophile to carboxylic acid/ester functional groups. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Identification of ortho-Substituted Benzoic Acid/Ester Derivatives via the Gas-Phase Neighboring Group Participation Effect in (+)-ESI High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blincoe, William D.; Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Saurí, Josep; Pierson, Nicholas A.; Joyce, Leo A.; Mangion, Ian; Sheng, Huaming

    2018-02-01

    Benzoic acid/ester/amide derivatives are common moieties in pharmaceutical compounds and present a challenge in positional isomer identification by traditional tandem mass spectrometric analysis. A method is presented for exploiting the gas-phase neighboring group participation (NGP) effect to differentiate ortho-substituted benzoic acid/ester derivatives with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS1). Significant water/alcohol loss (>30% abundance in MS1 spectra) was observed for ortho-substituted nucleophilic groups; these fragment peaks are not observable for the corresponding para and meta-substituted analogs. Experiments were also extended to the analysis of two intermediates in the synthesis of suvorexant (Belsomra) with additional analysis conducted with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), density functional theory (DFT), and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) studies. Significant water/alcohol loss was also observed for 1-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles but not for the isomeric 2-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs. IMS-MS, NMR, and DFT studies were conducted to show that the preferred orientation of the 2-substituted triazole rotamer was away from the electrophilic center of the reaction, whereas the 1-subtituted triazole was oriented in close proximity to the center. Abundance of NGP product was determined to be a product of three factors: (1) proton affinity of the nucleophilic group; (2) steric impact of the nucleophile; and (3) proximity of the nucleophile to carboxylic acid/ester functional groups. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. -HPLC determination of acidic d-amino acids and their N-methyl derivatives in biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tsesarskaia, Mara; Galindo, Erika; Szókán, Gyula; Fisher, George

    2015-01-01

    d-aspartate (d-Asp) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) occur in the neuroendocrine systems of vertebrates and invertebrates where they play a role in hormone release and synthesis, neurotransmission, and memory and learning. N-methyl-d-glutamate (NMDG) has also been detected in marine bivalves. Several methods have been used to detect these amino acids, but they require pretreatment of tissue samples with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) to remove primary amino acids which interfere with the detection of NMDA and NMDG. We report here a one step derivatization procedure with the chiral reagent N-α-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)-(d or l)-valine amide, FDNP-Val-NH2, a close analog of Marfey’s reagent but with better resolution and higher molar absorptivity. The diastereomers formed are separated by HPLC on an ODS-Hypersil column eluted with TFA/water – TFA/MeCN. UV absorption at 340 nm permits detection levels as low as 5–10 picomoles. D-Asp, NMDA and NMDG peaks are not obscured by other primary or secondary amino acids; hence pretreatment of tissues with OPA is not required. This method is highly reliable and fast (less than 40 minutes HPLC run). Using this method, we have detected D-Asp, NMDA and NMDG in several biological tissues (octopus brain, optical lobe, and bucchal mass; foot and mantle of the mollusk Scapharca broughtonii), confirming the results of other researchers. PMID:19277955

  6. Aminofluorene-Mediated Biomimetic Domino Amination-Oxygenation of Aldehydes to Amides.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Santanu; Jana, Chandan K

    2016-11-18

    A conceptually novel biomimetic strategy based on a domino amination-oxygenation reaction was developed for direct amidation of aldehydes under metal-free conditions employing molecular oxygen as the oxidant. 9-Aminofluorene derivatives acted as pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate equivalents for efficient, chemoselective, and operationally simple amine-transfer oxygenation reaction. Unprecedented RNH transfer involving secondary amine to produce secondary amides was achieved. In the presence of 18 O 2 , 18 O-amide was formed with excellent (95%) isotopic purity.

  7. Structure-activity relationship investigation of tertiary amine derivatives of cinnamic acid as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: compared with that of phenylpropionic acid, sorbic acid and hexanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaohui; Tang, Jingjing; Liu, Haoran; Liu, Linbo; Kang, Lu; Chen, Wen

    2018-12-01

    In the present investigation, 48 new tertiary amine derivatives of cinnamic acid, phenylpropionic acid, sorbic acid and hexanoic acid (4d-6g, 10d-12g, 16d-18g and 22d-24g) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for the effect on AChE and BChE in vitro. The results revealed that the alteration of aminoalkyl types and substituted positions markedly influences the effects in inhibiting AChE. Almost of all cinnamic acid derivatives had the most potent inhibitory activity than that of other acid derivatives with the same aminoalkyl side chain. Unsaturated bond and benzene ring in cinnamic acid scaffold seems important for the inhibitory activity against AChE. Among them, compound 6g revealed the most potent AChE inhibitory activity (IC 50 value: 3.64 µmol/L) and highest selectivity over BChE (ratio: 28.6). Enzyme kinetic study showed that it present a mixed-type inhibition against AChE. The molecular docking study suggested that it can bind with the catalytic site and peripheral site of AChE.

  8. Selective activity of several cholic acid derivatives against human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baba, M; Schols, D; Nakashima, H; Pauwels, R; Parmentier, G; Meijer, D K; De Clercq, E

    1989-01-01

    Several cholic acid derivatives such as taurolithocholic acid, lithocholic acid 3-sulfate, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, and glycolithocholic acid 3-sulfate were shown to inhibit selectively the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. These compounds completely protected MT-4 cells against HIV-1-induced cytopathogenicity at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml, whereas no toxicity for the host cells was observed at 200 micrograms/ml. They also inhibited HIV-1 antigen expression in HIV-1-infected CEM cells. The bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid) did not show any inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication at concentrations that were not toxic to the host (MT-4) cells. From a structure-function analysis of a number of cholic acid derivatives, the presence of either a sulfonate (as in the tauro conjugates) or a sulfate group as well as the "litho" configuration appeared to be necessary for the expression of anti-HIV-1 activity. The active cholic acid derivatives did not directly inactivate the virus particles at the concentrations that were not toxic to the host cells. Lithocholic acid 3-sulfate, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, and glycolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, but not taurolithocholic acid, partially inhibited virus adsorption to MT-4 cells. These three compounds were also inhibitory to the reverse transcriptase activity associated with HIV-1.

  9. Characterization and antioxidant activity of gallic acid derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinda, Krissan; Sutanto, Hery; Darmawan, Akhmad

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidase enzyme was used to catalyze the dimerization process of gallic acid. The structure of the dimerization product was characterized by 1H NMR and LC-MS-MS. The mechanism of gallic acid dimerization was also discussed. It was proposed that ellagic acid was formed through an oxidative coupling mechanism that lead to the formation of a C-C bond and followed by an intramolecular Fischer esterification mechanism that lead to the formation of two C-O bonds. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of gallic acid and ellagic acid were also studied. Gallic acid and ellagic acid exhibited the DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 13.2 μM and 15.9 μM, respectively.

  10. Alterations in endocannabinoid tone following chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: effects of endocannabinoid deactivation inhibitors targeting fatty-acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase in comparison to reference analgesics following cisplatin treatment.

    PubMed

    Guindon, Josée; Lai, Yvonne; Takacs, Sara M; Bradshaw, Heather B; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum-derived chemotherapeutic agent, produces mechanical and coldallodynia reminiscent of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in humans. The endocannabinoid system represents a novel target for analgesic drug development. The endocannabinoid signaling system consists of endocannabinoids (e.g. anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)), cannabinoid receptors (e.g. CB(1) and CB(2)) and the enzymes controlling endocannabinoid synthesis and degradation. AEA is hydrolyzed by fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) whereas 2-AG is hydrolyzed primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). We compared effects of brain permeant (URB597) and impermeant (URB937) inhibitors of FAAH with an irreversible inhibitor of MGL (JZL184) on cisplatin-evoked behavioral hypersensitivities. Endocannabinoid modulators were compared with agents used clinically to treat neuropathy (i.e. the opioid analgesic morphine, the anticonvulsant gabapentin and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline). Cisplatin produced robust mechanical and cold allodynia but did not alter responsiveness to heat. After neuropathy was fully established, groups received acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of vehicle, amitriptyline (30 mg/kg), gabapentin (100 mg/kg), morphine (6 mg/kg), URB597 (0.1 or 1 mg/kg), URB937 (0.1 or 1 mg/kg) or JZL184 (1, 3 or 8 mg/kg). Pharmacological specificity was assessed by coadministering each endocannabinoid modulator with either a CB(1) (AM251 3 mg/kg), CB(2) (AM630 3 mg/kg), TRPV1 (AMG9810 3 mg/kg) or TRPA1 (HC030031 8 mg/kg) antagonist. Effects of cisplatin on endocannabinoid levels and transcription of receptors (CB(1), CB(2), TRPV1, TRPA1) and enzymes (FAAH, MGL) linked to the endocannabinoid system were also assessed. URB597, URB937, JZL184 and morphine reversed cisplatin-evoked mechanical and cold allodynia to pre-cisplatin levels. By contrast, gabapentin only partially reversed the observed allodynia while amitriptyline, administered acutely, was ineffective

  11. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  12. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methylene chloride extract of Miconia ligustroides, isolated triterpene acids, and ursolic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Wilson R; de Matos, Geilton X; Souza, Maria Goreti M; Tozatti, Marcos G; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Martins, Carlos H G; da Silva, Rosangela; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2010-02-01

    The methylene chloride extract of Miconia ligustroides (DC.) Naudin (Melastomataceae), the isolated compounds ursolic and oleanolic acids and a mixture of these acids, and ursolic acid derivatives were evaluated against the following microorganisms: Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579), Vibrio cholerae (ATCC 9458), Salmonella choleraesuis (ATCC 10708), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 6305). The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during evaluation of the antibacterial activity. The methylene chloride extract showed no activity against the selected microorganisms. Ursolic acid was active against B. cereus, showing a MIC value of 20 microg/mL. Oleanolic acid was effective against B. cereus and S. pneumoniae with a MIC of 80 microg/mL in both cases. The mixture of triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acids, did not enhance the antimicrobial activity. However, the acetyl and methyl ester derivatives, prepared from ursolic acid, increased the inhibitory activity for S. pneumoniae.

  13. Iron Release from Soybean Seed Ferritin Induced by Cinnamic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sha, Xuejiao; Chen, Hai; Zhang, Jingsheng; Zhao, Guanghua

    2018-05-04

    Plant ferritin represents a novel class of iron supplement, which widely co-exists with phenolic acids in a plant diet. However, there are few reports on the effect of these phenolic acids on function of ferritin. In this study, we demonstrated that cinnamic acid derivatives, as widely occurring phenolic acids, can induce iron release from holo soybean seed ferritin (SSF) in a structure-dependent manner. The ability of the iron release from SSF by five cinnamic acids follows the sequence of Cinnamic acid > Chlorogenic acid > Ferulic acid > p -Coumaric acid > Trans -Cinnamic acid. Fluorescence titration in conjunction with dialysis results showed that all of these five compounds have a similar, weak ability to bind with protein, suggesting that their protein-binding ability is not related to their iron release activity. In contrast, both Fe 2+ -chelating activity and reducibility of these cinnamic acid derivatives are in good agreement with their ability to induce iron release from ferritin. These studies indicate that cinnamic acid and its derivatives could have a negative effect on iron stability of holo soybean seed ferritin in diet, and the Fe 2+ -chelating activity and reducibility of cinnamic acid and its derivatives have strong relations to the iron release of soybean seed ferritin.

  14. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3-oxo-4-oxa-5α-androst-17β-amide derivatives as dual 5α-reductase inhibitors and androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lao, Kejing; Sun, Jie; Wang, Chong; Wang, Ying; You, Qidong; Xiao, Hong; Xiang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death in men. Recently, some researches have showed that 5α-reductase inhibitors were beneficial in PCa treatment as well. In this study, a series of novel 3-oxo-4-oxa-5α-androst-17β-amide derivatives have been designed and synthesized in a more simple and convenient method. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed good 5α-reductase inhibitory activities and androgen receptor binding affinities. Their anti-proliferation activities in PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines were also evaluated and the results indicated that most of the synthesized compounds exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities. It is obvious that the androgen-dependent cell line LNCaP was much more sensitive than the androgen-independent cell line PC-3. Among all the synthesized compounds, 11d and 11k displayed the best inhibition activity with 4-fold more sensitive toward LNCaP than PC-3, which was consistent with their high affinities observed in AR binding assay. Molecular modeling studies suggested that 11k could bind to AR in a manner similar to the binding of dihydrotestosterone to AR. Compared to the finasteride, 11k showed a longer plasma half-life (4h) and a better bioavailability. Overall, based on biological activities data, compound 11d and 11k can be identified as potential dual 5α-reductase inhibitors and AR antagonists which might be of therapeutic importance for prostate cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  16. Sophorolipid-derived unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides as plasticizers for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides were synthesized from the omega and omega-1 hydroxy fatty acids derived from sophorolipids (SLs) prepared by fermentation from glucose:soybean oil and glucose:oleic acid, respectively. These estolides were utilized as additives in solution-cast poly(3-hydro...

  17. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Sompong, Weerachat; Meeprom, Aramsri; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Yibchok-Anun, Sirintorn

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by approximately 11.96-63.36% at a concentration of 1 mM. The strongest inhibitory activity against the formation of AGEs was shown by cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid and its derivatives reduced the level of fructosamine, the formation of N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), and the level of amyloid cross β-structure. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives also prevented oxidative protein damages, including effects on protein carbonyl formation and thiol oxidation of BSA. Our findings may lead to the possibility of using cinnamic acid and its derivatives for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complications.

  18. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives Inhibit Fructose-Mediated Protein Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Sompong, Weerachat; Meeprom, Aramsri; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Yibchok-anun, Sirintorn

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by approximately 11.96–63.36% at a concentration of 1 mM. The strongest inhibitory activity against the formation of AGEs was shown by cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid and its derivatives reduced the level of fructosamine, the formation of Nɛ-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), and the level of amyloid cross β-structure. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives also prevented oxidative protein damages, including effects on protein carbonyl formation and thiol oxidation of BSA. Our findings may lead to the possibility of using cinnamic acid and its derivatives for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complications. PMID:22408423

  19. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel rhodanine derivatives as potential cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Krátký, Martin; Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína; Vinšová, Jarmila

    2016-10-01

    Based on a broad spectrum of biological activities of rhodanines, we synthesized aromatic amides and esters of 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid (rhodanine-3-acetic acid) via carbodiimide- or PCl3-mediated coupling. Both esters and amides were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potency and selectivity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from electric eel and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) from equine serum using Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The derivatives exhibited mostly a moderate activity against both cholinesterases. IC50 values for AChE were in a closer concentration range of 24.05-86.85μM when compared to BChE inhibition (7.92-227.19μM). The esters caused the more efficient inhibition of AChE than amides and parent acid. The esterification and amidation of the rhodanine-3-acetic acid increased inhibition of BChE, even up to 26 times. Derivatives of 4-nitroaniline/phenol showed the activity superior to other substituents (H, Cl, CH3, OCH3, CF3). Rhodanines produced a balanced inhibition of both cholinesterases. Seven derivatives produced the more potent inhibition of AChE than rivastigmine, a clinically used drug; additional three compounds were comparable. Two amides exceeded inhibitory potency of rivastigmine towards BChE. Importantly, this is the first evidence that rhodanine-based compounds are able to inhibit BChE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Possible evidence of amide bond formation between sinapinic acid and lysine-containing bacterial proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, HdeB and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALD...

  1. Engineering acyclic stereocontrol in the alkylation of vinylglycine-derived dianions: asymmetric synthesis of higher alpha-vinyl amino acids.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, D B; McFadden, J M; Sloss, M K

    2000-05-19

    A generalizable synthesis of higher L-alpha-vinyl amino acids is presented. The strategy pursued here involves the introduction of the amino acid side chain via the alkylation of a chiral, vinylglycine-derived dianionic dienolate, bearing the (-)-8-(beta-naphthyl)menthyl (d'Angelo) auxiliary. A model is presented that postulates a favored "exo-entended" conformation for this dienolate, leading to C(alpha)-alkylation at the si face. The model invokes internal amidate chelation to control ester enolate geometry and soft-soft interactions between the polarizable beta-naphthyl ring of the auxiliary and the extended pi-system of the dienolate to shield the re face. Heats of formation for four conformers of this dianion were calculated for their semiempirical optimized geometries (PM3). The results support the notion that in these vinylglycine-derived dianionic dienolates, "exo" conformations are considerable lower in energy than their "endo" counterparts, with the "exo-entended" conformation being most favorable. In fact, the d'Angelo auxiliary gives a greater degree of acyclic stereocontrol in this system when compared with the (-)-8-phenylmenthyl (Corey) and trans-2-(beta-naphthyl)cyclohexyl auxiliaries, using isobutyl iodide and benzyl bromide as model electrophiles. These dianions are generated from the corresponding dehydrobutyrine esters via sequential deprotonation with LDA and n-BuLi (2 equiv). When alkylations are carried out at -78 degrees C in THF-HMPA, they proceed in 65-81% yields, with both regiocontrol (deconjugative alpha-alkylation is preferred over gamma-alkylation) and a great degree of acyclic stereocontrol [91:9 to >/=98:2 diastereomeric ratios (10 examples)]. The auxiliary may be recovered in high yield (generally 90%) using a modification of Gassman's "anhydrous hydroxide" conditions, in which considerably higher temperatures are employed. Among the side chains introduced directly are those of butyrine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, aspartate

  2. Antibacterial activity of triterpene acids and semi-synthetic derivatives against oral pathogens

    PubMed

    Scalon Cunha, Luis C; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Cardoso Furtado, Niege A J; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Martins, Carlos H; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Cunha, Wilson R

    2007-01-01

    Triterpene acids (ursolic, oleanoic, gypsogenic, and sumaresinolic acids) isolated from Miconia species, along with a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids and a mixture of maslinic and 2-a-hydroxyursolic acids, as well as ursolic acid derivatives were evaluated against the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis, which are potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during the evaluation of the antibacterial activity. All the isolated compounds, mixtures, and semi-synthetic derivatives displayed activity against all the tested bacteria, showing that they are promising antiplaque and anticaries agents. Ursolic and oleanolic acids displayed the most intense antibacterial effect, with MIC values ranging from 30 microg/mL to 80 microg/mL. The MIC values of ursolic acid derivatives, as well as those obtained for the mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids showed that these compounds do not have higher antibacterial activity when compared with the activity observed with either ursolic acid or oleanolic acid alone. With regard to the structure-activity relationship of triterpene acids and derivatives, it is suggested that both hydroxy and carboxy groups present in the triterpenes are important for their antibacterial activity against oral pathogens.

  3. DNA-Catalyzed Amide Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cong; Avins, Joshua L; Klauser, Paul C; Brandsen, Benjamin M; Lee, Yujeong; Silverman, Scott K

    2016-02-24

    DNA catalysts (deoxyribozymes) for a variety of reactions have been identified by in vitro selection. However, for certain reactions this identification has not been achieved. One important example is DNA-catalyzed amide hydrolysis, for which a previous selection experiment instead led to DNA-catalyzed DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis. Subsequent efforts in which the selection strategy deliberately avoided phosphodiester hydrolysis led to DNA-catalyzed ester and aromatic amide hydrolysis, but aliphatic amide hydrolysis has been elusive. In the present study, we show that including modified nucleotides that bear protein-like functional groups (any one of primary amino, carboxyl, or primary hydroxyl) enables identification of amide-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes. In one case, the same deoxyribozyme sequence without the modifications still retains substantial catalytic activity. Overall, these findings establish the utility of introducing protein-like functional groups into deoxyribozymes for identifying new catalytic function. The results also suggest the longer-term feasibility of deoxyribozymes as artificial proteases.

  4. Tandem dissolution of UO 3 in amide-based acidic ionic liquid and in situ electrodeposition of UO 2 with regeneration of the ionic liquid: a closed cycle

    DOE PAGES

    Wanigasekara, Eranda; Freiderich, John W.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; ...

    2016-05-19

    A closed cycle is demonstrated for the tandem dissolution and electroreduction of UO 3 to UO 2 with regeneration of the acidic ionic liquid. The dissolution is achieved by use of the acidic ionic liquid N,N-dimethylacetimidium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) serving as the diluent. Bulk electrolysis performed at 1.0 V vs. Ag reference yields a dark brown-black uranium deposit (UO 2) on the cathode. Anodic oxidation of water in the presence of dimethylacetamide regenerates the acidic ionic liquid. We have demonstrated the individual steps in the cycle together with a sequential dissolution, electroreduction, and regeneration cycle.

  5. Tandem dissolution of UO 3 in amide-based acidic ionic liquid and in situ electrodeposition of UO 2 with regeneration of the ionic liquid: a closed cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Wanigasekara, Eranda; Freiderich, John W.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    A closed cycle is demonstrated for the tandem dissolution and electroreduction of UO 3 to UO 2 with regeneration of the acidic ionic liquid. The dissolution is achieved by use of the acidic ionic liquid N,N-dimethylacetimidium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) serving as the diluent. Bulk electrolysis performed at 1.0 V vs. Ag reference yields a dark brown-black uranium deposit (UO 2) on the cathode. Anodic oxidation of water in the presence of dimethylacetamide regenerates the acidic ionic liquid. We have demonstrated the individual steps in the cycle together with a sequential dissolution, electroreduction, and regeneration cycle.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiming; Nielsen, Jens; Liu, Zihe

    2018-06-05

    Fatty acid-derived hydrocarbons attract increasing attention as biofuels due to their immiscibility with water, high-energy content, low freezing point, and high compatibility with existing refineries and end-user infrastructures. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has advantages for production of fatty acid-derived hydrocarbons as its native routes toward fatty acid synthesis involve only a few reactions that allow more efficient conversion of carbon substrates. Here we describe major biosynthetic pathways of fatty acid-derived hydrocarbons in yeast, and summarize key metabolic engineering strategies, including enhancing precursor supply, eliminating competing pathways, and expressing heterologous pathways. With recent advances in yeast production of fatty acid-derived hydrocarbons, our review identifies key research challenges and opportunities for future optimization, and concludes with perspectives and outlooks for further research directions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of molecular parameters on the binding of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives to albumins.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E; Deyl, Z; Miksík, I

    2001-03-25

    The interaction of 12 phenoxyacetic acid derivatives with human and serum albumin as well as with egg albumin was studied by charge-transfer reversed-phase (RP) thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the relative strength of interaction was calculated. Each phenoxyacetic acid derivative interacted with human and bovine serum albumins whereas no interaction was observed with egg albumin. Stepwise regression analysis proved that the lipophilicity of the derivatives exert a significant impact on their capacity to bind to serum albumins. This result supports the hypothesis that the binding of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives to albumins may involve hydrophobic forces occurring between the corresponding apolar substructures of these derivatives and the amino acid side chains.

  8. Inhibition of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis by 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Kaji, Hiroaki; Ichiyama, Kenji; Makino, Kazutaka; Gohda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Itaru; Tai, Akihiro

    2007-10-15

    Inhibitory effects of 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives, ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-2P), and ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AA-2S), on 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were studied and were compared with those of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidants. The order of the inhibition efficiency was AA-2S> or =Trolox=uric acid> or =AA-2P> or =AA-2G=AA>glutathione. Although the reactivity of the AA derivatives against AAPH-derived peroxyl radical (ROO(*)) was much lower than that of AA, the derivatives exerted equal or more potent protective effects on AAPH-induced hemolysis and membrane protein oxidation. In addition, the AA derivatives were found to react per se with ROO(*), not via AA as an intermediate. These findings suggest that secondary reactions between the AA derivative radical and ROO(*) play a part in hemolysis inhibition. Delayed addition of the AA derivatives after AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes had already proceeded showed weaker inhibition of hemolysis compared to that of AA. These results suggest that the AA derivatives per se act as biologically effective antioxidants under moderate oxidative stress and that AA-2G and AA-2P may be able to act under severe oxidative stress after enzymatic conversion to AA in vivo.

  9. Structural Requirements of Alkylglyceryl-l-Ascorbic Acid Derivatives for Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Taira, Norihisa; Katsuyama, Yushi; Yoshioka, Masato; Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio

    2018-04-10

    l-Ascorbic acid has multifunctional benefits on skin aesthetics, including inhibition of melanin production, and is widely used in cosmetics. It, however, has low stability and poor skin penetration. We hypothesize that alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives, highly stable vitamin C-alkylglycerol conjugates, would have similar anti-melanogenic activity with better stability and penetration. We test 28 alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives ( 1 - 28 ) on theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells to determine if they inhibit melanogenesis and establish any structure-function relationships. Although not the most potent inhibitors, 3- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 6 , IC 50 = 81.4 µM) and 2- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-3- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 20 , IC 50 = 117 µM) are deemed the best candidate derivatives based on their inhibitory activities and low toxicities. These derivatives are also found to be more stable than l-ascorbic acid and to have favorable characteristics for skin penetration. The following structural requirements for inhibitory activity of alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives are also determined: (i) alkylation of glyceryl-l-ascorbic acid is essential for inhibitory activity; (ii) the 3- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 2 - 14 ) exhibit stronger inhibitory activity than the corresponding 2- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 16 - 28 ); and (iii) derivatives with longer alkyl chains have stronger inhibitory activities. Mechanistically, our studies suggest that l-ascorbic acid derivatives exert their effects by suppressing the mRNA expression of tyrosinase and tyrosine-related protein-1.

  10. [Phenolic acid derivatives from Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiao-Li; Wu, Zeng-Bao; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Lu, Xin-Hua; Liang, Hong; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa, eleven phenolic acids were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, ODS, MCI, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. By spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS, these compounds were identified as isopropyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (1), ethyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (2), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), gallic acid (5), methyl gallate (6), ethyl gallate (7), protocatechuic acid (8), 3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (9), erigeside C (10) and glucosyringic acid (11). Among them, compound 1 is a new polyhydroxyl compound; compounds 2, 10, and 11 were isolated from the genus Bauhinia for the first time, and the other compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Compounds 6 and 8 showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity in vitro with the IC50 values of 72.3 and 54.1 micromol x L(-1), respectively.

  11. A Tc-99m-labeled long chain fatty acid derivative for myocardial imaging.

    PubMed

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Takayoshi; Ukon, Misa; Yamamura, Norio; Uehara, Tomoya; Ogawa, Kazuma; Arano, Yasushi; Temma, Takashi; Mukai, Takahiro; Tadamura, Eiji; Saji, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    C-11- and I-123-labeled long chain fatty acid derivatives have been reported as useful radiopharmaceuticals for the estimation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. We have reported that Tc-99m-labeled N-[[[(2-mercaptoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-6-aminohexanoic acid ([(99m)Tc]MAMA-HA), a medium chain fatty acid derivative, is metabolized by beta-oxidation in the liver and that the MAMA ligand is useful for attaching to the omega-position of fatty acid derivatives as a chelating group for Tc-99m. On the basis of these findings, we focused on developing a Tc-99m-labeled long chain fatty acid derivative that reflected fatty acid metabolism in the myocardium. In this study, we synthesized a dodecanoic acid derivative, MAMA-DA, and a hexadecanoic acid derivative, MAMA-HDA, and performed radiolabeling and biodistribution studies. [(99m)Tc]MAMA-DA and [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA were prepared using a ligand-exchange reaction. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal mice and rats. Then, a high initial uptake of Tc-99m was observed, followed by a rapid clearance from the heart. The maximum heart/blood ratio was 3.6 at 2 min postinjection of [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA. These kinetics were similar to those with postinjection of p-[(125)I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid. Metabolite analysis showed [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA was metabolized by beta-oxidation in the body. In conclusion, [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA is a promising compound as a long chain fatty acid analogue for estimating beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the heart.

  12. A Convenient Approach to Synthesizing Peptide C-Terminal N-Alkyl Amides

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei-Jie; Yakovleva, Tatyana; Aldrich, Jane V.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide C-terminal N-alkyl amides have gained more attention over the past decade due to their biological properties, including improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. However, the synthesis of this type of peptide on solid phase by current available methods can be challenging. Here we report a convenient method to synthesize peptide C-terminal N-alkyl amides using the well-known Fukuyama N-alkylation reaction on a standard resin commonly used for the synthesis of peptide C-terminal primary amides, the PAL-PEG-PS (Peptide Amide Linker-polyethylene glycol-polystyrene) resin. The alkylation and oNBS deprotection were conducted under basic conditions and were therefore compatible with this acid labile resin. The alkylation reaction was very efficient on this resin with a number of different alkyl iodides or bromides, and the synthesis of model enkephalin N-alkyl amide analogs using this method gave consistently high yields and purities, demonstrating the applicability of this methodology. The synthesis of N-alkyl amides was more difficult on a Rink amide resin, especially the coupling of the first amino acid to the N-alkyl amine, resulting in lower yields for loading the first amino acid onto the resin. This method can be widely applied in the synthesis of peptide N-alkyl amides. PMID:22252422

  13. Pyridyl-Amides as a Multimode Self-Assembly Driver for the Design of a Stimuli-Responsive π-Gelator.

    PubMed

    Kartha, Kalathil K; Praveen, Vakayil K; Babu, Sukumaran Santhosh; Cherumukkil, Sandeep; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2015-10-01

    An oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (OPV) derivative connected to pyridyl end groups through an amide linkage (OPV-Py) resulted in a multistimuli-responsive π-gelator. When compared to the corresponding OPV π-gelator terminated by a phenyl-amide (OPV-Ph), the aggregation properties of OPV-Py were found to be significantly different, leading to multistimuli gelation and other morphological properties. The pyridyl moiety in OPV-Py initially interferes with the amide H-bonded assembly and gelation, however, protonation of the pyridyl moiety with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) facilitated the formation of amide H-bonded assembly leading to gelation, which is reversible by the addition of N,N-diisopropyethylamine (DiPEA). Interestingly, addition of Ag(+) ions to a solution of OPV-Py facilitated the formation of a metallo-supramolecular assembly leading to gelation. Surprisingly, ultrasound-induced gelation was observed when OPV-Py was mixed with a dicarboxylic acid (A1). A detailed study using different spectroscopic and microscopic experimental techniques revealed the difference in the mode of assembly in the two molecules and the multistimuli-responsive nature of the OPV-Py gelation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. C-terminal N-alkylated peptide amides resulting from the linker decomposition of the Rink amide resin: a new cleavage mixture prevents their formation.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Papas, Serafim; Tsikaris, Vassilios

    2006-03-01

    Decomposition of the resin linkers during TFA cleavage of the peptides in the Fmoc strategy leads to alkylation of sensitive amino acids. The C-terminal amide alkylation, reported for the first time, is shown to be a major problem in peptide amides synthesized on the Rink amide resin. This side reaction occurs as a result of the Rink amide linker decomposition under TFA treatment of the peptide resin. The use of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene in a cleavage cocktail prevents almost quantitatively formation of C-terminal N-alkylated peptide amides. Oxidized by-product in the tested Cys- and Met-containing peptides were not observed, even if thiols were not used in the cleavage mixture. Copyright (c) 2005 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Photoinduced gelation by stilbene oxalyl amide compounds.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Snezana; Frkanec, Leo; Meić, Zlatko; Zinić, Mladen

    2005-03-29

    Oxalyl amide derivatives bearing 4-dodecyloxy-stilbene as a cis-trans photoisomerizing unit were synthesized. The trans derivative acted as a versatile gelator of various organic solvents, whereas the corresponding cis derivative showed a poor gelation ability or none at all. In diluted solution (c = 2.0 x10(-5) mol dm(-3), ethanol), the cis isomer was photochemically converted into the trans isomer within 4 min. Depending on the radiation wavelength, the trans isomer was stable or liable to photodecomposition. When exposed to irradiation, a concentrated solution of the cis isomer (c = 2.0 x 10(-2) mol dm(-3), ethanol) turned into a gel. The FT-Raman, FT-IR, and 1H NMR spectra demonstrated that the gelation process occurred because of a rapid cis --> trans photoisomerization followed by a self-assembly of the trans molecules. Apart from the formation of hydrogen bonding between the oxalyl amide parts of the molecules, confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, it was assumed that the pi-pi stacking between the trans-stilbene units of the molecule and a lipophilic interaction between long alkyl chains were the interactions responsible for gelation.

  16. Nitrogen Derivatives of Soybean Oil and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oil based products are eco-friendly and non-toxic in nature, which is increasing their utilization in lot of applications. The presence of double bonds in some of the fatty acids, are attractive sites for functionalization. In this study we have used these sites for functionalization usi...

  17. Technetium radiodiagnostic fatty acids derived from bisamide bisthiol ligands

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Lister-James, John; Davison, Alan

    1988-05-24

    A bisamide-bisthiol ligand containing fatty acid substituted thiol useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic imaging agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the heart for diagnosis of myocardial disfunction.

  18. Actions of derivatives of lysergic acid on the heart of venus mercenaria

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anne McCoy; Moorhead, Merilyn; Welsh, J. H.

    1962-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine and a number of (+)-lysergic acid derivatives have been tested on the heart of Venus mercenaria. One group of derivatives was found to increase the amplitude and frequency of heart beat in a manner much like 5-hydroxytryptamine. It included the monoethylamide, diethylamide, propanolamide (ergometrine), butanolamide (methylergometrine) and certain peptide derivatives of lysergic acid without substituents in positions 1 or 2. Of these, lysergic acid diethylamide was the most active. Given sufficient time (up to 4 hr), as little as 10 ml. of 10-16 M lysergic acid diethylamide produced a maximum increase in amplitude and frequency in about one-half of the 80 hearts on which it was tested. Its action was very slowly reversed by washing, as was true of all lysergic acid derivatives. A second group of lysergic acid derivatives, substituted in positions 1 or 2, had weak excitor action, if any, and specific 5-hydroxytryptamine blocking action. This group consisted of 1-methyl-, 1-acetyl-, and 2-bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide and 1-methyllysergic acid butanolamide (methysergide). Of these, the last showed least signs of excitor action, usually none up to 10-4 M, and it blocked 5-hydroxytryptamine in a molar ratio of about one to one. PMID:14008412

  19. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-06-01

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure and larvicidal activity of novel diamide derivatives against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Zhu, Cong; Du, Xiu-Jiang; Xiong, Li-Xia; Yu, Shu-Jing; Liu, Xing-Hai; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhao, Wei-Guang

    2012-09-11

    Culex is an important mosquito as vectors for the transmission of serious diseases, such as filariasis, West Nile virus, dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and other encephalitides. Nearly one billion people in the developing countries are at risk. In order to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides acting on mosquito, we designed active amide structure and synthesized a series of novel diamide derivatives. A series of novel diamide derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H NMR, FTIR and HRMS. The single crystal structure of compound 6n was determined to further elucidate the structure. Biological activities of these compounds were tested. Most of them exhibited higher mosquito larvicidal activity. Especially compound 6r displayed relatively good activity to reach 70% at 2 μg/mL. A practical synthetic route to amide derivatives by the reaction of amide with another acid is presented. This study suggests that the diamide derivatives exhibited good effective against mosquito.

  1. An Integrated approach (thermodynamic, structural, and computational) to the study of complexation of alkali-metal cations by a lower-rim calix[4]arene amide derivative in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Gordan; Stilinović, Vladimir; Hrenar, Tomica; Kaitner, Branko; Frkanec, Leo; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2012-06-04

    The calix[4]arene secondary-amide derivative L was synthesized, and its complexation with alkali-metal cations in acetonitrile (MeCN) was studied by means of spectrophotometric, NMR, conductometric, and microcalorimetric titrations at 25 °C. The stability constants of the 1:1 (metal/ligand) complexes determined by different methods were in excellent agreement. For the complexation of M(+) (M = Li, Na, K) with L, both enthalpic and entropic contributions were favorable, with their values and mutual relations being quite strongly dependent on the cation. The enthalpic and overall stability was the largest in the case of the sodium complex. Molecular and crystal structures of free L, its methanol and MeCN solvates, the sodium complex, and its MeCN solvate were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The inclusion of a MeCN molecule in the calixarene hydrophobic cavity was observed both in solution and in the solid state. This specific interaction was found to be stronger in the case of metal complexes compared to the free ligand because of the better preorganization of the hydrophobic cone to accept the solvent molecule. Density functional theory calculations showed that the flattened cone conformation (C(2) point group) of L was generally more favorable than the square cone conformation (C(4) point group). In the complex with Na(+), L was in square cone conformation, whereas in its adduct with MeCN, the conformation was slightly distorted from the full symmetry. These conformations were in agreement with those observed in the solid state. The classical molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the MeCN molecule enters the L hydrophobic cavity of both the free ligand and its alkali-metal complexes. The inclusion of MeCN in the cone of free L was accompanied by the conformational change from C(2) to C(4) symmetry. As in solution studies, in the case of ML(+) complexes, an allosteric effect was observed: the ligand was already in the appropriate square cone

  2. Amidation reaction of eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester with 1,3 diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Wibowo, F. R.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Wibowo, A. H.; Khumaidah, S. A.; Wijayanti, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Eugenol having various substituents on the aromatic ring (hydroxy, methoxy and allyl) are useful for starting material in synthesizing of its derivatives. Eugenol derivatives have shown wide future potential applications in many areas, especially as future drugs against many diseases. The aim of this work was to synthesize an amide of eugenol derivative. The starting material used was eugenol from clove oil and the reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, eugenol was converted into eugenyl oxyacetate [2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid] as a white crystal with 70.5% yield, which was then esterified with ethanol to have eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester [ethyl 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetate] as brown liquid in 75.7%. The last step was the reaction between eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester and 1,3 diaminopropane to give 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-N-(3-aminopropyl) acetamide as a brown powder with 71.6% yield, where the amidation reaction was occurred.

  3. Mercury-modulated supramolecular assembly of a hexaphenylbenzene derivative for selective detection of picric acid.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Vandana; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Vij, Varun; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-05-06

    Spherical aggregates of hexaphenylbenzene derivative 5 undergo metal-induced modulation to form nanorods in the presence of Hg(2+) ions, which exhibit selective and sensitive response toward picric acid (PA) with a detection limit of 6.87 ppb.

  4. Synthesis, antiproliferative and antibacterial activity of new amides of salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Antoszczak, Michał; Maj, Ewa; Stefańska, Joanna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Janczak, Jan; Brzezinski, Bogumil; Huczyński, Adam

    2014-04-01

    A series of 11 novel amides of salinomycin were synthesized for the first time. All the obtained compounds were found to show potent antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines including the drug-resistant cancer cells. Four new salinomycin derivatives revealed good antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular and chiral analyses of some protein amino acid derivatives in the Murchison and Murray meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Cooper, George W.

    2001-07-01

    The varied organic suite extracted from the Murchison meteorite contains several amino acids that are common to the biosphere. Some of these have been found to be non-racemic, but the indigenous nature of their L-enantiomeric excesses has been subject to debate in view of possible terrestrial contamination. We have investigated two amino acids of common terrestrial and meteoritic occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, and assessed their indigenous enantiomeric ratios in the Murchison and Murray meteorites through the ratios of some of their derivatives. Analyzed were: N-acetyl alanine, ??imino propioacetic acid, N-acetyl glutamic acid and pyroglutamic acid. Both alanine derivatives were found to be racemic, while those of glutamic acid showed L-enantiomeric excesses varying from 16% to 47.2% for pyroglutamic acid, and from 8.6% to 41% for N-acetyl glutamic acid. The ?13C was determined for the two enantiomers of Murchison pyroglutamic acid both before and after acid hydrolysis of the lactam to glutamic acid. The values of +27.7 (D-pyro), +10.0 (L-pyro), +32.2 (D-glu) and +14.6 (L-glu) were obtained. The racemic nature of alanine derivatives strongly suggests that alanine itself, as indigenous to the meteorite, is racemic. The explanation of the L-enantiomeric excesses found for glutamic acid derivatives is less direct; however, the variability of the enantiomeric ratios for these compounds and the distinctly lower ?13C values determined for pyroglutamic L-enantiomer point to a terrestrial contamination, possibly dating to the time of fall.

  6. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; Stevenson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  7. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2015, Pisithkul et al.

  8. Phenolic amides are potent inhibitors of De Novo nucleotide biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposuremore » leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [ 15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. Furthermore, the results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals.« less

  9. Phenolic amides are potent inhibitors of De Novo nucleotide biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; ...

    2015-06-12

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposuremore » leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [ 15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. Furthermore, the results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals.« less

  10. Graphene quantum dots as additives in capillary electrophoresis for separation cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaming; Bi, Qing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Xia; Dong, Shuqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-05-01

    A facile capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the separation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives (3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, isoferulic acid, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as additives with direct ultraviolet (UV) detection is reported. GQDs were synthesized by chemical oxidization and further purified by a macroporous resin column to remove salts (Na2SO4 and NaNO3) and other impurities. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that GQDs have a relatively uniform particle size (2.3 nm). Taking into account the structural features of GQDs, cinnamic acid and its derivatives were adopted as model compounds to investigate whether GQDs can be used to improve CE separations. The separation performance of GQDs used as additives in CE was studied through variations of pH, concentration of the background electrolyte (BGE), and contents of GQDs. The results indicated that excellent separation can be achieved in less than 18 min, which is mainly attributed to the interaction between the analytes and GQDs, especially isoferulic acid, sinapic acid, and cinnamic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Two Major Bile Acids in the Hornbills, (24R,25S)-3α,7α,24-Trihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oyl Taurine and Its 12α-Hydroxy Derivative.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Rika; Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Tetsuya; Zhou, Biao; Omura, Kaoru; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hagey, Lee R; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Two major bile acids were isolated from the gallbladder bile of two hornbill species from the Bucerotidae family of the avian order Bucerotiformes Buceros bicornis (great hornbill) and Penelopides panini (Visayan tarictic hornbill). Their structures were determined to be 3α,7α,24-dihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid and its 12α-hydroxy derivative, 3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid (varanic acid, VA), both present in bile as their corresponding taurine amidates. The four diastereomers of varanic acid were synthesized and their assigned structures were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. VA and its 12-deoxy derivative were found to have a (24R,25S)-configuration. 13 additional hornbill species were also analyzed by HPLC and showed similar bile acid patterns to B. bicornis and P. panini. The previous stereochemical assignment for (24R,25S)-VA isolated from the bile of varanid lizards and the Gila monster should now be revised to the (24S,25S)-configuration.

  12. Hydrolysis of an orally active platelet inhibitory prostanoid amide in the plasma of several species.

    PubMed

    Honohan, T; Fitzpatrick, F A; Booth, D G; McGrath, J P; Morton, D R; Nishizawa, E

    1980-01-01

    The prostanoid 3-oxa-4,5,6-trinor-3,7-inter-m-phenylene-PGE1-amide (OI-PGE1-amide) has a prolonged duration of oral platelet aggregation inhibitory activity when compared to the parent free acid (OI-PGE1) in the rat. When incubated in rat plasma at 1 microgram/ml for 30 seconds prior to addition of ADP, OI-PGE1-amide inhibits in vitro rat platelet aggregation approximately 50%. OI-PGE1 inhibits at 1 ng/ml. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by plasma incubated with OI-PGE1-amide (1 microgram/ml) increases with time and the rate of this increase differs with species. Incubation of OI-PGE1 in plasma does not result in an increase of platelet inhibitory activity with time. The increase of platelet inhibitory activity was assumed to indicate hydrolysis of OI-PGE1-amide to the more active OI-PGE1. A compound, different from OI-PGE1-amide, was isolated by an ion exchange/silica gel separation sequence from an incubation of OI-PGE1-amide in rat plasma. It had potent platelet aggregation inhibitory activity. This material was shown to be OI-PGE1 by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectral analysis. Studies with [3H]-OI-PGE1-amide confirmed the formation of OI-PGE1 in plasma incubations. Amide hydrolytic activity was significantly different between species, the rank order being: rat greater than guine pig greater than monkey = human greater than dog. This relationship corresponded with that determined by measuring the increase in platelet inhibitory activity with time in plasma incubations of OI-PGE1-amide reported above. Present data indicate that (a) OI-PGE1-amide is hydrolyzed to the parent acid by plasma enzymes of several species and (b) hydrolytic activity of plasma varies widely between species.

  13. Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 ameliorate neuroinflammatory responses in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model by blocking NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yi-Fang; Lin, Qi; Hai, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The present study explored the protective effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (URB) against neuroinflammation in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Activated microglia, astrocytes, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65-positive cells were measured by immunofluorescence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed by dihydroethidium staining. The protein levels of cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (OX-42), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NF-κB p65, inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκB-a), IκB kinase a/β (IKK a/β), phosphorylated IKK a/β (p-IKK a/β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were examined by western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All the protein levels of OX-42, GFAP, TNF-a, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS are increased in CCH rats. WIN and URB downregulated the levels of OX-42, GFAP, TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and iNOS and inhibited CCH-induced ROS accumulation in CCH rats, indicating that WIN and URB might exert their neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the neuroinflammatory response. In addition, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated by CCH in frontal cortex and hippocampus, while the aforementioned changes were reversed by WIN and URB treatment. These findings suggest that WIN and URB treatment ameliorated CCH-induced neuroinflammation through inhibition of the classical pathway of NF-κB activation, resulting in mitigation of chronic ischemic injury.

  14. Adipose‑derived stem cells and hyaluronic acid based gel compatibility, studied in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiayan; Guo, Shu; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Yanqiu

    2017-10-01

    Minimally invasive aesthetic and cosmetic procedures have increased in popularity. Injectable dermal fillers provide soft tissue augmentation, improve facial rejuvenation and wrinkles, and correct tissue defects. To investigate the use of adipose‑derived stem cells integrated with a hyaluronic acid based gel as a dermal filler, the present study used cytotoxicity studies, proliferation studies, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, apoptosis assays and scanning electron microscopy. Although hyaluronic acid induced low levels of apoptosis in adipose‑derived stem cells, its significantly promoted proliferation of adipose‑derived stem cells. Hyaluronic acid demonstrates little toxicity against adipose‑derived stem cells. Adipose‑derived stem cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed that adipose‑derived stem cells maintained intact structures on the surface of hyaluronic acid as well as in it, and demonstrated abundant cell attachments. The present study demonstrated the compatibility of adipose‑derived stem cells and hyaluronic acid based gels in vitro.

  15. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  16. Synthesis and Anti-microbial Activity of Novel Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vijeetha, Tadla; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Surya Koppeswara Rao, Bhamidipati Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Kumar, Koochana Pranay; Surya Narayana Murthy, Upadyaula

    2015-01-01

    The study involved synthesis of five novel amino acid derivatives of phosphatidylethanolamine isolated from egg yolk lecithin employing a three step procedure i) N-protection of L-amino acids with BOC anhydride in alkaline medium ii) condensation of - CO2H group of N-protected amino acid with free -NH2 of PE by a peptide linkage and iii) deprotection of N-protected group of amino acids to obtain phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino acid derivatives in 60-75% yield. The five L-amino acids used were L glycine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-phenylalanine. The amino acid derivatives were screened for anti-baterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeroginosa and E. coli taking Streptomycin as reference compound and anti-fungal activity against C. albicans, S. cervisiae, A. niger taking AmphotericinB as reference compound. All the amino acid derivatives exhibited extraordinary anti-bacterial activities about 3 folds or comparable to Streptomycin and moderate or no anti-fungal activity against Amphotericin-B.

  17. Merocyanine-type dyes from barbituric acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rezende, M C; Campodonico, P; Abuin, E; Kossanyi, J

    2001-05-01

    The preparation and the solvatochromic behavior of two dyes, obtained by condensation of N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and with 4,4'-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone) are described. The latter dye is rather sensitive to the polarity of the medium, and in particular, to the hydrogen-bond-donor ability of protic solvents. The solvatochromism of both compounds is discussed in terms of the pi* and E(T)(30) solvent polarity scales and their differences in behavior interpreted with the aid of semiempirical calculations.

  18. Intramolecular amide bonds stabilize pili on the surface of bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Budzik, Jonathan M.; Poor, Catherine B.; Faull, Kym F.

    Gram-positive bacteria elaborate pili and do so without the participation of folding chaperones or disulfide bond catalysts. Sortases, enzymes that cut pilin precursors, form covalent bonds that link pilin subunits and assemble pili on the bacterial surface. We determined the x-ray structure of BcpA, the major pilin subunit of Bacillus cereus. The BcpA precursor encompasses 2 Ig folds (CNA{sub 2} and CNA{sub 3}) and one jelly-roll domain (XNA) each of which synthesizes a single intramolecular amide bond. A fourth amide bond, derived from the Ig fold of CNA{sub 1}, is formed only after pilin subunits have been incorporated into pili.more » We report that the domains of pilin precursors have evolved to synthesize a discrete sequence of intramolecular amide bonds, thereby conferring structural stability and protease resistance to pili.« less

  19. Bioactivity and structure-activity relationship of cinnamic acid derivatives and its heteroaromatic ring analogues as potential high-efficient acaricides against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Li, Xing-Qiang; Yang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Le

    2018-04-01

    A series of cinnamic acid derivatives and its heteroaromatic ring analogues were synthesized and evaluated for acaricidal activity in vitro against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite. Among them, eight compounds showed the higher activity with median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) of 0.36-1.07mM (60.4-192.1µg/mL) and great potential for the development of novel acaricidal agent. Compound 40 showed both the lowest LC 50 value of 0.36mM (60.4µg/mL) and the smallest median lethal time (LT 50 ) of 2.6h at 4.5mM, comparable with ivermectin [LC 50 =0.28mM (247.4µg/mL), LT 50 =8.9h], an acaricidal drug standard. SAR analysis showed that the carbonyl group is crucial for the activity. The type and chain length of the alkoxy in the ester moiety and the steric hindrance near the ester group significantly influence the activity. The esters were more active than the corresponding thiol esters, amides, ketones or acids. Replacement of the phenyl group of cinnamic esters with α-pyridyl or α-furanyl significantly increase the activity. Thus, a series of cinnamic esters and its heteroaromatic ring analogues with excellent acaricidal activity emerged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ synthesis-gelation at room temperature vs. heating-cooling procedure. Fine tuning of molecular gels derived from succinic acid and L-valine.

    PubMed

    Fontanillo, Miriam; Angulo-Pachón, César A; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F

    2013-12-15

    The reaction between succinic anhydride and a diamine derived from L-valine should afford efficiently a molecular gelator. Based on this reaction, it should be feasible to prepare molecular gels at room temperature, avoiding the conventional thermal treatment required for the solubilization of the gelator, by in situ, simultaneous, synthesis and gelation. The gels prepared by in situ and conventional heating-cooling protocols could present important differences relevant for potential practical applications of these materials. The gelator was synthesized by reaction of succinic anhydride and a diamine derived from L-valine, affording two new amide bonds. The molecular gels were studied by IR, NMR, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and DSC. The results indicate that different polymorphic fibrillar networks are formed depending on the gel preparation method, highlighting how the properties of molecular gels can be tuned in this way. Significant differences between thermal and in situ gels were found in properties such as thermal stability, thixotropic behavior or release of an entrapped dye. In situ synthesis-gelation has also been shown to provide gels in media such as oleic acid which cannot be jellified by conventional heating-cooling procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HYPERSENSITIVITY TO PENICILLENIC ACID DERIVATIVES IN HUMAN BEINGS WITH PENICILLIN ALLERGY

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Charles W.; Shapiro, Jack; Kern, Milton; Eisen, Herman N.

    1962-01-01

    Multifunctional derivatives of penicillenic acid are effective elicitors of wheal-and-erythema skin responses in humans allergic to penicillin. Of the effective derivatives, penicilloyl-polylysines are particularly attractive as skin test reagents because they appear to be incapable of inducing antibody formation. The skin responses are specifically inhibitable in most instances by homologous unifunctional haptens. The penicillenic acid derivatives which appear to be determinants of human allergic reactions to penicillin are: penicilloyl, penicillenate, and groups of the penamaldate-penilloaldehyde type. Of these, the most significant appears to be the penicilloyl-lysyl determinant. PMID:14483916

  2. Endocannabinoid and cannabinoid-like fatty acid amide levels correlate with pain-related symptoms in patients with IBS-D and IBS-C: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fichna, Jakub; Wood, Jodianne T; Papanastasiou, Malvina; Vadivel, Subramanian K; Oprocha, Piotr; Sałaga, Maciej; Sobczak, Marta; Mokrowiecka, Anna; Cygankiewicz, Adam I; Zakrzewski, Piotr K; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Krajewska, Wanda M; Kościelniak, Piotr; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Storr, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, associated with alterations of bowel function, abdominal pain and other symptoms related to the GI tract. Recently the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) was shown to be involved in the physiological and pathophysiological control of the GI function. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether IBS defining symptoms correlate with changes in endocannabinoids or cannabinoid like fatty acid levels in IBS patients. AEA, 2-AG, OEA and PEA plasma levels were determined in diarrhoea-predominant (IBS-D) and constipation-predominant (IBS-C) patients and were compared to healthy subjects, following the establishment of correlations between biolipid contents and disease symptoms. FAAH mRNA levels were evaluated in colonic biopsies from IBS-D and IBS-C patients and matched controls. Patients with IBS-D had higher levels of 2AG and lower levels of OEA and PEA. In contrast, patients with IBS-C had higher levels of OEA. Multivariate analysis found that lower PEA levels are associated with cramping abdominal pain. FAAH mRNA levels were lower in patients with IBS-C. IBS subtypes and their symptoms show distinct alterations of endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid-like fatty acid levels. These changes may partially result from reduced FAAH expression. The here reported changes support the notion that the ECS is involved in the pathophysiology of IBS and the development of IBS symptoms.

  3. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  4. Copoly(imide-amides) containing hexafluoroisopropylidene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, David J.; Cassidy, Patrick E.; Cameron, Mitch L.

    1990-01-01

    The incorporation of the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP or 6F) group into polymer backbones brings about important and useful changes in properties. These differences include increased thermal and environmental resistance and solubility and decreased dielectric constant and color. Several types of backbones have been substrates for the inclusion of HFIP and all results have reflected impressive property benefits. This project involved the incorporation of 6F groups into a poly(imide-amide) backbone by the condensation of a 6F-containing dianhydride with 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield a diimide terminated with two carboxylic acid groups. This diacid trimer was then polymerized with various diamines. The polymers were obtained in yields of 86-94 percent and with viscosities of 0.90-2.26 dL/g. They were stable to above 500 C and clear, colorless films could be cast from DMAc.

  5. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations - A review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cindy J; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    Fermented foods are valued for their rich and complex odour and taste. The metabolic activity of food-fermenting microorganisms determines food quality and generates odour and taste compounds. This communication reviews the formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations. Pathways of the generation of taste compounds are presented for soy sauce, cheese, fermented meats, and bread. Proteolysis or autolysis during food fermentations generates taste-active amino acids and peptides; peptides derived from proteolysis particularly impart umami taste (e.g. α-glutamyl peptides) or bitter taste (e.g. hydrophobic peptides containing proline). Taste active peptide derivatives include pyroglutamyl peptides, γ-glutamyl peptides, and succinyl- or lactoyl amino acids. The influence of fermentation microbiota on proteolysis, and peptide hydrolysis, and the metabolism of glutamate and arginine is well understood, however, the understanding of microbial metabolic activities related to the formation of taste-active peptide derivatives is incomplete. Improved knowledge of the interactions between taste-active compounds will enable the development of novel fermentation strategies to develop tastier, less bitter, and low-salt food products, and may provide novel and "clean label" ingredients to improve the taste of other food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition kinetics and molecular simulation of p-substituted cinnamic acid derivatives on tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Hu, Yong-Hua; Yu, Feng; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Lin-Shan; Chen, Qing-Xi; Wang, Qin

    2017-02-01

    This study was to investigate the inhibition effects of para-substituted cinnamic acid derivatives (4-chlorocinnamic acid, 4-ethoxycinnamic acid and 4-nitrocinnamic acid) on tyrosinase catalyzing the substrates, with the purpose of elucidating the inhibition mechanism of the tested derivatives on tyrosinase by the UV-vis spectrum, fluorescence spectroscopy, copper interacting and molecular docking, respectively. The native-PAGE results showed that 4-chlorocinnamic acid (4-CCA), 4-ethoxycinnamic acid (4-ECA) and 4-nitrocinnamic acid (4-NCA) had inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. Spectrophotometric analysis used to determine the inhibition capabilities of these compounds on tyrosinase catalyzing L-tyrosine (L-Tyr) and L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as well. The IC 50 values and inhibition constants were further determined. Moreover, quenching mechanisms of tested compounds to tyrosinase belonged to static type and a red shift on fluorescence emission peak occurred when 4-NCA added. Copper interacting and molecular docking demonstrated that 4-CCA could not bind directly to the copper, but it could interact with residues in the active center of tyrosinase. Meanwhile, 4-ECA and 4-NCA could chelate a copper ion of tyrosinase. Anti-tyrosinase activities of para-substituted cinnamic acid derivatives would lay scientific foundation for their utilization in designing of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of amide-functionalized cellulose esters by olefin cross-metathesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangtao; Edgar, Kevin J

    2015-11-05

    Cellulose esters with amide functionalities were synthesized by cross-metathesis (CM) reaction of terminally olefinic esters with different acrylamides, catalyzed by Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst. Chelation by amides of the catalyst ruthenium center caused low conversions using conventional solvents. The effects of both solvent and structure of acrylamide on reaction conversion were investigated. While the inherent tendency of acrylamides to chelate Ru is governed by the acrylamide N-substituents, employing acetic acid as a solvent significantly improved the conversion of certain acrylamides, from 50% to up to 99%. Homogeneous hydrogenation using p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide successfully eliminated the α,β-unsaturation of the CM products to give stable amide-functionalized cellulose esters. The amide-functionalized product showed higher Tg than its starting terminally olefinic counterpart, which may have resulted from strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the amide functional groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NSAID-derived γ-secretase modulation requires an acidic moiety on the carbazole scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zall, Andrea; Kieser, Daniel; Höttecke, Nicole; Naumann, Eva C; Thomaszewski, Binia; Schneider, Katrin; Steinbacher, Dirk T; Schubenel, Robert; Masur, Stefan; Baumann, Karlheinz; Schmidt, Boris

    2011-08-15

    Modulation of γ-secretase activity holds potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Most NSAID-derived γ-secretase modulators feature a carboxylic acid, which may impair blood-brain barrier permeation. The structure activity relationship of 33 carbazoles featuring diverse carboxylic acid isosteres or metabolic precursors thereof was established in a cellular amyloid secretion assay. The modulatory activity was observed for acidic moieties and metabolically labile esters only, which supports our hypothesis of an acid-lysine interaction to be relevant for this type of γ-secretase modulators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluoride-Mediated Capture of a Noncovalent Bound State of a Reversible Covalent Enzyme Inhibitor: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Exceptionally Potent [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine

    2011-11-02

    Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (K{sub i} = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitormore » within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same 'in action' state with the three catalytic residues Ser241-Ser217-Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of {alpha}-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed.« less

  12. The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene variant rs324420 AA/AC is not associated with weight loss in a 1-year lifestyle intervention for obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Knoll, N; Volckmar, A-L; Pütter, C; Scherag, A; Kleber, M; Hebebrand, J; Hinney, A; Reinehr, T

    2012-01-01

    Adult obese carriers of the A allele of SNP rs324420 in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene lose more weight and improve associated phenotypes better than non-carriers during an intervention. We aimed to replicate this finding in obese children and adolescents undergoing a one year lifestyle intervention (Obeldicks program). A total of 453 overweight and obese children and adolescents (10.8±2.6 years, BMI-SDS 2.4±0.5; 55% girls) were genotyped for rs324420 (C/A) by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Participants were prescribed a balanced diet, containing 55 En% carbohydrates, 30 En% fat, and 15 En% proteins. Moreover, they took part in an exercise therapy once a week. Blood was taken at baseline and after 1 year of intervention. Anthropometric (height, weight, BMI, and BMI-SDS) and plasma parameters (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA) as well as blood pressure were measured. Both mean BMI and BMI-SDS improved significantly. The mean systolic blood pressure was also lowered and concentrations of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly. However, none of the measured changes were associated with FAAH rs324420 AA/AC genotype. We did not detect evidence for an association of FAAH genotypes with weight reduction in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Hence, the previous finding in adults could not be confirmed. As the length (1 year as compared to 3 months) and mode of treatment (hypocaloric diet in adults vs. physical activity plus balanced meals) of the interventions varied, these parameters might have influenced the inconsistent results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. 40 CFR 721.3720 - Fatty amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty amide. 721.3720 Section 721.3720... Fatty amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a fatty amide (PMN P-91-87) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2120 - Cyclic amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyclic amide. 721.2120 Section 721... Cyclic amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a cyclic amide (PMN P-92-131) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  15. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and esters and their anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kongkathip, Boonsong; Akkarasamiyo, Sunisa; Hasitapan, Komkrit; Sittikul, Pichamon; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Kongkathip, Ngampong

    2013-02-01

    Fourteen new naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and seventeen naphthoquinone aliphatic esters were synthesized in nine to ten steps from 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with 9-25% overall yield for the amides, and 16-21% overall yield for the esters. The key step of the amide synthesis is a coupling reaction between amine and various aliphatic acids using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling agent while for the ester synthesis, DCC/DMAP or CDI was used as the coupling reagent between aliphatic acids and naphthoquinone alcohol. Both naphthoquinone amides and esters were evaluated for their anticancer activity against KB cells. It was found that naphthoquinone aliphatic amides showed stronger anticancer activity than those of the esters when the chains are longer than 7-carbon atoms. The optimum chain of amides is expected to be 16-carbon atoms. In addition, naphthoquinone aliphatic esters with α-methyl on the ester moiety possessed much stronger anticancer activity than the straight chains. Decatenation assay revealed that naphthoquinone amide with 16-carbon atoms chain at 15 μM and 20 μM can completely inhibit hTopoIIα activity while at 10 μM the enzyme activity was moderately inhibited. Molecular docking result also showed the same trend as the cytotoxicity and decatenation assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Sinapic acid or its derivatives interfere with abscisic acid homeostasis during Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bi, Baodi; Tang, Jingliang; Han, Shuang; Guo, Jinggong; Miao, Yuchen

    2017-06-06

    Sinapic acid and its esters have broad functions in different stages of seed germination and plant development and are thought to play a role in protecting against ultraviolet irradiation. To better understand the interactions between sinapic acid esters and seed germination processes in response to various stresses, we analyzed the role of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of sinapic acid esters involved in seed germination and early seedling growth. We found that exogenous sinapic acid promotes seed germination in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that exogenous sinapic acid increased the sinapoylcholine content of imbibed seeds. Furthermore, sinapic acid affected ABA catabolism, resulting in reduced ABA levels and increased levels of the ABA-glucose ester. Using mutants deficient in the synthesis of sinapate esters, we showed that the germination of mutant sinapoylglucose accumulator 2 (sng2) and bright trichomes 1 (brt1) seeds was more sensitive to ABA than the wild-type. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants deficient in either abscisic acid deficient 2 (ABA2) or abscisic acid insensitive 3 (ABI3) displayed increased expression of the sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT) and sinapoylcholine esterase (SCE) genes with sinapic acid treatment. This treatment also affected the accumulation of sinapoylcholine and free choline during seed germination. We demonstrated that sinapoylcholine, which constitutes the major phenolic component in seeds among various minor sinapate esters, affected ABA homeostasis during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Our findings provide insights into the role of sinapic acid and its esters in regulating ABA-mediated inhibition of Arabidopsis seed germination in response to drought stress.

  17. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives: Mechanisms for Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Its Complications.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2017-02-21

    With recent insight into the development of dietary supplements and functional foods, search of effective phytochemical compounds and their mechanisms involved in prevention and management of diabetes and its complications are now being assessed. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives occur naturally in high levels of plant-based foods. Among various biological activities, cinnamic acid and its derivatives are associated with a beneficial influence on diabetes and its complications. The aim of the review is to summarize the potential mechanisms of these compounds for prevention and management of diabetes and its complications. Based on several in vitro studies and animal models, cinnamic acid and its derivatives act on different mechanism of actions, including stimulation of insulin secretion, improvement of pancreatic β-cell functionality, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhanced glucose uptake, increased insulin signaling pathway, delay of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, and inhibition of protein glycation and insulin fibrillation. However, due to the limited intestinal absorption being a result of low bioavailability of cinnamic acid and its derivatives, current improvement efforts with entrapping into solid and liquid particles are highlighted. Further human clinical studies are needed to clarify the effects of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in diabetic patients.

  18. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives: Mechanisms for Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2017-01-01

    With recent insight into the development of dietary supplements and functional foods, search of effective phytochemical compounds and their mechanisms involved in prevention and management of diabetes and its complications are now being assessed. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives occur naturally in high levels of plant-based foods. Among various biological activities, cinnamic acid and its derivatives are associated with a beneficial influence on diabetes and its complications. The aim of the review is to summarize the potential mechanisms of these compounds for prevention and management of diabetes and its complications. Based on several in vitro studies and animal models, cinnamic acid and its derivatives act on different mechanism of actions, including stimulation of insulin secretion, improvement of pancreatic β-cell functionality, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhanced glucose uptake, increased insulin signaling pathway, delay of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, and inhibition of protein glycation and insulin fibrillation. However, due to the limited intestinal absorption being a result of low bioavailability of cinnamic acid and its derivatives, current improvement efforts with entrapping into solid and liquid particles are highlighted. Further human clinical studies are needed to clarify the effects of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in diabetic patients. PMID:28230764

  19. Biotechnological production of caffeic acid derivatives from cell and organ cultures of Echinacea species.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.

  20. Polymer amide as an early topology.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Julie E M; McGeoch, Malcolm W

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic polymer amide (HPA) could have been one of the first normal density materials to accrete in space. We present ab initio calculations of the energetics of amino acid polymerization via gas phase collisions. The initial hydrogen-bonded di-peptide is sufficiently stable to proceed in many cases via a transition state into a di-peptide with an associated bound water molecule of condensation. The energetics of polymerization are only favorable when the water remains bound. Further polymerization leads to a hydrophobic surface that is phase-separated from, but hydrogen bonded to, a small bulk water complex. The kinetics of the collision and subsequent polymerization are discussed for the low-density conditions of a molecular cloud. This polymer in the gas phase has the properties to make a topology, viz. hydrophobicity allowing phase separation from bulk water, capability to withstand large temperature ranges, versatility of form and charge separation. Its flexible tetrahedral carbon atoms that alternate with more rigid amide groups allow it to deform and reform in hazardous conditions and its density of hydrogen bonds provides adhesion that would support accretion to it of silicon and metal elements to form a stellar dust material.

  1. Neuraminidase inhibition of Dietary chlorogenic acids and derivatives - potential antivirals from dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Mohamed; Matei, Marius-Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Illenberger, Susanne; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Plants rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs), caffeic acids and their derivatives have been found to exert antiviral effects against influenza virus neuroaminidase. In this study several dietary naturally occurring chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives were screened for their inhibitory activity against neuroaminidases (NAs) from C. perfringens, H5N1 and recombinant H5N1 (N-His)-Tag using a fluorometric assay. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the different NA enzymes. The enzyme inhibition results indicated that chlorogenic acids and selected derivatives, exhibited high activities against NAs. It seems that the catechol group from caffeic acid was important for the activity. Dietary CGA therefore show promise as potential antiviral agents. However, caffeoyl quinic acids show low bioavailibility and are intensly metabolized by the gut micro flora, only low nM concentrations are observed in plasma and urine, therefore a systemic antiviral effect of these compounds is unlikely. Nevertheless, gut floral metabolites with a catechol moiety or structurally related dietary phenolics with a catechol moiety might serve as interesting compounds for future investigations.

  2. Anti-proliferative ambuic acid derivatives from Hawaiian endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. FT172.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Shun; Yang, Bao-Jun; Turkson, James; Cao, Shugeng

    2017-08-01

    Five previously undescribed ambuic acid derivatives, pestallic acids A-E and three known analogs were isolated from the cultured broth of Pestalotiopsis sp. FT172. The structures of the pestallic acids A-E were determined through the analysis of HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations (ACs) of pestallic acids B-E were assigned by comparison of the experimental electric circular dichroism (ECD) spectra or the optical rotations with those in the literature. All compounds were tested against A2780 and cisplatin resistant A2780 (A2780CisR) cell lines. Pestallic acid E and (+)-ambuic acid showed potent activities with IC 50 values from 3.3 to 17.0 μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical Coupling of Biomass-Derived Acids: New C8 Platforms for Renewable Polymers and Fuels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linglin; Mascal, Mark; Farmer, Thomas J; Arnaud, Sacha Pérocheau; Wong Chang, Maria-Angelica

    2017-01-10

    Electrolysis of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C 6 for biofuels and renewable materials production. Kolbe coupling of biomass-derived levulinic acid is used to obtain 2,7-octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process-intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7-octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, whereas intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high-octane, cellulosic gasoline. Analogous electrolysis of an itaconic acid-derived methylsuccinic monoester yields a chiral 2,5-dimethyladipic acid diester, another underutilized monomer owing to lack of availability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Oxidation of phenolic acid derivatives by soil and its relevance to allelopathic activity.

    PubMed

    Ohno, T

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that phenolic acids from legume green manures may contribute to weed control through allelopathy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the oxidation reactions of phenolic acids in soil and to determine the subsequent effects of oxidation upon phytotoxicity. Soils were reacted for 18 h with 0.25 mmol L(-1) benzoic and cinnamic acid derivative solutions and Mn release from the suspension was used as a marker for phenolic acid oxidation. The extent of oxidation in soil suspensions was in the order of 3,4dihydroxy- > 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- > 4-hydroxy-approximately 2-hydroxy-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acids. The same ranking was observed for cyclic voltammetry peak currents of the cinnamic acid derivatives. This suggests that the oxidation of phenolic acids is controlled by the electron transfer step from the sorbed phenolic acid to the metal oxide. A bioassay experiment showed that the 4-hydroxy-, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-, and 3,4-dihydroxy-substituted cinnamic acids were bioactive at 0.25 mmol L(-1) concentration. Reaction with soil for 18 h resulted in the elimination of bioactivity of these three cinnamic acids at the 5% significance level. The oxidative reactivity of phenolic acids may limit the potential of allelopathy as a component of an integrated weed management system. However, the initial phytotoxicity after soil incorporation may coincide with the early, critical stage of weed emergence and establishment, so that allelopathic phenolic acids may still play a role in weed management despite their reactivity in soil systems.

  5. Pseudoephedrine-Directed Asymmetric α-Arylation of α-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Rachel C; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Mas Roselló, Josep; Clayden, Jonathan

    2015-07-27

    Available α-amino acids undergo arylation at their α position in an enantioselective manner on treatment with base of N'-aryl urea derivatives ligated to pseudoephedrine as a chiral auxiliary. In situ silylation and enolization induces diastereoselective migration of the N'-aryl group to the α position of the amino acid, followed by ring closure to a hydantoin with concomitant explulsion of the recyclable auxiliary. The hydrolysis of the hydantoin products provides derivatives of quaternary amino acids. The arylation avoids the use of heavy-metal additives, and is successful with a range of amino acids and with aryl rings of varying electronic character. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Lactic acid as an invaluable green solvent for ultrasound-assisted scalable synthesis of pyrrole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Fan; Guo, Chao-Lun; Cui, Ke-Ke; Zhu, Yan-Ting; Ding, Jun-Xiong; Zou, Xin-Yue; Li, Yi-Hang

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid has been used as a bio-based green solvent to study the ultrasound-assisted scale-up synthesis. We report here, for the first time, on the novel and scalable process for synthesis of pyrrole derivatives in lactic acid solvent under ultrasonic radiation. Eighteen pyrrole derivatives have been synthesized in lactic acid solvent under ultrasonic radiation and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, ESI MS. The results show, under ultrasonic radiation, lactic acid solvent can overcome the scale-up challenges and exhibited many advantages, such as bio-based origin, shorter reaction time, lower volatility, higher yields, and ease of isolating the products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of isoniazid derivatives from renewable fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marieli O; Cantos, Jéssica B; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Soares, Karina L; Coelho, Tatiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; Russowsky, Dennis; da Silva, Pedro A; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2013-11-15

    This work describes the synthesis of a series of fatty acid hydrazide derivatives of isoniazid (INH). The compounds were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) as well as INH-resistant (ATCC 35822 and 1896 HF) and rifampicin-resistant (ATCC 35338) M. tuberculosis strains. The fatty acid derivatives of INH showed high antimycobacterial potency against the studied strains, which is desirable for a pharmaceutical compound, suggesting that the increased lipophilicity of isoniazid plays an important role in its antimycobacterial activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of α,ω-polyfluorinated α-amino acid derivatives and δ,δ-difluoronorvaline.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Dirk; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Haufe, Günter

    2016-03-07

    Intending to synthesize ω,ω-difluoroalkyl amino acid derivatives by oxidative desulfurization-fluorination reactions of suitable arylthio-2-phthalimido butanoates and pentanoates, in addition to small amounts of the target products, mainly α,ω-polyfluorinated amino acid derivatives were formed by additional sulfur-assisted α-fluorination. This novel structural motif was verified spectroscopically as well as by X-ray analysis. A plausible mechanism of formation is suggested. Using a different approach, δ,δ-difluoronorvaline hydrochloride was synthesized with at least 36% enantiomeric excess via deoxofluorination of the corresponding aldehyde.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes host-derived lipoprotein particles as sources of exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Delekta, Phillip C; Shook, John C; Lydic, Todd A; Mulks, Martha H; Hammer, Neal D

    2018-03-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway (FASII). FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. However, many Gram-positive pathogens incorporate exogenous fatty acids, bypassing FASII inhibition and leaving the clinical potential of FASII inhibitors uncertain. Importantly, the source(s) of fatty acids available to pathogens within the host environment remains unclear. Fatty acids are transported throughout the body by lipoprotein particles in the form of triglycerides and esterified cholesterol. Thus, lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) represent a potentially rich source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. We sought to test the ability of LDLs to serve as a fatty acid source for S. aureus and show that cells cultured in the presence of human LDLs demonstrate increased tolerance to the FASII inhibitor, triclosan. Using mass spectrometry, we observed that host-derived fatty acids present in the LDLs are incorporated into the staphylococcal membrane and that tolerance to triclosan is facilitated by the fatty acid kinase A, FakA, and Geh, a triacylglycerol lipase. Finally, we demonstrate that human LDLs support the growth of S. aureus fatty acid auxotrophs. Together, these results suggest that human lipoprotein particles are a viable source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of bacterial fatty acid synthesis is a promising approach to combating infections caused by S. aureus and other human pathogens. However, S. aureus incorporates exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipid bilayer. Therefore, the

  11. Spin labeled amino acid nitrosourea derivatives--synthesis and antitumour activity.

    PubMed

    Zheleva, A; Raikov, Z; Ilarionova, M; Todorov, D

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of three spin labeled derivatives of N-[N'-(chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl] amino acids is reported. The new nitrosoureas are obtained by condensation of the corresponding N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl] amino acid with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-aminopiperidine using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Their chemical structures are confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, MS, and EPR spectroscopy. All newly synthesized compounds showed high antitumour activity against the lymphoid leukemia L1210 in BDF1 mice.

  12. Condensation Reactions and Formation of Amides, Esters, and Nitriles Under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2004-06-01

    Hydrothermal pyrolysis experiments were performed to assess condensation (dehydration) reactions to amide, ester, and nitrile functionalities from lipid precursors. Beside product formation, organic compound alteration and stability were also evaluated. Mixtures of nonadecanoic acid, hexadecanedioic acid, or hexadecanamide with water, ammonium bicarbonate, and oxalic acid were heated at 300°C for 72 h. In addition, mixtures of ammonium bicarbonate and oxalic acid solutions were used to test the abiotic formation of organic nitrogen compounds at the same temperature. The resulting products were condensation compounds such as amides, nitriles, and minor quantities of N-methylalkyl amides, alkanols, and esters. Mixtures of alkyl amide in water or oxalic acid yielded mainly hydrolysis and dehydration products, and with ammonium bicarbonate and oxalic acid the yield of condensation products was enhanced. The synthesis experiments with oxalic acid and ammonium bicarbonate solutions yielded homologous series of alkyl amides, alkyl amines, alkanes, and alkanoic acids, all with no carbon number predominances. These organic nitrogen compounds are stable and survive under the elevated temperatures of hydrothermal fluids.

  13. Self-assembled pentacenequinone derivative for trace detection of picric acid.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Vandana; Gupta, Ankush; Kumar, Manoj; Rao, D S Shankar; Prasad, S Krishna

    2013-02-01

    Pentacenequinone derivative 3 forms luminescent supramolecular aggregates both in bulk as well as in solution phase. In bulk phase at high temperature, long-range stacking of columns leads to formation of stable and ordered columnar mesophase. Further, derivative 3 works as sensitive chemosensor for picric acid (PA) and gel-coated paper strips detect PA at nanomolar level and provide a simple, portable, and low-cost method for detection of PA in aqueous solution, vapor phase, and in contact mode.

  14. Implications for eicosapentaenoic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins as therapeutics for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patricia R; Norling, Lucy V

    2016-08-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for health and are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties, improving cardiovascular health as well as benefiting inflammatory diseases. Indeed, dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has proved efficacious in reducing joint pain, morning stiffness and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs usage in rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, the mechanisms by which omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their beneficial effects have not been fully explored. Seminal discoveries by Serhan and colleagues have unveiled a novel class of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically biosynthesized in vivo from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), termed resolvins, protectins and maresins. These bioactive pro-resolving lipid mediators provide further rationale for the beneficial effects of fish-oil enriched diets. These endogenous lipid mediators are spatiotemporally biosynthesized to actively regulate resolution by acting on specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals that terminate inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the mechanism of actions of these molecules, including their analgesic and bone-sparing properties making them ideal therapeutic agonists for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury assisted fluorescent supramolecular assembly of hexaphenylbenzene derivative for femtogram detection of picric acid.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Subhamay; Bhalla, Vandana; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-09-02

    Aggregates of hexaphenylbenzene derivatives 3, having pyrene groups form network of fluorescent nanofibres in presence of mercury ions. Further, fluorescent nanofibres of 3-Hg(2+) supramolecular ensemble exhibit sensitive and pronounced response towards the picric acid. In addition, the solution coated paper strips of 3-Hg(2+) supramolecular ensemble can detect picric acid in the range of 2.29 fg/cm(2), thus, providing a simple, portable and low cost method for detection of picric acid in solution and in contact mode. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation by glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives of TPA-induced mouse ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Mori, T.; Shibata, S.; Koshihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    1. The anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced mouse ear oedema were studied. The mechanisms of TPA-induced ear oedema were first investigated with respect to the chemical mediators. 2. The formation of ear oedema reached a maximum 5 h after TPA application (2 micrograms per ear) and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production of mouse ear increased with the oedema formation. 3. TPA-induced ear oedema was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide (0.1 mg per ear, respectively) when applied during 60 min after TPA treatment. 4. Of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives examined, dihemiphthalate derivatives (IIe, IIe', IIIa, IIIa', IVa, IVa') most strongly inhibited ear oedema on both topical (ID50, 1.6 mg per ear for IIe, 2.0 mg per ear for IIIa and 1.6 mg per ear for IVa) and oral (ID50, 88 mg kg-1 for IIe', 130 mg kg-1 for IIIa' and 92 mg kg-1 for IVa') administration. 5. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and its derivatives applied 30 min before TPA treatment were much more effective in inhibiting oedema than when applied 30 min after TPA. A dihemiphthalate of triterpenoid compound IVa completely inhibited oedema, even when applied 3 h before TPA treatment. 6. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and deoxoglycyrrhetol (IIa), the parent compounds, produced little inhibition by oral administration at less than 200 mg kg-1. 7. These results suggest that the dihemiphthalate derivatives of triterpenes derived from glycyrrhetinic acid by chemical modification are useful for the treatment of skin inflammation by both topical and oral application. PMID:2924072

  17. Novel Acid Catalysts from Waste-Tire-Derived Carbon: Application in Waste-to-Biofuel Conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Li, Yunchao; ...

    2017-06-21

    Many inexpensive biofuel feedstocks, including those containing free fatty acids (FFAs) in high concentrations, are typically disposed of as waste due to our inability to efficiently convert them into usable biofuels. Here we demonstrate that carbon derived from waste tires could be functionalized with sulfonic acid (-SO 3H) to effectively catalyze the esterification of oleic acid or a mixture of fatty acids to usable biofuels. Waste tires were converted to hard carbon, then functionalized with catalytically active -SO 3H groups on the surface through an environmentally benign process that involved the sequential treatment with L-cysteine, dithiothreitol, and H 2O 2.more » In conclusion, when benchmarked against the same waste-tire derived carbon material treated with concentrated sulfuric acid at 150 °C, similar catalytic activity was observed. Both catalysts could also effectively convert oleic acid or a mixture of fatty acids and soybean oil to usable biofuels at 65 °C and 1 atm without leaching of the catalytic sites.« less

  18. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  19. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... titer (solidification point) shall not exceed 13.5 °C and unsaponifiable matter shall not exceed 0.5.... (2) The resin acid content does not exceed 0.01 as determined by ASTM method D1240-82, “Standard Test... the American Society for Testing Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, Philadelphia, PA...

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....5 °C and unsaponifiable matter shall not exceed 0.5 percent. The Director of the Office of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR.../ibr-locations.html. (2) The resin acid content does not exceed 0.01 as determined by ASTM method D1240...