Weigl, Bernhard H.; Domingo, Gonzalo; Gerlach, Jay; Tang, Dennis; Harvey, Darrel; Talwar, Nick; Fichtenholz, Alex; van Lew, Bill; LaBarre, Paul
We have developed components of a diagnostic disposable platform that has the dual purpose of providing molecular diagnostics at the point of care (POC) as well as stabilizing specimens for further analysis via a centralized surveillance system. This diagnostic is targeted for use in low-resource settings by minimally trained health workers. The disposable device does not require any additional instrumentation and will be almost as rapid and simple to use as a lateral flow strip test - yet will offer the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The low-cost integrated device is composed of three functional components: (1) a sample-processing subunit that generates clean and stabilized DNA from raw samples containing nucleic acids, (2) a NA amplification subunit, and (3) visual amplicon detection sub-unit. The device integrates chemical exothermic heating, temperature stabilization using phase-change materials, and isothermal nucleic acid amplification. The aim of developing this system is to provide pathogen detection with NAAT-level sensitivity in low-resource settings where there is no access to instrumentation. If a disease occurs, patients would be tested with the disposable in the field. A nucleic acid sample would be preserved within the spent disposable which could be sent to a central laboratory facility for further analysis if needed.
Lambert, Amy J; Martin, Denise A; Lanciotti, Robert S
We have developed nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and TaqMan nucleic acid amplification assays for the rapid detection of North American eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viral RNAs from samples collected in the field and clinical samples. The sensitivities of these assays have been compared to that of virus isolation. While all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays provide rapid detection of viral RNAs comparable to the isolation of viruses in Vero cells, the TaqMan assays for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs are the most sensitive. We have shown these assays to be specific for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs by testing geographically and temporally distinct strains of EEE and WEE viruses along with a battery of related and unrelated arthropodborne viruses. In addition, all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays have been used to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs from mosquito and vertebrate tissue samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of nucleic acid amplification demonstrate the usefulness of NASBA, standard RT-PCR, and TaqMan assays, in both research and diagnostic settings, to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs.
Fan, Wenhong (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)
Devices, methods, and kits for amplifying the signal from hybridization reactions between nucleic acid probes and their cognate targets are presented. The devices provide partially-duplexed, immobilized probe complexes, spatially separate from and separately addressable from immobilized docking strands. Cognate target acts catalytically to transfer probe from the site of probe complex immobilization to the site of immobilized docking strand, generating a detectable signal. The methods and kits of the present invention may be used to identify the presence of cognate target in a fluid sample.
Abd El Galil, Khaled H.; El Sokkary, M. A.; Kheira, S. M.; Salazar, Andre M.; Yates, Marylynn V.; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok
A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay in combination with a molecular beacon was developed for the real-time detection and quantification of hepatitis A virus (HAV). A 202-bp, highly conserved 5′ noncoding region of HAV was targeted. The sensitivity of the real-time NASBA assay was tested with 10-fold dilutions of viral RNA, and a detection limit of 1 PFU was obtained. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by testing with other environmental pathogens and indicator microorganisms, with only HAV positively identified. When combined with immunomagnetic separation, the NASBA assay successfully detected as few as 10 PFU from seeded lake water samples. Due to its isothermal nature, its speed, and its similar sensitivity compared to the real-time RT-PCR assay, this newly reported real-time NASBA method will have broad applications for the rapid detection of HAV in contaminated food or water. PMID:16269748
Szychta, Paweł; Westfal, Bogusław; Maciejczyk, Rafał; Smolarz, Beata; Romanowicz, Hanna; Krawczyk, Tomasz
Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of a one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA) for intraoperative detection of metastases to sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in comparison to examination of frozen sections, and to summarize the results of previous studies. Material and methods We enrolled 98 patients aged 58.13 ±10.74 years treated surgically for breast cancer, and 99 biopsies of SLNs were followed by analysis of 105 SLNs. The central 1 mm slice of SLN was used for examination of frozen sections, whereas 2 outer slices of SLNs were analyzed intraoperatively with OSNA. Detection of isolated tumor cells (ITC), micrometastases or macrometastases with OSNA extended surgery to axillary lymph node dissection. Congruency of results was assessed between OSNA and examination of frozen sections. Results One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected metastases in 29/105 SLNs in surgery of 27/99 breasts, including ITC in 3/29 SLNs, micrometastases in 12/29 and macrometastases in 14/29. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected significantly more metastases to SLNs than examination of frozen sections (p < 0.0001). All 8 inconsistent results were positive in OSNA and negative in examination of frozen sections; ITC were identified in 2/8 SLNs and micrometastases in 6/8 SLNs. Sensitivity for OSNA was calculated as 100%, specificity as 90.47%, and κ was 79.16%. Conclusions One-step nucleic acid amplification assay analysis allows rapid and quantitative detection of mRNA CK19 with high specificity and a low rate of false positives. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay is a reliable tool for intraoperative diagnosis of whole SLNs during surgery of breast cancer. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay minimizes the need for secondary surgery and avoids delays in the adjuvant treatment. PMID:27904514
LaBarre, Paul; Boyle, David; Hawkins, Kenneth; Weigl, Bernhard
Many infectious diseases that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. However, existing nucleic acid amplification tests are too expensive and complex for most low-resource settings. The small numbers of centralized laboratories that exist in developing countries tend to be in urban areas and primarily cater to the affluent. In contrast, rural area health care facilities commonly have only basic equipment and health workers have limited training and little ability to maintain equipment and handle reagents.1 Reliable electric power is a common infrastructure shortfall. In this paper, we discuss a practical approach to the design and development of non-instrumented molecular diagnostic tests that exploit the benefits of isothermal amplification strategies. We identify modular instrument-free technologies for sample collection, sample preparation, amplification, heating, and detection. By appropriately selecting and integrating these instrument-free modules, we envision development of an easy to use, infrastructure independent diagnostic test that will enable increased use of highly accurate molecular diagnostics at the point of care in low-resource settings.
LaBarre, Paul; Boyle, David; Hawkins, Kenneth; Weigl, Bernhard
Many infectious diseases that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. However, existing nucleic acid amplification tests are too expensive and complex for most low-resource settings. The small numbers of centralized laboratories that exist in developing countries tend to be in urban areas and primarily cater to the affluent. In contrast, rural area health care facilities commonly have only basic equipment and health workers have limited training and little ability to maintain equipment and handle reagents.1 Reliable electric power is a common infrastructure shortfall. In this paper, we discuss a practical approach to the design and development of non-instrumented molecular diagnostic tests that exploit the benefits of isothermal amplification strategies. We identify modular instrument-free technologies for sample collection, sample preparation, amplification, heating, and detection. By appropriately selecting and integrating these instrument-free modules, we envision development of an easy to use, infrastructure independent diagnostic test that will enable increased use of highly accurate molecular diagnostics at the point of care in low-resource settings. PMID:25089171
Vollmer, T; Knabbe, C; Dreier, J
Acute primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, which commonly occur asymptomatically among blood donors, represent a significant risk for serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients (a major group of transfusion recipients). We implemented a routine CMV pool screening procedure for plasma for the identification of CMV DNA-positive donors, and we evaluated the sensitivities and performance of different CMV DNA amplification systems. Minipools (MPs) of samples from 18,405 individual donors (54,451 donations) were screened for CMV DNA using the RealStar CMV PCR assay (Altona Diagnostic Technologies), with a minimum detection limit of 11.14 IU/ml. DNA was extracted with a high-volume protocol (4.8 ml, Chemagic Viral 5K kit; PerkinElmer) for blood donor pool screening (MP-nucleic acid testing [NAT]) and with the Nuclisens easyMAG system (0.5 ml; bioMérieux) for individual donation (ID)-NAT. In total, six CMV DNA-positive donors (0.03%) were identified by routine CMV screening, with DNA concentrations ranging from 4.35 × 10(2) to 4.30 × 10(3) IU/ml. Five donors already showed seroconversion and detectable IgA, IgM, and/or IgG antibody titers (IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(-) or IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(+)), and one donor showed no CMV-specific antibodies. Comparison of three commercial assays, i.e., the RealStar CMV PCR kit, the Sentosa SA CMV quantitative PCR kit (Vela Diagnostics), and the CMV R-gene PCR kit (bioMérieux), for MP-NAT and ID-NAT showed comparably good analytical sensitivities, ranging from 10.23 to 11.14 IU/ml (MP-NAT) or from 37.66 to 57.94 IU/ml (ID-NAT). The clinical relevance of transfusion-associated CMV infections requires further investigation, and the evaluated methods present powerful basic tools providing sensitive possibilities for viral testing. The application of CMV MP-NAT facilitated the identification of one donor with a window-phase donation during acute primary CMV infection.
Witt, Donald J.; Kemper, M.; Stead, Andrew; Sillekens, P.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Espy, Mark J.; Paya, Carlos V.; Smith, Thomas F.; Roeles, Frits; Caliendo, Angela M.
A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay for qualitative detection of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp67 mRNA was evaluated in a multicenter study. Negative results were obtained for all specimens from 50 CMV-seronegative and 50 CMV-seropositive low-risk whole-blood donors. No interference with CMV mRNA amplification was observed in the testing of 288 specimens containing various potential interfering substances, nonspecifically reacting substances (including mRNA from other herpesviruses), and three anticoagulants. A total of 95% (50 of 51) of CMV-positive (cell culture- and antigenemia immunofluorescence [AG-IFA]-positive) clinical specimens were positive by the NASBA assay. Results from different operators over multiple testing days were consistent for each of four panel members containing different concentrations of CMV mRNA, indicating the reproducibility of the assay. The estimated 95% reliable upper detection limit of the assay was 600 mRNA copies; the lower limit of detection was less than 25 mRNA copies. The clinical utility of the assay was evaluated with longitudinally collected specimens from solid-organ transplant patients (n = 21). A total of 98% (81 of 83) of the specimens from CMV-negative patients were negative by the NASBA assay, while 90% (10 of 11) of patient specimens that were positive by cell culture or AG-IFA were positive by the NASBA assay. Positive NASBA assay results were obtained earlier than AG-IFA or cell culture results for 55% of the patients and at the same time for the remainder of the patients (45%). The overall agreement between the NASBA assay and current reference tests was 86% when active CMV infection was present. These studies indicate that the CMV pp67 mRNA NASBA assay has reproducible and sensitive performance characteristics that should enable more rapid diagnosis of CMV infection. PMID:11060058
Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai
Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed.
Laboratory based diagnosis of infectious diseases usually relies on culture of the disease causing micro-organism, followed by identification and susceptibility testing. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, requires very specific culture conditions (e.g. specific liquid media, long term cul-ture) traditional bacteriology is often not done on a routine basis. Instead, confirmation of the clinical diagnosis needs ei-ther indirect techniques (like serology or measurement of cellular activity in the presence of antigens) or direct but culture independent techniques, like microscopy or nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being the most frequently applied NAT method in routine laboratories. NAT uses nucleic acids of the disease causing micro-organism as template for amplification, isolated from various sources of clinical specimens. Although the underlying principle, adoption of the enzymatic process running during DNA duplication prior to prokaryotic cell division, is comparatively easy, a couple of 'pitfalls' is associated with the technique itself as well as with interpretation of the results. At present, no commercial, CE-marked and sufficiently validated PCR assay is available. A number of homebrew assays have been published, which are different in terms of target (i.e. the gene targeted by the amplification primers), method (nested PCR, PCR followed by hybridization, real-time PCR) and validation criteria. Inhibitory compounds may lead to false negative results, if no appropriate internal control is included. Carry-over of amplicons, insufficient handling and workflow and/or insufficiently validated targets/primers may result in false positive results. Different targets may yield different analytical sensitivity, depending, among other factors, of the redundancy of a target gene in the genome. Per-formance characteristics (e.g. analytical sensitivity and
Laboratory based diagnosis of infectious diseases usually relies on culture of the disease causing micro-organism, followed by identification and susceptibility testing. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, requires very specific culture conditions (e.g. specific liquid media, long term cul-ture) traditional bacteriology is often not done on a routine basis. Instead, confirmation of the clinical diagnosis needs ei-ther indirect techniques (like serology or measurement of cellular activity in the presence of antigens) or direct but culture independent techniques, like microscopy or nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being the most frequently applied NAT method in routine laboratories. NAT uses nucleic acids of the disease causing micro-organism as template for amplification, isolated from various sources of clinical specimens. Although the underlying principle, adoption of the enzymatic process running during DNA duplication prior to prokaryotic cell division, is comparatively easy, a couple of ‘pitfalls’ is associated with the technique itself as well as with interpretation of the results. At present, no commercial, CE-marked and sufficiently validated PCR assay is available. A number of homebrew assays have been published, which are different in terms of target (i.e. the gene targeted by the amplification primers), method (nested PCR, PCR followed by hybridization, real-time PCR) and validation criteria. Inhibitory compounds may lead to false negative results, if no appropriate internal control is included. Carry-over of amplicons, insufficient handling and workflow and/or insufficiently validated targets/primers may result in false positive results. Different targets may yield different analytical sensitivity, depending, among other factors, of the redundancy of a target gene in the genome. Per-formance characteristics (e.g. analytical sensitivity and
Mattiuzzo, Giada; Ashall, James; Doris, Kathryn S; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Nicolson, Carolyn; Wilkinson, Dianna E; Harvey, Ruth; Almond, Neil; Anderson, Robert; Efstathiou, Stacey; Minor, Philip D; Page, Mark
The 2013-present Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa has prompted the production of many diagnostic assays, mostly based on nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAT). The calibration and performance assessment of established assays and those under evaluation requires reference materials that can be used in parallel with the clinical sample to standardise or control for every step of the procedure, from extraction to the final qualitative/quantitative result. We have developed safe and stable Ebola virus RNA reference materials by encapsidating anti sense viral RNA into HIV-1-like particles. The lentiviral particles are replication-deficient and non-infectious due to the lack of HIV-1 genes and Envelope protein. Ebola virus genes were subcloned for encapsidation into two lentiviral preparations, one containing NP-VP35-GP and the other VP40 and L RNA. Each reference material was formulated as a high-titre standard for use as a calibrator for secondary or internal standards, and a 10,000-fold lower titre preparation to serve as an in-run control. The preparations have been freeze-dried to maximise stability. These HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials were suitable for use with in-house and commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays and with digital RT-PCR. The HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials are stable at up to 37°C for two weeks, allowing the shipment of the material worldwide at ambient temperature. These results support further evaluation of the HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials as part of an International collaborative study for the establishment of the 1st International Standard for Ebola virus RNA.
Lu, Xiaolu; Shi, Xueyao; Wu, Gege; Wu, Tiantian; Qin, Rui; Wang, Yi
The split G-quadruplex DNAzyme has emerged as a valuable tool for visual DNA detection. Here, we successfully integrated colorimetric split G-quadruplex DNAzyme assay with nucleic acid sequence-based amplification to generate a novel detection approach, allowing visual and rapid detection for the RNA of Shimen and HCLV strains of Classic Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). CSFV is a RNA virus that causes a highly contagious disease in domestic pigs and wild boar. With this method, we were able to detect as little as 10 copies/ml of CSF viral RNA within 3 h in serum samples taken from the field. No interference was encountered in the amplification and detection of Classic Swine Fever Virus in the presence of non-target RNA or DNA. Moreover, Shimen and HCLV strains of Classic Swine Fever Virus could be easily differentiated using the NASBA-DNAzyme system. These findings indicate the NASBA-DNAzyme system is a rapid and practical technique for detecting and discriminating CSFV strains and may be applied to the detection of other RNA viruses. PMID:28287135
Ye, Sujuan; Wu, Yanying; Zhang, Wen; Li, Na; Tang, Bo
A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection system is developed for proteins and nucleic acids based on a triple-helix molecular switch for multiple cycle signal amplification, achieving high sensitivity, universality, rapid analysis, and high selectivity.
Padley, David J; Heath, Alan B; Sutherland, Colin; Chiodini, Peter L; Baylis, Sally A
Background In order to harmonize results for the detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA by nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays, a World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative study was performed, evaluating a series of candidate standard preparations. Methods Fourteen laboratories from 10 different countries participated in the collaborative study. Four candidate preparations based upon blood samples parasitaemic for P. falciparum were evaluated in the study. Sample AA was lyophilized, whilst samples BB, CC and DD were liquid/frozen preparations. The candidate standards were tested by each laboratory at a range of dilutions in four independent assays, using both qualitative and quantitative NAT-based assays. The results were collated and analysed statistically. Results Twenty sets of data were returned from the participating laboratories and used to determine the mean P. falciparum DNA content for each sample. The mean log10 "equivalents"/ml were 8.51 for sample AA, 8.45 for sample BB, 8.35 for sample CC, and 5.51 for sample DD. The freeze-dried preparation AA, was examined by accelerated thermal degradation studies and found to be highly stable. Conclusion On the basis of the collaborative study, the freeze-dried material, AA (NIBSC code No. 04/176) was established as the 1st WHO International Standard for P. falciparum DNA NAT-based assays and has been assigned a potency of 109 International Units (IU) per ml. Each vial contains 5 × 108 IU, equivalent to 0.5 ml of material after reconstitution. PMID:18652656
Uchida, Eriko; Yamaguchi, Teruhide
The most important issue for the safety of biological products and blood products derived from human sources is how to prevent transmission of infectious agents. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence. HCV is mainly transmitted by exposure to blood and highly infectious during the early window period with extremely low viral loads. Therefore it is important to develop more sensitive detection methods for HCV. In the case of blood products, both serological test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) are required to detect HCV. Since NAT is highly sensitive, establishment of a new standard is required for validation of NAT assay. NAT guideline and establishment of the standard for HCV RNA and HCV genotype panel is introduced in this review. On the other hand, to enhance the sensitivity of virus detection by NAT, a novel viral concentration method using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-conjugated magnetic beads (PEI beads) was developed. PEI beads concentration method is applicable to a wide range of viruses including HCV. Studies using the national standard for HCV RNA, HCV genotype panel and seroconversion panel, suggest that virus concentration method using PEI-beads is useful for improvement of the sensitivity of HCV detection by NAT and applicable to donor screening for HCV.
Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Filisetti, Denis; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Yera, Hélène
The molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis essentially relies upon laboratory-developed methods and suffers from lack of standardization, hence the large diversity of performances between laboratories. Moreover, quantifications of parasitic loads differ among centers, a fact which prevents the possible prediction of the severity of this disease as a function of parasitic loads. The objectives of this multicentric study performed in eight proficient laboratories of the Molecular Biology Pole of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis (NRC-T) were (i) to assess the suitability of a lyophilized preparation of Toxoplasma gondii as a common standard for use in this PCR-based molecular diagnosis and (ii) to make this standard available to the community. High-quality written procedures were used for the production and qualification of this standard. Three independent batches of this standard, containing concentrations ranging from 104 to 0.01 T. gondii genome equivalents per PCR, were first assessed: the linear dynamic range was ≥6 log, the intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) from a sample containing 10 T. gondii organisms per PCR were 0.3% to 0.42%, and the interassay CV over a 2-week period was 0.76% to 1.47%. A further assessment in eight diagnostic centers showed that the standard is stable, robust, and reliable. These lyophilized standards can easily be produced at a larger scale when needed and can be made widely available at the national level. To our knowledge, this is the first quality control assessment of a common standard which is usable both for self-evaluation in laboratories and for accurate quantification of parasitic loads in T. gondii prenatal infections. PMID:25187637
Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Filisetti, Denis; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Yera, Hélène; Bastien, Patrick
The molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis essentially relies upon laboratory-developed methods and suffers from lack of standardization, hence the large diversity of performances between laboratories. Moreover, quantifications of parasitic loads differ among centers, a fact which prevents the possible prediction of the severity of this disease as a function of parasitic loads. The objectives of this multicentric study performed in eight proficient laboratories of the Molecular Biology Pole of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis (NRC-T) were (i) to assess the suitability of a lyophilized preparation of Toxoplasma gondii as a common standard for use in this PCR-based molecular diagnosis and (ii) to make this standard available to the community. High-quality written procedures were used for the production and qualification of this standard. Three independent batches of this standard, containing concentrations ranging from 10(4) to 0.01 T. gondii genome equivalents per PCR, were first assessed: the linear dynamic range was ≥ 6 log, the intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) from a sample containing 10 T. gondii organisms per PCR were 0.3% to 0.42%, and the interassay CV over a 2-week period was 0.76% to 1.47%. A further assessment in eight diagnostic centers showed that the standard is stable, robust, and reliable. These lyophilized standards can easily be produced at a larger scale when needed and can be made widely available at the national level. To our knowledge, this is the first quality control assessment of a common standard which is usable both for self-evaluation in laboratories and for accurate quantification of parasitic loads in T. gondii prenatal infections.
Hønsvall, Birgitte K; Robertson, Lucy J
Both Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are often associated with cryptosporidiosis in humans, but whereas humans are the main host for C. hominis, C. parvum is zoonotic and able to infect a variety of species. The oocyst transmission stages of both species of parasites are morphologically identical and molecular techniques, usually polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are required to distinguish between oocysts detected by standard methods in environmental samples, such as water. In this study, we developed two primer sets for real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), targeting the MIC1 transcript in C. parvum (CpMIC1) and C. hominis (ChMIC1). Using these primer sets, we were not only able to detect low numbers of C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts (down to 5 oocysts in 10 μl, and down to 1 oocyst using diluted RNA samples), but also distinguish between them. One of the primer sets targeted an exon only occurring in CpMIC1, thereby providing a tool for distinguishing C. parvum from other Cryptosporidium species. Although mRNA has been suggested as a tool for assessing viability of Cryptosporidium oocysts, as it is short-lived and may have high transcription, this NASBA assay detected MIC1 mRNA in inactivated oocysts. RNA within the oocysts seems to be protected from degradation, even when the oocysts have been killed by heating or freeze-thawing. Thus, our approach detects both viable and non-viable oocysts, and RNA does not seem to be a suitable marker for assessing oocyst viability.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of... Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay for the Detection of Enterovirus...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of... Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay for the Detection of Enterovirus...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of... Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay for the Detection of Enterovirus...
Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Faye, Oumar; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Heidenreich, Doris; Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Manopwisedjaroen, Khajohnpong; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Sall, Amadou A.; Hufert, Frank T.; Weidmann, Manfred
Background Over 2.5 billion people are exposed to the risk of contracting dengue fever (DF). Early diagnosis of DF helps to diminish its burden on public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase amplification assays (RT-PCR) are the standard method for molecular detection of the dengue virus (DENV). Real-time RT-PCR analysis is not suitable for on-site screening since mobile devices are large, expensive, and complex. In this study, two RT-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assays were developed to detect DENV1-4. Methodology/Principal Findings Using two quantitative RNA molecular standards, the analytical sensitivity of a RT-RPA targeting the 3´non-translated region of DENV1-4 was found to range from 14 (DENV4) to 241 (DENV1-3) RNA molecules detected. The assay was specific and did not cross detect other Flaviviruses. The RT-RPA assay was tested in a mobile laboratory combining magnetic-bead based total nucleic acid extraction and a portable detection device in Kedougou (Senegal) and in Bangkok (Thailand). In Kedougou, the RT-RPA was operated at an ambient temperature of 38°C with auxiliary electricity tapped from a motor vehicle and yielded a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 98% (n=31) and 100% (n=23), respectively. While in the field trial in Bangkok, the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 72% (n=90) and 100%(n=41), respectively. Conclusions/Significance During the first 5 days of infection, the developed DENV1-4 RT-RPA assays constitute a suitable accurate and rapid assay for DENV diagnosis. Moreover, the use of a portable fluorescence-reading device broadens its application potential to the point-of-care for outbreak investigations. PMID:26075598
Zheng, Aihua; Luo, Ming; Xiang, Dongshan; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike
We have developed a new fluorescence method for specific single-stranded DNA sequences with exonuclease III (Exo III) and nucleic acid dye SYBR Green I. It is demonstrated by a reverse transcription oligonucleotide sequence (target DNA, 27 bases) of RNA fragment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a model system. In the absence of the target DNA, the hairpin-probe is in the stem-closed structure, the fluorescence of SYBR Green I is very strong. In the presence of the target DNA, the hairpin-probe hybridizes with the target DNA to form double-stranded structure with a blunt 3'-terminus. Thus, in the presence of Exo III, only the 3'-terminus of probe is subjected to digestion. Exo III catalyzes the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from this terminus, releasing the target DNA. The released target DNA then hybridizes with another probe, whence the cycle starts anew. The signal of SYBR Green I decreases greatly. This system provides a detection limit of 160 pM, which is comparable to the existing signal amplification methods that utilized Exo III as a signal amplification nuclease. Due to the unique property of Exo III, this method shows excellent detection selectivity for single-base discrimination. More importantly, superiors to other methods based on Exo III, these probes have the advantages of easier to design, synthesize, purify and thus are much cheaper and more applicable. This new approach could be widely applied to sensitive and selective nucleic acids detection.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of primers, probes, enzymes, and controls for the amplification and detection of enterovirus ribonucleic...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of primers, probes, enzymes, and controls for the amplification and detection of enterovirus ribonucleic...
Abuidrees, Aqeela S; Alghafri, Rashed H; Hadi, Sibte
A multiplex PCR assay consisting of 13 Rapidly Mutating Y STR loci called RM-Yplex was previously developed. Platinum(®) Taq DNA polymerase was used to amplify the 13 Y STR loci in a single reaction at an amplification time of approximately 2.5 h. In order to shorten the process with reliable results, two DNA polymerases were tested with the multiplex. Phusion(®) Flash High Fidelity, TAKARA Z-taq(TM) , and Platinum(®) Taq DNA polymerases were investigated for conducting RM-Yplex assay at various PCR cycling conditions. Rapid, robust, and efficient amplification of all the markers within the multiplex were achieved. The amplification time was reduced from 2.5 h to less than 28 min with Phusion(®) Flash High Fidelity DNA polymerase using Veriti(®) PCR thermal cycler.
Ginocchio, C. C.; Tetali, S.; Washburn, D.; Zhang, F.; Kaplan, M. H.
This study compared levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the Quantiplex branched-DNA and NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays. RNA was detectable in 118 of 184 samples (64.13%) by the Quantiplex assay and in 171 of 184 samples (92.94%) by the NucliSens assay. Regression analysis indicated that a linear relationship existed between the two sets of values (P < 0.0001), although the Quantiplex and NucliSens values were significantly different (P < 0.001), with the NucliSens values being approximately 0.323 log higher. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the overall changes in patient viral load patterns were highly correlative between the two assays: r = 0.912, P < 0.0001. The lower limits of sensitivity were determined to be approximately 100 copies/ml and 1,200 to 1,400 copies/ml for the NucliSens and Quantiplex assays, respectively. PMID:10074556
Ginocchio, C C; Tetali, S; Washburn, D; Zhang, F; Kaplan, M H
This study compared levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the Quantiplex branched-DNA and NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays. RNA was detectable in 118 of 184 samples (64.13%) by the Quantiplex assay and in 171 of 184 samples (92.94%) by the NucliSens assay. Regression analysis indicated that a linear relationship existed between the two sets of values (P < 0.0001), although the Quantiplex and NucliSens values were significantly different (P < 0.001), with the NucliSens values being approximately 0.323 log higher. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the overall changes in patient viral load patterns were highly correlative between the two assays: r = 0.912, P < 0.0001. The lower limits of sensitivity were determined to be approximately 100 copies/ml and 1,200 to 1,400 copies/ml for the NucliSens and Quantiplex assays, respectively.
Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Otto, Peter; Tomaso, Herbert; Escudero, Raquel; Anda, Pedro; Hufert, Frank T.
Several real-time PCR approaches to develop field detection for Francisella tularensis, the infectious agent causing tularemia, have been explored. We report the development of a novel qualitative real-time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for use on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were tested using a plasmid standard and DNA extracts from infected rabbit tissues. The assay showed a performance comparable to real-time PCR but reduced the assay time to 10 min. The rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:22518861
Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Otto, Peter; Tomaso, Herbert; Escudero, Raquel; Anda, Pedro; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred
Several real-time PCR approaches to develop field detection for Francisella tularensis, the infectious agent causing tularemia, have been explored. We report the development of a novel qualitative real-time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for use on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were tested using a plasmid standard and DNA extracts from infected rabbit tissues. The assay showed a performance comparable to real-time PCR but reduced the assay time to 10 min. The rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point-of-care diagnostics.
Wang, Cong; Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Litao
Isothermal DNA/RNA amplification techniques are the primary methodology for developing on-spot rapid nucleic acid amplification assays, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been developed and applied in the detection of foodborne pathogens, plant/animal viruses, and genetically modified (GM) food/feed contents. In this study, one set of LAMP assays targeting on eight frequently used universal elements, marker genes, and exogenous target genes, such as CaMV35S promoter, FMV35S promoter, NOS, bar, cry1Ac, CP4 epsps, pat, and NptII, were developed for visual screening of GM contents in plant-derived food samples with high efficiency and accuracy. For these eight LAMP assays, their specificity was evaluated by testing commercial GM plant events and their limits of detection were also determined, which are 10 haploid genome equivalents (HGE) for FMV35S promoter, cry1Ac, and pat assays, as well as five HGE for CaMV35S promoter, bar, NOS terminator, CP4 epsps, and NptII assays. The screening applicability of these LAMP assays was further validated successfully using practical canola, soybean, and maize samples. The results suggested that the established visual LAMP assays are applicable and cost-effective for GM screening in plant-derived food samples.
Ong, Carmichael; Tai, Warren; Sarma, Aartik; Opal, Steven M; Artenstein, Andrew W; Tripathi, Anubhav
This work presents a novel method for detecting nucleic acid targets using a ligation step along with an isothermal, exponential amplification step. We use an engineered ssDNA with two variable regions on the ends, allowing us to design the probe for optimal reaction kinetics and primer binding. This two-part probe is ligated by T4 DNA Ligase only when both parts bind adjacently to the target. The assay demonstrates that the expected 72-nt RNA product appears only when the synthetic target, T4 ligase, and both probe fragments are present during the ligation step. An extraneous 38-nt RNA product also appears due to linear amplification of unligated probe (P3), but its presence does not cause a false-positive result. In addition, 40 mmol/L KCl in the final amplification mix was found to be optimal. It was also found that increasing P5 in excess of P3 helped with ligation and reduced the extraneous 38-nt RNA product. The assay was also tested with a single nucleotide polymorphism target, changing one base at the ligation site. The assay was able to yield a negative signal despite only a single-base change. Finally, using P3 and P5 with longer binding sites results in increased overall sensitivity of the reaction, showing that increasing ligation efficiency can improve the assay overall. We believe that this method can be used effectively for a number of diagnostic assays.
Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences.
Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun
Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).
Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann
Human norovirus is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Rapid detection could facilitate control, however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust and portable methods. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal method which rapidly amplifies and detects nucleic acids using a simple device in near real-time. An RT-RPA assay targeting a recent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 New Orleans) was developed and evaluated in this study. The assay successfully detected purified norovirus RNA from multiple patient outbreak isolates and had a limit of detection of 3.40 ± 0.20 log10 genomic copies (LGC), which is comparable to most other reported isothermal norovirus amplification methods. The assay also detected norovirus in directly boiled stool, and displayed better resistance to inhibitors than a commonly used RT-qPCR assay. The assay was specific, as it did not amplify genomes from 9 non-related enteric viruses and bacteria. The assay detected norovirus in some samples in as little as 6 min, and the entire detection process can be performed in less than 30 min. The reported RT-RPA method shows promise for sensitive point-of-care detection of epidemic human norovirus, and is the fastest human norovirus amplification method to date.
Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann
Human norovirus is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Rapid detection could facilitate control, however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust and portable methods. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal method which rapidly amplifies and detects nucleic acids using a simple device in near real-time. An RT-RPA assay targeting a recent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 New Orleans) was developed and evaluated in this study. The assay successfully detected purified norovirus RNA from multiple patient outbreak isolates and had a limit of detection of 3.40 ± 0.20 log10 genomic copies (LGC), which is comparable to most other reported isothermal norovirus amplification methods. The assay also detected norovirus in directly boiled stool, and displayed better resistance to inhibitors than a commonly used RT-qPCR assay. The assay was specific, as it did not amplify genomes from 9 non-related enteric viruses and bacteria. The assay detected norovirus in some samples in as little as 6 min, and the entire detection process can be performed in less than 30 min. The reported RT-RPA method shows promise for sensitive point-of-care detection of epidemic human norovirus, and is the fastest human norovirus amplification method to date. PMID:28067278
Satoh, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Alexandrov, Maxym; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji
We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a continuous-flow system, and this allowed us to increase the sensitivity of a quantitative bioluminescence assay by controlling the number of ATP amplification cycles. We previously developed a bioluminescence assay coupled with ATP amplification using a batch system. However, it was difficult to control the number of amplification cycles. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a continuous-flow system, and significant linear correlations between amplified luminescence and initial ATP concentration were observed. When performing four cycles of continuous-flow ATP amplification, the gradient of amplification was 1.87(N). Whereas the lower quantifiable level was 500 pM without amplification, values as low as 50 pM ATP could be measured after amplification. The sensitivity thus increased 10-fold, with further improvements expected with additional amplification cycles. The continuous-flow system thus effectively increased the sensitivity of the quantitative bioluminescence assay.
Prithiviraj, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent; Jothikumar, Narayanan
In this study we report the development of a simple target-specific isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique, termed genome exponential amplification reaction (GEAR). Escherichia coli was selected as the microbial target to demonstrate the GEAR technique as a proof of concept. The GEAR technique uses a set of four primers; in the present study these primers targeted 5 regions on the 16S rRNA gene of E. coli. The outer forward and reverse Tab primer sequences are complementary to each other at their 5' end, whereas their 3' end sequences are complementary to their respective target nucleic acid sequences. The GEAR assay was performed at a constant temperature 60 °C and monitored continuously in a real-time PCR instrument in the presence of an intercalating dye (SYTO 9). The GEAR assay enabled amplification of as few as one colony forming units of E. coli per reaction within 30 min. We also evaluated the GEAR assay for rapid identification of bacterial colonies cultured on agar media directly in the reaction without DNA extraction. Cells from E. coli colonies were picked and added directly to GEAR assay mastermix without prior DNA extraction. DNA in the cells could be amplified, yielding positive results within 15 min.
Glais, Laurent; Jacquot, Emmanuel
Numerous molecular-based detection protocols include an amplification step of the targeted nucleic acids. This step is important to reach the expected sensitive detection of pathogens in diagnostic procedures. Amplifications of nucleic acid sequences are generally performed, in the presence of appropriate primers, using thermocyclers. However, the time requested to amplify molecular targets and the cost of the thermocycler machines could impair the use of these methods in routine diagnostics. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique allows rapid (short-term incubation of sample and primers in an enzymatic mixture) and simple (isothermal) amplification of molecular targets. RPA protocol requires only basic molecular steps such as extraction procedures and agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, RPA can be considered as an interesting alternative to standard molecular-based diagnostic tools. In this paper, the complete procedures to set up an RPA assay, applied to detection of RNA (Potato virus Y, Potyvirus) and DNA (Wheat dwarf virus, Mastrevirus) viruses, are described. The proposed procedure allows developing species- or subspecies-specific detection assay.
Performance of self-collected penile-meatal swabs compared to clinician-collected urethral swabs for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium by nucleic acid amplification assays.
Dize, Laura; Barnes, Perry; Barnes, Mathilda; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Marsiglia, Vincent; Duncan, Della; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A
Men were enrolled in a study to assess the performance and acceptability of self-collected penile meatal swabs as compared to clinician-collected urethral swabs for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We expected penile-meatal swabs to perform favorably to urethral swabs for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) detection by nucleic acid amplification assays (NAATs). Of 203 swab pairs tested; for CT, penile-meatal swab sensitivity was 96.8% and specificity was 98.8%. NG sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.9%, respectively. For TV, sensitivity was 85.0% and specificity was 96.7%. For MG sensitivity and specificity were 79.3% and 99.4%, respectively. No significant statistical differences between sample type accuracy (CT: P=0.625; NG: P=0.248; TV: P=0.344; and MG: P=0.070) existed. Most men, 90.1%, reported self-collection of penile-meatal swabs as "Very Easy" or "Easy". Self-collected penile-meatal swabs appeared acceptable for NAAT STI detection and an acceptable collection method by men.
Deng, Huimin; Gao, Zhiqiang
The most popular in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including real-time PCR are costly and require thermocycling, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Highly efficient in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques using simple, portable and low-cost instruments are crucial in disease diagnosis, mutation detection and biodefense. Toward this goal, isothermal amplification techniques that represent a group of attractive in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques for bioanalysis have been developed. Unlike PCR where polymerases are easily deactivated by thermally labile constituents in a sample, some of the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as helicase-dependent amplification and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, enable the detection of bioanalytes with much simplified protocols and with minimal sample preparations since the entire amplification processes are performed isothermally. This review focuses on the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry. Starting off from their amplification mechanisms and significant properties, the adoption of isothermal amplification techniques in bioanalytical chemistry and their future perspectives are discussed. Representative examples illustrating the performance and advantages of each isothermal amplification technique are discussed along with some discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.
Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.
The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.
Lillis, Lorraine; Siverson, Joshua; Lee, Arthur; Cantera, Jason; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Lehman, Dara A; Boyle, David S
Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) can be used to detect pathogen-specific DNA or RNA in under 20 min without the need for complex instrumentation. These properties enable its potential use in resource limited settings. However, there are concerns that deviations from the manufacturer's protocol and/or storage conditions could influence its performance in low resource settings. RPA amplification relies upon viscous crowding agents for optimal nucleic acid amplification, and thus an interval mixing step after 3-6 min of incubation is recommended to distribute amplicons and improve performance. In this study we used a HIV-1 RPA assay to evaluate the effects of this mixing step on assay performance. A lack of mixing led to a longer time to amplification and inferior detection signal, compromising the sensitivity of the assay. However lowering the assay volume from 50 μL to 5 μL showed similar sensitivity with or without mixing. We present the first peer-reviewed study that assesses long term stability of RPA reagents without a cold chain. Reagents stored at -20 °C, and 25 °C for up to 12 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies. Reagents stored at 45 °C for up to 3 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies, with reduced sensitivity only after >3 weeks at 45 °C. Together our results show that reducing reaction volumes bypassed the need for the mixing step and that RPA reagents were stable even when stored for 3 weeks at very high temperatures.
Zanoli, Laura Maria; Spoto, Giuseppe
Diagnostic tools for biomolecular detection need to fulfill specific requirements in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and high-throughput in order to widen their applicability and to minimize the cost of the assay. The nucleic acid amplification is a key step in DNA detection assays. It contributes to improving the assay sensitivity by enabling the detection of a limited number of target molecules. The use of microfluidic devices to miniaturize amplification protocols reduces the required sample volume and the analysis times and offers new possibilities for the process automation and integration in one single device. The vast majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis exploit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification method, which requires repeated cycles of three or two temperature-dependent steps during the amplification of the nucleic acid target sequence. In contrast, low temperature isothermal amplification methods have no need for thermal cycling thus requiring simplified microfluidic device features. Here, the use of miniaturized analysis systems using isothermal amplification reactions for the nucleic acid amplification will be discussed. PMID:25587397
Foster, A.C.; Okuno, E.; Brougher, D.S.; Schwarcz, R.
A new and rapid method for the determination of the excitotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid is based on its enzymatic conversion to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and, in a second step utilizing (/sup 3/H)ATP, further to (/sup 3/H) deamido-NAD. Specificity of the assay is assured by using a highly purified preparation of the specific quinolinic acid-catabolizing enzyme, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, in the initial step. The limit of sensitivity was found to be 2.5 pmol of quinolinic acid, sufficient to conveniently determine quinolinic acid levels in small volumes of human urine and blood plasma.
Camp, Jeremy V; Nowotny, Norbert
The development of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays are described herein for the detection of two orthobunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae), which represent the two main serogroups found in mosquitoes in Central Europe. The RT-LAMP assays were optimized for the detection of Ťahyňa virus (a California encephalitis group virus found in Aedes sp or Ochlerotatus sp mosquitoes) and Batai virus (also called Čalovo virus, a Bunyamwera group virus found in Anopheles maculipennis s.l. mosquitoes) nucleic acid using endemic European virus isolates. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assays was determined to be comparable to that of conventional tests, with a limit of detection<0.1 pfu per reaction. The assays can be performed in 60min under isothermal conditions using very simple equipment. Furthermore, it was possible to proceed with the assays without nucleic acid extraction, albeit at a 100-fold loss of sensitivity. The RT-LAMP assays are a sensitive, cost-efficient method for both arbovirus surveillance as well as diagnostic laboratories to detect the presence of these endemic orthobunyaviruses.
Craw, Pascal; Mackay, Ruth E.; Naveenathayalan, Angel; Hudson, Chris; Branavan, Manoharanehru; Sadiq, S. Tariq; Balachandran, Wamadeva
Advances in microfluidics and the introduction of isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays have resulted in a range of solutions for nucleic acid amplification tests suited for point of care and field use. However, miniaturisation of instrumentation for such assays has not seen such rapid advances and fluorescence based assays still depend on complex, bulky and expensive optics such as fluorescence microscopes, photomultiplier tubes and sensitive lens assemblies. In this work we demonstrate a robust, low cost platform for isothermal nucleic acid amplification on a microfluidic device. Using easily obtainable materials and commercial off-the-shelf components, we show real time fluorescence detection using a low cost photodiode and operational amplifier without need for lenses. Temperature regulation on the device is achieved using a heater fabricated with standard printed circuit board fabrication methods. These facile construction methods allow fabrications at a cost compatible with widespread deployment to resource poor settings. PMID:26389913
Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…
Pyrc, Krzysztof; Milewska, Aleksandra; Potempa, Jan
Human coronavirus NL63 was identified in 2004 in the Netherlands. Due to the high prevalence and world-wide distribution of this pathogen, it is essential to develop a sensitive and specific detection assay suitable for use in a routine diagnostic laboratory. Techniques based on PCR or real-time PCR are laborious and expensive. Detailed analysis of the HCoV-NL63 genome permitted the identification of a conserved nucleic acid sequential motif, which was sufficient for the design of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Evaluation of the method showed that the test is specific to HCoV-NL63 and that it does not cross-react with other respiratory viruses. The detection limit was found to be 1 copy of RNA template per reaction in cell culture supernatants and clinical specimens.
Su, Xin; Li, Zehao; Yan, Xinzhong; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Xu; Wei, Lin; Xiao, Lehui; Yu, Changyuan
Because the elongation of telomeres has been associated with tumorigenesis, it is of great interest to develop rapid and high-confidence telomerase activity detection methods for disease diagnosis. Currently, amplification-based strategies have been extensively explored for telomerase detection in vitro and in vivo. However, amplification is typically associated with poor reproducibility and high background, which hamper further applications of the strategies, particularly for real sample assays. Here, we demonstrate a new amplification-free single molecule imaging method for telomerase activity detection in vitro based on nucleic acid stochastic binding with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The dynamic stochastic binding of a short fluorescent DNA probe with a genuine target yields a distinct kinetic signature from the background noise, allowing us to identify telomerase reaction products (TRPs) at the single molecule level. A limit-of-detection as low as 0.5 fM and a dynamic range of 0.5-500 fM for TRP detection were readily achieved. With this method, telomerase extracted from cancer cells was determined with sensitivity down to 10 cells. Moreover, the length distribution of TRPs was also determined by multiple stochastic probing, which could provide deep insight into the mechanistic study of telomerase catalysis.
Whiley, David M.; Tapsall, John W.; Sloots, Theo P.
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae became available in the early 1990s. Although offering several advantages over traditional detection methods, N. gonorrhoeae NAATs do have some limitations. These include cost, risk of carryover contamination, inhibition, and inability to provide antibiotic resistance data. In addition, there are sequence-related limitations that are unique to N. gonorrhoeae NAATs. In particular, false-positive results are a major consideration. These primarily stem from the frequent horizontal genetic exchange occurring within the Neisseria genus, leading to commensal Neisseria species acquiring N. gonorrhoeae genes. Furthermore, some N. gonorrhoeae subtypes may lack specific sequences targeted by a particular NAAT. Therefore, NAAT false-negative results because of sequence variation may occur in some gonococcal populations. Overall, the N. gonorrhoeae species continues to present a considerable challenge for molecular diagnostics. The need to evaluate N. gonorrhoeae NAATs before their use in any new patient population and to educate physicians on the limitations of these tests is emphasized in this review. PMID:16436629
Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Heidenreich, Doris; Patel, Pranav; Strohmeier, Oliver; Hakenberg, Sydney; Niedrig, Matthias; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred
Syndromic panels for infectious disease have been suggested to be of value in point-of-care diagnostics for developing countries and for biodefense. To test the performance of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays, we developed a panel of 10 RPAs for biothreat agents. The panel included RPAs for Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis, variola virus, and reverse transcriptase RPA (RT-RPA) assays for Rift Valley fever virus, Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus. Their analytical sensitivities ranged from 16 to 21 molecules detected (probit analysis) for the majority of RPA and RT-RPA assays. A magnetic bead-based total nucleic acid extraction method was combined with the RPAs and tested using inactivated whole organisms spiked into plasma. The RPA showed comparable sensitivities to real-time RCR assays in these extracts. The run times of the assays at 42°C ranged from 6 to 10 min, and they showed no cross-detection of any of the target genomes of the panel nor of the human genome. The RPAs therefore seem suitable for the implementation of syndromic panels onto microfluidic platforms.
Ren, Hang; Yang, Mingjuan; Zhang, Guoxia; Liu, Shiwei; Wang, Xinhui; Ke, Yuehua; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Chen, Zeliang
A rapid and sensitive recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay, Bruce-RPA, was developed for detection of Brucella. The assay could detect as few as 3 copies of Brucella per reaction within 20 min. Bruce-RPA represents a candidate point-of-care diagnosis assay for human brucellosis.
Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuaijun; Li, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhidong
Recombinase polymerase amplification assays using real-time fluorescent detection (real-time RPA assay) and lateral flow dipstick (RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting the gD gene of pseudorabies virus (PRV). Both assays were performed at 39 °C within 20 min. The sensitivity of the real-time RPA assay and the RPA LFD assay was 100 copies per reaction and 160 copies per reaction, respectively. Both assays did not detect DNAs from other virus or PRV negative samples. Therefore, the developed RPA assays provide a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific alternative tool for detection of PRV.
Selck, David A.
Nucleic acid amplification tests that are coupled with a digital readout enable the absolute quantification of single molecules, even at ultralow concentrations. Digital methods are robust, versatile and compatible with many amplification chemistries including isothermal amplification, making them particularly invaluable to assays that require sensitive detection, such as the quantification of viral load in occult infections or detection of sparse amounts of DNA from forensic samples. A number of microfluidic platforms are being developed for carrying out digital amplification. However, the mechanistic investigation and optimization of digital assays has been limited by the lack of real-time kinetic information about which factors affect the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of a reaction. Commercially available instruments that are capable of tracking digital reactions in real-time are restricted to only a small number of device types and sample-preparation strategies. Thus, most researchers who wish to develop, study, or optimize digital assays rely on the rate of the amplification reaction when performed in a bulk experiment, which is now recognized as an unreliable predictor of digital efficiency. To expand our ability to study how digital reactions proceed in real-time and enable us to optimize both the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of digital assays, we built a custom large-format digital real-time amplification instrument that can accommodate a wide variety of devices, amplification chemistries and sample-handling conditions. Herein, we validate this instrument, we provide detailed schematics that will enable others to build their own custom instruments, and we include a complete custom software suite to collect and analyze the data retrieved from the instrument. We believe assay optimizations enabled by this instrument will improve the current limits of nucleic acid detection and quantification, improving our fundamental
Selck, David A; Ismagilov, Rustem F
Nucleic acid amplification tests that are coupled with a digital readout enable the absolute quantification of single molecules, even at ultralow concentrations. Digital methods are robust, versatile and compatible with many amplification chemistries including isothermal amplification, making them particularly invaluable to assays that require sensitive detection, such as the quantification of viral load in occult infections or detection of sparse amounts of DNA from forensic samples. A number of microfluidic platforms are being developed for carrying out digital amplification. However, the mechanistic investigation and optimization of digital assays has been limited by the lack of real-time kinetic information about which factors affect the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of a reaction. Commercially available instruments that are capable of tracking digital reactions in real-time are restricted to only a small number of device types and sample-preparation strategies. Thus, most researchers who wish to develop, study, or optimize digital assays rely on the rate of the amplification reaction when performed in a bulk experiment, which is now recognized as an unreliable predictor of digital efficiency. To expand our ability to study how digital reactions proceed in real-time and enable us to optimize both the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of digital assays, we built a custom large-format digital real-time amplification instrument that can accommodate a wide variety of devices, amplification chemistries and sample-handling conditions. Herein, we validate this instrument, we provide detailed schematics that will enable others to build their own custom instruments, and we include a complete custom software suite to collect and analyze the data retrieved from the instrument. We believe assay optimizations enabled by this instrument will improve the current limits of nucleic acid detection and quantification, improving our fundamental
Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu; Lee, Fu-Chun; Chien, Hung-Wen; Chen, Man-Shu; Sung, Ping-Feng; Su, Chen; Ou, Bor-Rung
Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that causes developmental and growth abnormalities in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (also known as Penaeus vannamei). Nucleic acid based methods such as in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR have been commonly used for IHHNV detection. Ramification amplification (RAM), an isothermal nucleic acid amplification approach, was used in this study to detect IHHNV in L. vannamei. RAM offers many advantages over PCR, including simple procedures and short detection time, and is labor-saving and cost-effective. RAM exponentially amplifies a circular oligonucleotide amplicon (C probe) after a target-specific ligation step through sequential primer extension and strand displacement processes. The conditions of an IHHNV RAM assay were optimized using artificial templates and targets prior to application. Using DNA of IHHNV-infected L. vannamei as targets, results revealed that RAM amplified target DNA with similar sensitivity as PCR. RAM offers competitive levels of speed, simplicity and sensitivity among various pathogen diagnostic methods.
Morinishi, Leanna S; Blainey, Paul
Digital assays are powerful methods that enable detection of rare cells and counting of individual nucleic acid molecules. However, digital assays are still not routinely applied, due to the cost and specific equipment associated with commercially available methods. Here we present a simplified method for readout of digital droplet assays using a conventional real-time PCR instrument to measure bulk fluorescence of droplet-based digital assays. We characterize the performance of the bulk readout assay using synthetic droplet mixtures and a droplet digital multiple displacement amplification (MDA) assay. Quantitative MDA particularly benefits from a digital reaction format, but our new method applies to any digital assay. For established digital assay protocols such as digital PCR, this method serves to speed up and simplify assay readout. Our bulk readout methodology brings the advantages of partitioned assays without the need for specialized readout instrumentation. The principal limitations of the bulk readout methodology are reduced dynamic range compared with droplet-counting platforms and the need for a standard sample, although the requirements for this standard are less demanding than for a conventional real-time experiment. Quantitative whole genome amplification (WGA) is used to test for contaminants in WGA reactions and is the most sensitive way to detect the presence of DNA fragments with unknown sequences, giving the method great promise in diverse application areas including pharmaceutical quality control and astrobiology.
Fakruddin, Md; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Mazumdar, Reaz Mohammad; Hossain, Md. Nur; Islam, Sumaiya; Chowdhury, Md. Alimuddin
Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically. PMID:24302831
Fakruddin, Md; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Mazumdar, Reaz Mohammad; Hossain, Md Nur; Islam, Sumaiya; Chowdhury, Md Alimuddin
Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.
Otsuka, Nao; Yoshino, Shuji; Kawano, Kimiko; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for simple detection of Bordetella holmesii was developed. This assay discriminates between B. holmesii and other Bordetella species and successfully detect B. holmesii DNA in nasopharyngeal swab samples from subjects with suspected pertussis. The LAMP assay results were in complete agreement with the results of previously published real-time PCR assay, indicating that the former is a powerful tool for the accurate diagnosis and surveillance of B. holmesii.
Kamachi, Kazunari; Moriuchi, Takumi; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Otsuka, Nao; Shibayama, Keigo
We evaluated a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay kit for Bordetella pertussis detection. The LAMP primers were designed to target the ptxP1 allele of the pertussis toxin promoter, but the assay could detect B. pertussis ptxP3 and ptxP8 strains in addition to ptxP1 strains, with high analytical sensitivity.
Xie, Xiaoji; Xu, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang
The discovery of the DNA-mediated assembly of gold nanoparticles was a great moment in the history of science; this understanding and chemical control enabled the rational design of functional nanomaterials as novel probes in biodetection. In contrast with conventional probes such as organic dyes, gold nanoparticles exhibit high photostability and unique size-dependent optical properties. Because of their high extinction coefficients and strong distance dependent optical properties, these nanoparticles have emerged over the past decade as a promising platform for rapid, highly sensitive colorimetric assays that allow for the visual detection of low concentrations of metal ions, small molecules, and biomacromolecules. These discoveries have deepened our knowledge of biological phenomena and facilitated the development of many new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite these many advances and continued research efforts, current nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection systems still suffer from several drawbacks, such as limited sensitivity and selectivity. This Account describes the recent development of colorimetric assays based on protein enzyme-assisted gold nanoparticle amplification. The benefits of such detection systems include significantly improved detection sensitivity and selectivity. First, we discuss the general design of enzyme-modified nanoparticle systems in colorimetric assays. We show that a quantitative understanding of the unique properties of different enzymes is paramount for effective biological assays. We then examine the assays for nucleic acid detection based on different types of enzymes, including endonucleases, ligases, and polymerases. For each of these assays, we identify the underlying principles that contribute to the enhanced detection capability of nanoparticle systems and illustrate them with selected examples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the combination of gold nanoparticles and specific enzymes can probe enzyme dynamics
Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei
In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. are restricted by law. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. sativa is desired. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid identification of C. sativa. By optimizing the conditions for the LAMP reaction that targets a highly conserved region of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, C. sativa was identified within 50 min at 60-66°C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected all 21 specimens of C. sativa, showing high specificity. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. sativa could be accomplished within 90 min from sample treatment to detection without use of special equipment. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. sativa has been developed and is applicable to forensic investigations and industrial quality control.
Church, George M.
A method of producing a plurality of a nucleic acid array, comprising, in order, the steps of amplifying in situ nucleic acid molecules of a first randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array comprising a heterogeneous pool of nucleic acid molecules affixed to a support, transferring at least a subset of the nucleic acid molecules produced by such amplifying to a second support, and affixing the subset so transferred to the second support to form a second randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array, wherein the nucleic acid molecules of the second array occupy positions that correspond to those of the nucleic acid molecules from which they were amplified on the first array, so that the first array serves as a template to produce a plurality, is disclosed.
Crannell, Zachary A; Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
It was recently demonstrated that recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal amplification platform for pathogen detection, may be used to quantify DNA sample concentration using a standard curve. In this manuscript, a detailed protocol for developing and implementing a real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification assay (qRPA assay) is provided. Using HIV-1 DNA quantification as an example, the assembly of real-time RPA reactions, the design of an internal positive control (IPC) sequence, and co-amplification of the IPC and target of interest are all described. Instructions and data processing scripts for the construction of a standard curve using data from multiple experiments are provided, which may be used to predict the concentration of unknown samples or assess the performance of the assay. Finally, an alternative method for collecting real-time fluorescence data with a microscope and a stage heater as a step towards developing a point-of-care qRPA assay is described. The protocol and scripts provided may be used for the development of a qRPA assay for any DNA target of interest.
It was recently demonstrated that recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal amplification platform for pathogen detection, may be used to quantify DNA sample concentration using a standard curve. In this manuscript, a detailed protocol for developing and implementing a real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification assay (qRPA assay) is provided. Using HIV-1 DNA quantification as an example, the assembly of real-time RPA reactions, the design of an internal positive control (IPC) sequence, and co-amplification of the IPC and target of interest are all described. Instructions and data processing scripts for the construction of a standard curve using data from multiple experiments are provided, which may be used to predict the concentration of unknown samples or assess the performance of the assay. Finally, an alternative method for collecting real-time fluorescence data with a microscope and a stage heater as a step towards developing a point-of-care qRPA assay is described. The protocol and scripts provided may be used for the development of a qRPA assay for any DNA target of interest. PMID:25867513
In many clinical microbiology laboratories, nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR have become the routine methods for the diagnosis of pertussis. While PCR has greatly increased the ability of laboratories to detect Bordetella pertussis infections, it has also been associated with false-positive results that can, given the tendency of B. pertussis to cause outbreaks, result in unnecessary and costly control measures. The species specificity of Bordetella gene targets and their number of copies per genome greatly impact the performance characteristics of nucleic acid amplification tests for B. pertussis. It is crucial that laboratorians recognize these characteristics, to limit false-positive test results and prevent pseudo-outbreaks. PMID:22442315
Piersimoni, Claudio; Scarparo, Claudio; Piccoli, Paola; Rigon, Alessandra; Ruggiero, Giuliana; Nista, Domenico; Bornigia, Stefano
The new BDProbeTec ET Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Direct Detection Assay (DTB) was compared with the enhanced M. tuberculosis Amplified Direct Test (AMTDII). The system is an automated walkaway system characterized by simultaneous DNA amplification (strand displacement amplification) and real-time fluorometric detection. It also contains an internal amplification control (IAC) designed to identify inhibition from the processed samples. The AMTDII assay amplifies rRNA by transcription-mediated amplification; it uses hybridization with a chemoluminescent probe as a detection system and is entirely manual. A total of 515 N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide-decontaminated respiratory (n = 331) and extrapulmonary (n = 184) sediments (from 402 patients) were tested in parallel by both assays. The results were compared with those of acid-fast staining and culture (solid plus liquid media), setting the combination of culture and clinical diagnosis as the "gold standard." Culture results from the tested specimens were as follows: 121 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) (98 smear-positive), 46 nontuberculous mycobacteria (38 smear-positive), and 338 culture-negative results. After resolution of the discrepant results, the percent sensitivity, percent specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for AMTDII were 88%, 99.2%, 110, and 0.11 for respiratory specimens and 74.3%, 100%, 740, and 0.26 for extrapulmonary specimens, respectively. The corresponding values for DTB were 94.5%, 99.6%, 235, and 0.05 for respiratory specimens and 92.3%, 100%, 920, and 0.07 for extrapulmonary specimens, respectively. The cumulative difference for all tuberculosis-positive extrapulmonary specimens was significant (P = 0.03). The overall inhibition rate for DTB was 5% (26 specimens). We conclude that both amplification assays proved to be rapid and specific for the detection of MTB in clinical samples and particularly feasible for a routine laboratory work flow. DTB
Wroblewski, Jennifer K. H.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Dickey, Kathleen A.; Hudspeth, Marie K.; Totten, Patricia A.
Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognized as a possible cause of several idiopathic sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes. However, due to the difficulty of culture of this fastidious bacterium, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are necessary for its detection in patient specimens. In the current study we compared a newly developed research-only transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay (Gen-Probe Incorporated) to our in-house DNA-based PCR assay for detection of M. genitalium. The relative performance characteristics of these two NAATs were assessed with genital specimens from 284 women and 352 men reporting to an STD clinic in Seattle, WA. Among the women, M. genitalium was detected by the TMA and PCR assays in 36 (13%) and 39 (14%) vaginal swab specimens, respectively (κ = 0.923); 26 (9%) and 23 (8%) cervical swab specimens, respectively (κ = 0.843); and 25 (9%) and 28 (10%) urine specimens, respectively (κ = 0.687). Among the M. genitalium-positive women, the relative sensitivities of detection for the TMA and PCR assays were 84% and 91%, respectively, for vaginal swab specimens; 60% and 53%, respectively, for cervical swab specimens; and 58% and 65%, respectively, for urine specimens. By using an infected patient (a woman positive at any site by TMA assay and at any site by PCR) as a proxy for a “gold standard,” the specificities of detection were >99.5% for both the TMA and the PCR assays. Among the men, M. genitalium was detected in 24 urine specimens (6.8%) by the TMA assay, 26 (7.4%) urine specimens by PCR assay, and 32 urine specimens (9%) by either test (κ = 0.791). We conclude that the M. genitalium TMA and PCR assays are highly specific and that vaginal swab specimens are the most sensitive specimen type for the detection of M. genitalium in women. PMID:16954265
Wang, Kaifeng; Wu, Yue; Yin, Dan; Tang, Shixing; Hu, Guifang; He, Yaqing
Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an important pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a rapid real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for detection of CV-A6. The sensitivity of this assay was 202 copies/reaction, with 100 % specificity. Furthermore, this assay yielded consistent results comparable with a commercial qRT-PCR diagnostic kit. This assay is therefore potentially useful for surveillance of CV-A6 infections and outbreak control.
Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Mitchell, R John
Inadequate sample quantities and qualities can commonly result in poor DNA amplification success rates for forensic case samples. In some instances, modifying the PCR protocol or components may assist profiling by overcoming inhibition, or reducing the threshold required for successful amplification and detection. Incorporation of locked nucleic acids (LNAs) into PCR primers has previously been shown to increase amplification success for a range of non-forensic sample types and applications. To investigate their use in a forensic context, the PCR primers for four commonly used STR loci have been redesigned to include LNA bases. The modified LNA primers provided significantly increased amplification success when compared to standard DNA primers, with both high-quality buccal samples and simulated forensic casework samples. Peak heights increased by as much as 5.75× for the singleplex amplifications. When incorporated into multiplexes, the LNA primers continued to outperform standard DNA primers, with increased ease of optimisation, and increased amplification success. The use of LNAs in PCR primers can greatly assist the profiling of a range of samples, and increase success rates from challenging forensic samples.
Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real time ...
HIGA, Yumiko; UEMURA, Ryoko; YAMAZAKI, Wataru; GOTO, Shinya; GOTO, Yoshitaka; SUEYOSHI, Masuo
We improved a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay permitting sensitive and rapid Mycoplasma bovis detection. A total of 55 bacterial strains were examined in this study, including 33 M. bovis strains, 14 non-M. bovis mycoplasmas and eight non-mycoplasma bacterial strains. M. bovis was successfully detected by the LAMP assay within 60 min without cross-reaction to any other bacteria. Furthermore, a total of 135 nasal swab samples were tested directly using our LAMP assays, the previously reported LAMP assay, conventional PCR assay without pre-culture and comparing standard culture methods. The improved LAMP assay showed sensitivity and specificity of 97.2% and 90.9%, respectively (with a kappa coefficient of 0.8231), and the sensitivity of our revised LAMP assay was increased compared to existing methods. PMID:27109067
Church, George M.; Mitra, Robi D.
Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.
Klamp, Tobias; Camps, Marta; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Ranasinghe, Rohan T.; Wiedemann, Jens; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra; Klenerman, David; Sauer, Markus
There is an urgent need for rapid and highly sensitive detection of pathogen-derived DNA in a point-of-care (POC) device for diagnostics in hospitals and clinics. This device needs to work in a ‘sample-in-result-out’ mode with minimum number of steps so that it can be completely integrated into a cheap and simple instrument. We have developed a method that directly detects unamplified DNA, and demonstrate its sensitivity on realistically sized 5 kbp target DNA fragments of Micrococcus luteus in small sample volumes of 20 μL. The assay consists of capturing and accumulating of target DNA on magnetic beads with specific capture oligonucleotides, hybridization of complementary fluorescently labeled detection oligonucleotides, and fluorescence imaging on a miniaturized wide-field fluorescence microscope. Our simple method delivers results in less than 20 minutes with a limit of detection (LOD) of ~5 pM and a linear detection range spanning three orders of magnitude. PMID:23677392
Foddai, Antonio; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R
A commercially available phage amplification assay, FASTPlaqueTB (Biotec Laboratories, Ipswich, United Kingdom), when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, does not permit accurate enumeration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to optimize the phage amplification assay conditions to permit accurate quantification of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells. The burst time for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was initially determined to inform decisions about optimal incubation time before plating, and then other test parameters were altered to evaluate how the correlation between plaque and colony counts was affected. The D29 mycobacteriophage replicates more slowly in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis than in Mycobacterium smegmatis (used to optimize the commercial test originally), and the mean burst time for four M. avium subsp. paratuberulosis strains was 210 +/- 36.8 min at 37 degrees C compared to 63 +/- 17.5 min for M. smegmatis mc(2) 155. To achieve 100% correlation between plaque and colony counts, the optimized phage assay includes the following: (i) resuspension of the samples to be tested in Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase and 2 mM calcium chloride, followed by overnight incubation at 37 degrees C before performance of the phage assay; (ii) a 2-h incubation of the sample with D29 mycobacteriophage before viricide treatment; and (iii) a further 90-min incubation after viricide treatment and neutralization up to the burst time (total incubation time, 210 min) before plating with M. smegmatis mc(2) 155 in 7H9 agar. The optimized phage amplification assay was able to detect 1 to 10 CFU/ml of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in spiked milk or broth within 48 h, as demonstrated by the results of several blind trials.
Waggoner, Jesse J.; Abeynayake, Janaki; Balassiano, Ilana; Lefterova, Martina; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Banaei, Niaz
Dengue, leptospirosis, and malaria are among the most common etiologies of systemic undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) among travelers to the developing world, and these pathogens all have the potential to cause life-threatening illness in returned travelers. The current study describes the development of an internally controlled multiplex nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) and Leptospira and Plasmodium species, with a specific callout for Plasmodium falciparum (referred to as the UFI assay). During analytical evaluation, the UFI assay displayed a wide dynamic range and a sensitive limit of detection for each target, including all four DENV serotypes. In a clinical evaluation including 210 previously tested samples, the sensitivities of the UFI assay were 98% for DENV (58/59 samples detected) and 100% for Leptospira and malaria (65/65 and 20/20 samples, respectively). Malaria samples included all five Plasmodium species known to cause human disease. The specificity of the UFI assay was 100% when evaluated with a panel of 66 negative clinical samples. Furthermore, no amplification was observed when extracted nucleic acids from related pathogens were tested. Compared with whole-blood samples, the UFI assay remained positive for Plasmodium in 11 plasma samples from patients with malaria (parasitemia levels of 0.0037 to 3.4%). The syndrome-based design of the UFI assay, combined with the sensitivities of the component tests, represents a significant improvement over the individual diagnostic tests available for these pathogens. PMID:24671788
Waggoner, Jesse J; Abeynayake, Janaki; Balassiano, Ilana; Lefterova, Martina; Sahoo, Malaya K; Liu, Yuanyuan; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Banaei, Niaz; Pinsky, Benjamin A
Dengue, leptospirosis, and malaria are among the most common etiologies of systemic undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) among travelers to the developing world, and these pathogens all have the potential to cause life-threatening illness in returned travelers. The current study describes the development of an internally controlled multiplex nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) and Leptospira and Plasmodium species, with a specific callout for Plasmodium falciparum (referred to as the UFI assay). During analytical evaluation, the UFI assay displayed a wide dynamic range and a sensitive limit of detection for each target, including all four DENV serotypes. In a clinical evaluation including 210 previously tested samples, the sensitivities of the UFI assay were 98% for DENV (58/59 samples detected) and 100% for Leptospira and malaria (65/65 and 20/20 samples, respectively). Malaria samples included all five Plasmodium species known to cause human disease. The specificity of the UFI assay was 100% when evaluated with a panel of 66 negative clinical samples. Furthermore, no amplification was observed when extracted nucleic acids from related pathogens were tested. Compared with whole-blood samples, the UFI assay remained positive for Plasmodium in 11 plasma samples from patients with malaria (parasitemia levels of 0.0037 to 3.4%). The syndrome-based design of the UFI assay, combined with the sensitivities of the component tests, represents a significant improvement over the individual diagnostic tests available for these pathogens.
Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D
Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing
We describe a new method for the detection of miRNA in biological samples. This technology is based on the isothermal nicking enzyme amplification reaction and subsequent hybridization of the amplification product with gold nanoparticles and magnetic microparticles (barcode system) to achieve naked-eye colorimetric detection. This platform was used to detect a specific miRNA (miRNA-10b) associated with breast cancer, and attomolar sensitivity was demonstrated. The assay was validated in cell culture lysates from breast cancer cells and in serum from a mouse model of breast cancer. PMID:27713932
Tang, Ruihua; Yang, Hui; Gong, Yan; You, MinLi; Liu, Zhi; Choi, Jane Ru; Wen, Ting; Qu, Zhiguo; Mei, Qibing; Xu, Feng
Nucleic acid testing (NAT) has been widely used for disease diagnosis, food safety control and environmental monitoring. At present, NAT mainly involves nucleic acid extraction, amplification and detection steps that heavily rely on large equipment and skilled workers, making the test expensive, time-consuming, and thus less suitable for point-of-care (POC) applications. With advances in paper-based microfluidic technologies, various integrated paper-based devices have recently been developed for NAT, which however require off-chip reagent storage, complex operation steps and equipment-dependent nucleic acid amplification, restricting their use for POC testing. To overcome these challenges, we demonstrate a fully disposable and integrated paper-based sample-in-answer-out device for NAT by integrating nucleic acid extraction, helicase-dependent isothermal amplification and lateral flow assay detection into one paper device. This simple device allows on-chip dried reagent storage and equipment-free nucleic acid amplification with simple operation steps, which could be performed by untrained users in remote settings. The proposed device consists of a sponge-based reservoir and a paper-based valve for nucleic acid extraction, an integrated battery, a PTC ultrathin heater, temperature control switch and on-chip dried enzyme mix storage for isothermal amplification, and a lateral flow test strip for naked-eye detection. It can sensitively detect Salmonella typhimurium, as a model target, with a detection limit of as low as 10(2) CFU ml(-1) in wastewater and egg, and 10(3) CFU ml(-1) in milk and juice in about an hour. This fully disposable and integrated paper-based device has great potential for future POC applications in resource-limited settings.
Denys, Gerald A
The Portrait Toxigenic Clostridium difficile assay is a rapid, qualitative assay for the detection of the tcdB gene of C. difficile in stool specimens from patients suspected of C. difficile infections, and received 510(k) clearance by the US FDA in March 2012. The Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay combines novel blocked-primer-mediated helicase-dependent multiplex amplification (bpHDA) technology and chip-based detection in an automated sample-to-result format. The assay requires minimal sample preparation and results are available within 90 min. In a multicenter evaluation, the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay had a sensitivity of 98.2% and specificity of 92.8% compared with toxigenic culture. A comparative study between the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay and three FDA-cleared molecular assays for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile exhibited a high degree of agreement (93.8-97.5%). The Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay provides a simple, cost-effective method with broad applicability to panel-based approaches, potentially simplifying workflow.
Ulanovsky, Levy; Raja, Mugasimangalam C.
Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.
Li, Fan; Zhao, Chunyan; Zhang, Wandi; Cui, Shenghui; Meng, Jianghong; Wu, Josephine; Zhang, David Y
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains are important human pathogens that are mainly transmitted through the food chain. These pathogens have a low infectious dose and may cause life-threatening illnesses. However, detection of this microorganism in contaminated food or a patient's stool specimens presents a diagnostic challenge because of the low copy number in the sample. Often, a more sensitive nucleic acid amplification method, such as PCR, is required for rapid detection of this microorganism. Ramification amplification (RAM) is a recently introduced isothermal DNA amplification technique that utilizes a circular probe for target detection and achieves exponential amplification through the mechanism of primer extension, strand displacement, and ramification. In this study, we synthesized a circular probe specific for the Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx(2)). Our results showed that as few as 10 copies of stx(2) could be detected, indicating that the RAM assay was as sensitive as conventional PCR. We further tested 33 isolates of E coli O157:H7, STEC, Shigella dysenteriae, and nonpathogenic E. coli by RAM assay. Results showed that all 27 STEC isolates containing the stx(2) gene were identified by RAM assay, while S. dysenteriae and nonpathogenic E. coli isolates were undetected. The RAM results were 100% in concordance with those of PCR. Because of its simplicity and isothermal amplification, the RAM assay could be a useful method for detecting STEC in food and human specimens.
Crannell, Zachary Austin; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Irani, Ayesha; White, Arthur Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
Giardia duodenalis is one of the most commonly identified parasites in stool samples. Although relatively easy to treat, giardiasis can be difficult to detect as it presents similar to other diarrheal diseases. Here, we present a recombinase polymerase amplification-based Giardia (RPAG) assay to detect the presence of Giardia in stool samples. The RPAG assay was characterized on the bench top using stool samples spiked with Giardia cysts where it showed a limit-of-detection nearly as low as the gold standard polymerase chain reaction assay. The RPAG assay was then tested in the highlands of Peru on 104 stool samples collected from the surrounding communities where it showed 73% sensitivity and 95% specificity against a polymerase chain reaction and microscopy composite gold standard. Further improvements in clinical sensitivity will be needed for the RPAG assay to have clinical relevance.
Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xue-Xia; Wan, Kang-Lin; Hao, Qin
A novel isothermal detection for recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow (LF-RPA) was established for Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) detection in this study. This assay with high sensitivity and specificity can get a visible result without any additional equipment in 30 min. We designed a pair of primers according to recA gene of B. burgdorferi strains and a methodology evaluation was performed. The results showed that the RPA assay based on the recA gene was successfully applied in B. burgdorferi detection, and its specific amplification was only achieved from the genomic DNA of B. burgdorferi. The detection limit of the new assay was about 25 copies of the B. burgdorferi genomic DNA. Twenty Lyme borreliosis patients' serum samples were detected by LF-RPA assay, real-time qPCR and nested-PCR. Results showed the LF-RPA assay is more effective than nested-PCR for its shorter reaction time and considerably higher detection rate. This method is of great value in clinical rapid detection for Lyme borreliosis. Using the RPA assay might be a megatrend for DNA detection in clinics and endemic regions.
Piersimoni, C; Callegaro, A; Nista, D; Bornigia, S; De Conti, F; Santini, G; De Sio, G
Two commercial assays detecting the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens by rRNA target amplification (Gen-Probe Amplified M. tuberculosis Direct Test [AMTD]) and PCR (Amplicor) were evaluated. The tests were applied to 327 digested, decontaminated respiratory specimens collected from 236 patients. Results were compared with those of acid-fast staining and culture. The combination of culture and clinical diagnosis was considered the "gold standard." A total of 60 specimens were collected from 27 patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Thirteen of these specimens were from patients receiving standard antituberculosis therapy and therefore were not included in the comparison. Of the remaining 47 specimens, 33 were smear positive, 40 were culture positive, 45 were AMTD positive, and 39 were Amplicor positive. After resolution of discrepant results, the overall sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were 77, 100, 100, and 95 for staining; 87, 100, 100, and 97.4 for culture; 95.9, 98.9, 94, and 99.2 for AMTD; and 85.4, 99.6, 97.9, and 97.1 for Amplicor, respectively. Agreement between AMTD and Amplicor assay results was 96.8%. It is concluded that although both nucleic acid amplification methods are rapid and specific for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens, AMTD appeared to be more sensitive than Amplicor. PMID:8968906
Costa, A. M.; Su, J.; Lowe, P.; Bradshaw, C. S.; Fairley, C. K.; Garland, S. M.
The detection of Mycoplasma genitalium was evaluated on 1,080 urine samples by the use of a Panther instrument. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were 100%, 99.4%, 93.6%, and 100%, respectively. Detection of M. genitalium by the use of the Panther transcription-mediated amplification assay offers a simple, accurate, and sensitive platform for diagnostic laboratories. PMID:27307453
Hansen, Sören; Schäfer, Jenny; Fechner, Kim; Czerny, Claus-Peter; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed
Background The detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants is crucial to control spread among animals and to humans. Cultivation of MAP is seen as the gold standard for detection, although it is very time consuming and labour intensive. In addition, several PCR assays have been developed to detect MAP in around 90 minutes, but these assays required highly sophisticated equipment as well as lengthy and complicated procedure. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have developed a rapid assay for the detection of MAP based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay targeting a MAP specific region, the IS900 gene. The detection limit was 16 DNA molecules in 15 minutes as determined by the probit analysis on eight runs of the plasmid standard. Cross reactivity with other mycobacterial and environmentally associated bacterial strains was not observed. The clinical performance of the MAP RPA assay was tested using 48 MAP-positive and 20 MAP-negative blood, sperm, faecal and tissue samples. All results were compared with reads of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. The specificity of the MAP RPA assay was 100%, while the sensitivity was 89.5%. Conclusions/Significance The RPA assay is quicker and much easier to handle than real-time PCR. All RPA reagents were cold-chain independent. Moreover, combining RPA assay with a simple extraction protocol will maximize its use at point of need for rapid detection of MAP. PMID:27992571
Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhidong
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a major cause of swine reproductive failure and reported in many countries worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PPV real-time RPA assay) and a lateral flow dipstick (PPV RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting PPV NS1 gene. The detection limit of PPV real-time RPA assay was 300 copies per reaction within 9 min at 38 °C, while the RPA LFD assay has a detection limit of 400 copies per reaction in less than 20 min at 38 °C. In both assays, there were no cross-reactions with porcine circovirus type 2, pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, classical swine fever virus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus. Based on a total of 128 clinical samples examined, the sensitivity and the specificity of the developed RPA assays for identification of PPV was 94.4% and 100%, respectively, when compared to real-time (qPCR) assay. Therefore, the RPA assay provides a rapid, sensitive and specific alternative for PPV detection.
Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.
Kirschner, P; Rosenau, J; Springer, B; Teschner, K; Feldmann, K; Böttger, E C
We have investigated the use of DNA amplification by PCR for the detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens, with the gene encoding the 16S rRNA as a target. Following generic amplification of mycobacterial nucleic acids, screening was done with genus-specific probe; this was followed by species differentiation by use of highly discriminating probes or nucleic acid sequencing. In a prospective 18-month evaluation, criteria to select specimens for PCR analysis were defined. Of a total of 8,272 specimens received, 729 samples satisfied the criteria and were subjected to DNA amplification. Clinical specimens included material from the respiratory tract (sputa and bronchial washings), aspirates, biopsies, and various body fluids (cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal, and gastric fluids). After resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity of the PCR assay was 84.5%, the specificity was 99.5%, the positive predictive value was 97.6%, and the negative predictive value was 96.4%. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of culture (with a combination of broth and solid media) were 77.5 and 94.8%, respectively. In conclusion, this PCR assay provides an efficient strategy to detect and identify multiple mycobacterial species and performs well in comparison with culture. PMID:8789005
Kong, Janay E; Wei, Qingshan; Tseng, Derek; Zhang, Jingzi; Pan, Eric; Lewinski, Michael; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino
Key challenges with point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid tests include achieving a low-cost, portable form factor, and stable readout, while also retaining the same robust standards of benchtop lab-based tests. We addressed two crucial aspects of this problem, identifying a chemical additive, hydroxynaphthol blue, that both stabilizes and significantly enhances intercalator-based fluorescence readout of nucleic acid concentration, and developing a cost-effective fiber-optic bundle-based fluorescence microplate reader integrated onto a mobile phone. Using loop-mediated isothermal amplification on lambda DNA we achieve a 69-fold increase in signal above background, 20-fold higher than the gold standard, yielding an overall limit of detection of 25 copies/μL within an hour using our mobile-phone-based platform. Critical for a point-of-care system, we achieve a >60% increase in fluorescence stability as a function of temperature and time, obviating the need for manual baseline correction or secondary calibration dyes. This field-portable and cost-effective mobile-phone-based nucleic acid amplification and readout platform is broadly applicable to other real-time nucleic acid amplification tests by similarly modulating intercalating dye performance and is compatible with any fluorescence-based assay that can be run in a 96-well microplate format, making it especially valuable for POC and resource-limited settings.
Yehia, Nahed; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Weidmann, Manfred; Shalaby, Mohamed A
The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An in vitro transcribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7 min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90 min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid extracted from H5 negative samples or from other pathogens producing respiratory manifestation in poultry. The clinical performance of the H5 RT-RPA assay was tested in 30 samples collected between 2014 and 2015; the sensitivity of H5 RT-RPA and real-time RT-PCR was 100%. In conclusion, H5 RT-RPA was faster than real-time RT-PCR and easily operable in a portable device. Moreover, it had an equivalent sensitivity and specificity.
Ma, Y; Dai, T; Serwadda, A; Shen, H
The novel Eriocheir sinensis reovirus (EsRV) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality rates in cultivated crabs. Here, we established a highly sensitive and specific rapid reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay that was cheaper and more suitable for field applications in crab aquaculture than those of traditional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The amplification was completed within 45 min under isothermal conditions at 65°C. The RT-LAMP test for EsRV had a detection limit of 15 pg, and sensitivity was 100 times greater than that of conventional RT-PCR. The LAMP primers for EsRV were not amplified by other pathogen strains, indicating good specificity. In addition to detection by electrophoresis, RT-LAMP results were detectable by visual observations of reaction tube turbidity, and calcein was added to visually detect the amplification products. These results indicate that this highly convenient, rapid and sensitive RT-LAMP assay can be used to detect EsRV-infected aquatic organisms.
Jauset-Rubio, Miriam; Svobodová, Markéta; Mairal, Teresa; McNeil, Calum; Keegan, Neil; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Bashammakh, Abdulaziz S; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O; O'Sullivan, Ciara K
In this work, different methodologies were evaluated in search of robust, simple, rapid, ultrasensitive, and user-friendly lateral flow aptamer assays. In one approach, we developed a competitive based lateral flow aptamer assay, in which β-conglutin immobilized on the test line of a nitrocellulose membrane and β-conglutin in the test sample compete for binding to AuNP labeled aptamer. The control line exploits an immobilized DNA probe complementary to the labeled aptamer, forcing displacement of the aptamer from the β-conglutin-aptamer complex. In a second approach, the competition for aptamer binding takes place off-strip, and following competition, aptamer bound to the immobilized β-conglutin is eluted and used as a template for isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification, exploiting tailed primers, resulting in an amplicon of a duplex flanked by single stranded DNA tails. The amplicon is rapidly and quantitatively detected using a nucleic acid lateral flow with an immobilized capture probe and a gold nanoparticle labeled reporter probe. The competitive lateral flow is completed in just 5 min, achieving a detection limit of 55 pM (1.1 fmol), and the combined competitive-amplification lateral flow requires just 30 min, with a detection limit of 9 fM (0.17 amol).
Liljander, Anne; Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F; Weibel, Douglas B; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(4) cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting.
Reyes, John Carlo B; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Rivera, Windell L
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the 2-kbp repeated DNA species-specific sequence was developed for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were evaluated using pooled genital swab and urine specimens, respectively, spiked with T. vaginalis trophozoites. Genital secretion and urine did not inhibit the detection of the parasite. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 10-1000 times higher than the PCR performed. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 trichomonad for both spiked genital swab and urine specimens. Also, LAMP did not exhibit cross-reactivity with closely-related trichomonads, Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis, and other enteric and urogenital microorganisms, Entamoeba histolytica, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of a LAMP assay for the detection of T. vaginalis and has prospective application for rapid diagnosis and control of trichomoniasis.
Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping
Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL-1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics. PMID:27625648
Ratliff, Amy E.; Duffy, Lynn B.
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system, the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA amplification assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Cincinnati, OH) was evaluated to determine its analytical sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application in comparison to historic culture in a collection of archived respiratory specimens. The illumigene limit of detection was ≤88 CFU/reaction for 10 Mycoplasma pneumoniae reference strains. This assay correctly identified 36 M. pneumoniae reference strains and clinical isolates from various geographic origins, including both of the main subtypes. No cross-reactions were detected with other mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, other bacterial species, viruses, yeasts, or human DNA. Among 214 respiratory specimens previously cultured for M. pneumoniae, when real-time PCR with bidirectional sequencing of the PCR products was used to resolve discrepancies, the sensitivity was 22 of 22 (100%) and the specificity was 190 of 192 (99%). This commercial LAMP assay is a useful rapid method for detecting M. pneumoniae in clinical specimens. Additional prospective clinical trials with direct comparison to culture and PCR are warranted. PMID:24430454
Abdulmawjood, Amir; Grabowski, Nils; Fohler, Svenja; Kittler, Sophie; Nagengast, Helga; Klein, Guenter
Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes. PMID:24963709
Amer, H M; Abd El Wahed, A; Shalaby, M A; Almajhdi, F N; Hufert, F T; Weidmann, M
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an economically significant cause of calf scours and winter dysentery of adult cattle, and may induce respiratory tract infections in cattle of all ages. Early diagnosis of BCoV helps to diminish its burden on the dairy and beef industry. Real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of BCoV has been described, but it is relatively expensive, requires well-equipped laboratories and is not suitable for on-site screening. A novel assay, using reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA), for the detection of BCoV is developed. The BCoV RT-RPA was rapid (10-20 min) and has an analytical sensitivity of 19 molecules. No cross-reactivity with other viruses causing bovine gastrointestinal and/or respiratory infections was observed. The assay performance on clinical samples was validated by testing 16 fecal and 14 nasal swab specimens and compared to real-time RT-PCR. Both assays provided comparable results. The RT-RPA assay was significantly more rapid than the real-time RT-PCR assay. The BCoV RT-RPA constitutes a suitable accurate, sensitive and rapid alternative to the common measures used for BCoV diagnosis. In addition, the use of a portable fluorescence reading device extends its application potential to use in the field and point-of-care diagnosis.
El-Kholy, Alaa A; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Soliman, Hatem
Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) is a serious viral pathogen of domestic and wild cattle. Herein, we report development of a new molecular diagnostic assay for rapid and sensitive detection of BoHV-1 utilizing the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. BoHV-1-LAMP assay was optimized to amplify the target DNA by incubation the Bst-DNA polymerase enzyme with a set of specially constructed six primers, based on the gE-gene of BoHV-1 virus, at 65°C for 60min. BoHV-1-LAMP products were detected by visual inspection using SYBR Green-I stain and had a ladder-like appearance by gel electrophoresis analysis. Negative results obtained with DNA from other tested fish viruses confirmed the specificity of the assay. The analytical sensitivity of the BoHV-1-LAMP assay was 1fg of BoHV-1 DNA (dilution of 10(6)). The developed assay could successfully detect BoVH-1 DNA from clinical samples. Results of this study indicate that the developed BoHV-1-LAMP is rapid and highly sensitive assay not only for detection of BoHV-1 in clinical samples, but also for differentiation between wild-type (gE-positive) and gE-negative BoHV-1 viruses, which will improve the control programs of BoHV-1 in Egypt.
Pulford, David; Meyer, Hermann; Brightwell, Gale; Damon, Inger; Kline, Richard; Ulaeto, David
PCR assays that can identify the presence of variola virus (VARV) sequences in an unknown DNA sample were developed using principles established for the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). The assay's specificity utilised unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified among Orthopoxvirus (OPV) orthologs of the vaccinia virus Copenhagen strain A13L and A36R genes. When a variola virus specific primer was used with a consensus primer in an ARMS assay with different Orthopoxvirus genomes, a PCR product was only amplified from variola virus DNA. Incorporating a second consensus primer into the assay produced a multiplex PCR that provided Orthopoxvirus generic and variola-specific products with variola virus DNA. We tested two single nucleotide polymorphisms with a panel of 43 variola virus strains, collected over 40 years from countries across the world, and have shown that they provide reliable markers for variola virus identification. The variola virus specific primers did not produce amplicons with either assay format when tested with 50 other Orthopoxvirus DNA samples. Our analysis shows that these two polymorphisms were conserved in variola virus genomes and provide a reliable signature of Orthopoxvirus species identification.
Liew, P S; Teh, C S J; Lau, Y L; Thong, K L
Shigellosis is a foodborne illness caused by the genus Shigella and is an important global health issue. The development of effective techniques for rapid detection of this pathogen is essential for breaking the chain of transmission. Therefore, we have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene to rapidly detect Shigella species. This assay could be performed in 90 min at an optimal temperature of 64ºC, with endpoint results visualized directly. Notably, the method was found to be more sensitive than conventional PCR. Indeed, the detection limit for the LAMP assay on pure bacterial cultures was 5.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml, while PCR displayed a limit of 5.9 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In spiked lettuce samples, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 3.6 x 10(4) CFU/g, whereas PCR was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Overall, the assay accurately identified 32 Shigella spp. with one enteroinvasive Escherichia coli displaying positive reaction while the remaining 32 non-Shigella strains tested were negative.
Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics.
Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei
In Cannabis sativa L., tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound and exists as the carboxylated form, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). C. sativa is divided into two strains based on THCA content-THCA-rich (drug-type) strains and THCA-poor (fiber-type) strains. Both strains are prohibited by law in many countries including Japan, whereas the drug-type strains are regulated in Canada and some European countries. As the two strains cannot be discriminated by morphological analysis, a simple method for identifying the drug-type strains is required for quality control in legal cultivation and forensic investigation. We have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for identifying the drug-type strains of C. sativa. We designed two selective LAMP primer sets for on-site or laboratory use, which target the drug-type THCA synthase gene. The LAMP assay was accomplished within approximately 40 min. The assay showed high specificity for the drug-type strains and its sensitivity was the same as or higher than that of conventional polymerase chain reaction. We also showed the effectiveness of melting curve analysis that was conducted after the LAMP assay. The melting temperature values of the drug-type strains corresponded to those of the cloned drug-type THCA synthase gene, and were clearly different from those of the cloned fiber-type THCA synthase gene. Moreover, the LAMP assay with simple sample preparation could be accomplished within 1 h from sample treatment to identification without the need for special devices or techniques. Our rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple assay is expected to be applicable to laboratory and on-site detection.
Lo, Wan-Yu; Baeumner, Antje J
Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reactions have been demonstrated to successfully synthesize new sequences based on deletion and insertion reactions. Two RNA internal standards were synthesized for use in competitive amplification reactions in which quantitative analysis can be achieved by coamplifying the internal standard with the wild type sample. The sequences were created in two consecutive NASBA reactions using the E. coli clpB mRNA sequence as model analyte. The primer sequences of the wild type sequence were maintained, and a 20-nt-long segment inside the amplicon region was exchanged for a new segment of similar GC content and melting temperature. The new RNA sequence was thus amplifiable using the wild type primers and detectable via a new inserted sequence. In the first reaction, the forwarding primer and an additional 20-nt-long sequence was deleted and replaced by a new 20-nt-long sequence. In the second reaction, a forwarding primer containing as 5' overhang sequence the wild type primer sequence was used. The presence of pure internal standard was verified using electrochemiluminescence and RNA lateral-flow biosensor analysis. Additional sequence deletion in order to shorten the internal standard amplicons and thus generate higher detection signals was found not to be required. Finally, a competitive NASBA reaction between one internal standard and the wild type sequence was carried out proving its functionality. This new rapid construction method via NASBA provides advantages over the traditional techniques since it requires no traditional cloning procedures, no thermocyclers, and can be completed in less than 4 h.
Karthik, K.; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T.R.; Viswas, K.N.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Agarwal, R.K.
Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, a promising diagnostic test, has been developed for detection of different pathogens of human as well as animals. Various positive points support its use as a field level test but the major problem is product cross contamination leading to false positive results. Different methods were adopted by various researchers to control this false positive amplification due to cross contamination but all have their own advantages and disadvantages. A new closed tube LAMP assay based on agar dye capsule was developed in the present study and this technique has some advantages over the other closed tube technique.•Agar at the concentration of 1.5% was used to sandwich SYBR green dye I with the aid of intradermal syringe. This agar dye capsule was placed over the LAMP reaction mixture before it was amplified.•To eliminate the hazardous nature of Ultra Violet (UV) light during result visualization of LAMP products, the present study demonstrates the use of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lights for result visualization.•LAMP was carried out for Brucella species detection using this modified techniques yielding good results without any cross contamination and LED showed similar fluorescence compared to UV. PMID:26150945
Zhou, Dinggang; Wang, Chunfeng; Li, Zhu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Lu, Wenying; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong
Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg2+, 6:1 ratio of inner vs. outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was 10-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100%) by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97%) by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane. PMID:27014303
Zhou, Dinggang; Wang, Chunfeng; Li, Zhu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Lu, Wenying; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong
Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg(2+), 6:1 ratio of inner vs. outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was 10-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100%) by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97%) by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane.
Balne, Praveen Kumar; Barik, Manas Ranjan; Sharma, Savitri
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the mpb64 gene for the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was highly specific (100%), sensitive (85.7%), rapid, and easy to perform. The LAMP assay can be an alternative to conventional PCR for the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis in resource-limited settings. PMID:23966513
Ferrara, M; Perrone, G; Gallo, A; Epifani, F; Visconti, A; Susca, A
The need of powerful diagnostic tools for rapid, simple, and cost-effective detection of food-borne fungi has become very important in the area of food safety. Currently, several isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods have been developed as an alternative to PCR-based analyses. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is one of these innovative methods; it requires neither gel electrophoresis to separate and visualize the products nor expensive laboratory equipment and it has been applied already for detection of pathogenic organisms. In the current study, we developed a LAMP assay for the specific detection of Penicillium nordicum, the major causative agent of ochratoxin A contamination in protein-rich food, especially dry-cured meat products. The assay was based on targeting otapksPN gene, a key gene in the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in P. nordicum. Amplification of DNA during the reaction was detected directly in-tube by color transition of hydroxynaphthol blue from violet to sky blue, visible to the naked eye, avoiding further post amplification analyses. Only DNAs isolated from several P. nordicum strains led to positive results and no amplification was observed from non-target OTA and non OTA-producing strains. The assay was able to detect down to 100 fg of purified targeted genomic DNA or 10(2) conidia/reaction within 60 min. The LAMP assay for detection and identification of P. nordicum was combined with a rapid DNA extraction method set up on serially diluted conidia, providing an alternative rapid, specific and sensitive DNA-based method suitable for application directly "on-site", notably in key steps of dry-cured meat production.
Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya.
Ocwieja, Karen E.; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Liu, Changchun; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim; Bushman, Frederic D.
Diagnostic methods for detecting and quantifying HIV RNA have been improving, but efficient methods for point-of-care analysis are still needed, particularly for applications in resource-limited settings. Detection based on reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is particularly useful for this, because when combined with fluorescence-based DNA detection, RT-LAMP can be implemented with minimal equipment and expense. Assays have been developed to detect HIV RNA with RT-LAMP, but existing methods detect only a limited subset of HIV subtypes. Here we report a bioinformatic study to develop optimized primers, followed by empirical testing of 44 new primer designs. One primer set (ACeIN-26), targeting the HIV integrase coding region, consistently detected subtypes A, B, C, D, and G. The assay was sensitive to at least 5000 copies per reaction for subtypes A, B, C, D, and G, with Z-factors of above 0.69 (detection of the minor subtype F was found to be unreliable). There are already rapid and efficient assays available for detecting HIV infection in a binary yes/no format, but the rapid RT-LAMP assay described here has additional uses, including 1) tracking response to medication by comparing longitudinal values for a subject, 2) detecting of infection in neonates unimpeded by the presence of maternal antibody, and 3) detecting infection prior to seroconversion. PMID:25675344
Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M
Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications.
Linnes, J. C.; Rodriguez, N. M.; Liu, L.
Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications. PMID:26906904
Shin, Hyewon; Kim, Minhwan; Yoon, Eunju; Kang, Gyoungwon; Kim, Seungyu; Song, Aelee; Kim, Jeongsoon
Staphylococcus aureus, the species most commonly associated with staphylococcal food poisoning, is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne disease in Korea and other parts of the world, with much damage inflicted to the health of individuals and economic losses estimated at $120 million. To reduce food poisoning outbreaks by implementing prevention methods, rapid detection of S. aureus in foods is essential. Various types of detection methods for S. aureus are available. Although each method has advantages and disadvantages, high levels of sensitivity and specificity are key aspects of a robust detection method. Here, we describe a novel real-time isothermal target and probe amplification (iTPA) method that allows the rapid and simultaneous amplification of target DNA (the S. aureus nuc gene) and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based signal probe under isothermal conditions at 61 °C or detection of S. aureus in real time. The assay was able to specifically detect all 91 S. aureus strains tested without nonspecific detection of 51 non-S. aureus strains. The real-time iTPA assay detected S. aureus at an initial level of 10(1) CFU in overnight cultures of preenriched food samples (kiwi dressing, soybean milk, and custard cream). The advantage of this detection system is that it does not require a thermal cycler, reducing the cost of the real-time PCR and its footprint. Combined with a miniaturized fluorescence detector, this system can be developed into a simplified quantitative hand-held real-time device, which is often required. The iTPA assay was highly reliable and therefore may be used as a rapid and sensitive means of identifying S. aureus in foods.
Das, Amaresh; Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T
Sheep pox (SP), goat pox (GP), and lumpy skin disease (LSD), caused by capripoxviruses (CaPVs), are economically important diseases of sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Here, we report the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of CaPVs. LAMP primers were designed to target a conserved gene encoding the poly(A) polymerase small subunit (VP39) of CaPVs. Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was incorporated to monitor assay progress by color change from violet when negative to sky blue when positive, and results were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP assay was shown to be highly specific for CaPVs, with no apparent cross-reactivity to other related viruses (near neighbors) or viruses that cause similar clinical signs (look-a-like viruses). The performance of LAMP was compared to that of a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. LAMP and qPCR exhibited similar analytical sensitivities, with limits of detection of 3 and 8 viral genome copies, respectively. Diagnostic specificity was assessed on 36 negative specimens, including swabs and EDTA blood from control sheep, goats, and cattle. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed on 275 specimens, including EDTA blood, swabs, and tissues from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle. Overall agreement on diagnostic test results between the two assays was 90 to 95% for specificity and 89 to 100% for sensitivity. The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited.
Mauk, Michael G; Liu, Changchun; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H
Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (<60 min), low-cost, convenient, field-deployable sequence-specific nucleic acid-based amplification tests (NAATs) are described. A microfluidic point-of-care (POC) diagnostics test to quantify HIV viral load from blood samples serves as a representative and instructive example to discuss the technical issues and capabilities of "lab on a chip" NAAT devices. A portable, miniaturized POC NAAT with performance comparable to conventional PCR (polymerase-chain reaction)-based tests in clinical laboratories can be realized with a disposable, palm-sized, plastic microfluidic chip in which: (1) nucleic acids (NAs) are extracted from relatively large (~mL) volume sample lysates using an embedded porous silica glass fiber or cellulose binding phase ("membrane") to capture sample NAs in a flow-through, filtration mode; (2) NAs captured on the membrane are isothermally (~65 °C) amplified; (3) amplicon production is monitored by real-time fluorescence detection, such as with a smartphone CCD camera serving as a low-cost detector; and (4) paraffin-encapsulated, lyophilized reagents for temperature-activated release are pre-stored in the chip. Limits of Detection (LOD) better than 10³ virons/sample can be achieved. A modified chip with conduits hosting a diffusion-mode amplification process provides a simple visual indicator to readily quantify sample NA template. In addition, a companion microfluidic device for extracting plasma from whole blood without a centrifuge, generating cell-free plasma for chip-based molecular diagnostics, is described. Extensions to a myriad of related applications including, for example, food testing, cancer screening, and insect genotyping are briefly surveyed.
Mauk, Michael G.; Liu, Changchun; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H.
Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (<60 min), low-cost, convenient, field-deployable sequence-specific nucleic acid-based amplification tests (NAATs) are described. A microfluidic point-of-care (POC) diagnostics test to quantify HIV viral load from blood samples serves as a representative and instructive example to discuss the technical issues and capabilities of “lab on a chip” NAAT devices. A portable, miniaturized POC NAAT with performance comparable to conventional PCR (polymerase-chain reaction)-based tests in clinical laboratories can be realized with a disposable, palm-sized, plastic microfluidic chip in which: (1) nucleic acids (NAs) are extracted from relatively large (~mL) volume sample lysates using an embedded porous silica glass fiber or cellulose binding phase (“membrane”) to capture sample NAs in a flow-through, filtration mode; (2) NAs captured on the membrane are isothermally (~65 °C) amplified; (3) amplicon production is monitored by real-time fluorescence detection, such as with a smartphone CCD camera serving as a low-cost detector; and (4) paraffin-encapsulated, lyophilized reagents for temperature-activated release are pre-stored in the chip. Limits of Detection (LOD) better than 103 virons/sample can be achieved. A modified chip with conduits hosting a diffusion-mode amplification process provides a simple visual indicator to readily quantify sample NA template. In addition, a companion microfluidic device for extracting plasma from whole blood without a centrifuge, generating cell-free plasma for chip-based molecular diagnostics, is described. Extensions to a myriad of related applications including, for example, food testing, cancer screening, and insect genotyping are briefly surveyed. PMID:27600235
Song, Weiling; Zhu, Zheng; Mao, Yaning; Zhang, Shusheng
In this work, a simple and novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assay is demonstrated to selectively and sensitively detect the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The amplification process consists of circular nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization, aptamer recognition strategy and nanoparticle signal amplification. With the involvement of an aptamer-based complex, two amplification reaction templates and AuNP-functionalized probes, the whole circle amplification process is triggered by the target recognition of ATP. As an efficient mass amplifier, AuNP-functionalized probes are introduced to enhance the QCM signals. As a result of DNA multiple amplification, a large number of AuNP-functionalized probes are released and hybridized with the capture probes on the gold electrode. Therefore the QCM signals are significantly enhanced, reaching a detection limit of ATP as low as 1.3 nM. This strategy can be conveniently used for any aptamer-target binding events with other biological detection such as protein and small molecules. Moreover, the practical determination of ATP in cancer cells demonstrates the feasibility of this QCM approach and potential application in clinical diagnostics.
Jenison, Robert; Jaeckel, Heidi; Klonoski, Joshua; Latorra, David; Wiens, Jacinta
Thin film biosensors exploit a flat, optically coated silicon-based surface whereupon formation of nucleic acid hybrids are enzymatically transduced in a molecular thin film that can be detected by the unaided human eye under white light. While the limit of sensitivity for detection of nucleic acid targets is at sub-attomole levels (60 000 copies) many clinical specimens containing bacterial pathogens have much lower levels of analyte present. Herein, we describe a platform, termed HDA/thin film biosensor, which performs helicase-dependant nucleic acid amplification on a thin film biosensor surface to improve the limit of sensitivity to 10 copies of the mecA gene present in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus. As double-stranded DNA is unwound by helicase it was either bound by solution-phase DNA primers to be copied by DNA polymerase or hybridized to surface immobilized probe on the thin film biosensor surface to be detected. Herein, we show that amplification reactions on the thin film biosensor are equivalent to in standard thin wall tubes, with detection at the limit of sensitivity of the assay occurring after 30 minutes of incubation time. Further we validate the approach by detecting the presence of the mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from positive blood culture aliquots with high specificity (signal/noise ratio of 105).
Ahmed, Ahmed; van der Linden, Hans; Hartskeerl, Rudy A
Detection of leptospires based on DNA amplification techniques is essential for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis when anti-Leptospira antibodies are below the detection limit of most serological tests. In middle and low income countries where leptospirosis is endemic, routine implementation of real-time PCR is financially and technically challenging due to the requirement of expensive thermocycler equipment. In this study we report the development and evaluation of a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RPA) for detection of pathogenic Leptospira based on TwistAmp chemistry. RPA enabled the detection of less than two genome copies per reaction. Retrospective evaluation revealed a high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity of 94.7% and 97.7%, respectively) compared to culturing as the reference standard. RPA presents a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans and in animals. Furthermore, it enables the detection of the causative agent in reservoirs and environment, and as such is a valuable adjunct to current tools for surveillance and early outbreak warning.
Lau, Yee-Ling; Lai, Meng-Yee; Fong, Mun-Yik; Jelip, Jenarun; Mahmud, Rohela
The lack of rapid, affordable, and accurate diagnostic tests represents the primary hurdle affecting malaria surveillance in resource- and expertise-limited areas. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a sensitive, rapid, and cheap diagnostic method. Five species-specific LAMP assays were developed based on 18S rRNA gene. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP results were calculated as compared with microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction. LAMP reactions were highly sensitive with the detection limit of one copy for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium malariae and 10 copies for Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium ovale. LAMP positively detected all human malaria species in all positive samples (N = 134; sensitivity = 100%) within 35 minutes. All negative samples were not amplified by LAMP (N = 67; specificity = 100%). LAMP successfully detected two samples with very low parasitemia. LAMP may offer a rapid, simple, and reliable test for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where malaria is prevalent.
Smith, Matthew C; Steimle, George; Ivanov, Stan; Holly, Mark; Fries, David P
A compact hand-held heated fluorometric instrument for performing real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification and detection is described. The optoelectronic instrument combines a Printed Circuit Board/Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (PCB/MEMS) reaction detection/chamber containing an integrated resistive heater with attached miniature LED light source and photo-detector and a disposable glass waveguide capillary to enable a mini-fluorometer. The fluorometer is fabricated and assembled in planar geometry, rolled into a tubular format and packaged with custom control electronics to form the hand-held reactor. Positive or negative results for each reaction are displayed to the user using an LED interface. Reaction data is stored in FLASH memory for retrieval via an in-built USB connection. Operating on one disposable 3 V lithium battery >12, 60 min reactions can be performed. Maximum dimensions of the system are 150 mm (h) x 48 mm (d) x 40 mm (w), the total instrument weight (with battery) is 140 g. The system produces comparable results to laboratory instrumentation when performing a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction, and also displayed comparable precision, accuracy and resolution to laboratory-based real-time nucleic acid amplification instrumentation. A good linear response (R2 = 0.948) to fluorescein gradients ranging from 0.5 to 10 microM was also obtained from the instrument indicating that it may be utilized for other fluorometric assays. This instrument enables an inexpensive, compact approach to in-field genetic screening, providing results comparable to laboratory equipment with rapid user feedback as to the status of the reaction.
Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian
We report on the effects of six dyes used in the detection of DNA on the process of DNA extraction, amplification, and detection of STR loci. While dyes can be used to detect the presence of DNA, their use is restricted if they adversely affect subsequent DNA typing processes. Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye, GelGreen™, GelRed™, RedSafe™, SYBR(®) Green I, and EvaGreen™ were evaluated in this study. The percentage of dye removed during the extraction process was determined to be: 70.3% for SYBR(®) Green I; 99.6% for RedSafe™; 99.4% for EvaGreen™; 52.7% for Diamond™ Dye; 50.6% for GelRed™, and; could not be determined for GelGreen™. It was then assumed that the amount of dye in the fluorescent quantification assay had no effect on the DNA signal. The presence of all six dyes was then reviewed for their effect on DNA extraction. The t-test showed no significant difference between the dyes and the control. These extracts were then STR profiled and all dyes and control produced full DNA profiles. STR loci in the presence of GelGreen(TM) at 1X concentration showed increased amplification products in comparison to the control samples. Full STR profiles were detected in the presence of EvaGreen™ (1X), although with reduced amplification products. RedSafe™ (1X), Diamond™ Dye (1X), and SYBR(®) Green I (1X) all exhibited varying degrees of locus drop-out with GelRed™ generating no loci at all. We provide recommendations for the best dye to visualize the presence of DNA profile as a biological stain and its subsequent amplification and detection.
The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay was initially developed for the intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer. This assay measures cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA copy number and is widely used in hospitals. The results of the IBCSG 23-01, ACOSOG Z0011, and AMAROS trials demonstrated that no further axillary dissection is required for patients with sentinel lymph nodes that tested positive for cancer, which has led to a decreasing trend in the need for intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes. Here, I review studies relevant to OSNA and discuss perspectives on future applications of OSNA in cancer surgery. The studies reviewed were identified by carrying out a search on PubMed for all articles pertaining to OSNA and published prior to the end of June 2016 using the keywords "OSNA" or "one-step nucleic acid amplification" in the title or abstract. Method comparison studies between OSNA and pathological assessment for the detection of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer revealed that in a pooled assessment OSNA had a high specificity (94.8 %), high concordant rate (93.8 %), and a negative predictive value (97.6 %). Similar results have been found for gastric, colorectal, and lung cancers in multicenter studies. These results demonstrate that OSNA can serve as an alternative method to pathological assessment for examining lymph node metastasis. Multicenter prospective studies with a large sample size are needed to definitively reveal the superiority of OSNA over pathological assessment to predict prognosis. Technical refinements to improve the assay are essential to its further development as a new standard for testing in place of pathological examination.
Lillis, Lorraine; Lehman, Dara; Singhal, Mitra C; Cantera, Jason; Singleton, Jered; Labarre, Paul; Toyama, Anthony; Piepenburg, Olaf; Parker, Mathew; Wood, Robert; Overbaugh, Julie; Boyle, David S
Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs). However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS), diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25-43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100%) HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100%) reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose infant HIV-1 in
Meng, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Hongwei; Zeng, Lingbing; Xiao, Hanbing; Xie, Congxin
The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) iridovirus (GSIV) is an emerging infectious pathogen responsible for severe hemorrhagic disease and high mortality in cultured Chinese giant salamanders. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the major caspid protein (MCP) gene has been developed to detect this virus. Primer pairs for the LAMP assay were designed based on the GSIV MCP gene sequence. Amplification results indicate that under optimized conditions the LAMP assay has the ability to specifically detect the virus in both diseased animals and infected epithelioma papilloma cyprinid (EPC) cells. The assay was shown to be 10-fold more sensitive than nested PCR and was able to detect concentrations of 10(-9) (approximately 0.01 pg/μL). The LAMP assay is relatively easy to perform in situ and the amplification products can be observed directly under UV light or via staining with SYBR Green I. The LAMP assay is also rapid and cost-effective. This study establishes the use of a LAMP assay for rapid detection of GSIV, which is a novel and important tool for the diagnosis of GSIV infection in laboratory or farmed Chinese giant salamanders.
Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong
Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of “G-quadruplex” in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched “G-quadruplex lanterns” were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10−17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring. PMID:28335318
Hu, Juan; Zhang, Chun-yang
Detection of specific DNA sequences is important to molecular biology research and clinical diagnostics. To improve the sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS), a variety of signal amplification methods has been developed, including Raman-active-dye, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, molecular beacon, SERS-active substrates, and SERS-tag. However, the combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA) with SERS for nucleic acid detection has not been reported. Herein, we describe a new approach for nucleic acid detection by the combination of RCA reaction with SERS. Because of the binding of abundance repeated sequences of RCA products with gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and Rox-modified detection probes, SERS signal is significantly amplified and the detection limit of 10.0 pM might be achieved. The sensitivity of RCA-based SERS has increased by as much as 3 orders of magnitude as compared to PCR-based SERS and is also comparable with or even exceeds that of both RCA-based electrochemical and RCA-based fluorescent methods. This RCA-based SERS might discriminate perfect matched target DNA from 1-base mismatched DNA with high selectivity. The high sensitivity and selectivity of RCA-based SERS makes it a potential tool for early diagnosis of gene-related disease and also offers a great promise for multiplexed assays with DNA microarrays.
Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred
The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV.
Jiang, Dongneng; Pu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Jiehong; Li, Meng; Liu, Ping
Tetanus is a specific infectious disease, which is often associated with catastrophic events such as earthquakes, traumas, and war wounds. The obligate anaerobe Clostridium tetani is the pathogen that causes tetanus. Once the infection of tetanus progresses to an advanced stage within the wounds of limbs, the rates of amputation and mortality increase manifold. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a rapid and sensitive point-of-care detection method for C. tetani so as to ensure an early diagnosis and clinical treatment of tetanus. In this study, we developed a detection method for C. tetani using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, wherein the C. tetani tetanus toxin gene was used as the target gene. The method was highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 10 colony forming units (CFU)/ml, and allowed quantitative analysis. While detecting C. tetani in clinical samples, it was found that the LAMP results completely agreed with those of the traditional API 20A anaerobic bacteria identification test. As compared with the traditional API test and PCR assay, LAMP detection of C. tetani is simple and rapid, and the results can be identified through naked-eye observation. Therefore, it is an ideal and rapid point-of-care testing method for tetanus.
Abdulmawjood, A; Wickhorst, J; Hashim, O; Sammra, O; Hassan, A A; Alssahen, M; Lämmler, C; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Klein, G
In the present study 28 Trueperella pyogenes strains isolated from various origins could successfully be identified with a newly designed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on gene cpn60 encoding chaperonin. No cross reaction could be observed with control strains representing four species of genus Trueperella and seven species of closely related genus Arcanobacterium. The present cpn60 LAMP assay might allow a reliable and low cost identification of T. pyogenes also in laboratories with less specified equipment.
Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infections are common and contribute to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with a bacterial enrichment proced...
Chao, Chien-Chung; Belinskaya, Tatyana; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ching, Wei-Mei
Sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi) and Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi), the causative agents of scrub typhus and murine typhus, respectively, are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose patients and ensure that they receive proper treatment. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a lateral flow test (RPA-nfo) and real-time fluorescent detection (RPA-exo) were developed targeting the 47-kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi or 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. The RPA assay was capable of detecting O. tsutsugamushi or R. typhi at levels comparable to that of the quantitative PCR method. Both the RPA-nfo and RPA-exo methods performed similarly with regards to sensitivity when detecting the 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. On the contrary, RPA-exo performed better than RPA-nfo in detecting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi. The clinical performance of the O. tsutsugamushi RPA assay was evaluated using either human patient samples or infected mouse samples. Eight out of ten PCR confirmed positives were determined positive by RPA, and all PCR confirmed negative samples were negative by RPA. Similar results were obtained for R. typhi spiked patient sera. The assays were able to differentiate O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi from other phylogenetically related bacteria as well as mouse and human DNA. Furthermore, the RPA-nfo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 37oC followed by a 10 minute incubation at room temperature for development of an immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-exo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 39oC. The implementation of a cross contamination proof cassette to detect the RPA-nfo fluorescent amplicons provided an alternative to regular lateral flow detection strips, which are more prone to cross contamination. The RPA assays provide a highly time-efficient, sensitive and specific alternative to other methods for diagnosing scrub typhus or murine typhus. PMID:26161793
Chao, Chien-Chung; Belinskaya, Tatyana; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ching, Wei-Mei
Sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi) and Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi), the causative agents of scrub typhus and murine typhus, respectively, are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose patients and ensure that they receive proper treatment. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a lateral flow test (RPA-nfo) and real-time fluorescent detection (RPA-exo) were developed targeting the 47-kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi or 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. The RPA assay was capable of detecting O. tsutsugamushi or R. typhi at levels comparable to that of the quantitative PCR method. Both the RPA-nfo and RPA-exo methods performed similarly with regards to sensitivity when detecting the 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. On the contrary, RPA-exo performed better than RPA-nfo in detecting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi. The clinical performance of the O. tsutsugamushi RPA assay was evaluated using either human patient samples or infected mouse samples. Eight out of ten PCR confirmed positives were determined positive by RPA, and all PCR confirmed negative samples were negative by RPA. Similar results were obtained for R. typhi spiked patient sera. The assays were able to differentiate O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi from other phylogenetically related bacteria as well as mouse and human DNA. Furthermore, the RPA-nfo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 37°C followed by a 10 minute incubation at room temperature for development of an immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-exo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 39°C. The implementation of a cross contamination proof cassette to detect the RPA-nfo fluorescent amplicons provided an alternative to regular lateral flow detection strips, which are more prone to cross contamination. The RPA assays provide a highly time-efficient, sensitive and specific alternative to other methods for diagnosing scrub typhus or murine typhus.
Barreda-García, Susana; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, M Jesús
Methods for the early and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria suited to low-resource settings could impact diagnosis and management of diseases. Helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) is an ideal tool for this purpose, especially when combined with a sequence-specific detection method able to improve the selectivity of the assay. The implementation of this approach requires that its analytical performance is shown to be comparable with the gold standard method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, we optimize and compare the asymmetric amplification of an 84-base-long DNA sequence specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by PCR and HDA, using an electrochemical genomagnetic assay for hybridization-based detection of the obtained single-stranded amplicons. The results indicate the generalizability of the magnetic platform with electrochemical detection for quantifying amplification products without previous purification. Moreover, we demonstrate that under optimal conditions the same gene can be amplified by either PCR or HDA, allowing the detection of as low as 30 copies of the target gene sequence with acceptable reproducibility. Both assays have been applied to the detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum, urine, and pleural fluid samples with comparable results. Simplicity and isothermal nature of HDA offer great potential for the development of point-of-care devices. Graphical Abstract Comparative evaluation of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification and PCR for electrochemical detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Eid, Charbel; Santiago, Juan G
We present a new approach which enables lysis, extraction, and detection of inactivated Listeria monocytogenes cells from blood using isotachophoresis (ITP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). We use an ITP-compatible alkaline and proteinase K approach for rapid and effective lysis. We then perform ITP purification to separate bacterial DNA from whole blood contaminants using a microfluidic device that processes 25 μL sample volume. Lysis, mixing, dispensing, and on-chip ITP purification are completed in a total of less than 50 min. We transfer extracted DNA directly into RPA master mix for isothermal incubation and detection, an additional 25 min. We first validate our assay in the detection of purified genomic DNA spiked into whole blood, and demonstrate a limit of detection of 16.7 fg μL(-1) genomic DNA, the equivalent of 5 × 10(3) cells per mL. We then show detection of chemically-inactivated L. monocytogenes cells spiked into whole blood, and demonstrate a limit of detection of 2 × 10(4) cells per mL. Lastly, we show preliminary experimental data demonstrating the feasibility of the integration of ITP purification with RPA detection on a microfluidic chip. Our results suggest that ITP purification is compatible with RPA detection, and has potential to extend the applicability of RPA to whole blood.
Shi, Chao; Zhou, Meiling; Pan, Mei; Zhong, Guilin; Ma, Cuiping
Isothermal and rapid amplification detection of nucleic acids is an important technology in environmental monitoring, foodborne pathogen detection, and point-of-care clinical diagnostics. Here we have developed a novel method of isothermal signal amplification for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) detection. The ssDNA target could be used as an initiator, coupled with a double-nicked molecular beacon, to originate amplification cycles, achieving cascade signal amplification. In addition, the method showed good specificity and strong anti-jamming capability. Overall, it is a one-pot and isothermal strand displacement amplification method without the requirement of a stepwise procedure, which greatly simplifies the experimental procedure and decreases the probability of contamination of samples. With its advantages, the method would be very useful to detect nucleic acids in point-of-care or field use.
Qing, Taiping; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Wen, Li; Shangguan, Jingfang; Mao, Zhengui; Lei, Yanli
Owing to their highly efficient catalytic effects and substrate specificity, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are applied as 'nano-tools' for manipulating different nucleic acid substrates both in the test-tube and in living organisms. In addition to the function as molecular scissors and molecular glue in genetic engineering, the application of nucleic acid tool enzymes in biochemical analysis has also been extensively developed in the past few decades. Used as amplifying labels for biorecognition events, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are mainly applied in nucleic acids amplification sensing, as well as the amplification sensing of biorelated variations of nucleic acids. With the introduction of aptamers, which can bind different target molecules, the nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided signal amplification strategies can also be used to sense non-nucleic targets (e.g., ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells). This review describes and discusses the amplification strategies of nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors for biochemical analysis applications. Various analytes, including nucleic acids, ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells, are reviewed briefly. This work also addresses the future trends and outlooks for signal amplification in nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors.
Lahdenperä, Susanne; Spangar, Anni; Lempainen, Anna-Maija; Joki, Laura; Soukka, Tero
Switchable lanthanide luminescence is a binary probe technology that inherently enables a high signal modulation in separation-free detection of DNA targets. A luminescent lanthanide complex is formed only when the two probes hybridize adjacently to their target DNA. We have now further adapted this technology for the first time in the integration of a 2-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and hybridization-based solid-phase detection of the amplification products of the Staphylococcus aureus gyrB gene and an internal amplification control (IAC). The assay was performed in a sealed polypropylene PCR chip containing a flat-bottom reaction chamber with two immobilized capture probe spots. The surface of the reaction chamber was functionalized with NHS-PEG-azide and alkyne-modified capture probes for each amplicon, labeled with a light harvesting antenna ligand, and covalently attached as spots to the azide-modified reaction chamber using a copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Asymmetric duplex-PCR was then performed with no template, one template or both templates present and with a europium ion carrier chelate labeled probe for each amplicon in the reaction. After amplification europium fluorescence was measured by scanning the reaction chamber as a 10 × 10 raster with 0.6 mm resolution in time-resolved mode. With this assay we were able to co-amplify and detect the amplification products of the gyrB target from 100, 1000 and 10,000 copies of isolated S. aureus DNA together with the amplification products from the initial 5000 copies of the synthetic IAC template in the same sealed reaction chamber. The addition of 10,000 copies of isolated non-target Escherichia coli DNA in the same reaction with 5000 copies of the synthetic IAC template did not interfere with the amplification or detection of the IAC. The dynamic range of the assay for the synthetic S. aureus gyrB target was three orders of magnitude and the limit of detection of 8 p
Kurosaki, Yohei; Okada, Sayaka; Nakamae, Sayuri; Yasuda, Jiro
Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) causes pustular cutaneous disease in cattle worldwide. This paper describes the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect BPSV which did not cross-react with other parapoxviruses. To assess analytical sensitivity of this LAMP assay, DNA was extracted from serially diluted BPSV from which the infectious titer was determined by a novel assay based on calf kidney epithelial cells. The LAMP assay had equivalent analytical sensitivity to quantitative PCR, and could detect as few as 86 copies of viral DNA per reaction. These results suggest that the assay is a specific and sensitive technique to rapidly diagnose bovine papular stomatitis in domestic animals.
Quan, Ke; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Ying, Le; Wang, He; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Wang, Kemin
Nucleic acid circuits have played important roles in biological engineering and have increasingly attracted researchers' attention. They are primarily based on nucleic acid hybridizations and strand displacement reactions between nucleic acid probes of different lengths. Signal amplification schemes that do not rely on protein enzyme show great potential in analytical applications. While the single amplification circuit often achieves linear amplification that may not meet the need for detection of target in a very small amount, it is very necessary to construct cascade circuits that allow for larger amplification of inputs. Herein, we have successfully engineered powerful amplification cascades of FRET-based two-layer nonenzymatic nucleic acid circuits, in which the outputs of catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) activate hybridization chain reactions (HCR) circuits to induce repeated hybridization, allowing real-time monitoring of self-assembly process by FRET signal. The cascades can yield 50000-fold signal amplification with the help of the well-designed and high-quality nucleic acid circuit amplifiers. Subsequently, with coupling of structure-switching aptamer, as low as 200 pM adenosine is detected in buffer, as well as in human serum. To our knowledge, we have for the first time realized real-time monitoring adaptation of HCR to CHA circuits and achieved amplified detection of nucleic acids and small molecules with relatively high sensitivity.
Pinhanelli, V C; Costa, P N M; Silva, G; Aguiar, D M; Silva, C M L; Fachin, A L; Marins, M
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a common tick-borne disease caused by the rickettsial bacterium Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). In view of the different stages and variable clinical signs of CME, which can overlap with those of other infections, a conclusive diagnosis can more readily be obtained by combining clinical and hematological evaluations with molecular diagnostic methods. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the p30 gene of E. canis was developed. The assay was developed using DNA extracted from E. canis-infected cultures of the macrophage cell line DH82 and samples from dogs testing positive for E. canis DNA by PCR. The LAMP assay was compared to a p30-based PCR assay, using DNA extracted from EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples of 137 dogs from an endemic region in Brazil. The LAMP assay was sensitive enough to detect a single copy of the target gene, and identified 74 (54.0%) E. canis DNA-positive samples, while the p30 PCR assay detected 50 positive samples (36.5%) among the field samples. Agreement between the two assays was observed in 42 positive and 55 negative samples. However, 32 positive samples that were not detected by the PCR assay were identified by the LAMP assay, while eight samples identified as E. canis-positive by PCR showed negative results in LAMP. The developed E. canis LAMP assay showed the potential to maximize the use of nucleic acid tests in a veterinary clinical laboratory, and to improve the diagnosis of CME.
Gomes, Jacinto; Santos, Marcos; Amaro, Ana; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Inácio, João
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was evaluated for the detection of Theileria annulata infection in cattle. The results were compared with a real-time PCR used for the quantification of T. annulata parasitaemia. One hundred bovine blood samples from 16 cattle farms were tested with LAMP and real-time PCR, with T. annulata DNA being detected in 66% and 67% of the samples, respectively. The results showed that the LAMP assay detects a parasitaemia as low as 0.00025%, indicating a high analytical sensitivity of LAMP for clinical diagnosis of bovine theileriosis.
Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko
Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections.
Li, Qiong; Yue, Zhiqin; Liu, Hong; Liang, Chengzhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhao, Yuran; Chen, Xiao; Xiao, Xizhi; Chen, Changfu
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). A set of five specific primers, two inner and two outer primers and a loop primer, were designed on the basis of the major capsid protein gene of LCDV. The reaction time and temperatures were optimized for 60 min at 63 degrees C, respectively. LAMP amplification products were detected by a ladder-like appearance on agarose gel electrophoresis or a naked-eye inspection of a color change in the reaction tube by addition of SYBR Green I. The assay was specific for LCDV, and there was no cross-reactivity with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or six other Iridoviridae viruses (epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; tiger frog virus, TFV; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; soft-shelled turtle iridovirus, STIV; infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, ISKNV; red sea bream iridovirus, RSIV). The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 15 fg, which was similar to that of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 10-fold higher than the conventional PCR. The LAMP assay was evaluated using 109 clinical samples, and the results indicated the suitability and simplicity of the test as a rapid, field diagnostic tool for detection of LCDV. The LCDV LAMP assay has potential for early diagnosis of LCDV infection.
Yan, Muxia; Li, Weidong; Zhou, Zhenwen; Peng, Hongxia; Luo, Ziyan; Xu, Ling
In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assay using bacterial culture and bacterial colony for various common pathogens direct detection had been established, evaluated and further applied. A total of five species of common pathogens and nine detection targets (tlh, tdh and trh for V. Parahaemolyticus, rfbE, stx1 and stx2 for E. coli, oprI for P. aeruginosa, invA for Salmonella and hylA for L. monocytogenes) were performed on bacterial culture and bacterial colony LAMP. To evaluate and optimize this assay, a total of 116 standard strains were included. Then, for each detected targets, 20 random selected strains were applied. Results were determined through both visual observation of the changed color by naked eye and electrophoresis, which increased the accuracy of survey. The minimum adding quantity of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 45 min with 25 μl reaction volume. The detection limit of bacterial culture LAMP and PCR assay were determined to be 10(2) and 10(4) or 10(5) CFU/reaction, respectively. No false positive amplification was observed when subjecting the bacterial -LAMP assay to 116 reference strains. This was the first report of colony-LAMP and culture-LAMP assay, which had been demonstrated to be a fast, reliable, cost-effective and simple method on detection of various common pathogens.
Wang, Dennis Y; Gopinath, Siddhita; Lagacé, Robert E; Norona, Wilma; Hennessy, Lori K; Short, Marc L; Mulero, Julio J
In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group made a recommendation to expand the CODIS core loci from the "required" 13 loci to 20 plus three additional "highly recommended" loci. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit was designed to incorporate all 20 required and 3 highly recommended loci along with a novel male-specific Y insertion/deletion marker. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit allows simultaneous amplification of the following loci: D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, CSF1PO, TPOX, Yindel, AMEL, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, DYS391, D2S441, D19S433, TH01, FGA, D22S1045, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, SE33, D10S1248, D1S1656, D12S391, and D2S1338. The kit enables direct amplification from blood and buccal samples stored on paper or swab and the chemistry features an optimized PCR protocol that yields time to results in less than an hour. Developmental validation testing followed SWGDAM guidelines and demonstrated the quality and robustness of the GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit over a number of variables. The validation results demonstrate that the 24-locus multiplex kit is a robust and reliable identification assay as required for forensic DNA typing and databasing.
Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related bacterial gastroenteritis and outbreaks worldwide. Sensitive and specific detection methods are needed to better control V. parahaemolyticus infections. This study aimed at developing a highly specific and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in oysters. A set of five LAMP primers, two outer, two inner, and one loop were designed based on the published V. parahaemolyticus toxR sequence. Specificity of the assay was evaluated using a panel of 36 V. parahaemolyticus and 39 other strains. The assay sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 27969 culture ranging from 108 CFU/ml to extinction. The assay was also tested in experimentally inoculated oyster samples. Results The toxR-based LAMP assay was able to specifically detect all of the 36 V. parahaemolyticus strains without amplification from 39 other strains. The detection limit was 47-470 cells per reaction in pure culture, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. When applied in spiked oysters, the assay was able to detect 1.1 × 105 V. parahaemolyticus cells per gram of oyster without enrichment, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. Standard curves generated for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in both pure culture and spiked oyster samples showed good linear relationship between cell numbers and the fluorescence or turbidity signals. Conclusions The toxR-based LAMP assay developed in this study was sensitive, specific, and quantitative, holding great potential for future field detection of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters. PMID:20146814
Wang, Hehe; Turechek, William W.
Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infection is common and contributes to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay as an efficient method for detection of asymptomatic infections of X. fragariae. In addition, a new method of sample preparation was developed that allows sampling of a larger amount of plant tissue, hence increasing the detection rate in real-life samples. The sample preparation procedure includes an overnight incubation of strawberry tissues in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), followed by a quick sample concentration and a boiling step to extract DNA for amplification. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 2×103 CFU/mL for pure bacteria culture and 300 CFU/mL for bacteria spiked strawberry leaf and petiole samples. LAMP provided a 2–3 fold lower detection limit than the standard qPCR assay but was faster, and more user-friendly. The LAMP assay should serve as a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective tool for detecting asymptomatic infections of X. fragariae in strawberry nursery stock and contribute to improved disease management. PMID:26766068
Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A
Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.
Birdsell, Dawn N; Pearson, Talima; Price, Erin P; Hornstra, Heidie M; Nera, Roxanne D; Stone, Nathan; Gruendike, Jeffrey; Kaufman, Emily L; Pettus, Amanda H; Hurbon, Audriana N; Buchhagen, Jordan L; Harms, N Jane; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Gyuranecz, Miklos; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant in genomes of all species and biologically informative markers extensively used across broad scientific disciplines. Newly identified SNP markers are publicly available at an ever-increasing rate due to advancements in sequencing technologies. Efficient, cost-effective SNP genotyping methods to screen sample populations are in great demand in well-equipped laboratories, but also in developing world situations. Dual Probe TaqMan assays are robust but can be cost-prohibitive and require specialized equipment. The Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay, coupled with melt analysis (Melt-MAMA), is flexible, efficient and cost-effective. However, Melt-MAMA traditionally suffers from high rates of assay design failures and knowledge gaps on assay robustness and sensitivity. In this study, we identified strategies that improved the success of Melt-MAMA. We examined the performance of 185 Melt-MAMAs across eight different pathogens using various optimization parameters. We evaluated the effects of genome size and %GC content on assay development. When used collectively, specific strategies markedly improved the rate of successful assays at the first design attempt from ~50% to ~80%. We observed that Melt-MAMA accurately genotypes across a broad DNA range (~100 ng to ~0.1 pg). Genomic size and %GC content influence the rate of successful assay design in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of these assays by the creation of a duplex Melt-MAMA real-time PCR (two SNPs) and conversion to a size-based genotyping system, which uses agarose gel electrophoresis. Melt-MAMA is comparable to Dual Probe TaqMan assays in terms of design success rate and accuracy. Although sensitivity is less robust than Dual Probe TaqMan assays, Melt-MAMA is superior in terms of cost-effectiveness, speed of development and versatility. We detail the parameters most important for the successful application of Melt-MAMA, which
Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M.; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine
The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction – based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage. PMID:25502338
The aim of this research is to investigate a highly sensitive, fast, inexpensive, and field-applicable amplification-free nanoparticle-based oligonucleotide detection method which does not rely on any enzymatic or signal amplification process. In this approach, target oligonucleotide strands are detected through the formation of nanoparticle satellites which make an electrical path between two electrodes. This method enables an extremely sensitive oligonucleotide detection because even a few oligonucleotide strands can form a single nanoparticle satellite which can solely generates an electrical output signal. Results showed that this oligonucleotide detection method can detect oligonucleotide single strands at concentrations as low as 50 femtomolar without any amplification process. This detection method can be implemented in many fields such as biodefense, food safety, clinical research, and forensics.
Chen, M H; Kuo, S T; Renault, T; Chang, P H
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA. Two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. The method developed was specific for the detection of abalone herpesvirus, without cross-reactions with other tested herpesviruses including ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), European eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus (KHV) and an avian herpesvirus. The LAMP assay was 100 folds more sensitive than a conventional PCR and 10 folds less sensitive than a SYBR Green PCR. These results indicate that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of abalone herpesvirus.
Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Hu, Linghao; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie
Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) causes mortality or runt deformity syndrome in penaeid shrimps and is responsible for significant economic losses in the shrimp aquaculture industry. Here, we describe a novel real-time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay developed for IHHNV detection. Using IHHNV plasmid standards and DNA samples from a variety of organisms, we evaluated the ability of the IHHNV-RPA assay to detect IHHNV based on analysis of its sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, and reproducibility. Probit analysis of eight independent experimental replicates indicated satisfactory performance of the RPA assay, which is sufficiently sensitive to detect as few as 4 copies of the IHHNV genome within 7 min at 39 °C with 95 % reliability. Therefore, this rapid RPA method has great potential for applications, either in field use or as a point of care diagnostic technique.
Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed; Faye, Oumar; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Giorgi, Ricardo Rodrigues; Patel, Pranav; Böhlken-Fascher, Susanne; Landt, Olfert; Niedrig, Matthias; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Czerny, Claus Peter; Sall, Amadou A.; Weidmann, Manfred
Background: Currently the detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92%, while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering). PMID:28239513
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...
Pasternack, R; Vuorinen, P; Miettinen, A
We evaluated the Gen-Probe Chlamydia trachomatis transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay with urine specimens for the detection of C. trachomatis infections in women. The novel test, based on the isothermal amplification of chlamydial RNA, was compared with the Roche Amplicor PCR with urine and cell culture with endocervical specimens. First-catch urine and endocervical swab specimens were collected from a total of 561 patients, of whom 70 (12.3%) were confirmed to have chlamydial infection. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of TMA with urine were 91.4 and 99.6%, respectively, and those of Amplicor PCR were 97.1 and 99.8%, respectively. By repeated analysis of the specimens with discrepant results, the sensitivity of TMA could be increased to 99%, indicating that some methodological improvements in the assay are still to be expected. The sensitivity of PCR could be increased to 100% by the elimination of DNA polymerase inhibitors in a repeated analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of cell culture with cervical specimens were 85.7 and 100%, respectively. The results indicate that TMA with urine specimens from women is a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of C. trachomatis, providing a new noninvasive technique for the screening of chlamydial infections in women. PMID:9041411
Torrente-Rodríguez, R M; Campuzano, S; Montiel, V Ruiz-Valdepeñas; Montoya, J J; Pingarrón, J M
A novel electrochemical approach for determination of miRNAs involving a sandwich hybridization assay onto streptavidin-magnetic beads (Strep-MBs), hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification and amperometric detection at disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes is reported. Using miRNA-21 as the target analyte, a dynamic linear range from 0.2 to 5.0nM with a 60pM (1.5fmol in 25μL) detection limit was obtained. The achieved sensitivity is 24-fold higher than a non-HCR amplification approach involving conventional sandwich type assay onto MBs. Moreover, the whole assay time lasted 1h 45min which is remarkably shorter than other reported methodologies. The methodology exhibited full selectivity against other non-complementary miRNAs as well as an acceptable discrimination between homologous miRNA family members. The applicability of this novel approach was demonstrated by determining mature miRNA-21 in total RNA (RNAt) extracted from tumor cells and human tissues.
Wang, Jian-Chang; Yuan, Wan-Zhe; Han, Qing-An; Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Li-Bing
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in pigs, and has tremendous negative economic impact on the swine industry worldwide. PRRSV is classified into the two distinct genotypes: type 1 and type 2, and most of the described PRRSV isolates in China are type 2. Rapid and sensitive detection of PRRSV is of great importance for the disease control and regional eradication programs. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) has emerged as a novel isothermal amplification technology for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, a fluorescence reverse transcription RPA (RT-RPA) assay was developed to detect the type 2 PRRSV using primers and exo probe specific for the viral nucleocapsid gene. The reaction was performed at 40°C within 20min. The RT-RPA assay could detect both the classical (C-PRRSV) and highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), but there was no cross-reaction to other pathogens. Using the in vitro transcribed PRRSV RNA as template, the analytical sensitivity of RT-RPA was 690 copies. The assay performance was evaluated by testing 60 field samples and compared to real-time RT-PCR. The detection rate of RT-RPA was 86.6% (52/60), while the detection rate of real-time RT-PCR was 83.3% (50/60). This simple, rapid and reliable method could be potentially applied for rapid detection of PRRSV in point-of-care and rural areas.
Lee, DoKyung; Kim, Eun Jin; Kilgore, Paul E.; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tomono, Jun; Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Omagari, Daisuke; Kim, Dong Wook; Seki, Mitsuko
We have developed a novel Neisseria meningitidis serogroup-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for six of the most common meningococcal serogroups (A, B, C, W, X, and Y). The assay was evaluated using a set of 31 meningococcal LAMP assay positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 1574 children with suspected meningitis identified in prospective surveillance between 1998 and 2002 in Vietnam, China, and Korea. Primer specificity was validated using 15 N. meningitidis strains (including serogroups A, B, C, E, W, X, Y, and Z) and 19 non-N. meningitidis species. The N. meningitidis serogroup LAMP detected down to ten copies and 100 colony-forming units per reaction. Twenty-nine CSF had N. meningitidis serogroup identified by LAMP compared with two CSF in which N. meningitidis serogroup was identified by culture and multi-locus sequence typing. This is the first report of a serogroup-specific identification assay for N. meningitidis using the LAMP method. Our results suggest that this assay will be a rapid, sensitive, and uniquely serogroup-specific assay with potential for application in clinical laboratories and public health surveillance systems. PMID:26793181
Zhao, Yu-Ran; Yin, Wei-Li; Yue, Zhi-Qin; Li, Ba-Fang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a global threat to the prawn industry, and there is no simple method for field-based testing of this virus. We designed a padlock probe and primers to the capsid protein gene VP28 of WSSV, and established a hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) assay and a corresponding strip-based test. The assay and the test strip both had similar high accuracy and specificity, and their sensitivity was about 10 copies/μL, which is 100 times higher than conventional PCR. In this study, 68 batches of prawns were tested for WSSV with the HRCA assay and test strip, and the results were compared with the PCR assay. The results indicated that both the assay and test strip had accuracy similar to each other and to the PCR results. However, the assay and strip were more sensitive and user-friendly than PCR. Establishment of this method will provide a rapid detection of WSSV and also a basis for field-based detection of animal disease.
Prusty, Bikash R; Chaudhuri, Pallab; Chaturvedi, V K; Saini, Mohini; Mishra, B P; Gupta, Praveen K
Several pathogens including Brucella spp. are shed in semen of infected bulls and can be transmitted to cows through contaminated semen during artificial insemination. The present study reports omp2a and bcsp31 gene based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of Brucella genomic DNA in semen from infected bulls. The positive results could be interpreted visually by change in colour of reaction mixture containing hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB) dye from violet to sky blue. LAMP assays based on omp2a and bcsp31 could detect as little as 10 and 100 fg of B. abortus S19 genomic DNA, respectively. Sensitivity of omp2a and bcsp31 LAMP assays for direct detection of organisms in bovine semen was 2.28 × 10(1) CFU and 2.28 × 10(2) CFU of B. abortus S19 in spiked bovine semen, respectively. The omp2a LAMP assay was found equally sensitive to TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR in identifying Brucella in spiked semen. The diagnostic applicability of the omp2a LAMP assay was evaluated with seventy-nine bovine semen samples and results were re-evaluated through TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and conventional PCR. Taken together, the omp2a LAMP assay is easy to perform, rapid and sensitive in diagnosis of Brucella spp. in bovine semen.
Jinneman, K C; Wetherington, J H; Hill, W E; Omiescinski, C J; Adams, A M; Johnson, J M; Tenge, B J; Dang, N L; Wekell, M M
An oligonucleotide-ligation assay (OLA) was developed and compared to a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) test for distinguishing between 294-bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification products of the 18S rRNA gene from Cyclospora and Eimeria spp. The PCR/OLA correctly distinguished between three Cyclospora, three E. tenella, and one E. mitis strains and the ratio of positive to negative spectrophotometric absorbance (A490) values for each strain ranged from 4.086 to 15.280 (median 9.5). PCR/OLA provides a rapid, reliable, spectrophotometric alternative to PCR/RFLP.
Santiago-Felipe, S; Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Puchades, R; Maquieira, A
Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA-ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40°C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5'-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA-ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA-ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings.
Liu, Qing; Nam, Jeonghun; Kim, Sangho; Lim, Chwee Teck; Park, Mi Kyoung; Shin, Yong
Rapid, early, and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for effective disease management and surveillance, and can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Although significant advances have been achieved for the diagnosis of malaria, these technologies are still far from ideal, being time consuming, complex and poorly sensitive as well as requiring separate assays for sample processing and detection. Therefore, the development of a fast and sensitive method that can integrate sample processing with detection of malarial infection is desirable. Here, we report a two-stage sample-to-answer system based on nucleic acid amplification approach for detection of malaria parasites. It combines the Dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)/Thin film Sample processing (DTS) technique as a first stage and the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer-Isothermal solid-phase DNA Amplification (MZI-IDA) sensing technique as a second stage. The system can extract DNA from malarial parasites using DTS technique in a closed system, not only reducing sample loss and contamination, but also facilitating the multiplexed malarial DNA detection using the fast and accurate MZI-IDA technique. Here, we demonstrated that this system can deliver results within 60min (including sample processing, amplification and detection) with high sensitivity (<1 parasite μL(-1)) in a label-free and real-time manner. The developed system would be of great potential for better diagnosis of malaria in low-resource settings.
Background Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis of public health significance and is highly prevalent in northwest China. To effectively monitor its transmission, we developed a new rapid and cheap diagnostic assay, based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify canine definitive hosts infected with E. multilocularis. Methods The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the mitochondrial nad5 gene of E. multilocularis and were designed using Primer Explorer V4 software. The developed LAMP assay was compared with a conventional PCR assay, using DNA extracted from the feces of dogs experimentally infected with E. multilocularis, on 189 dog fecal samples collected from three E. multilocularis-endemic regions in Qinghai province, the People’s Republic of China, and 30 negative control copro-samples from dogs from an area in Gansu province that had been subjected to an intensive de-worming program. Light microscopy was also used to examine the experimentally obtained and field collected dog copro-samples for the presence of E. multilocularis eggs. Results The E. multilocularis-positivity rates obtained for the field-collected fecal samples were 16.4% and 5.3% by the LAMP and PCR assays, respectively, and all samples obtained from the control dogs were negative. The LAMP assay was able to detect E. multilocularis DNA in the feces of experimentally infected dogs at 12 days post-infection, whereas the PCR assay was positive on the 17th day and eggs were first detectable by light microscopy at day 44 post-challenge. Conclusion The earlier specific detection of an E. multilocularis infection in dog copro-samples indicates that the LAMP assay we developed is a realistic alternative method for the field surveillance of canines in echinococcosis-endemic areas. PMID:24886279
Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Lingbing; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Ma, Jie
A rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. Following cloning and sequencing of the putative DNA helicase gene of CyHV-2 isolate from China, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. The MgCl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6 mM, 64°C, respectively. LAMP products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of SYBR Green I stain. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay were determined. No cross-reaction was observed with other fish DNA viruses including eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus. The LAMP assay was found to be equally sensitive as nested PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 fish samples using LAMP and nested PCR assays showed an overall correlation in positive and negative results for CyHV-2. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, and specific and has a great potential use for CyHV-2 detection in the laboratory and field. PMID:24574914
Nagai, Kenjiro; Horita, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tsukahara, Toshinori; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Tashiro, Ken; Shibata, Yuji; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nakashima, Kentaro; Ushio, Ryota; Ikeda, Misako; Narita, Atsuya; Kanai, Akinori; Sato, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi
Diagnostic test accuracy of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for culture proven tuberculosis is unclear. We searched electronic databases for both cohort and case-control studies that provided data to calculate sensitivity and specificity. The index test was any LAMP assay including both commercialized kits and in-house assays. Culture-proven M. tuberculosis was considered a positive reference test. We included 26 studies on 9330 sputum samples and one study on 315 extra-pulmonary specimens. For sputum samples, 26 studies yielded the summary estimates of sensitivity of 89.6% (95% CI 85.6–92.6%), specificity of 94.0% (95% CI 91.0–96.1%), and a diagnostic odds ratio of 145 (95% CI 93–226). Nine studies focusing on Loopamp MTBC yielded the summary estimates of sensitivity of 80.9% (95% CI 76.0–85.1%) and specificity of 96.5% (95% CI 94.7–97.7%). Loopamp MTBC had higher sensitivity and lower specificity for smear-positive sputa compared to smear-negative sputa. In-house assays showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Loopamp MTBC. LAMP promises to be a useful test for the diagnosis of TB, however there is still need to improve the assay to make it simpler, cheaper and more efficient to make it competitive against other PCR methods already available. PMID:27958360
Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Deeb, Ayman; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Abd El Kader, Hanaa; Ahmed, Abeer; Hassan, Sayed; Hoffmann, Bernd; Haas, Bernd; Shalaby, Mohamed A; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV and a 260 nt molecular RNA standard was used for assay validation. The RT-RPA assay was fast (4-10 minutes) and the analytical sensitivity was determined at 1436 RNA molecules detected by probit regression analysis. The FMDV RT-RPA assay detected RNA prepared from all seven FMDV serotypes but did not detect classical swine fever virus or swine vesicular disease virus. The FMDV RT-RPA assay was used in the field during the recent FMD outbreak in Egypt. In clinical samples, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-RPA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and 98%, respectively. In conclusion, FMDV RT-RPA was quicker and much easier to handle in the field than real-time RT-PCR. Thus RT-RPA could be easily implemented to perform diagnostics at quarantine stations or farms for rapid spot-of-infection detection.
Faye, Oumar; Prüger, Pauline; Kaiser, Marco; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Ubol, Sukathida; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Hufert, Frank T.; Sall, Amadou A.; Weidmann, Manfred; Niedrig, Matthias
Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus currently transmitted in about 60 countries. CHIKV causes acute flu-like symptoms and in many cases prolonged musculoskeletal and joint pain. Detection of the infection is mostly done using RT-RCR or ELISA, which are not suitable for point-of-care diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of the CHIKV was developed. The assay sensitivity, specificity, and cross-reactivity were tested. CHIKV RT-RPA assay detected down to 80 genome copies/reaction in a maximum of 15 minutes. It successfully identified 18 isolates representing the three CHIKV genotypes. No cross-reactivity was detected to other alphaviruses and arboviruses except O'nyong'nyong virus, which could be differentiated by a modified RPA primer pair. Seventy-eight samples were screened both by RT-RPA and real-time RT-PCR. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the CHIKV RT-RPA assay were determined at 100%. Conclusions/Significance The developed RT-RPA assay represents a promising method for the molecular detection of CHIKV at point of need. PMID:27685649
Li, Xinqiong; Zhou, Yuanchen; Ji, Hongwei; Xu, Zhiwen; Zhu, Ling
Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is associated with swine gastroenteritis, but its pathogenesis is uncertain. In this study, a rapid one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of PKoV is developed. A set of four primers specific to six regions within the PKoV 3D gene was designed for the RT-LAMP assay using total RNA extracted from PKoV-infected tissues. The reaction temperature and time for this assay were optimized. Compared with reverse-transcription PCR, RT-LAMP was able to detect PKoV at a 100-fold lower dilution. No cross-reaction was observed with other similar viruses, indicating that the assay is highly specific for PKoV. To investigate the prevalence of PKoV in symptomatic pigs in Sichuan province, the newly developed method was used to detect PKoV in a panel of clinical specimens, yielding a positive rate of 86.7% (144/166) in piglets. The results showed that the RT-LAMP assay is highly feasible in clinical settings. The data confirm that the RT-LAMP assay is rapid, simple and cost-effective and is particularly suitable for simple diagnosis of PKoV both in the field and in the laboratory.
Nguyen Van, J C; Caméléna, F; Dahoun, M; Pilmis, B; Mizrahi, A; Lourtet, J; Behillil, S; Enouf, V; Le Monnier, A
The rapid and accurate detection of influenza virus in respiratory specimens is required for optimal management of patients with acute respiratory infections. Because of the variability of the symptoms and the numerous other causes of influenza-like illness, the diagnosis of influenza cannot be made on the basis of clinical criteria alone. Thus, rapid influenza diagnostic tests have been developed such as the Alere i Influenza A&B isothermal nucleic acid assay. We prospectively evaluated the performance of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay in comparison with our routine Xpert Flu/RSV assay. Positive samples were subtyped according to the protocol from the National Influenza Center (Paris, France). A total of 96 respiratory nasal swab samples were analyzed: with both methods, 38 were positive and 56 were negative. Samples were prospectively collected from January 20 to April 8, 2015, from patient (86 adult and 10 pediatric patients) presenting with an influenza-like illness through the French influenza season. In comparison with the Xpert Flu/RSV assay, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay were 95% and 100%, respectively. Our results indicate that the Alere i Influenza A&B assay has a good overall analytical performance and a high degree of concordance with the PCR-based Xpert Flu/RSV assay. The Alere i Influenza A&B isothermal nucleic acid amplification test is a powerful tool for influenza detection due to its high sensitivity and specificity as well as its ability to generate results within 15min.
Bainor, Anthony; Chang, Lyra; McQuade, Thomas J; Webb, Brian; Gestwicki, Jason E
The BCA assay is a colorimetric method for estimating protein concentration. In 96-well plates, the relationship between protein content and absorbance is nearly linear over a wide range; however, performance is reduced in lower volume. To overcome this limitation, we performed the BCA assays in opaque, white 384-well plates. These plates emit fluorescence between 450-600 nm when excited at 430 nm; thus, their fluorescence is quenched by the BCA chromophore (λ(max) 562 nm). This arrangement allowed accurate determination of protein content using only 2 μL of sample. Moreover, soluble flourescein could replace the white plates, creating a homogenous format.
Wang, Qin-qin; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Jin-song; Chen, Hao-tai; Du, Li; Wu, Li-qin; Ding, Yao-zhong; Xiong, Sheng-he; Huang, Xin-cheng; Zhang, Yin-hong; Liu, Yong-sheng
The usefulness of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for the rapid diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was evaluated. This assay showed higher sensitivities than that of nested RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 600 IU mL(-1) , and no cross-reactivity was observed with hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis E virus. Furthermore, 106 stored sera from recently diagnosed cases were retrospectively investigated with real-time RT-PCR, the nested RT-PCR, in parallel with this new assay. The general detection rates of HCV RT-LAMP, real-time PCR and the nested RT-PCR for 106 stored sera samples were 95%, 96% and 88%, respectively. This study provides the first data on the usefulness of HCV RT-LAMP in the diagnosis of HCV RNA, especially in the early clinical diagnosis of acute HCV infection.
Chen, Zhang; Li, Huidong; Chu, Lin; Liu, Chenbin; Luo, Shenglian
A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for Pb2+ detection has been reported using glutathione protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by salt amplification. The naked AgNPs aggregate under the influence of salt. Glutathione (GSH) can bind to AgNPs via Ag-S bond, helping AgNPs to against salt-induced aggregation. However, GSH binding to AgNPs can be compromised by the interaction between Pb2+ and GSH. As a result, Pb2+-mediated aggregation of AgNPs under the influence of salt is reflected by the UV-Visible spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative detection for Pb2+ is accomplished, with the detection range 0.5-4 µM and a detection limit of 0.5 µM. At the same time, Pb2+ in real water sample is detected. Furthermore, the high selectivity and low cost of the assay means it is promising for enviromental applications.
Johno, Hisashi; Takahashi, Shuhei; Kitamura, Masanori
Formazan assay has been used for several decades to evaluate metabolic activity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In particular, it has been often applied for quantitative assessment of viable cells under acidic circumstances caused by, e.g., ischemia and hypoxia. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of acidic pH on formazan assays. We found that acidic culture conditions significantly affect outcomes of the assays. Absorbance of tetrazolium-formazan decreased in a pH-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. This nonspecific effect was ascribed to influences of acidic pH on the production of formazan. Replacement of culture media to fresh medium at physiologic pH partially overcame this problem. The influence of acidic culture conditions should be carefully considered when formazan assays are used for the assessment of viable cells under various experimental situations.
Dauner, Allison L; Mitra, Indrani; Gilliland, Theron; Seales, Sajeewane; Pal, Subhamoy; Yang, Shih-Chun; Guevara, Carolina; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L
During dengue outbreaks, acute diagnosis at the patient's point of need followed by appropriate supportive therapy reduces morbidity and mortality. To facilitate needed diagnosis, we developed and optimized a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay that detects all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). We used a quencher to reduce nonspecific amplification. The assay does not require expensive thermocyclers, utilizing a simple water bath to maintain the reaction at 63 °C. Results can be visualized using UV fluorescence, handheld readers, or lateral flow immunochromatographic tests. We report a sensitivity of 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.7-94.8%) and specificity of 93.0% (95% CI, 83.0-98.1%) using a panel of clinical specimens characterized by DENV quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This pan-serotype DENV RT-LAMP can be adapted to field-expedient formats where it can provide actionable diagnosis near the patient's point of need.
Ieven, M; Goossens, H
Clinical laboratories are increasingly receiving requests to perform nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of a wide variety of infectious agents. In this paper, the efficiency of nucleic acid amplification techniques for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections is reviewed. In general, these techniques should be applied only for the detection of microorganisms for which available diagnostic techniques are markedly insensitive or nonexistent or when turnaround times for existing tests (e.g., viral culture) are much longer than those expected with amplification. This is the case for rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and hantaviruses causing a pulmonary syndrome, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii. For Legionella spp. and fungi, contamination originating from the environment is a limiting factor in interpretation of results, as is the difficulty in differentiating colonization and infection. Detection of these agents in urine or blood by amplification techniques remains to be evaluated. In the clinical setting, there is no need for molecular diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii. At present, amplification methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis cannot replace the classical diagnostic techniques, due to their lack of sensitivity and the absence of specific internal controls for the detection of inhibitors of the reaction. Also, the results of interlaboratory comparisons are unsatisfactory. Furthermore, isolates are needed for susceptibility studies. Additional work remains to be done on sample preparation methods, comparison between different amplification methods, and analysis of results. The techniques can be useful for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis in particular circumstances, as well as the rapid detection of most rifampin-resistant isolates. The introduction of diagnostic amplification techniques into a clinical laboratory implies a level of proficiency for
Gransee, Rainer; Schneider, Tristan; Elyorgun, Deniz; Strobach, Xenia; Schunck, Tobias; Gatscha, Theresia; Höth, Julian
Today, nucleic amplification plays a key role in modern molecular biology allowing fast and specific laboratory diagnostics testing. An ultrafast microfluidic module (allowing 30 polymeric chain reaction (PCR) cycles in 6 minutes) based on an oscillating fluid plug concept was previously developed. This system allows the amplification of native genomic deoxyribonucleic acid molecules (DNA) even from whole blood samples but still lacks some functionality compared to commercial bench top systems. This work presents the actual status of the renewed and advanced system, permitting the automated optical detection of not only the fluid plug position but also fluorescence detection. The system uses light emitting diodes (LED) for illumination and a low cost CMOS web-camera for optical detection. Image data processing allows the automated process control of the overall system components. Therefore, the system enables the performance of rapid and robust nucleic acid amplifications together with the integration of real time measurement technology. This allows the amplification and simultaneous quantification of the DNA molecules. The possibility to integrate swift nucleic amplification and optical detection into complex sample-to-answer analysis platforms opens up new pathways towards fast and transportable low-cost point of care devices.
Kang, Sung-Il; Her, Moon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jin Ju; Lee, Kichan; Sung, So-Ra; Jung, Suk Chan
A rapid and accurate diagnosis of brucellosis is required to reduce and prevent the spread of disease among animals and the risk of transfer to humans. In this study, a Brucella abortus-specific (Ba) LAMP assay was developed, that had six primers designed from the BruAb2_0168 region of chromosome I. The specificity of this LAMP assay was confirmed with Brucella reference strains, B. abortus vaccine strains, B. abortus isolates and phylogenetically or serologically related strains. The detection limit of target DNA was up to 20 fg/μl within 60 min. The sensitivity of the new LAMP assay was equal to or slightly higher than other PCR based assays. Moreover, this Ba-LAMP assay could specifically amplify all B. abortus biovars compared to previous PCR assays. To our knowledge, this is the first report of specific detection of B. abortus using a LAMP assay. The Ba-LAMP assay can offer a rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the field.
Birdsell, Dawn N.; Pearson, Talima; Price, Erin P.; Hornstra, Heidie M.; Nera, Roxanne D.; Stone, Nathan; Gruendike, Jeffrey; Kaufman, Emily L.; Pettus, Amanda H.; Hurbon, Audriana N.; Buchhagen, Jordan L.; Harms, N. Jane; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Gyuranecz, Miklos; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant in genomes of all species and biologically informative markers extensively used across broad scientific disciplines. Newly identified SNP markers are publicly available at an ever-increasing rate due to advancements in sequencing technologies. Efficient, cost-effective SNP genotyping methods to screen sample populations are in great demand in well-equipped laboratories, but also in developing world situations. Dual Probe TaqMan assays are robust but can be cost-prohibitive and require specialized equipment. The Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay, coupled with melt analysis (Melt-MAMA), is flexible, efficient and cost-effective. However, Melt-MAMA traditionally suffers from high rates of assay design failures and knowledge gaps on assay robustness and sensitivity. In this study, we identified strategies that improved the success of Melt-MAMA. We examined the performance of 185 Melt-MAMAs across eight different pathogens using various optimization parameters. We evaluated the effects of genome size and %GC content on assay development. When used collectively, specific strategies markedly improved the rate of successful assays at the first design attempt from ∼50% to ∼80%. We observed that Melt-MAMA accurately genotypes across a broad DNA range (∼100 ng to ∼0.1 pg). Genomic size and %GC content influence the rate of successful assay design in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of these assays by the creation of a duplex Melt-MAMA real-time PCR (two SNPs) and conversion to a size-based genotyping system, which uses agarose gel electrophoresis. Melt-MAMA is comparable to Dual Probe TaqMan assays in terms of design success rate and accuracy. Although sensitivity is less robust than Dual Probe TaqMan assays, Melt-MAMA is superior in terms of cost-effectiveness, speed of development and versatility. We detail the parameters most important for the successful application of Melt
Zhao, Na; Liu, Jinxia; Sun, Dianxing
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1b and 2a are the major cause of liver disease in northern China; however, conventional detection tools are labor-consuming, technically demanding, and costly. Here, we assessed the specificity, sensitivity, and clinical utility of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detection of HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. Firstly, clinical samples were collected from HCV genotype 1b and 2a infected patients and the RNA were extracted. Secondly, specificity of RT-LAMP assay for detection HCV genotypes 1b and 2a were tested against viral genomes of other hepatitis viruses. Sensitivity of RT-LAMP assay was determined using serial dilutions of standard HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. The amplified products were detected by both electrophoresis and calcein/Mn(2+) -dependent visual methods. Finally, we compared the clinical detection rate of RT-LAMP to that of real-time PCR. RT-LAMP assay showed high specificity to detect HCV genotypes 1b and 2b since there was no cross-reactivity with other hepatitis viruses. Sensitivity of RT-LAMP was 100 IU/mL for both genotypes detected by either electrophoresis or calcein/Mn(2+) -dependent visual methods. The detection rate of RT-LAMP assay in clinical samples was also comparable to that of real-time PCR without significant difference between the both assays. This study proposes a newly developed RT-LAMP assay for detection of HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. RT-LAMP is highly specific, sensitive, and simple diagnostic tool which would be useful for screening and early diagnosis of HCV especially in resource-limited environments.
Ren, Weicheng; Renault, Tristan; Cai, Yuyong; Wang, Chongming
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) DNA. A set of four primers was designed, based on the sequence of the ATPase subunit of the OsHV-1 DNA-packaging terminase gene. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 64°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of fluorescent dye. The developed method was highly specific for detection of OsHV-1, and no cross-reaction was observed with other DNA viruses, such as White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), Turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) and Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) found commonly in China. The lower detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 20 copies per reaction, and it was 100 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 oyster samples using LAMP and PCR assays showed overall correlation in positive and negative results for OsHV-1. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of OsHV-1. The LAMP technique has capacity for use for the detection of OsHV-1 both in the laboratory and on farms.
Adao, Davin Edric V; Rivera, Windell L
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swabs. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected from 121 female sex workers attending a social hygiene clinic in Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines using culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the developed LAMP assay. The high analytical sensitivity of LAMP detected a higher prevalence of T. vaginalis (42.06%) compared to culture (8.26%) and PCR (7.44%). Additionally, this assay did not cross-react with DNAs of other trichomonads that can infect humans such as Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis as well as the pathogens, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The LAMP assay developed had a limit of detection (0.036 ng/μl) lower than that of PCR using the primers TvK3 and TvK7 (0.36 ng/μl). Prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers in this area of the Philippines may be higher than previously estimated. Discordant results of PCR and LAMP may be due to different reactions to different kinds of inhibitors in the vaginal swabs.
Liu, Xiaowan; Zhou, Yuancheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Pengjuan; Cai, Yuhan; Huang, Jianbo; Zhu, Ling; Xu, Zhiwen
Porcine torovirus (PToV) is associated with swine gastroenteritis, but its pathogenesis is uncertain because there is limited information regarding PToV due to its difficulty to adapt in vitro. This study has developed a rapid one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of PToV. A set of four primers specific to six regions within the PToV's highly conserved fragment of the M gene was designed for use with the RT-LAMP assay. The RT-LAMP assay was sensitive with a detection limit of 1 × 10(1)copies/μL, which was 100-fold higher than reverse-transcription PCR. No cross-reaction was observed with other similar viruses. A total of 175 clinical specimens were collected from the Sichuan province, and PToV was detected by the established RT-LAMP assay with a positive rate of 39.2% (69/175). This study developed the first rapid, sensitive, simple, cost-effective and accurate method for the detection of PToV. The results show that the RT-LAMP assay is highly feasible in clinical settings.
Wang, Tiantian; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeong Ho
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is considered as one of the alternatives to the conventional PCR and it is an inexpensive portable diagnostic system with minimal power consumption. The present work describes the application of LAMP in real-time photon detection and quantitative analysis of nucleic acids integrated with a disposable complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This novel system works as an amplification-coupled detection platform, relying on a CMOS image sensor, with the aid of a computerized circuitry controller for the temperature and light sources. The CMOS image sensor captures the light which is passing through the sensor surface and converts into digital units using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This new system monitors the real-time photon variation, caused by the color changes during amplification. Escherichia coli O157 was used as a proof-of-concept target for quantitative analysis, and compared with the results for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica to confirm the efficiency of the system. The system detected various DNA concentrations of E. coli O157 in a short time (45min), with a detection limit of 10fg/μL. The low-cost, simple, and compact design, with low power consumption, represents a significant advance in the development of a portable, sensitive, user-friendly, real-time, and quantitative analytic tools for point-of-care diagnosis.
Shah, Kamal G.; Guelig, Dylan; Diesburg, Steven; Buser, Joshua; Burton, Robert; LaBarre, Paul; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Weigl, Bernhard
Previous chemical heater designs for isothermal nucleic acid amplification have been based on solid-liquid phase transition, but using this approach, developers have identified design challenges en route to developing a low-cost, disposable device. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a new heater configuration suitable for isothermal amplification in which one reactant of an exothermic reaction is a liquid-gas phase-change material, thereby eliminating the need for a separate phase-change compartment. This design offers potentially enhanced performance and energy density compared to other chemical and electric heaters. PMID:26430883
Fryer, Jacqueline F; Heath, Alan B; Minor, Philip D
Variability in the performance of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays presents a significant problem in the diagnosis and management of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Here we describe a collaborative study to evaluate the suitability of candidate reference materials to harmonize HCMV viral load measurements in a wide range of NAT assays. Candidate materials comprised lyophilized Merlin virus, liquid Merlin virus, liquid AD169 virus, and purified HCMV Merlin DNA cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. Variability in the laboratory mean HCMV concentrations determined for virus samples across the different assays was 2 log10. Variability for the purified DNA sample was higher (>3 log10). The agreement between laboratories was markedly improved when the potencies of the liquid virus samples were expressed relative to the lyophilized virus candidate. In contrast, the agreement between laboratories for the purified DNA sample was not improved. Results indicated the suitability of the lyophilized Merlin virus preparation as the 1st WHO International Standard for HCMV for NAT. It was established in October 2010, with an assigned potency of 5 × 10(6) International Units (IU) (NIBSC code 09/162). It is intended to be used to calibrate secondary references, used in HCMV NAT assays, in IU.
Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Ya; Lu, Linlin; Feng, Chongchong; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are highly toxic species in the process of Aβ aggregation and are regarded as potent therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, a label-free molecular beacon (MB) system integrated with enzyme-free amplification strategy was developed for simple and highly selective assay of Aβ oligomers. The MB system was constructed with abasic site (AP site)-containing stem-loop DNA and a fluorescent ligand 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphyridine (ATMND), of which the fluorescence was quenched upon binding to the AP site in DNA stem. Enzyme-free amplification was realized by target-triggered continuous opening of two delicately designed MBs (MB1 and MB2). Target DNA hybridization with MB1 and then MB2 resulted in the release of two ATMND molecules in one binding event. Subsequent target recycling could greatly amplify the detection sensitivity due to the greatly enhanced turn-on emission of ATMND fluorescence. Combining with Aβ oligomers aptamers, the strategy was applied to analyze Aβ oligomers and the results showed that it could quantify Aβ oligomers with high selectivity and monitor the Aβ aggregation process. This novel method may be conducive to improve the diagnosis and pathogenic study of Alzheimer's disease.
Nagai, Yuhki; Iwade, Yoshito; Nakano, Manabu; Akachi, Shigehiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nishinaka, Takamichi
Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are geographically widespread and pose a notorious public health problem, these strains causing outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB); some studies have reported an association with drug resistance. Because the prevalence of Beijing strain has a substantial impact on TB control programs, the availability of a rapid and reliable method for detecting these strains is important for epidemiological monitoring of their circulation. The main methods currently used to identify Beijing genotype strains are IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, spoligotyping and PCR to detect specific deletions such as region of difference (RD)207. More recently, multiplex PCR assay using a Beijing-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been developed for detecting Beijing lineage strains. However, these methods are time-consuming and technically demanding. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that allows specific identification of Beijing genotype strain was developed. This Beijing genotype strain-identifying LAMP assay was performed 214 clinical isolates and the results compared with those of conventional PCR that targeted RD207 and Rv0679c-targreting multiplex PCR for Beijing lineage identification. LAMP assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with RD207-PCR. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 100%, respectively, compared with Rv0679c-multiplex PCR. This LAMP assay could be used routinely in local laboratories to monitor the prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain and thereby used to help control the spread of these potentially highly virulent and drug resistant strains.
Shao, Fengying; Jiao, Lei; Miao, Luyang; Wei, Qin; Li, He
A new pH indicator-linked immunosorbent assay (PILISA) reached pg/mL sensitivity based on pH indicator molecules loaded carbon nitride nanosheets as signal enhancer has been developed for colorimetric detection of protein biomarkers. As the secondary antibody binds to the carbon nitride nanosheets, the carbon nitride nanosheets and pH indicator complex as the signal amplification platform for colour change by detecting absorbance of pH indicator. The colour change was resulted from the releasing of pH indicator molecules from carbon nitride nanosheets triggered by alkali solution (AS). In this novel PILISA, the intensity absorbance of pH indicator is proportional to the concentration of the disease marker. The outstanding detection performance of the PILISA can be attributed to the following reasons: (1) ultrathin carbon nitride nanosheets with a larger surface area could adsorb abundant phenolphthalein (PP) molecules through hydrophobic interactions as well as the resulted PP anions can be free easily released into aqueous solution, leading to an obvious allochroic response; (2) the signal intensity is precisely determined by the amount of PP molecules loading onto the carbon nitride nanosheets surface, which ensures simple, low-cost and stable colorimetric detection. As expected, this new PILISA method offered an enzyme-free approach followed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format, which showed great promising potential as an innovative robust assay method for practical clinical applications.
Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Soropogui, Barré; Patel, Pranav; El Wahed, Ahmed Abd; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Fall, Gamou; Kiory, Davy; Magassouba, N'Faly; Keita, Sakoba; Kondé, Mandy Kader; Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Koivogui, Lamine; Karlberg, Helen; Mirazimi, Ali; Nentwich, Oliver; Piepenburg, Olaf; Niedrig, Matthias; Weidmann, Manfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha
In the absence of a vaccine or specific treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), early identification of cases is crucial for the control of EVD epidemics. We evaluated a new extraction kit (SpeedXtract (SE), Qiagen) on sera and swabs in combination with an improved diagnostic reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of Ebola virus (EBOV-RT-RPA). The performance of combined extraction and detection was best for swabs. Sensitivity and specificity of the combined SE and EBOV-RT-RPA were tested in a mobile laboratory consisting of a mobile glovebox and a Diagnostics-in-a-Suitcase powered by a battery and solar panel, deployed to Matoto Conakry, Guinea as part of the reinforced surveillance strategy in April 2015 to reach the goal of zero cases. The EBOV-RT-RPA was evaluated in comparison to two real-time PCR assays. Of 928 post-mortem swabs, 120 tested positive, and the combined SE and EBOV-RT-RPA yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in reference to one real-time RT-PCR assay. Another widely used real-time RT-PCR was much less sensitive than expected. Results were provided very fast within 30 to 60 min, and the field deployment of the mobile laboratory helped improve burial management and community engagement.
Hua, Xiude; Yin, Wei; Shi, Haiyan; Li, Ming; Wang, Yanru; Wang, Hong; Ye, Yonghao; Kim, Hee Joo; Gee, Shirley J; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Hammock, Bruce D
Two immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays (iLAMP) were developed by using a phage-borne peptide that was isolated from a cyclic eight-peptide phage library. One assay was used to screen eight organophosphorus (OP) pesticides with limits of detection (LOD) between 2 and 128 ng mL(-1). The iLAMP consisted of the competitive immuno-reaction coupled to the LAMP reaction for detection. This method provides positive results in the visual color of violet, while a negative response results in a sky blue color; therefore, the iLAMP allows one to rapidly detect analytes in yes or no fashion. We validated the iLAMP by detecting parathion-methyl, parathion, and fenitrothion in Chinese cabbage, apple, and greengrocery, and the detection results were consistent with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, the iLAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticide residues in agro-products with no instrumental requirement.
Koo, Bonhan; Jin, Choong Eun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Mi Kyoung; Sung, Heungsup; Park, Se Yoon; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ji Yeun; Kim, Sung-Han; Shin, Yong
Recently, RNA viral infections caused by respiratory viruses, such as influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus, are a major public health threats in the world. Although myriads of diagnostic methods based on RNA amplification have been developed in the last decades, they continue to lack speed, sensitivity, and specificity for clinical use. A rapid and accurate diagnostic method is needed for appropriate control, including isolation and treatment of the patients. Here, we report an isothermal, label-free, one-step RNA amplification and detection system, termed as iROAD, for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. It couples a one-step isothermal RNA amplification method and a bio-optical sensor for simultaneous viral RNA amplification/detection in a label-free and real-time manner. The iROAD assay offers a one-step viral RNA amplification/detection example to rapid analysis (<20min). The detection limit of iROAD assay was found to be 10-times more sensitive than that of real-time reverse transcription-PCR method. We confirmed the clinical utility of the iROAD assay by detecting viral RNAs obtained from 63 human respiratory samples. We envision that the iROAD assay will be useful and potentially adaptable for better diagnosis of emerging infectious diseases including respiratory diseases.
Suzuki, Ryoji; Fukuta, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yuho; Hasegawa, Toru; Kojima, Hiroko; Hotta, Makiko; Miyake, Noriyuki
For a simple and rapid detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) from chrysanthemum and tomato, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. A primer set designed to the genome sequences of CSNV worked most efficiently at 63°C and could detect CSNV RNA within 12min by fluorescence monitoring using an isothermal DNA amplification and fluorescence detection device. The result of a specificity test using seven other viruses and one viroid-infectable chrysanthemum or tomato showed that the assay could amplify CSNV specifically, and a sensitivity comparison showed that the RT-LAMP assay was as sensitive as the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The RT-LAMP assay using crude RNA, extracted simply, could detect CSNV. Overall, the RT-LAMP assay was found to be a simple, specific, convenient, and time-saving method for CSNV detection.
Guatelli, J C; Gingeras, T R; Richman, D D
The enzymatic amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences in vitro has revolutionized the use of nucleic acid hybridization assays for viral detection. With this method, the copy number of a pathogen-specific sequence is increased several orders of magnitude before detection is attempted. The sensitivity and specificity of detection are thus markedly improved. Mullis and Faloona devised the first method of sequence amplification in vitro, the polymerase chain reaction (K.B. Mullis and F.A. Faloona, Methods Enzymol. 155:355-350, 1987). By this method, synthetic oligonucleotide primers direct repeated, target-specific, deoxyribonucleic acid-synthetic reactions, resulting in an exponential increase in the amount of the specific target sequence. The application of sequence amplification to viral detection was initially performed with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell lymphoma virus type I. In principle, however, this approach can be applied to the detection of any deoxyribonucleic or ribonucleic acid virus; the only requirement is that sufficient nucleotide sequence data exist to allow the synthesis of target-specific oligonucleotide primers. The use of target amplification in vitro will permit a variety of studies of viral pathogenesis which have not been feasible because of the low copy number of the viral nucleic acids in infected material. This approach is particularly applicable to the study of human retroviral infections, which are chronic and persistent and are characterized by low titers of virus in tissues. In addition, target amplification in vitro will facilitate the development of new methods of sequence detection, which will be useful for rapid viral diagnosis in the clinical laboratory. PMID:2650862
Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Qin; Ma, Li; Luo, Xianbo; Pang, Biao; Zhang, Zhixin; Wang, Ruliang; Zhang, Junqi; Li, Qi; Fu, Rongxin; Ye, Jiancheng
A sensitive DNA isothermal amplification method for the detection of DNA at fM to aM concentrations for pathogen identification was developed using a non-stick-coated metal microfluidic bioreactor. A portable confocal optical detector was utilized to monitor the DNA amplification in micro- to nanoliter reaction assays in real-time, with fluorescence collection near the optical diffraction limit. The non-stick-coated metal microfluidic bioreactor, with a surface contact angle of 103°, was largely inert to bio-molecules, and DNA amplification could be performed in a minimum reaction volume of 40 nL. The isothermal nucleic acid amplification for Mycoplasma pneumoniae identification in the non-stick-coated microfluidic bioreactor could be performed at a minimum DNA template concentration of 1.3 aM, and a detection limit of three copies of genomic DNA was obtained. This microfluidic bioreactor offers a promising clinically relevant pathogen molecular diagnostic method via the amplification of targets from only a few copies of genomic DNA from a single bacterium. PMID:25475544
Babu, Binoy; Washburn, Brian K; Miller, Steven H; Poduch, Kristina; Sarigul, Tulin; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Paret, Mathews L
Rose rosette disease caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is the most economically relevant disease of Knock Out(®) series roses in the U.S. As there are no effective chemical control options for the disease, the most critical disease management strategies include the use of virus free clean plants for propagation and early detection and destruction of infected plants. The current diagnostic techniques for RRV including end-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) are highly sensitive, but limited to diagnostic labs with the equipment and expertise; and is time consuming. To address this limitation, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay based on multiple gene targets for specific detection of RRV was developed. The assay is highly specific and did not cross react with other viruses belonging to the inclusive and exclusive genus. Dilution assays using the in vitro transcripts showed that the primer sets designed (RPA-267, RPA-131, and RPA-321) are highly sensitive, consistently detecting RRV with a detection limit of 1fg/μL. Testing of the infected plants using the primer sets indicated that the virus could be detected from leaves, stems and petals of roses. The primer pair RPA-267 produced 100% positive detection of the virus from infected leaf tissues, while primer set RPA-131 produced 100% detection from stems and petals. The primer set RPA-321 produced 83%, 87.5% and 75% positive detection from leaves, petals and stem tissues, respectively. In addition, the assay has been efficiently used in the detection of RRV infecting Knock Out(®) roses, collected from different states in the U.S. The assay can be completed in 20min as compared to the end-point RT-PCR assay (3-4h) and RT-qPCR (1.5h). The RT-RPA assay is reliable, rapid, highly sensitive, and can be easily used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of RRV with no need for any special
Kilgore, Paul E.; Kim, Soon Ae; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Anh, Dang Duc; Dong, Bai Qing; Kim, Jung Soo; Tomono, Jun; Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Notomi, Tsugunori; Kim, Dong Wook; Seki, Mitsuko
Background Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading causative agent of bacterial meningitis in humans. Traditionally, meningococcal meningitis has been diagnosed by bacterial culture. However, isolation of bacteria from patients’ cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is time consuming and sometimes yields negative results. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods of detecting Nm have been considered the gold standard because of their superior sensitivity and specificity compared with culture. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and evaluated its ability to detect Nm in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a meningococcal LAMP assay (Nm LAMP) that targets the ctrA gene. The primer specificity was validated using 16 strains of N. meningitidis (serogroup A, B, C, D, 29-E, W-135, X, Y, and Z) and 19 non-N. meningitidis species. Within 60 min, the Nm LAMP detected down to ten copies per reaction with sensitivity 1000-fold more than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assays were evaluated using a set of 1574 randomly selected CSF specimens from children with suspected meningitis collected between 1998 and 2002 in Vietnam, China, and Korea. The LAMP method was shown to be more sensitive than PCR methods for CSF samples (31 CSF samples were positive by LAMP vs. 25 by PCR). The detection rate of the LAMP method was substantially higher than that of the PCR method. In a comparative analysis of the PCR and LAMP assays, the clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the LAMP assay were 100%, 99.6%, 80.6%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Compared to PCR, LAMP detected Nm with higher analytical and clinical sensitivity. This sensitive and specific LAMP method offers significant advantages for screening patients on a population basis and for diagnosis in clinical settings. PMID:25853422
Dmitrienko, E V; Khomiakova, E A; Pyshnaia; Bragin, A G; Vedernikov, V E; Pyshnyĭ, D V
The isothermal amplification of reporter signal via limited probe extension (minisequencing) upon hybridization of nucleic acids has been studied. The intensity of reporter signal has been shown to increase due to enzymatic labeling of multiple probes upon consecutive hybridization with one DNA template both in homophase and heterophase assays using various kinds of detection signal: radioisotope label, fluorescent label, and enzyme-linked assay. The kinetic scheme of the process has been proposed and kinetic parameters for each step have been determined. The signal intensity has been shown to correlate with physicochemical characteristics of both complexes: probe/DNA and product/DNA. The maximum intensity has been observed at minimal difference between the thermodynamic stability of these complexes, provided the reaction temperature has been adjusted near their melting temperature values; rising or lowering the reaction temperature reduces the amount of reporting product. The signal intensity has been shown to decrease significantly upon hybridization with the DNA template containing single-nucleotide mismatches. Limited probe extension assay is useful not only for detection of DNA template but also for its quantitative characterization.
Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar D; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, is caused by Leishmania donovani eukaryotic protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, the disease is prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. VL can be diagnosed by PCR amplifying ITS1 and/or kDNA genes. The current study involved the optimization of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Three LAMP systems were developed; in two of those the primers were designed based on shared regions of the ITS1 gene among different Leishmania species, while the primers for the third LAMP system were derived from a newly identified repeated region in the Leishmania genome. The LAMP tests were shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.1pg of DNA from most Leishmania species. The green nucleic acid stain SYTO16, was used here for the first time to allow real-time monitoring of LAMP amplification. The advantage of real time-LAMP using SYTO 16 over end-point LAMP product detection is discussed. The efficacy of the real time-LAMP tests for detecting Leishmania DNA in dried blood samples from volunteers living in endemic areas, was compared with that of qRT-kDNA PCR.
Biswas, Gouranga; Sakai, Masahiro
Since its invention in 2000, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been one of the most extensively used molecular diagnostic tools in bio-medical fields due to the rapidity, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness of the technique. This technique has also earned popularity in aquaculture disease diagnosis. Aquaculture, as a result of its rapid intensification and expansion, experiences increased infectious disease occurrences. For maintenance of economic viability, rapid, sensitive and efficient diagnosis of disease causing agents is an important step prior to undertaking effective prevention and control measures in aquaculture. Constraints on time and expertise required for conventional biochemical, serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques offer avenues in adoption of the LAMP by the aquaculturists at field conditions. This assay has been successfully applied in detection of several bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens causing serious diseases in aquaculture. In this review, we endeavored to accommodate the LAMP methodology with its different recent improvements and an overview of its application for the detection of aquaculture-associated pathogens.
Yang, Genyan; Jones, Joyce; Jang, Yunho; Davis, C Todd
Multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses circulating in animals must be closely monitored to understand their risk to humans and animal populations. Many molecular-based subtyping methods require constant monitoring of viral genomes for primer and/or probe mismatches and are prone to primer-primer interactions. This report presents a new approach that involves target enrichment through cDNA hybridization followed by adapter-mediated amplification for subtyping influenza virus (AmASIV). As a proof of concept, the AmASIV assay was multiplexed to specifically detect and differentiate influenza A virus subtypes (H5, N5, N7, and N9) in a single reaction without cross-recognition of nontarget subtypes or influenza B virus. The limit of detection (LOD) of AmASIV, as measured by 50 % egg-infective dose per reaction (EID50/reaction), was comparable to that of singleplex TaqMan® qPCR assays with LODs of 10(-0.6) (H5), 10(2) (N5), 10(-0.3) (N7), and 10(-0.5) (N9) EID50/reaction. The AmASIV will strengthen animal influenza virus surveillance and laboratory capacity to improve prevention and control of influenza.
Barkway, Christopher P; Pocock, Rebecca L; Vrba, Vladimir; Blake, Damer P
Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm's anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable.
Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda
Nosemosis is a contagious disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) manifested by increased winter mortality, poor spring build-up and even the total extinction of infected bee colonies. In this paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplifications (LAMP) were used for the first time to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae, the causative agents of nosemosis. LAMP assays were performed at a constant temperature of 60 °C using two sets of six species-specific primers, recognising eight distinct fragments of 16S rDNA gene and GspSSD polymerase with strand displacement activity. The optimal time for LAMP and its Nosema species sensitivity and specificity were assessed. LAMP only required 30 min for robust identification of the amplicons. Ten-fold serial dilutions of total DNA isolated from bees infected with microsporidia were used to determine the detection limit of N. apis and N. ceranae DNAs by LAMP and standard PCR assays. LAMP appeared to be 10(3) -fold more sensitive than a standard PCR in detecting N. apis and N. ceranae. LAMP methods developed by us are highly Nosema species specific and allow to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae.
Foddai, Antonio; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R
Thermal inactivation experiments were carried out to assess the utility of a recently optimized phage amplification assay to accurately enumerate viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in milk. Ultra-heat-treated (UHT) whole milk was spiked with large numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/ml) and dispensed in 100-microl aliquots in thin-walled 200-microl PCR tubes. A Primus 96 advanced thermal cycler (Peqlab, Erlangen, Germany) was used to achieve the following time and temperature treatments: (i) 63 degrees C for 3, 6, and 9 min; (ii) 68 degrees C for 20, 40, and 60 s; and (iii) 72 degrees C for 5, 10, 15, and 25 s. After thermal stress, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was assessed by both phage amplification assay and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM). A high correlation between PFU/ml and CFU/ml counts was observed for both unheated (r(2) = 0.943) and heated (r(2) = 0.971) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells. D and z values obtained using the two types of counts were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The D(68 degrees C), mean D(63 degrees C), and D(72 degrees C) for four M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were 81.8, 9.8, and 4.2 s, respectively, yielding a mean z value of 6.9 degrees C. Complete inactivation of 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis/ml milk was not observed for any of the time-temperature combinations studied; 5.2- to 6.6-log(10) reductions in numbers were achieved depending on the temperature and time. Nonlinear thermal inactivation kinetics were consistently observed for this bacterium. This study confirms that the optimized phage assay can be employed in place of conventional culture on HEYM to speed up the acquisition of results (48 h instead of a minimum of 6 weeks) for inactivation experiments involving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-spiked samples.
LaBarre, Paul; Hawkins, Kenneth R.; Gerlach, Jay; Wilmoth, Jared; Beddoe, Andrew; Singleton, Jered; Boyle, David; Weigl, Bernhard
Background Molecular assays targeted to nucleic acid (NA) markers are becoming increasingly important to medical diagnostics. However, these are typically confined to wealthy, developed countries; or, to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. There are many infectious diseases that are endemic in low-resource settings (LRS) where the lack of simple, instrument-free, NA diagnostic tests is a critical barrier to timely treatment. One of the primary barriers to the practicality and availability of NA assays in LRS has been the complexity and power requirements of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instrumentation (another is sample preparation). Methodology/Principal Findings In this article, we investigate the hypothesis that an electricity-free heater based on exothermic chemical reactions and engineered phase change materials can successfully incubate isothermal NA amplification assays. We assess the heater's equivalence to commercially available PCR instruments through the characterization of the temperature profiles produced, and a minimal method comparison. Versions of the prototype for several different isothermal techniques are presented. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that an electricity-free heater based on exothermic chemical reactions and engineered phase change materials can successfully incubate isothermal NA amplification assays, and that the results of those assays are not significantly different from ones incubated in parallel in commercially available PCR instruments. These results clearly suggest the potential of the non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification (NINA) heater for molecular diagnostics in LRS. When combined with other innovations in development that eliminate power requirements for sample preparation, cold reagent storage, and readout, the NINA heater will comprise part of a kit that should enable electricity-free NA testing for many important analytes. PMID:21573065
Chung, H; Jaykus, L A; Sobsey, M D
This study describes the detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in 31 naturally contaminated oyster specimens by nucleic acid amplification and oligonucleotide probing. Viruses were extracted by adsorption-elution-precipitation from 50-g oyster samples harvested from an area receiving sewage effluent discharge. Ninety percent of each extract was inoculated into primate kidney cell cultures for virus isolation and infectivity assay. Viruses in the remaining 10% of oyster extract that was not inoculated into cell cultures were further purified and concentrated by a procedure involving Freon extraction, polyethylene glycol precipitation, and Pro-Cipitate precipitation. After 3 to 4 weeks of incubation, RNA was extracted from inoculated cultures that were negative for cytopathic effects (CPE). These RNA extracts and the RNA from virions purified and concentrated directly from oyster extracts were subjected to reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) with primer pairs for human enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus. The resulting amplicons were confirmed by internal oligonucleotide probe hybridization. For the portions of oyster sample extracts inoculated into cell cultures, 12 (39%) were positive for human enteroviruses by CPE and 6 (19%) were positive by RT-PCR and oligoprobing of RNA extracts from CPE-negative cell cultures. For the remaining sample portions tested by direct RT-PCR and oligoprobing after further concentration, five (about 16%) were confirmed to be positive for human enteroviruses. Hepatitis A virus was also detected in RNA extracts of two CPE-positive samples by RT-PCR and oligoprobing. Combining the data from all three methods, enteric viruses were detected in 18 of 31 (58%) samples. Detection by nucleic acid methods increased the number of positive samples by 50% over detection by CPE in cell culture. Hence, nucleic acid amplification methods increase the detection of noncytopathic human enteric viruses in oysters. PMID:8837433
Pan, Li; Zhao, Jingjin; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Liu, Yi-Ming
Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as one of the most widely used tumor marker is used in the clinical diagnosis of colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, and cervical carcinomas. We developed an aptamer-based microchip electrophoresis assay technique for assaying CEA in human serum for cancer diagnosis. Methods The magnetic beads (MBs) are employed as carriers of double strand DNA that is formed by an aptamer of target and a complementary DNA of aptamer. After the aptamer in MB-dsDNA conjugate binds with target, the complementary DNA was released from MB-dsDNA conjugate. The released complementary DNA hybridizes with a fluorescein amidite (FAM) labeled DNA, and forms DNA duplex, which triggers the selective cleavage of FAM labeled DNA by nicking endonuclease Nb.BbvCI, and generating FAM labeled DNA segment. The released complementary DNA hybridizes with another FAM labeled DNA, resulting in a continuous cleavage of FAM labeled DNA, and the generation of large numbers of FAM labeled DNA segments. In MCE laser induced fluorescence detection (LIF), FAM labeled DNA segment is separated and detected. Results The linear range for CEA was 130 pg/ml~8.0 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916 and a detection limit of 68 pg/ml. The CEA concentration in the serum samples from healthy subjects was found be in the range 1.3 ng/ml to 3.2 ng/ml. The CEA concentration in the samples from cancer patients was found to be >15 ng/ml. Conclusions This method may become a useful tool for rapid analysis of CEA and other tumor markers in biomedical analysis and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26344338
Grey Leaf Spot (GLS) is a detrimental disease of perennial ryegrass caused by a host-specialized form of Magnaporthe oryzae (Mot). In order to improve turf management, a quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay coupled with a simple spore trap is being developed to monitor GL...
A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...
A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in sugarcane. Six sets of four primers corresponding to the conserved coat protein gene were designed for each virus and their succ...
Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to the infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for a sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to th...
Osman, Hana A M; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Bilal, Nasreldin M; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Aradaib, Imadeldin E
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) activity has been detected in Kordufan region of the Sudan in 2008 with high case-fatality rates in villages and rural hospitals in the region. Therefore, in the present study, a reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed and compared to nested RT-PCR for rapid detection of CCHFV targeting the small (S) RNA segment. A set of RT-LAMP primers, designed from a highly conserved region of the S segment of the viral genome, was employed to identify all the Sudanese CCHFV strains. The sensitivity studies indicated that the RT-LAMP detected 10fg of CCHFV RNA as determined by naked eye turbidity read out, which is more likely the way it would be read in a resource-poor setting. This level of sensitivity is good enough to detect most acute cases. Using agarose gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay detected as little as 0.1fg of viral RNA (equivalent to 50 viral particle). There was 100% agreement between results of the RT-LAMP and the nested PCR when testing 10-fold serial dilution of CCHFV RNA. The specificity studies indicated that there was no cross-reactivity with other related hemorrhagic fever viruses circulating in Sudan including, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Dengue fever virus, and yellow fever virus. The RT-LAMP was performed under isothermal conditions at 63°C and no special apparatus was needed, which rendered the assay more economical and practical than real-time PCR in such developing countries, like Sudan. In addition, the RT-LAMP provides a valuable tool for rapid detection and differentiation of CCHFV during an outbreak of the disease in remote areas and in rural hospitals with resource-poor settings.
Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Kumar, Mia R.; Johnson, Reed F.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Ellington, Andrew D.
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), an emerging human coronavirus, causes severe acute respiratory illness with a 35% mortality rate. In light of the recent surge in reported infections we have developed asymmetric five-primer reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays for detection of MERS-CoV. Isothermal amplification assays will facilitate the development of portable point-of-care diagnostics that are crucial for management of emerging infections. The RT-LAMP assays are designed to amplify MERS-CoV genomic loci located within the open reading frame (ORF)1a and ORF1b genes and upstream of the E gene. Additionally we applied one-step strand displacement probes (OSD) for real-time sequence-specific verification of LAMP amplicons. Asymmetric amplification effected by incorporating a single loop primer in each assay accelerated the time-to-result of the OSD-RT-LAMP assays. The resulting assays could detect 0.02 to 0.2 plaque forming units (PFU) (5 to 50 PFU/ml) of MERS-CoV in infected cell culture supernatants within 30 to 50 min and did not cross-react with common human respiratory pathogens. PMID:25856093
Das, Jagotamoy; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Montermini, Laura; Rak, Janusz; Sargent, Edward H.; Kelley, Shana O.
The analysis of cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs), which are present at significant levels in the blood of cancer patients, can reveal the mutational spectrum of a tumour without the need for invasive sampling of the tissue. However, this requires differentiation between the nucleic acids that originate from healthy cells and the mutated sequences shed by tumour cells. Here we report an electrochemical clamp assay that directly detects mutated sequences in patient serum. This is the first successful detection of cfNAs without the need for enzymatic amplification, a step that normally requires extensive sample processing and is prone to interference. The new chip-based assay reads out the presence of mutations within 15 minutes using a collection of oligonucleotides that sequester closely related sequences in solution, and thus allow only the mutated sequence to bind to a chip-based sensor. We demonstrate excellent levels of sensitivity and specificity and show that the clamp assay accurately detects mutated sequences in a collection of samples taken from lung cancer and melanoma patients.
Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples.
Baumgartner, W A; Baker, N; Hill, V A; Wright, E T
The thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation, when applied to a mixture of acetaldehyde and sucrose, produces a 532 nm aborbing chromogen which is indistinguishable from that formed by malonaldehyde and thiobarbituric acid. Unless special procedures are adopted to correct for this effect, the combined action of acetaldehyde and sucrose interferes seriously with the assay of lipid peroxidation reactions, notably those implicated in alcohol-induced liver injuries. However, this unusual thiobarbituric acid effect also can be used as a sensitive method for the detection of acetaldehyde.
Bau, Haim; Liu, Changchun; Killawala, Chitvan; Sadik, Mohamed; Mauk, Michael
Real-time amplification and quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences plays a major role in many medical and biotechnological applications. In the case of infectious diseases, quantification of the pathogen-load in patient specimens is critical to assessing disease progression, effectiveness of drug therapy, and emergence of drug-resistance. Typically, nucleic acid quantification requires sophisticated and expensive instruments, such as real-time PCR machines, which are not appropriate for on-site use and for low resource settings. We describe a simple, low-cost, reactiondiffusion based method for end-point quantification of target nucleic acids undergoing enzymatic amplification. The number of target molecules is inferred from the position of the reaction-diffusion front, analogous to reading temperature in a mercury thermometer. We model the process with the Fisher Kolmogoroff Petrovskii Piscounoff (FKPP) Equation and compare theoretical predictions with experimental observations. The proposed method is suitable for nucleic acid quantification at the point of care, compatible with multiplexing and high-throughput processing, and can function instrument-free. C.L. was supported by NIH/NIAID K25AI099160; M.S. was supported by the Pennsylvania Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority; C.K. and H.B. were funded, in part, by NIH/NIAID 1R41AI104418-01A1.
Liu, Changchun; Sadik, Mohamed M.; Mauk, Michael G.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Gross, Robert; Bau, Haim H.
Real-time amplification and quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences plays a major role in medical and biotechnological applications. In the case of infectious diseases, such as HIV, quantification of the pathogen-load in patient specimens is critical to assess disease progression and effectiveness of drug therapy. Typically, nucleic acid quantification requires expensive instruments, such as real-time PCR machines, which are not appropriate for on-site use and for low-resource settings. This paper describes a simple, low-cost, reaction-diffusion based method for end-point quantification of target nucleic acids undergoing enzymatic amplification. The number of target molecules is inferred from the position of the reaction-diffusion front, analogous to reading temperature in a mercury thermometer. The method was tested for HIV viral load monitoring and performed on par with conventional benchtop methods. The proposed method is suitable for nucleic acid quantification at point of care, compatible with multiplexing and high-throughput processing, and can function instrument-free. PMID:25477046
Balne, P K; Basu, S; Rath, S; Barik, M R; Sharma, S
This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test) of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8%) was higher (not significant, P value 0.2) than conventional PCR (57.6%) and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%). Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20) by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.
Ge, Yiyue; Cui, Lunbiao; Qi, Xian; Shan, Jun; Shan, Yunfeng; Qi, Yuhua; Wu, Bing; Wang, Hua; Shi, Zhiyang
Rapid detection of novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) (H1N1) is crucial for timely implementation of infection control measures. In this study, a haemagglutinin (HA) gene-based real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay was developed for the specific detection of S-OIV (H1N1). The assay was evaluated and validated by comparing it with existing detection methods for S-OIV (H1N1). Results obtained in a 10-fold dilution series assay demonstrated the analytic sensitivity of the present assay was comparable to that of a commercial S-OIV (H1N1) real-time RT-PCR kit and higher than that of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) TaqMan assay. The actual detection limit of the real-time NASBA assay was approximately 50 copies per reaction. Compared with reference methods (viral culture, conventional RT-PCR, and real-time RT-PCR), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the present assay were all 100%. Overall, the results showed that the real-time NASBA assay could be used for sensitive and specific detection of S-OIV (H1N1).
Feng, Jiawang; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Lideng; Kuang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Songnan; You, Shuzhu
Here, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for 11 common transgenic target DNA in GMOs. Six sets of LAMP primer candidates for each target were designed and their specificity, sensitivity, and reproductivity were evaluated. With the optimized LAMP primers, this LAMP assay was simply run within 45-60 min to detect all these targets in GMOs tested. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproductivity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of Real-Time PCR. In consistent with real-time PCR, detection of 0.5% GMOs in equivalent background DNA was possible using this LAMP assay for all targets. In comparison with real-time PCR, the LAMP assay showed the same results with simple instruments. Hence, the LAMP assay developed can provide a rapid and simple approach for routine screening as well as specific events detection of many GMOs.
Ren, Wei; Liu, Hongmei; Yang, Wenxia; Fan, Yunlong; Yang, Lang; Wang, Yucong; Liu, Chenghui; Li, Zhengping
A versatile flow cytometric bead assay (CBA) is developed for sensitive DNA detection by integrating the advantages of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for enzyme-free signal amplification, flow cytometry for robust and rapid signal readout as well as magnetic beads (MBs) for facile separation. In this HCR-CBA, a biotinylated hairpin DNA (Bio-H1) is firstly immobilized on streptavidin-functionalized MBs. Upon the addition of target DNA, each target would hybridize with one Bio-H1 to open its hairpin structure and subsequently initiate a cascade of hybridization events between two species of fluorescent DNA hairpin probes (H1*/H2*) to form a nicked double helical DNA structure, resulting in amplified accumulation of numerous fluorophores on the MBs. Finally, the fluorescent MBs are directly analyzed by flow cytometry. This technique enables quantitative analysis of the HCR products anchored on the MBs as a function of target DNA concentration, and analysis of each sample can be completed within few minutes. Therefore, the HCR-CBA approach provides a practical DNA assay with greatly improved sensitivity. The detection limit of a model DNA target is 0.5 pM (3σ), which is about 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with traditional hybridization methods without HCR. Furthermore, the signal of complementary target can be clearly distinguished from that of single-base mismatched sequences, indicating the high specificity of the HCR-CBA. Moreover, this strategy is also successfully applied to the DNA analysis in complex biological samples, showing great potential in gene analysis and disease diagnosis in clinical samples.
Cho, Il-Hoon; Bhunia, Arun; Irudayaraj, Joseph
To date most LF-ICA format for pathogen detection is based on generating color signals from gold nanoparticle (AuNP) tracers that are perceivable by naked eye but often these methods exhibit sensitivity lower than those associated with the conventional enzyme-based immunological methods or mandated by the regulatory guidelines. By developing AuNP avidin-biotin constructs in which a number of enzymes can be labeled we report on an enhanced LF-ICA system to detect pathogens at very low levels. With this approach we show that as low as 100 CFU/mL of Escherichia coli O157:H7 can be detected, indicating that the limit of detection can be increased by about 1000-fold due to our signal amplification approach. In addition, extensive cross-reactivity experiments were conducted (19 different organisms were used) to test and successfully validate the specificity of the assay. Semi-quantitative analysis can be performed using signal intensities which were correlated with the target pathogen concentrations for calibration by image processing.
Gentilini, Fabio; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Zambon, Elisa; Turba, Maria Elena
We compared 2 novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target either the 16S ribosomal RNA ( rrs) gene or the gene encoding a 32-kDa leptospiral lipoprotein ( lipL32) in order to assess the effect of the target on the accuracy of the LAMP assays. The most sensitive assay was the rrs assay with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2 × 10(1) genome equivalents per reaction. The novel lipL32 assay showed an LOD of 1.2 × 10(2) genome equivalents per reaction. Both assays showed adequate specificity when tested against a collection of bacteria commonly found in voided canine urine. However, when field samples were assayed, the rrs assays gave many false-positive results and a poor positive predictive value of 8.33%. In conclusion, even if the LAMP assay is used in low prevalence areas, the lipL32 assay would be preferable. Conversely, the higher analytical sensitivity of the rrs assay could be effectively used as a screening test in endemic areas with high disease prevalence, followed by confirmation of the positive results using the lipL32 assay.
Lin, Xuexia; Chen, Qiushui; Liu, Wu; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming
In this work, a convenient and high-throughput colorimetric assay was developed on an aptamer-modified microchip for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin using rolling circle amplification and G-quadruplex DNAzyme. This system consisted of an aptamer-modified microchip and a secondary aptamer. The secondary aptamer contained a thrombin aptamer and a primer with a G-quadruplex circular template. RCA technology was used to improve the sensitivity by producing the multiple G-quadruplex units. To generate colorimetric signal, G-quadruplex DNAzyme was used to catalyze the H2O2-mediated oxidation of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiozoline)-6-sulfonic acid. At the optimal conditions, the linear range for thrombin was 0.100-50.000 pg/mL, and the limit of detection was down to 0.083 pg/mL. Moreover, the developed method was successfully applied to detect thrombin from human plasma and serum, indicating that this approach has great potential in clinical diagnosis and medical investigation.
Sharma, Nidhi; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Bradley, Kevin M; Benner, Steven A
Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal method to amplify nucleic acid sequences without the temperature cycling that classical PCR uses. Instead of using heat to denature the DNA duplex, RPA uses recombination enzymes to swap single-stranded primers into the duplex DNA product; these are then extended using a strand-displacing polymerase to complete the cycle. Because RPA runs at low temperatures, it never forces the system to recreate base-pairs following Watson-Crick rules, and therefore it produces undesired products that impede the amplification of the desired product, complicating downstream analysis. Herein, we show that most of these undesired side products can be avoided if the primers contain components of a self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS). Given the precision that is necessary in the recombination systems for them to function biologically, it is surprising that they accept SAMRS. SAMRS-RPA is expected to be a powerful tool within the range of amplification techniques available to scientists.
Zhuo, Xunhui; Huang, Bin; Luo, Jiaqing; Yu, Haijie; Yan, Baolong; Yang, Yi; Du, Aifang
The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a novel method that rapidly amplifies DNA with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. In this study, we established a LAMP assay with six primers targeting a highly conserved region of Toxoplasma gondii ITS-1 sequence. The amplification protocol completes within 30 min under isothermal condition in a 65°C water bath while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with DNA templates of Neospora caninum, Eimeria tenella, Cryptosporidium parvum, Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus suis. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 0.9 fg T. gondii genomic DNA, a sensitivity that was 10-fold higher than that of a conventional PCR assay. Both LAMP assay and conventional PCR were applied to detect T. gondii genomic DNA in 118 diaphragm samples obtained from pig farms in Zhejiang Province, China. Our results showed that the LAMP assay is more sensitive than conventional PCR (13.56% and 9.32%). The LAMP assay established in this study provides a simple, specific, sensitive and rapid method of T. gondii genomic DNA detection, hence is expected to plays an important role in the monitoring of T. gondii contamination in various food products.
Churruca, E; Girbau, C; Martínez, I; Mateo, E; Alonso, R; Fernández-Astorga, A
A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay based on molecular beacons was used for real-time detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in samples of chicken meat. A set of specific primers and beacon probe were designed to target the 16S rRNA of both species. The real-time NASBA protocol including the RNA isolation was valid for both of the cell suspensions in buffered saline and the artificially contaminated chicken meat samples. The presence of rRNA could be correlated with cellular viability, following inactivation of the bacteria by heating, in inoculated chicken meat samples but not in RNase-free cell suspensions.
Xu, Yao; Zheng, Zhi
We have developed a convenient, robust and low-cost RNA detection system suitable for high-throughput applications. This system uses a highly specific sandwich hybridization to capture target RNA directly onto solid support, followed by on-site signal amplification via 2-dimensional, branched hybridizing chain polymerization through toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. The assay uses SYBR Green to detect targets at concentrations as low as 1 pM, without involving nucleic acid purification or any enzymatic reaction, using ordinary oligonucleotides without modification or labeling. The system was demonstrated in the detection of malaria RNA in blood and GAPDH gene expression in cell lysate.
Hansen, Ryan R; Johnson, Leah M; Bowman, Christopher N
Polymerization-based signal amplification offers sensitive visualization of biotinylated biomolecules functionalized to glass microarrays in a manner suitable for point-of-care use. Here we report using this method for visual detection of multiplexed nucleic acid hybridizations from complex media and develop an application toward point mutation detection and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. Primer extension reactions were employed to label selectively and universally all complementary surface DNA hybrids with photoinitiators, permitting simultaneous and dynamic photopolymerization from positive sites to 0.5-nM target concentrations. Dramatic improvements in signal ratios between complementary and mismatched hybrids enabled visual discrimination of single base differences in KRAS codon-12 biomarkers.
Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi; Bhoge, Rajesh K; Singh, Monika
Bt cotton events MON531 and MON15985 are authorized for commercial cultivation in more than 18 countries. In India, four Bt cotton events have been commercialized; more than 95% of total area under genetically modified (GM) cotton cultivation comprises events MON531 and MON15985. The present study reports on the development of efficient event-specific visual and real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection and identification of cotton events MON531 and MON15985. Efficiency of LAMP assays was compared with conventional and real-time PCR assays. Real-time LAMP assay was found time-efficient and most sensitive, detecting up to two target copies within 35 min. The developed real-time LAMP assays, when combined with efficient DNA extraction kit/protocol, may facilitate onsite GM detection to check authenticity of Bt cotton seeds.
Billard, A; Laval, V; Fillinger, S; Leroux, P; Lachaise, H; Beffa, R; Debieu, D
The evolution of fungicide resistance within populations of plant pathogens must be monitored to develop management strategies. Such monitoring often is based on microbiological tests, such as microtiter plate assays. Molecular monitoring methods can be considered if the mutations responsible for resistance have been identified. Allele-specific real-time PCR approaches, such as amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR, are, despite their moderate efficacy, among the most precise methods for refining SNP quantification. We describe here a new real-time PCR method, the allele-specific probe and primer amplification assay (ASPPAA PCR). This method makes use of mixtures of allele-specific minor groove binder (MGB) TaqMan probes and allele-specific primers for the fine quantification of SNPs from a pool of DNA extracted from a mixture of conidia. It was developed for a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is responsible for resistance to the sterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicide fenhexamid, resulting in the replacement of the phenylalanine residue (encoded by the TTC codon) in position 412 of the enzymatic target (3-ketoreductase) by a serine (TCC), valine (GTC), or isoleucine (ATC) residue. The levels of nonspecific amplification with the ASPPAA PCR were reduced at least four times below the level of currently available allele-specific real-time PCR approaches due to strong allele specificity in amplification cycles, including two allele selectors. This new method can be used to quantify a complex quadriallelic SNP in a DNA pool with a false discovery rate of less than 1%.
Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Al-Tori, Amira; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Yuval, Chanoch; Perk, Shimon; Lublin, Avishai
The Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus (TMEV) causes neuroparalytic signs, paresis, in-coordination, morbidity and mortality in turkeys. In parallel to the increased worldwide scientific interest in veterinary avian flaviviruses, including the Bagaza, Tembusu and Tembusu-related BYD virus, TMEV-caused disease also reemergence in commercial turkeys during late summer of 2010. While initially TMEV was detected by NS5-gene RT-PCR, subsequently, the env-gene RT-PCR was employed. As lately several inconsistencies were observed between the clinical, serological and molecular detection of the TMEV env gene, this study evaluated whether genetic changes occurred in the recently isolated viruses, and sought to optimize and improve the direct TMEV amplification from brain tissues of affected turkeys. The main findings indicated that no changes occurred during the years in the TMEV genome, but the PCR detection sensitivities of the env and NS5 genes differed. The RT-PCR and RNA purification were optimized for direct amplification from brain tissues without pre-replication of clinical samples in tissue cultures or in embryonated eggs. The amplification sensitivity of the NS5-gene was 10-100 times more than the env-gene when separate. The new dual-gene amplification RT-PCR was similar to that of the NS5 gene, therefore the assay can be considered as a reliable diagnostic assay. Cases where one of the two amplicons would be RT-PCR negative would alert and warn on the virus identity, and possible genetic changes. In addition, the biochemical environment of the dual-gene amplification reaction seemed to contribute in deleting non-specific byproducts that occasionally appeared in the singular RT-PCR assays on RNA purified from brain tissues.
Tang, Shixing; Zhao, Jiangqin; Storhoff, James J; Norris, Philip J; Little, Richard F; Yarchoan, Robert; Stramer, Susan L; Patno, Tim; Domanus, Marc; Dhar, Arindam; Mirkin, Chad A; Hewlett, Indira K
Nanotechnology-based techniques are being widely evaluated in medical testing and could provide a new generation of diagnostic assays due to their high degrees of sensitivity, high specificity, multiplexing capabilities, and ability to operate without enzymes. In this article, we have modified a nanoparticle-based biobarcode amplification (BCA) assay for early and sensitive detection of HIV-1 capsid (p24) antigen by using antip24 antibody-coated microplates to capture viral antigen (p24) and streptavidin-coated nanoparticle-based biobarcode DNAs for signal amplification, followed by detection using a chip-based scanometric method. The modified BCA assay exhibited a linear dose-dependent pattern within the detection range of 0.1 to 500 pg/ml and was approximately 150-fold more sensitive than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No false positive results were observed in 30 HIV-1-negative samples, while all 45 HIV-1 RNA positive samples were found HIV-1 p24 antigen positive by the BCA assay. In addition, the BCA assay detected HIV-1 infection 3 days earlier than ELISA in seroconversion samples. Preliminary evaluation based on testing a small number of samples indicates that the HIV-1 p24 antigen BCA may provide a new tool for sensitive and early detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in settings where HIV-1 RNA testing is currently not routinely performed.
Poole, Catherine B.; Li, Zhiru; Alhassan, Andy; Guelig, Dylan; Diesburg, Steven; Tanner, Nathan A.; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C.; LaBarre, Paul; Wanji, Samuel; Burton, Robert A.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.
Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Nucleic acid-based molecular assays offer high levels of specificity and sensitivity, and can be used to detect infection in both humans and vectors. In this study we developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) tests to detect three different filarial DNAs in human and insect samples using pH sensitive dyes for enhanced visual detection of amplification. Furthermore, reactions were performed in a portable, non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification (NINA) device that provides a stable heat source for LAMP. The efficacy of several strand displacing DNA polymerases were evaluated in combination with neutral red or phenol red dyes. Colorimetric NINA-LAMP assays targeting Brugia Hha I repeat, Onchocerca volvulus GST1a and Wuchereria bancrofti LDR each exhibit species-specificity and are also highly sensitive, detecting DNA equivalent to 1/10-1/5000th of one microfilaria. Reaction times varied depending on whether a single copy gene (70 minutes, O. volvulus) or repetitive DNA (40 min, B. malayi and W. bancrofti) was employed as a biomarker. The NINA heater can be used to detect multiple infections simultaneously. The accuracy, simplicity and versatility of the technology suggests that colorimetric NINA-LAMP assays are ideally suited for monitoring the success of filariasis control programs. PMID:28199317
Quarello, Paola; Garelli, Emanuela; Brusco, Alfredo; Carando, Adriana; Mancini, Cecilia; Pappi, Patrizia; Vinti, Luciana; Svahn, Johanna; Dianzani, Irma; Ramenghi, Ugo
Diamond-Blackfan anemia is an autosomal dominant disease due to mutations in nine ribosomal protein encoding genes. Because most mutations are loss of function and detected by direct sequencing of coding exons, we reasoned that part of the approximately 50% mutation negative patients may have carried a copy number variant of ribosomal protein genes. As a proof of concept, we designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay targeted to screen the six genes that are most frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients: RPS17, RPS19, RPS26, RPL5, RPL11, and RPL35A. Using this assay we showed that deletions represent approximately 20% of all mutations. The combination of sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of these six genes allows the genetic characterization of approximately 65% of patients, showing that Diamond-Blackfan anemia is indisputably a ribosomopathy. PMID:22689679
Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Unemo, Magnus; Limnios, Athena E.; Hogan, Tiffany R.; Hjelmevoll, Stig-Ove; Garland, Susanne M.; Tapsall, John
Molecular detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in extragenital samples may result in false-positive results due to cross-reaction with commensal Neisseria species or Neisseria meningitidis. This study examined 450 characterized clinical culture isolates, comprising 216 N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 234 isolates of nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 218) and 16 isolates of other closely related bacteria, with six commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The six NAATs tested were Gen-Probe APTIMA COMBO 2 and APTIMA GC, Roche COBAS Amplicor CT/NG and COBAS 4800 CT/NG tests, BD ProbeTec GC Qx amplified DNA assay, and Abbott RealTime CT/NG test. All assays except COBAS Amplicor CT/NG test where four (1.9%) isolates were not detected showed a positive result with all N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 216). Among the 234 nongonococcal isolates examined, initial results from all assays displayed some false-positive results due to cross-reactions. Specifically, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests showed the highest number of false-positive results, detecting 33 (14.1%) and 26 (11%) nongonococcal Neisseria isolates, respectively. On the first testing, APTIMA COMBO 2, APTIMA GC, Abbott RealTime, and Roche COBAS 4800 showed lower level of cross-reactions with five (2.1%), four (1.7%), two (1%), and two (1%) of the isolates showing low-level positivity, respectively. Upon retesting of these nine nongonococcal isolates using freshly cultured colonies, none were positive by the APTIMA COMBO 2, Abbott RealTime, or COBAS 4800 test. In conclusion, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests displayed high number of false-positive results, while the remaining NAATs showed only sporadic low-level false-positive results. Supplementary testing for confirmation of N. gonorrhoeae NAATs remains recommended with all samples tested, in particular those from extragenital sites. PMID:21813721
Símboli, Norberto; Takiff, Howard; McNerney, Ruth; López, Beatriz; Martin, Anandi; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Barrera, Lucía; Ritacco, Viviana
An in-house mycobacteriophage amplification assay for detecting rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed 100% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity, and 95.2% predictive value for resistance in a test of 129 isolates from a hot spot area of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The applicability of the test was demonstrated in the routine work flow of a low-resource reference laboratory.
Chowdry, Vinay Kumar; Luo, Yuzi; Widén, Frederik; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Shan, Hu; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease and may cause heavy economic loss to farmers. The rapid, simple and accurate diagnosis of the disease at the frontline, for example on the farms of concern is crucial for disease control. This study describes the development and evaluation of a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay coupled with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for the detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). This RT-LAMP-LFD assay combines the efficient one-step isothermal amplification of CSF viral RNA and the simplicity of the LFD to read the results within two to five minutes. Seven genotypes (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 3.1), but not genotype 3.4, were successfully detected by the RT-LAMP-LFD assay, indicating that the method has a broad range of detection and can be applied in different geographical areas where CSFV strains belonging to these genotypes are present. The performance of this RT-LAMP-LFD assay was similar to that of the real-time RT-PCR. The analytical sensitivity was about 100copies per reaction when testing two genotypes (1.1 and 2.3). No cross-reactivity to non-CSFV pestiviruses was observed. This RT-LAMP-LFD assay can be a useful novel tool for the rapid, simple and economic diagnosis of classical swine fever in the field.
Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Sun, Yingjun; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Zhidong
A novel fluorescent probe-based real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time RT-RPA) assay was developed for rapid detection of highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). The sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of RPA was 70 copies of HP-PRRSV RNA/reaction. The real-time RT-RPA highly specific amplified HP-PRRSV with no cross-reaction with classic PRRSV, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus. Assessment with 125 clinical samples showed that the developed real-time RT-RPA assay was well correlated with real-time RT-qPCR assays for detection of HP-PRRSV. These results suggest that the developed real-time RT-RPA assay is suitable for rapid detection of HP-PRRSV.
Nakauchi, Mina; Takayama, Ikuyo; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Masato; Kageyama, Tsutomu
A genetic diagnosis system for detecting avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection using reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) technology was developed. The RT-LAMP assay showed no cross-reactivity with seasonal influenza A (H3N2 and H1N1pdm09) or influenza B viruses circulating in humans or with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was 42.47 copies/reaction. Considering the high specificity and sensitivity of the assay for detecting the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and that the reaction was completed within 30 min, the RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is a promising rapid diagnostic tool for avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.
Asam, Stefan; Liu, Yang; Konitzer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael
A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid was developed. Therefore, [(13)C(6),(15)N]-tenuazonic acid was synthesized from [(13)C(6),(15)N]-isoleucine by Dieckmann intramolecular cyclization after acetoacetylation with diketene. The synthesized [(13)C(6),(15)N]-tenuazonic acid was used as the internal standard for determination of tenuazonic acid in tomato products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Method validation revealed a limit of detection of 0.1 μg/kg and a limit of quantitation of 0.3 μg/kg. Recovery was close to 100% in the range of 3-300 μg/kg. Determination of tenuazonic acid in two samples of different tomato ketchups (naturally contaminated) was achieved with a coefficient of variation of 2.3% and 4.7%. Different tomato products (n = 16) were analyzed for their content of tenuazonic acid using the developed SIDA. Values were between 15 and 195 μg/kg (tomato ketchup, n = 9), 363 and 909 μg/kg (tomato paste, n = 2), and 8 and 247 μg/kg (pureed tomatoes and comparable products, n = 5).
Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Dixit, Chandra Kumar
We report here substantial interference from N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. NHS is one of the most commonly used crosslinking agents in bioanalytical sciences, which can lead to serious potential errors in the BCA protein assay based protein estimation if it is present in the protein analyte solution. It was identified to be a reducing substance, which interferes with the BCA protein assay by reducing Cu(2+) in the BCA working reagent. The absorbance peak and absorbance signal of NHS were very similar to those of bovine serum albumin (BSA), thereby indicating a similar BCA reaction mechanism for NHS and protein. However, the combined absorbance of NHS and BSA was not additive. The time-response measurements of the BCA protein assay showed consistent single-phase kinetics for NHS and gradually decreasing kinetics for BSA. The error in protein estimation due to the presence of NHS was counteracted effectively by plotting additional BCA standard curve for BSA with a fixed concentration of NHS. The difference between the absorbance values of BSA and BSA with a fixed NHS concentration provided the absorbance contributed by NHS, which was then subtracted from the total absorbance of analyte sample to determine the actual absorbance of protein in the analyte sample.
Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Persson, Kenneth
The clinical performance of two nucleic acid amplification assays targeting the cryptic plasmid and two assays targeting rRNA molecules in Chlamydia trachomatis was examined. First-catch urine samples from Malmoe, Sweden, were tested for C. trachomatis with the Abbott real-time PCR assay m2000 and an in-house PCR for the new variant strain of C. trachomatis with a deletion in the cryptic plasmid. Aliquots of the urine samples were sent to Aarhus, Denmark, and further examined with the Roche COBAS Amplicor CT (RCA) PCR, the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2) targeting the C. trachomatis 23S rRNA, and the Aptima C. trachomatis assay (ACT) targeting the 16S rRNA molecule. A positive prevalence of 9% (163/1,808 urine samples examined) was detected according to the combined reference standard. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the four assays were as follows: for ACT, 100% (163/163) and 99.9% (1,643/1,645), respectively; for AC2, 100% (163/163) and 99.6% (1,640/1,645); for m2000, 68.7% (112/163) and 99.9% (1,644/1,645); for RCA, 63.8% (104/163) and 99.9% (1,643/1,645). The two Gen-Probe assays detected all mutant strains characterized by the in-house PCR as having the deletion in the cryptic plasmid, whereas the Roche and the Abbott PCRs targeting the plasmid were both unable to detect the plasmid mutant. The difference in clinical sensitivity between the plasmid PCR assays m2000 and RCA, on the one hand, and the rRNA assays AC2 and ACT, on the other, could be attributed almost exclusively to the presence of the plasmid mutant in about one-quarter of the Chlamydia-positive samples examined.
Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph
A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.
Lutz, Sascha; Weber, Patrick; Focke, Max; Faltin, Bernd; Hoffmann, Jochen; Müller, Claas; Mark, Daniel; Roth, Günter; Munday, Peter; Armes, Niall; Piepenburg, Olaf; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix
For the first time we demonstrate a self-sufficient lab-on-a-foil system for the fully automated analysis of nucleic acids which is based on the recently available isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The system consists of a novel, foil-based centrifugal microfluidic cartridge including prestored liquid and dry reagents, and a commercially available centrifugal analyzer for incubation at 37 degrees C and real-time fluorescence detection. The system was characterized with an assay for the detection of the antibiotic resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus. The limit of detection was <10 copies and time-to-result was <20 min. Microfluidic unit operations comprise storage and release of liquid reagents, reconstitution of lyophilized reagents, aliquoting the sample into < or = 30 independent reaction cavities, and mixing of reagents with the DNA samples. The foil-based cartridge was produced by blow-molding and sealed with a self-adhesive tape. The demonstrated system excels existing PCR based lab-on-a-chip platforms in terms of energy efficiency and time-to-result. Applications are suggested in the field of mobile point-of-care analysis, B-detection, or in combination with continuous monitoring systems.
Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Zhang, BinBin; Zheng, Dan; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Luong, John H T; Sheu, Fwu-Shan
This study revealed a major interference from sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) in the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. Sulfo-NHS, a common reagent used in bioconjugation and analytical biochemistry, exhibited absorbance signals and absorbance peaks at 562 nm, comparable to bovine serum albumin (BSA). However, the combined absorbance of sulfo-NHS and BSA was not strictly additive. The sulfo-NHS interference was suggested to be caused by the reduction of Cu(2+) in the BCA Kit's reagent B (4% cupric sulfate) in a manner similar to that of the protein.
... nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification. Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material...
... nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification. Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material...
... nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification. Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material...
Parida, Manmohan; Horioke, Kouhei; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Dash, Paban Kumar; Saxena, Parag; Jana, Asha Mukul; Islam, Mohammed Alimul; Inoue, Shingo; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Morita, Kouichi
The development and validation of a one-step, real-time, and quantitative dengue virus serotype-specific reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the 3' noncoding region for the rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes are reported. The RT-LAMP assay is very simple and rapid, wherein the amplification can be obtained in 30 min under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C by employing a set of four serotype-specific primer mixtures through real-time monitoring in an inexpensive turbidimeter. The evaluation of the RT-LAMP assay for use for clinical diagnosis with a limited number of patient serum samples, confirmed to be infected with each serotype, revealed a higher sensitivity by picking up 100% samples as positive, whereas 87% and 81% of the samples were positive by reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay for the detection of viral RNA in patient serum samples with reference to virus isolation were 100% and 93%, respectively. The optimal assay conditions with zero background and no cross-reaction with other closely related members of the Flavivirus family (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses) as well as within the four serotypes of dengue virus were established. None of the serum samples from healthy individuals screened in this study showed any cross-reaction with the four dengue virus serotype-specific RT-LAMP assay primers. These findings demonstrate that RT-LAMP assay has the potential clinical application for detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes, especially in developing countries.
Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira
For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical.
Verma, Sandeep; Avishek, Kumar; Sharma, Vanila; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Salotra, Poonam
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is at the forefront in the search for innovative diagnostics for rapid and specific amplification of target DNA under isothermal conditions. We have applied LAMP assay using SYBR Green for clear-cut naked eye detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani in 200 clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The assay was positive in 53/55 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87.7-99%), 15/15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI, 79.6-100%), 60/62 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 96.8%; 95% CI, 88.9-99.1%), and 1/68 control samples (specificity, 98.5%; 95% CI, 92.1-99.7%). The assay was specific for L. (L.) donovani, the causative species for VL and negative for L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) tropica, and L. (L.) major. This is the first comprehensive clinical study demonstrating the applicability of the LAMP assay for a rapid and reliable molecular diagnosis of VL and PKDL.
Saitou, Yasumasa; Kobayashi, Yuki; Hirano, Shinji; Mochizuki, Nobuyuki; Itou, Takuya; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo
At present, the sporadic occurrence of human rabies in Brazil can be attributed primarily to dog- and vampire bat-related rabies viruses. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was employed as a simultaneous detection method for both rabies field variants within 60 min. Vampire bat-related rabies viruses could be distinguished from dog variants by digesting amplicons of the RT-LAMP reaction using the restriction enzyme AlwI. Amplification and digestion could both be completed within 120 min after RNA extraction. In addition, the RT-LAMP assay also detected rabies virus in isolates from Brazilian frugivorous bats and Ugandan dog, bovine and goat samples. In contrast, there were false negative results from several Brazilian insectivorous bats and all of Chinese dog, pig, and bovine samples using the RT-LAMP assay. This study showed that the RT-LAMP assay is effective for the rapid detection of rabies virus isolates from the primary reservoir in Brazil. Further improvements are necessary so that the RT-LAMP assay can be employed for the universal detection of genetic variants of rabies virus in the field.
Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Mamta
Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63 °C for 75 min using minimum 10 fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea. PMID:28218268
Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Mamta
Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63 °C for 75 min using minimum 10 fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea.
Ying, Na; Ju, Chuanjing; Li, Zhongyi; Liu, Wensen; Wan, Jiayu
In this study, a new lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor (LFNAB) using hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for signal amplification was developed for visual detection of nucleic acids with high sensitivity and low cost. A "sandwich-type" detection strategy was employed in our design. The sandwich system of capture probe (CP)/target DNA/reporter probe (RP)-HCR complexes was fabricated as the sensing platform. As the initiator strand, reporter probe propagated a chain reaction of hybridization events between the two hairpin probes modified with biotin, and determined whether long nicked DNA polymers were formed. The biotin-labeled double-strand DNA polymers then introduced numerous Streptavidin (SA)-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the lateral flow device. The CP/target DNA/RP-HCR complexes were captured on the test zone by the specific reaction between anti-Fam monoclonal antibody (anti-Fam mAb) on the test zone and Fam of the complexes. The accumulation of AuNPs on the test zone of the biosensor enabled the visual detection of specific sequences. The detection limit of specific DNA was as low as 1.76pM, which was about 2 orders lower than that of the LFNAB without HCR amplification. And the detection limit of Salmonella was 3×10(3)cfumL(-1). In conclusion, this visual detection system, HCR-LFNAB, is suitable for non-specialist personnel and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis in low-resource settings.
Suleman, Essa; Mtshali, Moses Sibusiso; Lane, Emily
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that infects humans and many different animals, including felids. Many molecular and serologic tests have been developed for detection of T. gondii in a wide range of hosts. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a field-friendly technique that lacks the practical drawbacks of other molecular and serologic tests, and LAMP assays have been successfully developed for detection of T. gondii in fresh tissue samples. In the current study, both a previously published and a de-novo designed LAMP assay were compared to a quantitative real-time (q)PCR assay, for the detection of T. gondii in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from captive wildlife. The LAMP assays produced conflicting results, generating both false positives and false negatives. Furthermore, the LAMP assays were unable to positively identify samples with low levels of parasites as determined by qPCR and histopathology. Therefore, these LAMP assays may not be the most suitable assays for detection of T. gondii in archived FFPE and frozen tissue samples.
Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Sun, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Wanzhe
Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), an enveloped dsDNA virus, is one of the major pathogens of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and ocular disease. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the gold standard diagnostic tool for FHV-1 infection but is relatively expensive, requires well-equipped laboratories and is not suitable for field tests. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal gene amplification technology, has been explored for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, an exo-RPA assay for FHV-1 detection was developed and validated. Primers targeting specifically the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of FHV-1 were designed. The RPA reaction was performed successfully at 39°C and the results were obtained within 20 min. Using different copy numbers of recombinant plasmid DNA that contains the TK gene as template, we showed the detection limit of exo-RPA was 102 copies DNA/reaction, the same as that of real time PCR. The exo-RPA assay did not cross-detect feline panleukopenia virus, feline calicivirus, bovine herpesvirus-1, pseudorabies virus or chlamydia psittaci, a panel of pathogens important in feline URTD or other viruses in Alphaherpesvirinae, demonstrating high specificity. The assay was validated by testing 120 nasal and ocular conjunctival swabs of cats, and the results were compared with those obtained with real-time PCR. Both assays provided the same testing results in the clinical samples. Compared with real time PCR, the exo-RPA assay uses less-complex equipment that is portable and the reaction is completed much faster. Additionally, commercial RPA reagents in vacuum-sealed pouches can tolerate temperatures up to room temperature for days without loss of activity, suitable for shipment and storage for field tests. Taken together, the exo-RPA assay is a simple, fast and cost-effective alternative to real time PCR, suitable for use in less advanced laboratories and for field detection of FHV-1
Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H
A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid-based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids.
Johnson, Steven W; Kanatani, Meganne; Humphries, Romney M; Uslan, Daniel Z
The impact of a new Clostridium difficile nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) on antibiotic utilization in patients with suspected C difficile infection was assessed. This single-center, cross-sectional study of 270 patients demonstrated that the use of NAAT decreased antibiotic expenditure by reducing prolonged empiric days of therapy in these patients.
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare amino acid digestibility of several feedstuffs using 2 commonly accepted methods: the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR) and the standardized ileal amino acid assay (SIAAD). Six corn, 6 corn distillers dried grains with or without s...
Liu, Wei; Huang, Simo; Liu, Ningwei; Dong, Derong; Yang, Zhan; Tang, Yue; Ma, Wen; He, Xiaoming; Ao, Da; Xu, Yaqing; Zou, Dayang; Huang, Liuyu
This study established a constant-temperature fluorescence quantitative detection method, combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with molecular beacons. The advantages of LAMP are its convenience and efficiency, as it does not require a thermocycler and results are easily visualized by the naked eye. However, a major disadvantage of current LAMP techniques is the use of indirect evaluation methods (e.g., electrophoresis, SYBR Green I dye, precipitation, hydroxynaphthol blue dye, the turbidimetric method, calcein/Mn2+ dye, and the composite probe method), which cannot distinguish between the desired products and products of nonspecific amplification, thereby leading to false positives. Use of molecular beacons avoids this problem because molecular beacons produce fluorescence signals only when binding to target DNA, thus acting as a direct indicator of amplification products. Our analyses determined the optimal conditions for molecular beacons as an evaluation tool in LAMP: beacon length of 25–45 bp, beacon concentration of 0.6–1 pmol/μL, and reaction temperature of 60–65 °C. In conclusion, we validated a novel molecular beacon loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (MB-LAMP), realizing the direct detection of LAMP product. PMID:28059137
Kurosaki, Yohei; Grolla, Allen; Fukuma, Aiko; Feldmann, Heinz; Yasuda, Jiro
Marburg virus (MARV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a high mortality rate. The rapid and accurate identification of the virus is required to appropriately provide infection control and outbreak management. Here, we developed and evaluated a one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid and simple detection of MARV. By combining two sets of primers specific for the Musoke and Ravn genetic lineages, a multiple RT-LAMP assay detected MARV strains of both lineages, and no cross-reactivity with other hemorrhagic fever viruses (Ebola virus and Lassa virus) was observed. The assay could detect 10(2) copies of the viral RNA per tube within 40 min by real-time monitoring of the turbidities of the reaction mixtures. The assay was further evaluated using viral RNA extracted from clinical specimens collected in the 2005 Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola and yielded positive results for samples containing MARV at greater than 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml, exhibiting 78% (14 of 18 samples positive) consistency with the results of a reverse transcription-PCR assay carried out in the field laboratory. The results obtained by both agarose gel electrophoresis and naked-eye judgment indicated that the RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is an effective tool for the molecular detection of MARV. Furthermore, it seems suitable for use for field diagnostics or in laboratories in areas where MARV is endemic.
Hammond, Rosemarie W; Zhang, Shulu
A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39°C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in infected leaf and seed tissues. The performance of the AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ RT-RPA diagnostic assay, utilizing a lateral flow strip contained within an amplicon detection chamber, was evaluated and the results were compared with a standard RT-PCR assay. The AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ assay was specific for TCDVd in leaf and seed tissues, its sensitivity was comparable to conventional RT-PCR in leaf tissues, and it does not require extensive sample purification, specialized equipment, or technical expertise. This is the first report utilizing an RT-RPA assay to detect viroids and the assay can be used both in the laboratory and in the field for TCDVd detection.
Ning, Changshen; Wang, Jinhong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Yanyan; Yan, Yaqun; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in humans and tick-borne fever in various kinds of animals. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of A. phagocytophilum was developed using primers specific to 16S rRNA gene of this organism. The LAMP assay was performed at 65 C for 60 min and terminated at 80 C for 10 min. The optimal reaction conditions, under which no cross-reaction was observed with other closely related tick borne parasites (Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma ovis, Theileria luwenshuni, Babesia motasi and Schistosoma japonicum) was established. The assay exhibited much higher sensitivity when compared with conventional PCR (1 copy vs 1000 copies). To evaluate the applicability of the LAMP assay, 94 sheep field blood samples were analyzed for A. phagocytophilum infection using LAMP, nested PCR and conventional PCR assay at the same time. A positive LAMP result was obtained from 53 of the 94 samples (56.4%), while only 12 (12.8%) and 3 (3.2%) were tested positive by nested PCR and conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, this LAMP assay is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the detection of A. phagocytophilum in sheep.
Hassibi, Arjang; Lee, Thomas H.; Davis, Ronald W.; Pourmand, Nader
A new label-free methodology for nucleic acid quantification has been developed where the number of pyrophosphate molecules (PPi) released during polymerization of the target nucleic acid is counted and correlated to DNA copy number. The technique uses the enzymatic complex of ATP-sulfurylase and firefly luciferase to generate photons from PPi. An enzymatic unity gain positive feedback is also implemented to regenerate the photon generation process and compensate any decay in light intensity by self regulation. Due to this positive feedback, the total number of photons generated by the bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) can potentially be orders of magnitude higher than typical chemiluminescent processes. A system level kinetic model that incorporates the effects of contaminations and detector noise was used to show that the photon generation process is in fact steady and also proportional to the nucleic acid quantity. Here we show that BRC is capable of detecting quantities of DNA as low as 1 amol (10-18 mole) in 40μlit aqueous solutions, and this enzymatic assay has a controllable dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of this technology, due to the excess number of photons generated by the regenerative cycle, is not constrained by detector performance, but rather by possible PPi or ATP (adenosine triphosphate) contamination, or background bioluminescence of the enzymatic complex.
Shen, Feng; Davydova, Elena K; Du, Wenbin; Kreutz, Jason E; Piepenburg, Olaf; Ismagilov, Rustem F
In this paper, digital quantitative detection of nucleic acids was achieved at the single-molecule level by chemical initiation of over one thousand sequence-specific, nanoliter isothermal amplification reactions in parallel. Digital polymerase chain reaction (digital PCR), a method used for quantification of nucleic acids, counts the presence or absence of amplification of individual molecules. However, it still requires temperature cycling, which is undesirable under resource-limited conditions. This makes isothermal methods for nucleic acid amplification, such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), more attractive. A microfluidic digital RPA SlipChip is described here for simultaneous initiation of over one thousand nL-scale RPA reactions by adding a chemical initiator to each reaction compartment with a simple slipping step after instrument-free pipet loading. Two designs of the SlipChip, two-step slipping and one-step slipping, were validated using digital RPA. By using the digital RPA SlipChip, false-positive results from preinitiation of the RPA amplification reaction before incubation were eliminated. End point fluorescence readout was used for "yes or no" digital quantification. The performance of digital RPA in a SlipChip was validated by amplifying and counting single molecules of the target nucleic acid, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genomic DNA. The digital RPA on SlipChip was also tolerant to fluctuations of the incubation temperature (37-42 °C), and its performance was comparable to digital PCR on the same SlipChip design. The digital RPA SlipChip provides a simple method to quantify nucleic acids without requiring thermal cycling or kinetic measurements, with potential applications in diagnostics and environmental monitoring under resource-limited settings. The ability to initiate thousands of chemical reactions in parallel on the nanoliter scale using solvent-resistant glass devices is likely to be useful for a broader
Yang, Jin-Fang; Zhao, Chang-Zhen; Lu, Ke-Xin
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important factor that causes cervical cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), while HSV-2 plays an important role when HR-HPV triggers the cancer. Thus, a quick and convenient assay in the detection of HPV and HSV-2in the screening of HPV and HSV-2 infection is required. Two respective HPV and HSV-2 detection methods were established based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Specific outer primers, inner primers, and loop primers were designed according to the conserved domains of HPV and HSV-2 genomes, respectively, while degenerate primers were used for HPV assay. After optimizing the reaction conditions, the results were observed by LAMP Tubidimeter real-time LA-320. Standard plasmids HPV-L-P and HSV-2-L-P were cloned and used in sensitivity tests of HPV LAMP and HSV-2 LAMP, respectively. Fifty samples of actinic keratosis (AK), 20 samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 50 samples of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 20 samples of seborrheic keratosis (SK) were detected by HPV assay. Seventy three clinical samples of vaginitis, chronic cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cervical cancer level positive were detected with HPV and HSV-2 assays. The reaction conditions of two assays were the same with a reaction temperature of 63 °C and a reaction time of 45 min. The sensitivity of HPV LAMP assay was 10 copies/μL, while that of the HSV-2 LAMP assay was 100 copies/μL. No cross-reactivity was observed. The HPV positive rates of AK, SCC, BCC and SK samples were 80% (40/50), 75% (15/20), 44% (22/50) and 21% (15/72), respectively. As an economic and quick diagnostic tool, LAMP assay is conducive to the extensive screening of HPV and HSV-2 and has huge potential to be promoted in resource-limited hospitals.
Jothikumar, Prithiviraj; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent R
Rapid and specific detection methods for bacterial agents in drinking water are important for disease prevention and responding to suspected contamination events. In this study, an isothermal Genome Exponential Amplification Reaction (GEAR) assay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was designed specifically to recognize a 199-bp fragment of the lipopolysaccharide gene (rfbE) for rapid testing of water samples. The GEAR assay was found to be specific for E. coli O157:H7 using 10 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and a panel of 86 bacterial controls. The GEAR assay was performed at a constant temperature of 65°C using SYTO 9 intercalating dye. Detection limits were determined to be 20 CFU for the GEAR assay. When SYTO 9 fluorescence was measured using a real-time PCR instrument, the assay had the same detection limit as when malachite green was added to the reaction mix and a characteristic blue color was visually observed in positive reactions. The study also found that 50 and 20 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 seeded into 100-liter of tap water could be detected by the GEAR assays after the sample was concentrated by hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) and approximately 10% of HFUF concentrate was cultured using trypticase soy broth-novobiocin. When applied to 19 surface water samples collected from Tennessee and Kentucky, the GEAR assay and a published real-time PCR assay both detected E. coli O157:H7 in two of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the GEAR assay can be sensitive for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in water samples using fluorometric instruments and visual endpoint determination.
Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.
A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid—based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids. PMID:20401537
Harshman, Dustin K.; Reyes, Roberto; Park, Tu San; You, David J.; Song, Jae-Young; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol
There are many challenges facing the use of molecular biology to provide pertinent information in a timely, cost effective manner. Wire-guided droplet manipulation (WDM) is an emerging format for conducting molecular biology with unique characteristics to address these challenges. To demonstrate the use of WDM, an apparatus was designed and assembled to automate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a reprogrammable platform. WDM minimizes thermal resistance by convective heat transfer to a constantly moving droplet in direct contact with heated silicone oil. PCR amplification of the GAPDH gene was demonstrated at a speed of 8.67 sec/cycle. Conventional PCR was shown to be inhibited by the presence of blood. WDM PCR utilizes molecular partitioning of nucleic acids and other PCR reagents from blood components, within the water-in-oil droplet, to increase PCR reaction efficiency with blood in situ. The ability to amplify nucleic acids in the presence of blood simplifies pre-treatment protocols towards true point-of-care diagnostic use. The 16s rRNA hypervariable regions V3 and V6 were amplified from Klebsiella pneumoniae genomic DNA with blood in situ. The detection limit of WDM PCR was 1 ng/µL or 105 genomes/µL with blood in situ. The application of WDM for rapid, automated detection of bacterial DNA from whole blood may have an enormous impact on the clinical diagnosis of infections in bloodstream or chronic wound/ulcer, and patient safety and morbidity. PMID:24140832
Harshman, Dustin K; Reyes, Roberto; Park, Tu San; You, David J; Song, Jae-Young; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol
There are many challenges facing the use of molecular biology to provide pertinent information in a timely, cost effective manner. Wire-guided droplet manipulation (WDM) is an emerging format for conducting molecular biology with unique characteristics to address these challenges. To demonstrate the use of WDM, an apparatus was designed and assembled to automate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a reprogrammable platform. WDM minimizes thermal resistance by convective heat transfer to a constantly moving droplet in direct contact with heated silicone oil. PCR amplification of the GAPDH gene was demonstrated at a speed of 8.67 s/cycle. Conventional PCR was shown to be inhibited by the presence of blood. WDM PCR utilizes molecular partitioning of nucleic acids and other PCR reagents from blood components, within the water-in-oil droplet, to increase PCR reaction efficiency with blood in situ. The ability to amplify nucleic acids in the presence of blood simplifies pre-treatment protocols towards true point-of-care diagnostic use. The 16s rRNA hypervariable regions V3 and V6 were amplified from Klebsiella pneumoniae genomic DNA with blood in situ. The detection limit of WDM PCR was 1 ng/μL or 10(5)genomes/μL with blood in situ. The application of WDM for rapid, automated detection of bacterial DNA from whole blood may have an enormous impact on the clinical diagnosis of infections in bloodstream or chronic wound/ulcer, and patient safety and morbidity.
Tian, Panwen; Chen, Xuerong; Liang, Zongan
Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is common and difficult to diagnose. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of nucleic acid amplification testing and sequencing combined with acid-fast bacteria (AFB) staining of needle biopsy lung tissues for patients with suspected smear-negative PTB. Methods Patients with suspected smear-negative PTB who underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy between May 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients with AFB in sputum smears were excluded. All lung biopsy specimens were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and subjected to acid-fast staining and tuberculous polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR). For patients with positive AFB and negative TB-PCR results in lung tissues, probe assays and 16S rRNA sequencing were used for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of PCR and AFB staining were calculated separately and in combination. Results Among the 220 eligible patients, 133 were diagnosed with TB (men/women: 76/57; age range: 17–80 years, confirmed TB: 9, probable TB: 124). Forty-eight patients who were diagnosed with other specific diseases were assigned as negative controls, and 39 patients with indeterminate final diagnosis were excluded from statistical analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of histological AFB (HAFB) for the diagnosis of smear-negative were 61.7% (82/133), 100% (48/48), 100% (82/82), 48.5% (48/181), and 71.8% (130/181), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of histological PCR were 89.5% (119/133), 95.8% (46/48), 98.3% (119/121), and 76.7% (46/60), respectively, demonstrating that histological PCR had significantly higher accuracy (91.2% [165/181]) than histological acid-fast staining (71.8% [130/181]), P < 0.001. Parallel testing of histological AFB
Bergallo, Massimiliano; Gambarino, Stefano; Loiacono, Elisa; Vergano, Luca; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Astegiano, Sara; Tavormina, Paolo; Tovo, Pier-Angelo
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important cytokine that plays a crucial role in the balance between normal and pathological immune response. Defect of IFN-γ can give a predisposition to infectious disease, autoimmune pathologies and tumours. Different polymorphisms in this gene have been described, in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)+874∗T/A that may affect IFN-γ gene expression. Several techniques can be used for the detection of SNPs. In this work two PCR Real Time assays were developed, an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and a Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (MAMA). Twenty-seven samples from patients (tonsillectomy) and 85 from donor's blood bank were considered. As a result, 78/85 controls (91.7%) and 25/27 patients (92.6%) were heterozygosis, considering the ARMS-PCR; 55/85 (64.7%) and 14/27 (51.9%) were heterozygosis using MAMA-PCR assay. Fourteen of 85 (16.5%) and 8/27 (29.6%) were homozygosis A, 16/85 (18.8%) and 5/27 (18.5%) presented homozygosis T, taking into account the MAMA-PCR. There are statistically difference between the two assay with p<0.0001 at Chi-square test. Our preliminary data suggest that tonsillectomy patients had a statistical trend to possess the low IFN-γ polymorphism when compared with control subject (p=0.3) but is not statistically significant. In conclusion the Real time MAMA-PCR assay has several advantages over other SNP identification techniques such as rapidity, reliability, easily to perform in one working day and applicable in clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories, although sequencing remains the gold standard.
Mo, Qiu-Hua; Wang, Hai-Bo; Tan, Hua; Wu, Bi-Mei; Feng, Zi-Li; Wang, Qi; Lin, Ji-Can; Yang, Ze
Rotavirus is one of the major viral pathogens leading to diarrhea. Diagnosis has been conducted by either traditional cultural, serological methods or molecular biology techniques, which include RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). However, their differences regarding accuracy and sensitivity remain unknown. In this study, an in-house conventional RT-PCR assay and more importantly, an in-house real-time NASBA (RT-NASBA) were established, and compared with a commercial TaqMan RT-PCR assay. The results showed that all of these methods were able to detect and distinguish rotavirus from other diarrhea viruses with a 100% concordance rate during the course of an evaluation on 20 clinical stool samples. However, RT-NASBA was much quicker than the other two methods. More importantly, the limit of detection of RT-NASBA could reach seven copies per reaction and was one to two logs lower than that of conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-PCR. These results indicate that this in-house assay was more sensitive, and thus could be used as an efficient diagnosis tool for rotavirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct comparison among three different assays for the detection of rotavirus. These findings would provide implication for the rational selection of diagnosis tool for rotavirus.
Templeton, Kate E; Scheltinga, Sitha A; Graffelman, A Willy; Van Schie, Jolanda M; Crielaard, Jantine W; Sillekens, Peter; Van Den Broek, Peterhans J; Goossens, Herman; Beersma, Matthias F C; Claas, Eric C J
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and lower-respiratory-tract infections. Diagnosis has traditionally been obtained by serological diagnosis, but increasingly, molecular techniques have been applied. However, the number of studies actually comparing these assays is limited. The development of a novel duplex real-time PCR assay for detection of M. pneumoniae in the presence of an internal control real-time PCR is described. In addition, real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) on an iCycler apparatus is evaluated. These assays were compared to serology and a conventional PCR assay for 106 clinical samples from patients with lower-respiratory-tract infection. Of the 106 samples, 12 (11.3%) were positive by all the molecular methods whereas serology with acute sample and convalescent samples detected 6 (5.6%) and 9 (8.5%), respectively. Clinical symptoms of the patients with Mycoplasma-positive results were compared to those of the other patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections, and it was found that the results for mean lower age numbers as well as the presence of chills, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and raised C-reactive protein levels showed significant differences. Molecular methods are superior for diagnosis of M. pneumoniae, providing more timely diagnosis. In addition, using real-time methods involves less hands-on time and affords the ability to monitor the reaction in the same tube.
Loens, K; Beck, T; Ursi, D; Overdijk, M; Sillekens, P; Goossens, H; Ieven, M
Real-time multiplex isothermal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) was developed to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens using the NucliSens Basic Kit (bioMérieux, Boxtel, The Netherlands). Oligonucleotide primers were derived from the M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila 16S rRNA. For real-time detection, molecular beacons were used. Specificity was established on a panel of bacterial strains. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined by testing dilutions of wild-type in vitro-generated RNA in water and dilutions of reference strains in lysis buffer or added to pools of respiratory specimens. Subsequently, a limited number of M. pneumoniae-, C. pneumoniae-, and L. pneumophila-positive and -negative clinical specimens were analyzed. Specific detection of the 16S rRNA of the three organisms was achieved. The analytical sensitivity of the multiplex NASBA on spiked respiratory specimens was slightly diminished compared to the results obtained with the single-target (mono) real-time assays. We conclude that the proposed real-time multiplex NASBA assay, although less sensitive than the real-time mono NASBA assay, is a promising tool for the detection of M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens, regarding handling, speed, and number of samples that can be analyzed in a single run.
Li, Dandan; Cheng, Wei; Yan, Yurong; Zhang, Ye; Yin, Yibing; Ju, Huangxian; Ding, Shijia
A functional nucleic acid-based amplification machine was designed for simple and label-free ultrasensitive colorimetric biosensing of microRNA (miRNA). The amplification machine was composed of a complex of trigger template and C-rich DNA modified molecular beacon (MB) and G-rich DNA (GDNA) as the probe, polymerase and nicking enzyme, and a dumbbell-shaped amplification template. The presence of target miRNA triggered MB mediated strand displacement to cyclically release nicking triggers, which led to a toehold initiated rolling circle amplification to produce large amounts of GDNAs. The formed GDNAs could stack with hemin to form G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme, a well-known horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mimic, for catalyzing a colorimetric reaction. The modified MB improved the stringent target recognition and reduced background signal. The proposed sensing strategy showed very high sensitivity and selectivity with a wide dynamic range from 10 aM to 1.0 nM, and enabled successful visual analysis of trace amount of miRNA in real sample by the naked eye. This rapid and highly efficient signal amplification strategy provided a simple and sensitive platform for miRNA detection. It would be a versatile and powerful tool for clinical molecular diagnostics.
Denschlag, Carla; Rieder, Johann; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig
Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivaneol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and T2-Toxin are produced by a variety of Fusarium spp. on cereals in the field and may be ingested by consumption of commodities and products made thereof. The toxins inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and may thus impair human and animal health. Aimed at rapid and sensitive detection of the most important trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. in a single analysis, a real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was set up. Two sets of LAMP primers were designed independently to amplify a partial sequence of the tri6 gene in Fusarium (F.) graminearum and of the tri5 gene in Fusarium sporotrichioides, respectively. Each of the two sets detected a limited number of the established trichothecene producing Fusarium-species. However, combination of the two sets in one duplex assay enabled detection of F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis, F. sporotrichioides, Fusarium langsethiae and Fusarium poae in a group specific manner. No cross reactions were detected with purified DNA from 127 other fungal species or with cereal DNA. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, 100 wheat samples collected from all over the German state of Bavaria were analyzed for the trichothecene mycotoxin DON by HPLC and for the presence of trichothecene producers by the new real-time duplex LAMP assay in parallel analyses. The LAMP assay showed positive results for all samples with a DON concentration exceeding 163ppb. The major advantage of the duplex LAMP assay is that the presence of six of the major trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. can be detected in a rapid and user-friendly manner with only one single assay. To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of a multiplex LAMP assay for fungal organisms.
Li, Zhao; Liu, Yong; Wei, Qingquan; Liu, Yuanjie; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Xuelian; Yu, Yude
Absolute, precise quantification methods expand the scope of nucleic acids research and have many practical applications. Digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) is a powerful method for nucleic acid detection and absolute quantification. However, it requires thermal cycling and accurate temperature control, which are difficult in resource-limited conditions. Accordingly, isothermal methods, such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), are more attractive. We developed a picoliter well array (PWA) chip with 27,000 consistently sized picoliter reactions (314 pL) for isothermal DNA quantification using digital RPA (dRPA) at 39°C. Sample loading using a scraping liquid blade was simple, fast, and required small reagent volumes (i.e., <20 μL). Passivating the chip surface using a methoxy-PEG-silane agent effectively eliminated cross-contamination during dRPA. Our creative optical design enabled wide-field fluorescence imaging in situ and both end-point and real-time analyses of picoliter wells in a 6-cm(2) area. It was not necessary to use scan shooting and stitch serial small images together. Using this method, we quantified serial dilutions of a Listeria monocytogenes gDNA stock solution from 9 × 10(-1) to 4 × 10(-3) copies per well with an average error of less than 11% (N = 15). Overall dRPA-on-chip processing required less than 30 min, which was a 4-fold decrease compared to dPCR, requiring approximately 2 h. dRPA on the PWA chip provides a simple and highly sensitive method to quantify nucleic acids without thermal cycling or precise micropump/microvalve control. It has applications in fast field analysis and critical clinical diagnostics under resource-limited settings.
Li, Zhao; Liu, Yong; Wei, Qingquan; Liu, Yuanjie; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Xuelian; Yu, Yude
Absolute, precise quantification methods expand the scope of nucleic acids research and have many practical applications. Digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) is a powerful method for nucleic acid detection and absolute quantification. However, it requires thermal cycling and accurate temperature control, which are difficult in resource-limited conditions. Accordingly, isothermal methods, such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), are more attractive. We developed a picoliter well array (PWA) chip with 27,000 consistently sized picoliter reactions (314 pL) for isothermal DNA quantification using digital RPA (dRPA) at 39°C. Sample loading using a scraping liquid blade was simple, fast, and required small reagent volumes (i.e., <20 μL). Passivating the chip surface using a methoxy-PEG-silane agent effectively eliminated cross-contamination during dRPA. Our creative optical design enabled wide-field fluorescence imaging in situ and both end-point and real-time analyses of picoliter wells in a 6-cm2 area. It was not necessary to use scan shooting and stitch serial small images together. Using this method, we quantified serial dilutions of a Listeria monocytogenes gDNA stock solution from 9 × 10-1 to 4 × 10-3 copies per well with an average error of less than 11% (N = 15). Overall dRPA-on-chip processing required less than 30 min, which was a 4-fold decrease compared to dPCR, requiring approximately 2 h. dRPA on the PWA chip provides a simple and highly sensitive method to quantify nucleic acids without thermal cycling or precise micropump/microvalve control. It has applications in fast field analysis and critical clinical diagnostics under resource-limited settings. PMID:27074005
Song, Zhi-Qiang; Cheng, Ju-E; Cheng, Fei-Xue; Zhang, De-Yong; Liu, Yong
Tylenchulus semipenetrans is an important and widespread plant-parasitic nematode of citrus worldwide and can cause citrus slow decline disease leading to significant reduction in tree growth and yield. Rapid and accurate detection of T. semipenetrans in soil is important for the disease forecasting and management. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect T. semipenetrans using DNA extracted from soil. A set of five primers was designed from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of rDNA, and was highly specific to T. semipenetrans. The LAMP reaction was performed at 63°C for 60 min. The LAMP product was visualized directly in one reaction tube by adding SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10−2 J2/0.5 g of soil, which was 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR (10−1 J2/0.5 g of soil). Examination of 24 field soil samples revealed that the LAMP assay was applicable to a range of soils infested naturally with T. semipenetrans, and the total assay time was less than 2.5 h. These results indicated that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and accurate technique for detection of T. semipenetrans in field soil, and contributes to the effective management of citrus slow decline disease. PMID:28381965
Song, Zhi-Qiang; Cheng, Ju-E; Cheng, Fei-Xue; Zhang, De-Yong; Liu, Yong
Tylenchulus semipenetrans is an important and widespread plant-parasitic nematode of citrus worldwide and can cause citrus slow decline disease leading to significant reduction in tree growth and yield. Rapid and accurate detection of T. semipenetrans in soil is important for the disease forecasting and management. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect T. semipenetrans using DNA extracted from soil. A set of five primers was designed from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of rDNA, and was highly specific to T. semipenetrans. The LAMP reaction was performed at 63°C for 60 min. The LAMP product was visualized directly in one reaction tube by adding SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10(-2) J2/0.5 g of soil, which was 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR (10(-1) J2/0.5 g of soil). Examination of 24 field soil samples revealed that the LAMP assay was applicable to a range of soils infested naturally with T. semipenetrans, and the total assay time was less than 2.5 h. These results indicated that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and accurate technique for detection of T. semipenetrans in field soil, and contributes to the effective management of citrus slow decline disease.
Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).
Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis
Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.
Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Gandasegui Arahuetes, Javier; Sánchez Hernández, Alicia; López Abán, Julio; Vicente Santiago, Belén; Muro, Antonio
Background Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries. Methodology/Principal findings A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP) was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection. Conclusions/Significance We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and
Denschlag, Carla; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig
Fusarium graminearum and the closely related F. culmorum were found to be associated with over foaming of bottled beer (gushing) when contaminated brewing malt is used. The presence of highly surface active hydrophobins produced by these fungi upon growth on wheat or barley in the field or during malting may affect bubble formation and stability in gushing beers and other carbonated beverages. Aiming for a method for the rapid and user friendly analysis of unmalted and malted cereals during quality control in the brewing industry, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Fusarium spp. capable of producing the gushing inducing hydrophobin Hyd5p was set up. A set of primers was designed towards a 221 bp region within the hyd5 gene of F. culmorum. The LAMP product was verified by sequencing a 150 bp portion. Testing specificity with purified DNA from 99 different fungal species as well as barley and wheat showed that DNA synthesis only occurred during LAMP when DNA of the closely related species F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. lunulosporum were used as template. In-tube indirect detection of DNA amplification was applied using manganese-quenched calcein as fluorescence indicator for pyrophosphate produced during DNA synthesis. The assay had a detection limit of 0.74 pg of purified target DNA which corresponds 20 copy numbers per reaction within 30 minutes using a simple heating block. Analysis of Fusarium infected cereals revealed that the assay was able to detect F. graminearum at a level of 0.5% of infected grains in uninfected barley by analysis of surface washings without further sample preparation. Results show that the hyd5 based LAMP assay can be a rapid, useful and sensitive tool for quality control in the brewing and malting industry.
Nakano, Shigeru; Matsumura, Atsushi; Yamada, Toshihiro
A PCR assay for the detection of acetic acid-tolerant lactic acid bacteria in the genera of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus was developed in this study. Primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were newly designed and used in this PCR assay. To determine the specificity of the assay, 56 different bacterial strains (of 33 genera), 2 fungi, 3 animals, and 4 plants were tested. Results were positive for most tested bacterial members of 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic groups (classified in the Lactobacillus casei and Pediococcus group), including Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus paracasei. For all other bacterial strains and eukaryote tested, results were negative. Bacterial DNA for PCR was prepared with a simple procedure with the use of Chelex 100 resin from culture after growth in deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth (pH 6.0). To test this PCR assay for the monitoring of the acetic acid-tolerant lactic acid bacteria, L. fructivorans was inoculated into several acidic food as an indicator. Before the PCR, the inoculation of 10 to 50 CFU of bacteria per g of food was followed by a 28-h enrichment culture step, and the PCR assay allowed the detection of bacterial cells. Including the enrichment culture step, the entire PCR detection process can be completed within 30 h.
Liang, Fang; Lai, Richard; Arora, Neetika; Zhang, Kang Liang; Yeh, Che-Cheng; Barnett, Graeme R; Voigt, Paul; Corrie, Simon R; Barnard, Ross T
We report the development of a new system to monitor the amplification of nucleic acids on microspheres. This was realized by the design of (i) a "universal" oligonucleotide "tagged" polymerase chain reaction (PCR) forward primer, (ii) a sensor sequence complementary to the universal sequence on the forward PCR primer modified with a fluorescent dye, and (iii) a universal oligonucleotide coupled to Luminex microspheres. The PCR takes place with the microspheres present in the reaction tube. With the consumption of the universal oligonucleotide tagged forward primer, the fluorescently labeled sequences can bind to the universal oligonucleotide on the microspheres. We tested the microsphere quantitative PCR system with up to three different target genes (Neisseria meningitides porA and ctrA and influenza A M gene segment) as templates in a single PCR tube. The analytical sensitivity of this quantitative PCR system was tested and compared with the TaqMan system. The multiplex-microsphere-quantitative PCR system does not require design of unique internal probes for each target and has potential for a high degree of multiplexing, greater than the limited multiplexing achievable with current real-time protocols.
Liu, Hongxing; Xing, Da; Zhou, Xiaoming
Food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes have been recognized as a major cause of human infections worldwide, leading to substantial health problems. Food-borne pathogen identification needs to be simpler, cheaper and more reliable than the current traditional methods. Here, we have constructed a low-cost paper biosensor for the detection of viable pathogenic bacteria with the naked eye. In this study, an effective isothermal amplification method was used to amplify the hlyA mRNA gene, a specific RNA marker in Listeria monocytogenes. The amplification products were applied to the paper biosensor to perform a visual test, in which endpoint detection was performed using sandwich hybridization assays. When the RNA products migrated along the paper biosensor by capillary action, the gold nanoparticles accumulated at the designated Test line and Control line. Under optimized experimental conditions, as little as 0.5 pg/μL genomic RNA from Listeria monocytogenes could be detected. The whole assay process, including RNA extraction, amplification, and visualization, can be completed within several hours. The developed method is suitable for point-of-care applications to detect food-borne pathogens, as it can effectively overcome the false-positive results caused by amplifying nonviable Listeria monocytogenes.
Peralta, Gianna; Barry, Pennan
Background. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been used as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis (TB) in the United States for many years. We sought to assess NAAT use in TB patients in California during a period of time when NAAT availability increased throughout the world. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of surveillance data from 6051 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB who were reported to the California TB registry during 2010–2013. Results. Only 2336 of 6051 (39%) TB patients had a NAAT for diagnosis before culture results. Although 90% (N = 2101) with NAAT had positive test results, 9% (N = 217) had falsely negative NAAT results, and 0.8% (N = 18) had indeterminate NAAT results. The median time from specimen collection to TB treatment initiation was shorter when NAAT was used (3 vs 14 days, P < .0001), and patients with a positive NAAT result initiated treatment earlier than patients with a falsely negative result (1 vs 11 days from NAAT report, P < .0001). We confirmed the increased sensitivity of NAAT compared with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy in our study population; 92 of 145 AFB smear-negative patients had positive NAATs. Median time from specimen collection to NAAT result report differed by health jurisdiction, from 1 to 11 working days. Conclusions. Increased use of NAATs in diagnosis of pulmonary TB could decrease the time-to-treatment initiation and consequently decrease transmission. However, differential use and access to NAAT may prevent full realization of NAAT benefits in California. PMID:27957506
Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Xiaonan
As a major foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is increasingly rising as a global health concern. Here, we developed an integrated assay that combines loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for DNA detection of S. Enteritidis using specifically designed Raman active Au-nanoprobes. The target DNA was amplified by LAMP and then labeled with Au-nanoprobes comprised of gold nanoparticle-modified with specific cy5/DNA probes to allow the detection by SERS. The sensitivity of the developed LAMP-SERS detection assay (66 CFU/mL) was ~100-fold higher than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Significantly, this technique allowed highly specific detection of the target DNA of S. Enteritidis and could differentiate it from the DNA of closely related bacterial species or non-specific contamination, making it more accurate and reliable than the standard LAMP technique. The applicability of detection of S. Enteritidis in milk samples using LAMP-SERS assay was validated as well. In sum, the developed LAMP-SERS assay is highly specific and sensitive, and has the potential to be applied for rapid detection of different foodborne pathogens and other microbial contaminants. PMID:26941845
Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Xiaonan
As a major foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is increasingly rising as a global health concern. Here, we developed an integrated assay that combines loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for DNA detection of S. Enteritidis using specifically designed Raman active Au-nanoprobes. The target DNA was amplified by LAMP and then labeled with Au-nanoprobes comprised of gold nanoparticle-modified with specific cy5/DNA probes to allow the detection by SERS. The sensitivity of the developed LAMP-SERS detection assay (66 CFU/mL) was ~100-fold higher than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Significantly, this technique allowed highly specific detection of the target DNA of S. Enteritidis and could differentiate it from the DNA of closely related bacterial species or non-specific contamination, making it more accurate and reliable than the standard LAMP technique. The applicability of detection of S. Enteritidis in milk samples using LAMP-SERS assay was validated as well. In sum, the developed LAMP-SERS assay is highly specific and sensitive, and has the potential to be applied for rapid detection of different foodborne pathogens and other microbial contaminants.
Carter, Christoph; Akrami, Kevan; Hall, Drew; Smith, Davey; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah
Recent viral outbreaks highlight the need for reliable, yet broadly deployable diagnostics for detection of epidemic and emerging pathogens. In this study we designed and optimized methods to visually detect viral nucleic acid by isothermal amplification and SYBR dye intercalation. We designed and tested loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers and lyophilized reactions to optimize the detection of Zaire Ebola Virus (ZEBOV) and further evolved the LAMP platform to allow room-temperature storage for deployment in resource limited settings. Our results demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity for viral nucleic acid sequences with lower limits of detection of less than 100 copies. Moreover, lyophilized reaction mixtures retained activity for prolonged periods under dry conditions at room temperature. This approach offers a way for detection of emerging viruses in resource limited settings.
Yamazaki, Wataru; Kumeda, Yuko; Misawa, Naoaki; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki
Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are the major virulence determinants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TRH is further differentiated into TRH1 and TRH2 on the basis of genetic and phenotypic differences. We developed a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for sensitive and rapid detection of the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus. The LAMP assay was designed for both combined and individual detection of the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes and combined detection of the trh1 and trh2 genes. Our results showed that it gave the same results as DNA probes and conventional PCR assays for 125 strains of V. parahaemolyticus, 3 strains of Grimontia hollisae, and 2 strains of Vibrio mimicus carrying the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes in various combinations. No LAMP products were detected for any of the 20 bacterial strains lacking the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes. The sensitivities of the LAMP assay for detection of tdh-, trh1-, and trh2-carrying V. parahaemolyticus strains in spiked shrimp samples were 0.8, 21.3, and 5.0 CFU per LAMP reaction tube, respectively. Starting with DNA extraction from a single colony and from spiked shrimp samples, the LAMP assay required only 27 to 60 min and less than 80 min, respectively. This is the first report of a rapid and specific LAMP assay for detection and differentiation of the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus and related Vibrio species.
Nanfack, Aubin J; Agyingi, Lucy; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Ngai, Johnson N; Colizzi, Vittorio; Nyambi, Phillipe N
Access to genotyping assays to determine successful antiretroviral treatment (ART) is limited in resource-constrained settings by high cost, suggesting the need for a cost-effective and simplified method to identify HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) mutations. In this study, an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR assay was developed and used to investigate the most frequent HIVDR mutations affecting first-line ART in settings where WHO ART guidelines are applied. Seventy-five HIV-positive (HIV(+)) samples from Cameroon were used to assess the performance of this assay. Sequencing of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was simultaneously performed for comparison, and discordant samples were tested with a Trugene HIV-1 genotyping kit. The ARMS-PCR assay was able to detect M184V, T215Y/F, K103N, and Y181C mutations with sensitivities of 96.8%, 85.7%, 91.3%, and 70%, respectively, and specificities of 90.6%, 95%, 100%, 96.9%, respectively, compared with data on sequencing. The results indicated the highest positive predictive value for K103N (100%) and the highest negative predictive value for M184V (97.5%). ARMS-PCR's limits of detection for mutations M184V, T215Y/F, K103N, and Y181C were <75 copies/ml, 143 copies/ml, 143 copies/ml, and 836 copies/ml, respectively. ARMS-PCR efficiently identified mutations in individuals harboring different HIV-1 clades (CRF02_AG and non-CRF02_AG). In addition, this approach was more cost-effective than other genotyping assays. The high throughput, the cost-effectiveness, and the simplicity of the ARMS-PCR assay make it a suitable tool to monitor HIVDR patterns in resource-constrained settings with broad HIV-1 genetic diversity.
Li, Feiwu; Yan, Wei; Long, Likun; Qi, Xing; Li, Congcong; Zhang, Shihong
The cry2Ab and cry3A genes are two of the most important insect-resistant exogenous genes and had been widely used in genetically-modified crops. To develop more effective alternatives for the quick identification of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) containing these genes, a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the cry2Ab and cry3A genes is described in this study. The LAMP assay can be finished within 60 min at an isothermal condition of 63 °C. The derived LAMP products can be obtained by a real-time turbidimeter via monitoring the white turbidity or directly observed by the naked eye through adding SYBR Green I dye. The specificity of the LAMP assay was determined by analyzing thirteen insect-resistant genetically-modified (GM) crop events with different Bt genes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was evaluated by diluting the template genomic DNA. Results showed that the limit of detection of the established LAMP assays was approximately five copies of haploid genomic DNA, about five-fold greater than that of conventional PCR assays. All of the results indicated that this established rapid and visual LAMP assay was quick, accurate and cost effective, with high specificity and sensitivity. In addition, this method does not need specific expensive instruments or facilities, which can provide a simpler and quicker approach to detecting the cry2Ab and cry3A genes in GM crops, especially for on-site, large-scale test purposes in the field. PMID:25167136
Loo, Jacky F C; Lau, P M; Ho, H P; Kong, S K
Based on a recently reported ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed an aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) alternative to detect a cell death marker cytochrome-c (Cyto-c) and its subsequent application to screen anti-cancer drugs. Aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library by virtue of its high binding affinity and specificity to its target based on its unique 3D structure from the nucleotide sequence after folding. In the BBC assay, an antigen (Ag) in analytes is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Abs). Gold nanoparticles (NPs) with another recognition Ab against the same target and hundreds of identical DNA molecules of known sequence are subsequently added to allow the formation of sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab1]-Ag-[Ab2-NP-DNA]). After isolating the sandwiches by a magnetic field, the DNAs hybridized to their complementary DNAs covalently bound on the NPs are released from the sandwiches after heating. Acting as an Ag identification tag, these bio-barcode DNAs with known DNA sequence are then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detected by fluorescence. In our ABC assay, we employed a Cyto-c-specific aptamer to substitute both the recognition Ab and barcode DNAs on the NPs in the BBC assay; and a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for the time-consuming PCR. The detection limit of our ABC assay for the Cyto-c was found to be 10 ng/mL and this new assay can be completed within 3h. Several potential anti-cancer drugs have been tested in vitro for their efficacy to kill liver cancer with or without multi-drug resistance.
Li, Feiwu; Yan, Wei; Long, Likun; Qi, Xing; Li, Congcong; Zhang, Shihong
The cry2Ab and cry3A genes are two of the most important insect-resistant exogenous genes and had been widely used in genetically-modified crops. To develop more effective alternatives for the quick identification of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) containing these genes, a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the cry2Ab and cry3A genes is described in this study. The LAMP assay can be finished within 60 min at an isothermal condition of 63 °C. The derived LAMP products can be obtained by a real-time turbidimeter via monitoring the white turbidity or directly observed by the naked eye through adding SYBR Green I dye. The specificity of the LAMP assay was determined by analyzing thirteen insect-resistant genetically-modified (GM) crop events with different Bt genes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was evaluated by diluting the template genomic DNA. Results showed that the limit of detection of the established LAMP assays was approximately five copies of haploid genomic DNA, about five-fold greater than that of conventional PCR assays. All of the results indicated that this established rapid and visual LAMP assay was quick, accurate and cost effective, with high specificity and sensitivity. In addition, this method does not need specific expensive instruments or facilities, which can provide a simpler and quicker approach to detecting the cry2Ab and cry3A genes in GM crops, especially for on-site, large-scale test purposes in the field.
Head-to-head comparison of second-generation nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae on urine samples from female subjects and self-collected vaginal swabs.
Chernesky, Max; Jang, Dan; Gilchrist, Jodi; Hatchette, Todd; Poirier, André; Flandin, Jean-Frederic; Smieja, Marek; Ratnam, Sam
In a comparison of 4 second-generation nucleic acid amplification tests performed with self-collected vaginal swab (SCVS) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from 575 women, SCVS specimens indicated more infections than did FVU specimens in all assays. The prevalence rates were 9% (53/575 patients) for Chlamydia trachomatis and 2% (11/575 patients) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The clinical sensitivities for testing SCVS specimens for C. trachomatis were 98.1% on a Tigris system and 96.2% on a Panther system for the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Hologic Gen-Probe), 98.0% for the RealTime CT/NG assay on an m2000 instrument (Abbott), 90.6% for the ProbeTec CT/GC Q(x) assay on the Viper system (Becton Dickinson), and 84.6% for the cobas CT/NG assay on the cobas 4800 platform (Roche). Clinical sensitivities for C. trachomatis in FVU specimens were 88.7% (Tigris) and 88.0% (Panther) for the Aptima Combo 2 assay, 76.9% for the RealTime CT/NG assay, 75.5% for the ProbeTec CT/GC Q(x) assay, and 81.1% for the cobas CT/NG assay. Clinical sensitivities of the assays for N. gonorrhoeae, with limited positive results, ranged from 63.6% to 100%. Specificities for both infections ranged from 98.4 to 100%. Differences in analytical sensitivities and levels of molecular targets in clinical samples but not inhibitors of amplification may explain the differences in clinical sensitivities.
Ma, Yonghua; Lu, Yan; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Yin, Hong; Liu, Guangyuan
In this study, we described a novel and effective flower-like ZnO nanostructure assisted Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) method to detect Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV). The effects of different concentrations of ZnO nanoflower on the RT-LAMP reaction were investigated. With the increase of concentration of ZnO nanoflower, RT-LAMP reaction obtained optimization, until the concentration exceeded 1.5nM, RT-LAMP reaction was inhibited. Made 1nM as optimum concentration of ZnO nanoflower, we found that optimum RT-LAMP reaction temperature and time were 60°C and 30min, respectively. The optimization might be connected with good adsorption to DNA and thermal conductivity of ZnO nanoflower, but mechanism of the RT-LAMP reaction affected by ZnO nanoflower needs to be explored further.
Nair, Smita; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Ganga Raj, Palliyath; Hegde, Vinayaka
The coconut root wilt disease (RWD) and the arecanut yellow leaf disease (YLD) are two major phytoplasma associated diseases affecting palms in South India. Greatly debilitating the palm health, these diseases cause substantial yield reduction and economic loss to farmers. A rapid and robust diagnostic technique is crucial in efficient disease management. We established phytoplasma 16S rDNA targeted loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and real time LAMP based diagnostics for coconut RWD and arecanut YLD. The LAMP reaction was set at 65 °C and end point detection made using hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) and agarose gel electrophoresis. Molecular typing of LAMP products were made with restriction enzyme HpyCH4 V. Conventional PCR with LAMP external primers and sequencing of amplicons was carried out. Real time LAMP was performed on the Genei II platform (Optigene Ltd., UK). An annealing curve analysis was programmed at the end of the incubation to check the fidelity of the amplicons. The phytoplasma positive samples produced typical ladder like bands on agarose gel, showed colour change from violet to blue with HNB and produced unique annealing peak at 85 ± 0.5 °C in the real time detection. Restriction digestion produced predicted size fragments. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis confirmed that the amplification corresponded to phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene. LAMP method devised here was found to be more robust compared to conventional nested PCR and hence has potential applications in detection of phytoplasma from symptomatic palm samples and in rapid screening of healthy seedlings.
Toley, Bhushan J; Covelli, Isabela; Belousov, Yevgeniy; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Kline, Enos; Scarr, Noah; Vermeulen, Nic; Mahoney, Walt; Lutz, Barry R; Yager, Paul
We present a method of rapid isothermal amplification of DNA without initial heat denaturation of the template, and methods and probes for (a) real-time fluorescence detection and (b) lateral flow detection of amplicons. Isothermal strand displacement amplification (iSDA) can achieve >10(9)-fold amplification of the target sequence in <20 minutes at 49 °C, which makes it one of the fastest existing isothermal DNA amplification methods. iSDA initiates at sites where DNA base pairs spontaneously open or transiently convert into Hoogsteen pairs, i.e. "breathe", and proceeds to exponential amplification by repeated nicking, extension, and displacement of single strands. We demonstrate successful iSDA amplification and lateral flow detection of 10 copies of a Staphylococcus aureus gene, NO.-inducible l-lactate dehydrogenase (ldh1) (Richardson, Libby, and Fang, Science, 2008, 319, 1672-1676), in a clean sample and 50 copies in the presence of high concentrations of genomic DNA and mucins in <30 minutes. We also present a simple kinetic model of iSDA that incorporates competition between target and primer-dimer amplification. This is the first model that quantitates the effects of primer-dimer products in isothermal amplification reactions. Finally, we demonstrate the multiplexing capability of iSDA by the simultaneous amplification of the target gene and an engineered internal control sequence. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of iSDA make it a powerful method for point-of-care molecular diagnosis.
Jung, Cheulhee; Chung, Ji Won; Kim, Un Ok; Kim, Min Hwan; Park, Hyun Gyu
We describe a facile gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-mediated colorimetric method for real-time detection of target DNA in conjugation with our unique isothermal target and signaling probe amplification (iTPA) method, comprising novel ICA (isothermal chain amplification) and CPT (cycling probe technology). Under isothermal conditions, the iTPA simultaneously amplifies the target and signaling probe through two displacement events induced by a combination of four specially designed primers, the strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase, and the RNA degrading activity of RNase H. The resulting target amplicons are hybridized with gold nanoparticle cross-linking assay (GCA) probes having a DNA-RNA-DNA chimeric form followed by RNA cleavage by RNase H in the CPT step. The intact GCA probes were designed to cross-link two sets of DNA-AuNPs conjugates in the absence of target DNA, inducing aggregation (blue color) of AuNPs. On the contrary, the presence of target DNA leads to cleavage of the GCA probes in proportion to the amount of amplified target DNA and the solution remains red in color without aggregation of AuNPs. Relying on this strategy, 10(2) copies of target Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid were successfully detected in a colorimetric manner. Importantly, all the procedures employed up to the final detection of the target DNA were performed under isothermal conditions without requiring any detection instruments. Therefore, this strategy would greatly benefit convenient, real-time monitoring technology of target DNA under restricted environments.
Bühlmann, Andreas; Pothier, Joël F; Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Andreou, Michael; Boonham, Neil; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E
Several molecular methods have been developed for the detection of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight in pear and apple, but none are truly applicable for on-site use in the field. We developed a fast, reliable and field applicable detection method using a novel target on the E. amylovora chromosome that we identified by applying a comparative genomic pipeline. The target coding sequences (CDSs) are both uniquely specific for and all-inclusive of E. amylovora genotypes. This avoids potential false negatives that can occur with most commonly used methods based on amplification of plasmid gene targets, which can vary among strains. Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) with OptiGene Genie II chemistry and instrumentation proved to be an exceptionally rapid (under 15 min) and robust method for detecting E. amylovora in orchards, as well as simple to use in the plant diagnostic laboratory. Comparative validation results using plant samples from inoculated greenhouse trials and from natural field infections (of regional and temporal diverse origin) showed that our LAMP had an equivalent or greater performance regarding sensitivity, specificity, speed and simplicity than real-time PCR (TaqMan), other LAMP assays, immunoassays and plating, demonstrating its utility for routine testing.
Chahar, Madhvi; Mishra, Neelima; Anvikar, Anup; Dixit, Rajnikant; Valecha, Neena
Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is determined by the mutations in the chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene. The point mutation at codon 76 (K76T), which has been observed in more than 91% of P. falciparum isolates in India, is the major determinant of CQ resistance. To overcome the limitations and challenges of traditional methods, in this investigation we developed an easy to use loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocol for rapid detection of the K76T mutation associated with CQ resistance in P. falciparum with naked eye visualization. In- house designed primers were synthesized and optimized to specifically distinguish the CQ resistant mutants of P. falciparum. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 61 °C for 60 min and calcein dye was added prior to amplification to enable visual detection. We demonstrate the detection limit of <2 ng/μl respectively, supporting the high sensitivity of this calcein based LAMP method. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the establishment of an easy, reliable and cost effective LAMP assay for rapid and specific detection of highly CQ resistance in P. falciparum malaria. PMID:28134241
Zhou, Yang; Wu, Jiege; Lin, Feng; Chen, Naifu; Yuan, Shaofei; Ding, Lina; Gao, Li; Hang, Bangxing
The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a principal pathogen of the domestic silkworm. The disease often breaks out in sericultural countries and due to its high infectivity; it is difficult to control, resulting in heavy economic loss. In order to develop a rapid, sensitive visual detection and simple-to-use novel technology for detection of BmNPV, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) method was described. In this study, a set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the BmNPV gp41 gene, and the LAMP for the detection of BmNPV was developed by isothermal amplification at 61 °C for 45 min, followed by hybridization with an FITC-labeled DNA probe for 5 min and detected by LFD within 5 min. The detection limit of LAMP-LFD was 0.2 pg DNA extracted from silkworm infected with BmNPV and was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. No product was generated from silkworm infected with other viruses. Furthermore, we applied the technique to detect BmNPV in the hemolymph and feces at different intervals post infection (pi). In conclusion, the novel LAMP-LFD setup presented here is simple, rapid, reliable, and has the potential for future use in the detection of BmNPV.
Suebsing, Rungkarn; Oh, Myung-Joo; Kim, Jeong-Ho
In this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive detection of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea. A set of six specific primers was designed to target the RNA 2 gene encoding the coat protein of Korean NNV strains. The RT-LAMP reaction successfully detected NNV after 30 min at 65 degrees C. When the sensitivities among RT-LAMP, RT-PCR, and nested RTPCR were compared, the RT-LAMP was shown to be able to detect the RNA template at 2.58 × 10(-2) TCID50/ml, whereas the RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR were only able to detect the RNA template at 2.58 × 10(2) TCID50/ml and 2.58 TCID50/ml, respectively. Thus, the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was higher than those of the RT-PCR assays. In the specificity test of the RT-LAMP, 2 genotypes of NNVs (SJNNV and RGNNV) were positive; however, no other fish viruses were positive with the primers, indicating that the RT-LAMP assay is only specific to NNV. A total of 102 olive flounder were collected from hatcheries between 2009 and 2011. The occurrence of NNV in olive flounder was determined to be 53.9% (55/ 102) by the RT-LAMP. On the other hand, the prevalence based on the nested RT-PCR and RT-PCR results was 33.8% (34/102) and 20.6% (21/102), respectively. This result indicates that the RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is suitable for early field diagnosis of NNV with high sensitivity.
Sengupta, Mallika; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul; Satyendra, Sowmya; Thambu, David; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei; Prakash, John Antony Jude
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease which requires laboratory diagnosis for confirmation. Materials and Methods: In this study serum samples from adults with acute undifferentiated fever (duration ≤15 days) were tested for IgM antibodies to Leptospira by ELISA, PCR for rrs gene and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for LipL32 and LipL41. Results: Among the 150 sera tested, three were positive by PCR, LAMP and IgM ELISA/modified Faines’ criteria, two by only PCR; seven only by LAMP assay and forty fulfilled modified Faine's criteria (illness clinically compatible and IgM ELISA positive for leptospirosis). Clinical correlation revealed renal compromise, low platelet count and severe jaundice were significantly related to leptospirosis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that LAMP assay could be useful for diagnosis of leptospirosis during the 1st week of illness whereas IgM ELISA forms the mainstay of diagnosis from the 2nd week onward. Further studies especially community based, comparing ELISA, PCR, LAMP, culture and microscopic agglutination test are required to evaluate the veracity of these findings. PMID:28250618
Ide, Tatsuya; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ohmura, Wakako; Okabe, Kimiko
Lyctus brunneus(Stephens) is one of the most destructive and worldwide invasive pests of seasoned woods for wooden products. This and other pestLyctusspecies have had their distribution expanded by international and domestic human transportation of infested wood and wood products. Rapid detection and accurate identification ofLyctusspecies are effective tools for helping to eradicate them in new introduction sites. The accurate species-level identification of adults requires expert knowledge about their morphology. However, it takes much time and effort to recover suitable adult specimens because they are borers inside wood. Frass ofLyctusspecies can easily be detected and recovered in and around infested wood. Thus, frass was tested to see if it was a suitable sample to allow development of a rapid and technically easy molecular detection and identification method forL.brunneus.Species-specific primers were designed from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I region ofL.brunneusand used in development and testing of methods for successfully identifying them from their frass using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) or species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The LAMP assay was faster and more sensitive for detecting the presence of DNA derived fromL.brunneusin their frass than the nested PCR assay. These methodologies will be applicable for the rapid detection and identification of other wood-boring invasive pests in regulatory applications.
Watts, Matthew R; James, Gregory; Sultana, Yasmin; Ginn, Andrew N; Outhred, Alexander C; Kong, Fanrong; Verweij, Jaco J; Iredell, Jonathan R; Chen, Sharon C-A; Lee, Rogan
An assay to detect Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Primers were based on the 28S ribosomal subunit gene. The reaction conditions were optimized and SYTO-82 fluorescent dye was used to allow real-time and visual detection of the product. The product identity was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion, cloning, and sequence analysis. The assay was specific when tested against DNA from bacteria, fungi and parasites, and 30 normal stool samples. Analytical sensitivity was to < 10 copies of target sequence in a plasmid and up to a 10(-2) dilution of DNA extracted from a Strongyloides ratti larva spiked into stool. Sensitivity was increased when further dilutions were made in water, indicative of reduced reaction inhibition. Twenty-seven of 28 stool samples microscopy and polymerase chain reaction positive for S. stercoralis were positive with the LAMP method. On the basis of these findings, the assay warrants further clinical validation.
Bright, Nathan G.; Carroll, Richard J.; Applegate, Bruce M.
Microbial contamination has become a mounting concern the last decade due to an increased emphasis of minimally processed food products specifically produce, and the recognition of foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. This research investigates a detection approach utilizing bacteriophage pathogen specificity coupled with a bacterial bioluminescent bioreporter utilizing the quorum sensing molecule from Vibrio fischeri, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). The 3-oxo-C6-HSL molecules diffuse out of the target cell after infection and induce bioluminescence from a population of 3-oxo-C6-HSL bioreporters (ROLux). E. coli phage M13, a well-characterized bacteriophage, offers a model system testing the use of bacteriophage for pathogen detection through cell-to-cell communication via a LuxR/3-oxo-C6-HSL system. Simulated temperate phage assays tested functionality of the ROLux reporter and production of 3-oxo-C6-HSL by various test strains. These assays showed detection limits of 102cfu after 24 hours in a varietry of detection formats. Assays incorporating the bacteriophage M13-luxI with the ROLux reporter and a known population of target cells were subsequently developed and have shown consistent detection limits of 105cfu target organisms. Measurable light response from high concentrations of target cells was almost immediate, suggesting an enrichment step to further improve detection limits and reduce assay time.
Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis
India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.
Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis
India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease. PMID:27284221
We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...
Rodriguez, Natalia M.; Wong, Winnie S.; Liu, Lena; Dewar, Rajan; Klapperich, Catherine M.
Paper diagnostics have successfully been employed to detect the presence of antigens or small molecules in clinical samples through immunoassays; however, the detection of many disease targets relies on the much higher sensitivity and specificity achieved via nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). The steps involved in NAAT have recently begun to be explored in paper matrices, and our group, among others, has reported on paper-based extraction, amplification, and detection of DNA and RNA targets. Here, we integrate these paper-based NAAT steps onto a single paperfluidic chip in a modular, foldable system that allows for fully integrated fluidic handling from sample to result. We showcase the functionality of the chip by combining nucleic acid isolation, isothermal amplification, and lateral flow detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA directly from crude cervical specimens in under 1 hour for rapid, early detection of cervical cancer. The chip is made entirely of paper and adhesive sheets, making it low-cost, portable, and disposable, and offering the potential for a point-of-care molecular diagnostic platform even in remote and resource-limited settings. PMID:26785636
Liu, Liyuan; Jiang, Luzhi; Yu, Yongxin; Xia, Xiaoming; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie
A rapid and sensitive AHPND-RPA assay was developed for the specific detection of the AHPND-causing Vibrio owensii. The AHPND-RPA detected as few as 2 copies per reaction in 9.02 ± 0.66 min at 39 °C, and showed 100% positive predictive value and negative predictive value for AHPND diagnosis.
Tang, Yi; Yu, Xu; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 attracts particular consideration because it is a continuous threat to animals and public health systems. The viremia caused by AIV H5N1 infection may increase the risk of blood-borne transmission between humans. Therefore, there is a need to rapidly evaluate and implement screening measures for AIV H5N1 viremia that allows for rapid response to this potentially pandemic threat. The present report describes an immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (immuno-RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in whole blood samples. Using PCR tubes coated with an H5 subtype monoclonal antibody, AIV H5N1 virions were specifically captured from blood samples. After a thermal lysis step, the released viral N1 gene was exponentially amplified using RT-LAMP on either a real-time PCR instrument for quantitative analysis, or in a water bath system for endpoint analysis. The detection limit of the newly developed immuno-RT-LAMP assay was as low as 1.62×10(1) 50% embryo infectious dose/mL of virus in both regular samples and simulated viremia samples. There were no cross-reactions with non-H5N1 influenza viruses or other avian viruses. The reproducibility of the assay was confirmed using intra- and inter-assay tests with variability ranging from 1.05% to 3.37%. Our results indicate that immuno-RT-LAMP is a novel, effective point-of-care virus identification solution for the rapid diagnosis and monitoring of AIV H5N1 in blood samples.
Huang, Cuiqin; Wen, Fuli; Yue, Liangping; Chen, Renfeng; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Lingying; Chen, Meizhen; Wang, Shoukun
Isospora suis is an intestinal protozoan parasite in pigs. The 2-3 weeks old piglets are most often infected by I. suis because their immune system is not fully developed. The infection exhibits clinical features such as diarrhea and dehydration and seriously affects the economic interests of farmers. The traditional method of identifying I. suis relies on the detection of fecal oocysts, which depends heavily on the accumulation of experience. Thus, missed detection, and false alarms often occur during detection. With the development of molecular-based detection methods, development of a simple, convenient and more sensitive method for the detection of I. suis is an urgent need. In this study, based on the 18S rRNA gene sequence, a fluorescence -based real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established for the detection of I. suis. The results showed that the assay is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 2.74 × 10(2) copies/μL recombinant plasmid of I. suis, corresponding to 1 fg/μL plasmid when converted to DNA concentration. The sensitivity is about 100 times higher than conventional PCR. Additionally, DNA extracted from a certain number of oocysts was used for detection, and it showed that the LAMP assay had a detection limit of 5 oocysts, lower than that of 13 oocysts of conventional PCR. The established LAMP assay overcomes the shortage of the traditional microscopy-based method, and provides a valuable way for molecular detection of I. suis.
Lee, Meng-Shiou; Su, Ting-Ying; Lien, Yi-Yang; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen
Plant-based food ingredients such as garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese onion, green onion and onion are widely used in many cuisines around the world. However, these ingredients known as the “five forbidden vegetables” (FFVs) are not allowed in some vegetarian diets. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of FFVs using five respective LAMP primer sets. The specific primers targeted the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence regions among the five vegetables. The results demonstrated that the identification of FFVs using the newly developed LAMP assay is more sensitive than the traditional PCR method. Using pepper, basil, parsley, chili and ginger as references, established LAMP primer sets showed high specificity for the identification of the FFV species. Moreover, when FFVs were mixed with other plant ingredients at different ratios (100:0, 50:50, 20:80, 10:90, 5:95, 2:98, and 1:99), no cross-reactivity was evident using LAMP. Finally, genomic DNAs extracted from boiled and steamed FFVs in processed foods were used as templates; the performance of the LAMP reaction was not influenced using validated LAMP primers. Not only can FFV ingredients be identified but commercial foods containing FFVs can also be authenticated. This LAMP method will be useful for the authentication of FFVs in practical food markets in the future. PMID:28290475
Yang, Xin; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Gao, Chong; Wang, Chunqun; Lei, Weiqiang; Tan, Li; Zhao, Junlong; Fang, Rui; Hu, Min
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most significant strongylid nematodes infecting small ruminants and causes great economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. Accurate diagnosis of H. contortus is crucial to control the infection. Traditional microscopic examinations are the most common methods for the diagnosis of H. contortus, but they are time-consuming and inaccurate. Molecular methods based on PCR are more accurate, but need expensive machines usually only used in the laboratory. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid, simple, specific and sensitive method that has been widely used to detect viruses, bacteria and parasites. In the present study, a LAMP method targeting ribosomal ITS-2 gene for detection of the H. contortus in goat faecal samples has been established. The established LAMP method was H. contortus specific and the sensitivity of LAMP was the same as that of the H. contortus species-specific PCR with the lowest DNA level detected as being 1 pg. Examination of the clinical samples indicated that the positive rate of LAMP was higher than that of PCR, but no statistical difference was observed between LAMP and PCR (ÃÂ2=17.991, P=0.053). In conclusion, a LAMP assay with a high specificity and a good sensitivity has been developed to detect H. contortus infection in goats. The established LAMP assay is useful for clinical diagnosis of H. contortus.
Lee, Meng-Shiou; Su, Ting-Ying; Lien, Yi-Yang; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen
Plant-based food ingredients such as garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese onion, green onion and onion are widely used in many cuisines around the world. However, these ingredients known as the "five forbidden vegetables" (FFVs) are not allowed in some vegetarian diets. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of FFVs using five respective LAMP primer sets. The specific primers targeted the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence regions among the five vegetables. The results demonstrated that the identification of FFVs using the newly developed LAMP assay is more sensitive than the traditional PCR method. Using pepper, basil, parsley, chili and ginger as references, established LAMP primer sets showed high specificity for the identification of the FFV species. Moreover, when FFVs were mixed with other plant ingredients at different ratios (100:0, 50:50, 20:80, 10:90, 5:95, 2:98, and 1:99), no cross-reactivity was evident using LAMP. Finally, genomic DNAs extracted from boiled and steamed FFVs in processed foods were used as templates; the performance of the LAMP reaction was not influenced using validated LAMP primers. Not only can FFV ingredients be identified but commercial foods containing FFVs can also be authenticated. This LAMP method will be useful for the authentication of FFVs in practical food markets in the future.
Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon
Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET
Jiang, Xiao; Pan, Maohua; Hering, Susanne V; Lednicky, John A; Wu, Chang-Yu; Fan, Z Hugh
The spread of virus-induced infectious diseases through airborne routes of transmission is a global concern for economic and medical reasons. To study virus transmission, it is essential to have an effective aerosol collector such as the growth tube collector (GTC) system that utilizes water-based condensation for collecting virus-containing aerosols. In this work, we characterized the GTC system using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a small RNA virus. We investigated using RNA extraction and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to study the total virus collection efficiency of the GTC system. Plaque assays were also used to enumerate viable viruses collected by the GTC system compared to that by a commercially available apparatus, the SKC® Biosampler. The plaque assay counts were used to enumerate viable viruses whereas RT-PCR provides a total virus count, including those viruses inactivated during collection. The effects of relative humidity (RH) and other conditions on collection efficiency were also investigated. Our results suggest that the GTC has a collection efficiency for viable viruses between 0.24 and 1.8% and a total virus collection efficiency between 18.3 and 79.0%, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of the SKC® Biosampler. Moreover, higher RH significantly increases both the viable and total collection efficiency of the GTC, while its effect on the collection efficiency of the SKC® Biosampler is not significant.
Yang, T T; Sinai, P; Kain, S R
We describe an acid phosphatase assay for determination of cell growth based on quantification of cytosolic acid phosphatase activity. The assay is based on the hydrolysis of the p-nitrophenyl phosphate by intracellular acid phosphatases in viable cells to produce p-nitrophenol. For all cell types examined, absorbance of p-nitrophenol at 405 nm is directly proportional to the cell number in the range of 10(3)-10(5) cells. The assay can quantify as few as 1000 cells per well in 96-well microtiter plates. The acid phosphatase assay was used to count various adherent and nonadherent cells, including human tumors, L6, and HT-2 cells. We also demonstrate the utility of this assay for analysis of growth factor and cytokine bioactivity on mammalian cells in culture. In comparison to [3H]thymidine incorporation, the acid phosphatase assay has similar sensitivity but a wider linear response range. The method also shows higher sensitivity and reproducibility in comparison to cell proliferation assays based on the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Because of the ease of use, sensitivity, and low cost, the acid phosphatase method is especially suited to applications where a large number of samples are assayed.
Vermeir, S; Nicolaï, B M; Jans, K; Maes, G; Lammertyn, J
In this article, we report on the use of miniaturized and automated enzymatic assays as an alternative technology for fast sugar and acid quantification in apples and tomatoes. Enzymatic assays for d-glucose, d-fructose, sucrose, D-sorbitol/xylitol, L-malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and L-glutamic acid were miniaturized from the standard 3 mL assays in cuvettes into assays of 200 microL or lower in 96 or 384 well microplates. The miniaturization and the automation were achieved with a four channel automatic liquid handling system in order to reduce the dispensing errors and to obtain an increased sample throughput. Performance factors (limit of detection, linearity of calibration curve, and repeatability) of the assays with standard solutions were proven to be satisfactory. The automated and miniaturized assays were validated with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for the quantification of sugars and acids in tomato and apple extracts. The high correlation between the two techniques for the different components indicates that the high-throughput microplate enzymatic assays can serve as a fast, reliable, and inexpensive alternative for HPLC as the standard analysis technique in the taste characterization of fruit and vegetables. In addition to the analysis of extracts, the high-throughput microplate enzymatic assays were used for the direct analysis of centrifuged and filtered tomato juice with an additional advantage that the sample preparation time and analysis costs are reduced significantly.
Background Several pathogens could seriously affect public health if not recognized timely. To reduce the impact of such highly pathogenic micro-organisms, rapid and accurate diagnostic tools are needed for their detection in various samples, including environmental samples. Results Multiplex real-time PCRs were designed for rapid and reliable detection of three major pathogens that have the potential to cause high morbidity and mortality in humans: B. anthracis, F. tularensis and Y. pestis. The developed assays detect three pathogen-specific targets, including at least one chromosomal target, and one target from B. thuringiensis which is used as an internal control for nucleic acid extraction from refractory spores as well as successful DNA amplification. Validation of the PCRs showed a high analytical sensitivity, specificity and coverage of diverse pathogen strains. Conclusions The multiplex qPCR assays that were developed allow the rapid detection of 3 pathogen-specific targets simultaneously, without compromising sensitivity. The application of B. thuringiensis spores as internal controls further reduces false negative results. This ensures highly reliable detection, while template consumption and laboratory effort are kept at a minimum PMID:21143837
Hashimoto, Yuki; Hatayama, Yuki; Kojima, Nao; Morishita, Shota; Matsumoto, Satoko; Hosoda, Yuzuru; Hara, Ayako; Motokura, Toru
Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a disease characterized by expression of Promyelocytic Leukemia–Retinoic Acid Receptor α (PML-RARα) chimeric mRNA. Although APL is curable, early death due to hemorrhage is a major problem. Here, we report the development of a simple and rapid diagnostic method for APL based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Methods An RT-LAMP primer set was designed to detect three types of PML-RARα mRNA in a single reaction. Serial dilutions of plasmid DNA containing bcr1, bcr2, or bcr3 PML-RARα sequences and RNA extracted from bone marrow aspirates of 6 patients with APL were used to compare the results of RT-LAMP and nested PCR assays. Results Plasmid DNA was amplified by RT-LAMP, for which the reaction time was > 4 h shorter and the lower detection limit was higher than for nested RT-PCR. Six of 7 samples tested positive by both methods. Conclusion We developed an RT-LAMP assay for simple and rapid PML-RARα mRNA detection that may be clinically useful for point-of-care testing and APL diagnosis. PMID:28070163
Kim, Gha-Young; Wang, Xiaofang; Ahn, Hosang; Son, Ahjeong
NanoGene assay is a magnetic bead and quantum dot nanoparticles based gene quantification assay. It relies on a set of probe and signaling probe DNAs to capture the target DNA via hybridization. We have demonstrated the inhibition resistance of the NanoGene assay using humic acids laden genomic DNA (gDNA). At 1 μg of humic acid per mL, quantitiative PCR (qPCR) was inhibited to 0% of its quantification capability whereas NanoGene assay was able to maintain more than 60% of its quantification capability. To further increase the inhibition resistance of NanoGene assay at high concentration of humic acids, we have identified the specific mechanisms that are responsible for the inhibition. We examined five potential mechanisms with which the humic acids can partially inhibit our NanoGene assay. The mechanisms examined were (1) adsorption of humic acids on the particle surface; (2) particle aggregation induced by humic acids; (3) fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by humic acids during hybridization; (4) humic acids mimicking of target DNA; and (5) nonspecific binding between humic acids and target gDNA. The investigation showed that no adsorption of humic acids onto the particles' surface was observed for the humic acids' concentration. Particle aggregation and fluorescence quenching were also negligible. Humic acids also did not mimic the target gDNA except 1000 μg of humic acids per mL and hence should not contribute to the partial inhibition. Four of the above mechanisms were not related to the inhibition effect of humic acids particularly at the environmentally relevant concentrations (<100 μg/mL). However, a substantial amount of nonspecific binding was observed between the humic acids and target gDNA. This possibly results in lesser amount of target gDNA being captured by the probe and signaling DNA.
Noor, M Omair; Shahmuradyan, Anna; Krull, Ulrich J
A paper-based solid-phase assay is presented for transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) were FRET-paired with Cy3 acceptor. Hybridization of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity required for FRET-sensitized emission from Cy3, which served as an analytical signal. The assay exhibited rapid transduction of nucleic acid hybridization within minutes. Without any amplification steps, the limit of detection of the assay was found to be 300 fmol with the upper limit of the dynamic range at 5 pmol. The implementation of glutathione-coated QDs for the development of nucleic acid hybridization assay integrated on a paper-based platform exhibited excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides and showed no reduction in the performance of the assay in the presence of large quantities of noncomplementary DNA. The selectivity of nucleic acid hybridization was demonstrated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 19 to 1. The reuse of paper over multiple cycles of hybridization and dehybridization was possible, with less than 20% reduction in the performance of the assay in five cycles. This work provides an important framework for the development of paper-based solid-phase QD-FRET nucleic acid hybridization assays that make use of a ratiometric approach for detection and analysis.
Fornés, Maria Gema; Jiménez, Maria Angustias; Eisman, Marcela; Gómez Villagrán, Jose Luis; Villalba, Rafael
Careful donor selection and implementation of tests of appropriate sensitivity and specificity are of paramount importance for minimizing the risk of transmitting infectious diseases from donors to corneal allograft recipients. Reported cases of viral transmission with corneal grafts are very unusual. Nevertheless potential virus transmission through the engraftment cannot be ruled out. According to European Guideline 2006/17/EC, screening for antibodies for Hepatitis B core antigen (anti HBc) is mandatory, and when this test is positive, some criteria must be established before using corneas. Despite the continuous progress in screening tests, donors carrying an occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) can cause transplant-transmitted hepatitis B. To date, Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is not an obligatory assay in corneal tissue setting neither in our country nor in the rest of European countries. Herein, we report three cornea donors that were rejected with the diagnosis of OBI through the testing of sensitive NAT and the serological profile of Hepatitis B virus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the need to include NAT in new reviews of EU Tissues and Cells Directives in order to increase level of security in tissue donation as well as not to reject a high number of donors with isolated profile of anti HBc in geographical areas with high prevalence of Hepatitis B, that could be rejected without a true criterion of Hepatitis B infection.
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes
Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian
Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673
Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Wang, De; Qiao, Li; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Hu, Futao
A novel sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple DNA targets related to human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) was developed based on the different quantum dots-PowerVision(TM) polymer nanotracers. The polymer nanotracers were respectively fabricated by immobilizing SH-labeled oligonucleotides (s-HIV or s-TB), which can partially hybrid with virus DNA (HIV or TB), on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and then modified with PowerVision(TM) (PV) polymer-encapsulated quantum dots (CdS or PbS) as signal tags. PV is a dendrimer enzyme linked polymer, which can immobilize abundant QDs to amplify the stripping voltammetry signals from the metal ions (Pb or Cd). The capture probes were prepared through the immobilization of SH-labeled oligonucleotides, which can complementary with HIV and TB DNA, on the magnetic Fe3O4@Au (GMPs) beads. After sandwich-hybridization, the polymer nanotracers together with HIV and TB DNA targets were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of GMPs. Then the two encoding metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to differentiate two viruses DNA due to the different subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric peaks at -0.84 V (Cd) and -0.61 V (Pb). Because of the excellent signal amplification of the polymer nanotracers and the great specificity of DNA targets, this assay could detect targets DNA as low as 0.2 femtomolar and exhibited excellent selectivity with the dynamitic range from 0.5 fM to 500 pM. Those results demonstrated that this electrochemical coding assay has great potential in applications for screening more viruses DNA while changing the probes.
Field, Anjalie; Field, Jeffrey
In the fall of 2007 pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid caused kidney stones in thousands of animals. In the summer of 2008, a more serious outbreak of adulterated dairy food caused the deaths of six infants and sickened about 290,000 children in China. In all cases, melamine was likely added to inflate the apparent protein content of the foods. To determine if we could measure protein without interference from melamine and cyanuric acid we tested these compounds in the Bradford and Ninhydrin assays, two common dye-based assays for protein, as well as by ammonia release, the most common assay used in the food industry. Neither compound was detected in the Ninhydrin and Bradford assays at concentrations of >100 μg/ml. The ammonia assay detected melamine but was inconclusive with respect to cyanuric acid. To develop an accurate test for food that would not detect either chemical as a protein, assays were run on cat food and reconstituted milk powder. The Bradford assay readily measured the protein content of each food, and importantly, the addition of melamine or cyanuric acid to reconstituted milk did not affect the readings. The protein concentrations obtained for reconstituted milk powder were as expected, but those for the cat food were 10 to 30-fold lower, due to its low solubility. We conclude that dye-binding assays can be employed to detect protein in food without interference from melamine and cyanuric acid, thus reducing the incentive to use them as additives.
Techathuvanan, Chayapa; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris Helen
Novel rapid Salmonella detection assays without the need for sophisticated equipment or labor remain in high demand. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays, though rapid and sensitive, require expensive thermocyclers, while a novel RT loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method requires only a simple water bath. Our objective was to compare the detection sensitivity of Salmonella Typhimurium from the pork processing environment by RT-LAMP, RT-PCR, and culture-based assays. Carcass and surface swabs and carcass rinses were obtained from a local processing plant. Autoclaved carcass rinses (500 ml) were spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium and filtered. Filters were placed in stomacher bags containing tetrathionate broth (TTB) and analyzed with or without 10-h enrichment at 37 °C. Natural swabs were stomached with buffered peptone water, and natural carcass rinses were filtered, preenriched, and further enriched in TTB. Serially-diluted enriched samples were enumerated by spread plating on xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. RNA was extracted from 5 ml of enriched TTB with TRIzol. RT-LAMP assay using previously described invA primers was conducted at 62 °C for 90 min in a water bath with visual detection and by gel electrophoresis. SYBR Green I-based-real-time RT-PCR was carried out with invA primers followed by melt temperature analysis. The results of RT-LAMP detection for spiked carcass rinses were comparable to those of RT-PCR and cultural plating, with detection limits of 1 log CFU/ml, although they were obtained significantly faster, within 24 h including preenrichment and enrichment. RT-LAMP showed 4 of 12 rinse samples positive, while RT-PCR showed 1 of 12 rinse samples positive. For swabs, 6 of 27 samples positive by RT-LAMP and 5 of 27 by RT-PCR were obtained. This 1-day RT-LAMP assay shows promise for routine Salmonella screening by the pork industry.
Kubota, Ryo; Labarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H; Li, Yong; Haydock, Paul; Jenkins, Daniel M
We report on the use of a novel non-instrumented platform to enable a Loop Mediated isothermal Amplification (LAMP) based assay for Salmonella enterica. Heat energy is provided by addition of a small amount (<150 g) of boiling water, and the reaction temperature is regulated by storing latent energy at the melting temperature of a lipid-based engineered phase change material. Endpoint classification of the reaction is achieved without opening the reaction tube by observing the fluorescence of sequence-specific FRET-based assimilating probes with a simple handheld fluorometer. At or above 22°C ambient temperature the non-instrumented devices could maintain reactions above a threshold temperature of 61°C for over 90 min-significantly longer than the 60 min reaction time. Using the simple format, detection limits were less than 20 genome copies for reactions run at ambient temperatures ranging from 8 to 36°C. When used with a pre-enrichment step and non-instrumented DNA extraction device, trace contaminations of Salmonella in milk close to 1 CFU/mL could be reliably detected. These findings illustrate that the non- instrumented amplification approach is a simple, viable, low-cost alternative for field-based food and agricultural diagnostics or clinical applications in developing countries.
Mayr, Reinhard; Haider, Michaela; Thünauer, Roland; Haselgrübler, Thomas; Schütz, Gerhard J; Sonnleitner, Alois; Hesse, Jan
Here we report the development of a device for the transcription- and amplification-free detection of DNA and RNA molecules down to the zepto-mole range. A microfluidic chip with a built-in microarray was used for manipulation of nano-liter sample volumes. Specific staining and immobilization of the target molecules was achieved via a double hybridization approach thereby avoiding bias due to enzymatic processes like reverse transcription and PCR amplification. Therefore, target molecules were indirectly labeled by pre-hybridization to complementary Cy5-labeled probes. The remaining single-stranded portion of each target molecule could subsequently hybridize to complementary capture probes of a microarray. Thus a target-mediated immobilization of labeled DNA took place. By means of an ultra-sensitive fluorescence readout, all molecules hybridized to the microarray could be detected. The combination of minimized sample volume and single molecule detection yielded a detection limit of 39 fM (831 molecules in 35.4 nl assay volume) for target DNA and 16 fM (338 molecules) for target RNA after 1h on-chip hybridization.
Ball, R.M. )
The Random-Walk Boronimeter has successfully been used as an on-line indicator of boric acid concentration in an operating commercial pressurized water reactor. The principle has been adapted for measurement of discrete samples to high accuracy and to concentrations up to 6000 ppm natural boron in light water. Boric acid concentration in an aqueous solution is a necessary measurement in many nuclear power plants, particularly those that use boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant as a reactivity control system. Other nuclear plants use a high-concentration boric acid solution as a backup shutdown system. Such a shutdown system depends on rapid injection of the solution and frequent surveillance of the fluid to ensure the presence of the neutron absorber. The two methods typically used to measure boric acid are the chemical and the physical methods. The chemical method uses titration to determine the ionic concentration of the BO[sub 3] ions and infers the boron concentration. The physical method uses the attenuation of neutrons by the solution and infers the boron concentration from the neutron absorption properties. This paper describes the Random-Walk Boronimeter configured to measure discrete samples to high accuracy and high concentration.
Zhao, Yong; Li, Guilian; Sun, Chongyun; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaochen; Liu, Haican; Zhang, Pingping; Zhao, Xiuqin; Wang, Xinrui; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Ruifu; Wan, Kanglin; Zhou, Lei
Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be rapidly diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification techniques by analyzing the variations in the associated gene sequences. In the present study, a locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed to identify the mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampin (RFP) resistance in M. tuberculosis. Six LNA probes with the discrimination capability of one-base mismatch were designed to monitor the 23 most frequent rpoB mutations. The target mutations were identified using the probes in a "probe dropout" manner (quantification cycle = 0); thus, the proposed technique exhibited superiority in mutation detection. The LNA probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed in a two-tube format with three LNA probes and one internal amplification control probe in each tube. The assay showed excellent specificity to M. tuberculosis with or without RFP resistance by evaluating 12 strains of common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. The limit of detection of M. tuberculosis was 10 genomic equivalents (GE)/reaction by further introducing a nested PCR method. In a blind validation of 154 clinical mycobacterium isolates, 142/142 (100%) were correctly detected through the assay. Of these isolates, 88/88 (100%) were determined as RFP susceptible and 52/54 (96.3%) were characterized as RFP resistant. Two unrecognized RFP-resistant strains were sequenced and were found to contain mutations outside the range of the 23 mutation targets. In conclusion, this study established a sensitive, accurate, and low-cost LNA probe-based assay suitable for a four-multiplexing real-time PCR instrument. The proposed method can be used to diagnose RFP-resistant tuberculosis in clinical laboratories.
Macuhova, K; Kumagai, T; Akao, N; Ohta, N
We developed a novel and simple method, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), for the detection and discrimination of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs. The new method employs 4 steps: (1) concentration of Toxocara eggs in a small amount of sand; (2) dissolution of the proteinaceous membrane of eggs and simultaneously separation of them from the sand using NaClO treatment; (3) extraction of DNA using NaOH treatment; and (4) detection of T. canis / T. cati DNA using a LAMP assay. All these steps are fast, easy to perform, and do not require expensive equipment or reagents. The novel method was tested both experimentally and in a field study. In the laboratory, we could reliably detect as few as 3 T. canis eggs in artificially contaminated sand, if the experiment was repeated twice. In the field trial, we were able to detect T. cati DNA from 4 natural sandpits having moderate to heavy contamination, although not in a single lightly contaminated sandpit. All of the examined sandpits were found to be contaminated with eggs of T. cati, but none appeared to contain T. canis. Our new method could extract DNA from T. canis and T. cati eggs directly from sand samples as well as detect and distinguish these 2 species in a few easy steps, with markedly reduced time and expense.
Wei, Shuang; Zhao, Hui; Xian, Yuyin; Hussain, Malik A; Wu, Xiyang
A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that can simultaneously detect 4 major Vibrio spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae, in the presence of an internal amplification control (IAC) was developed. Species-specific PCR primers were designed based on the gyrB gene for V. alginolyticus, the collagenase gene for V. parahaemolyticus, the vvhA gene for V. vulnificus, and the ompW gene for V. cholerae. Additionally, an IAC primer pair was designed in conserved regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene that is used to indicate false-negative results. A multiplex PCR method was developed after optimization of the reaction conditions. The specificity of the PCR was validated by using 83 Vibrio strains and 10 other non-Vibrio bacterial species. The detection limit of the PCR was 10 CFU per tube for V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and 10(5) CFU per tube for V. cholerae in mixed conditions. This method was used to identify 69 suspicious Vibrio isolates, and the results were consistent with physiological and biochemical tests. This multiplex PCR method proved to be rapid, sensitive, and specific. The existence of IAC could successfully eliminate false-negative results for the detection of V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae.
Beer, Neil Reginald; Colston, Jr, Billy W.
An apparatus for chip-based sorting, amplification, detection, and identification of a sample having a planar substrate. The planar substrate is divided into cells. The cells are arranged on the planar substrate in rows and columns. Electrodes are located in the cells. A micro-reactor maker produces micro-reactors containing the sample. The micro-reactor maker is positioned to deliver the micro-reactors to the planar substrate. A microprocessor is connected to the electrodes for manipulating the micro-reactors on the planar substrate. A detector is positioned to interrogate the sample contained in the micro-reactors.
Saldanha, J; Silvy, M; Beaufils, N; Arlinghaus, R; Barbany, G; Branford, S; Cayuela, J-M; Cazzaniga, G; Gonzalez, M; Grimwade, D; Kairisto, V; Miyamura, K; Lawler, M; Lion, T; Macintyre, E; Mahon, F-X; Muller, M C; Ostergaard, M; Pfeifer, H; Saglio, G; Sawyers, C; Spinelli, O; van der Velden, V H J; Wang, J Q; Zoi, K; Patel, V; Phillips, P; Matejtschuk, P; Gabert, J
Monitoring of BCR-ABL transcripts has become established practice in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, nucleic acid amplification techniques are prone to variations which limit the reliability of real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) for clinical decision making, highlighting the need for standardization of assays and reporting of minimal residual disease (MRD) data. We evaluated a lyophilized preparation of a leukemic cell line (K562) as a potential quality control reagent. This was found to be relatively stable, yielding comparable respective levels of ABL, GUS and BCR-ABL transcripts as determined by RQ-PCR before and after accelerated degradation experiments as well as following 5 years storage at -20 degrees C. Vials of freeze-dried cells were sent at ambient temperature to 22 laboratories on four continents, with RQ-PCR analyses detecting BCR-ABL transcripts at levels comparable to those observed in primary patient samples. Our results suggest that freeze-dried cells can be used as quality control reagents with a range of analytical instrumentations and could enable the development of urgently needed international standards simulating clinically relevant levels of MRD.
Hata, Akihiko; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Kitajima, Masaaki; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Nol, Chea; Furumai, Hiroaki
Inhibitors that reduce viral nucleic acid extraction efficiency and interfere with cDNA synthesis and/or polymerase activity affect the molecular detection of viruses in aquatic environments. To overcome these significant problems, we developed a methodology for assessing nucleic acid yields and DNA amplification efficiencies for environmental water samples. This involved adding particles of adenovirus type 5 and murine norovirus and newly developed primer-sharing controls, which are amplified with the same primer pairs and result in the same amplicon sizes as the targets, to these samples. We found that nucleic acid loss during the extraction process, rather than reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) inhibition, more significantly attributed to underestimation of the presence of viral genomes in the environmental water samples tested in this study. Our success rate for satisfactorily amplifying viral RNAs and DNAs by RT-PCR was higher than that for obtaining adequate nucleic acid preparations. We found that inhibitory properties were greatest when we used larger sample volumes. A magnetic silica bead-based RNA extraction method effectively removed inhibitors that interfere with viral nucleic acid extraction and RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the inhibitory properties of environmental water samples by using both control virus particles and primer-sharing controls. PMID:21602369
Verkooyen, Roel P; Noordhoek, Gerda T; Klapper, Paul E; Reid, Jim; Schirm, Jurjen; Cleator, Graham M; Ieven, Margareta; Hoddevik, Gunnar
The first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, including three negative, two strongly positive, and five weakly positive samples. Ninety-six laboratories in 22 countries participated with a total of 102 data sets. Of 204 strongly positive samples 199 (97.5%) were correctly reported, and of 506 weakly positive samples 466 (92.1%) were correctly reported. In 74 (72.5%) data sets correct results were reported on all samples, and 17 data sets (16.7%) showed either one false-negative or one false-positive result. In another 11 data sets, two or more incorrect results were reported, and two data sets reported a false-positive result on one negative sample. The Roche COBAS Amplicor test was performed in 44 (43%) data sets, the Abbott LCx assay was performed in 31 (30%) data sets, the Roche Amplicor manual assay was performed in 9 (9%) data sets, an in-house PCR was performed in 9 (9%) data sets, the Becton Dickinson ProbeTec ET assay was performed in 5 (4.9%) data sets, and the GenProbe TMA assay was performed in 4 (3.9%) data sets. The results of the Roche Amplicor manual (95.6% correct), COBAS Amplicor (97.0%), and Abbott LCx (94.8%) tests were comparable (P = 0.48). The results with the in-house PCR, BD ProbeTec ET, and GenProbe TMA tests were reported correctly in 88.6, 98, and 92.5% of the tests, respectively. Freeze-drying of clinical urine specimens proved to be a successful method for generating standardized, stable, and easy-to-transport samples for the detection of C. trachomatis by using NATs. Although the results, especially the specificity, for this proficiency panel were better than most quality control studies, sensitivity problems occurred frequently, underlining the need for good laboratory practice and reference reagents to monitor the
Roy, Sharmili; Wei, Sim Xiao; Ying, Jean Liew Zhi; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin
Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) has been widely rendered for nucleic acid testing. Here, we integrate loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with ECL technique for DNA detection and quantification. The target LAMP DNA bound electrostatically with [Ru(bpy)3](+2) on the carbon electrode surface, and an ECL reaction was triggered by tripropylamine (TPrA) to yield luminescence. We illustrated this method as a new and highly sensitive strategy for the detection of sequence-specific DNA from different meat species at picogram levels. The proposed strategy renders the signal amplification capacities of TPrA and combines LAMP with inherently high sensitivity of the ECL technique, to facilitate the detection of low quantities of DNA. By leveraging this technique, target DNA of Sus scrofa (pork) meat was detected as low as 1pg/µL (3.43×10(-1)copies/µL). In addition, the proposed technique was applied for detection of Bacillus subtilis DNA samples and detection limit of 10pg/µL (2.2×10(3)copies/µL) was achieved. The advantages of being isothermal, sensitive and robust with ability for multiplex detection of bio-analytes makes this method a facile and appealing sensing modality in hand-held devices to be used at the point-of-care (POC).
Sampson, D L; Chng, Y L; Upton, Z; Hurst, C P; Parker, A W; Parker, T J
Estimation of total protein concentration is an essential step in any protein- or peptide-centric analysis pipeline. This study demonstrates that urobilin, a breakdown product of heme and a major constituent of urine, interferes considerably with the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. This interference is probably due to the propensity of urobilin to reduce cupric ions (Cu(2+)) to cuprous ions (Cu(1+)), thus mimicking the reduction of copper by proteins, which the assay was designed to do. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Bradford assay is more resistant to the influence of urobilin and other small molecules. As such, urobilin has a strong confounding effect on the estimate of total protein concentrations obtained by BCA assay and thus this assay should not be used for urinary protein quantification. It is recommended that the Bradford assay be used instead.
Weiser, Jennifer R; Ricapito, Nicole G; Yueh, Alice; Weiser, Ellen L; Putnam, David
A new class of compounds amenable to quantification by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was identified, allowing an expansion of compounds quantifiable within the assay's capacity. In this article, we demonstrate that compounds containing the α-hydroxy ketone structure are easily measured under standard BCA assay conditions. A nonchromophore analyte containing the α-hydroxy ketone structure, 1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-one (commonly known as dihydroxyacetone), and various structural derivatives were explored on an equimolar basis in the BCA assay. Combined with earlier studies exploring α-hydroxy ketones within copper oxidation systems, the data support the mechanism of this class of compound's ability to enolize through an enediol intermediate to generate a strong signal in the BCA assay. This new quantification technique also highlights the potential for α-hydroxy ketones to interfere with other analytes quantified by the BCA assay.
Cheng, Hong; Macaluso, Maurizio; Vermund, Sten H.; Hook, Edward W.
Published estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and ligase chain reaction (LCR) for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis are potentially biased because of study design limitations (confirmation of test results was limited to subjects who were PCR or LCR positive but culture negative). Relative measures of test accuracy are less prone to bias in incomplete study designs. We estimated the relative sensitivity (RSN) and relative false-positive rate (RFP) for PCR and LCR versus cell culture among 1,138 asymptomatic men and evaluated the potential bias of RSN and RFP estimates. PCR and LCR testing in urine were compared to culture of urethral specimens. Discordant results (PCR or LCR positive, but culture negative) were confirmed by using a sequence including the other DNA amplification test, direct fluorescent antibody testing, and a DNA amplification test to detect chlamydial major outer membrane protein. The RSN estimates for PCR and LCR were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3 to 1.7) and 1.49 (95% CI = 1.3 to 1.7), respectively, indicating that both methods are more sensitive than culture. Very few false-positive results were found, indicating that the specificity levels of PCR, LCR, and culture are high. The potential bias in RSN and RFP estimates were <5 and <20%, respectively. The estimation of bias is based on the most likely and probably conservative parameter settings. If the sensitivity of culture is between 60 and 65%, then the true sensitivity of PCR and LCR is between 90 and 97%. Our findings indicate that PCR and LCR are significantly more sensitive than culture, while the three tests have similar specificities. PMID:11682509
Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tokaryk, Kara L; Wong, Sallene; Fox, Julie D
Detection of respiratory viruses using sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs) is invaluable for patient and outbreak management. However, the wide range of potential respiratory virus pathogens makes testing using individual real-time NATs expensive and laborious. The objective of this study was to compare the detection of respiratory virus targets using the Luminex xTAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) assay with individual real-time NATs used at the Provincial Laboratory of Public Health, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The study included 1,530 specimens submitted for diagnosis of respiratory infections from December 2006 to May 2007. Direct-fluorescent-antigen-positive nasopharyngeal samples were excluded from this study. A total of 690 and 643 positives were detected by RVP and in-house NATs, respectively. Kappa correlation between in-house NATs and RVP for all targets ranged from 0.721 to 1.000. The majority of specimens missed by in-house NATs (96.7%) were positive for picornaviruses. Samples missed by RVP were mainly positive for adenovirus (51.7%) or respiratory syncytial virus (27.5%) by in-house NATs and in general had low viral loads. RVP allows for multiplex detection of 20 (and differentiation between 19) respiratory virus targets with considerable time and cost savings compared with alternative NATs. Although this first version of the RVP assay has lower sensitivity than in-house NATs for detection of adenovirus, it has good sensitivity for other targets. The identification of picornaviruses and coronaviruses and concurrent typing of influenza A virus by RVP, which are not currently included in our diagnostic testing algorithm, will improve our diagnosis of respiratory tract infections.
Liu, Yi; Duan, Chunhong; Zhang, Chunxiu; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Rui; Zhou, Jiajing; Gai, Zhongtao
In this study, a viral microarray based assay was developed to detect the human herpesviruses and enteroviruses associated with central nervous system infections, including herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) and B 5(CB5). The DNA polymerase gene of human herpesviruses and 5'-untranslated region of enteroviruses were selected as the targets to design primers and probes. Human herpesviruses DNA and enteroviruses RNA were extracted simultaneously by using a guanidinium thiocyanate acid buffer, and were subsequently amplified through a biotinylated asymmetry multiplex RT-PCR with the specific primer of enteroviruses. In total, 90 blood samples and 49 cerebrospinal fluids samples with suspected systemic or neurological virus infections were investigated. Out of 139 samples, 66 were identified as positive. The specificities of this multiplex RT-PCR microarray assay were over 96% but the sensitivities were various from 100% for HSV1, HSV2, EV71 and CB5, 95.83% for CMV, 80% for EBV to 71.43% for CA16 in comparison with reference standards of TaqMan qPCR/qRT-PCR. The high Kappa values (>0.90) from HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EV71 and CB5 were obtained, indicating almost perfect agreement in term of the 5 viruses detection. But lower Kappa values for EBV (0.63) and CA16 (0.74) displayed a moderate to substantial agreement. This study provides an innovation of simultaneous extraction, amplification, hybridization and detection of DNA viruses and RNA viruses with simplicity and specificity, and demonstrates a potential clinical utility for a variety of viruses' detection.
Development of a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus vaccine and wild strains.
Ho, Chia-Fang; Chan, Kun-Wei; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Chung, Yang-Tsung; Kuo, James; Wang, Chi-Young
A multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) was developed for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine and wild-type strains based on a point mutation between the vaccine strain (S) and the wild-type strain (T) located in the p27 gene. This system was further upgraded to obtain a real-time ARMS RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) with a high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) platform. The genotyping of various strains of FeLV was determined by comparing the HRMA curves with the defined wild-type FeLV (strain TW1), and the results were expressed as a percentage confidence. The detection limits of ARMS RT-PCR and ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA were 100 and 1 copies of transcribed FeLV RNA per 0.5 ml of sample, respectively. No false-positive results were obtained with 6 unrelated pathogens and 1 feline cell line. Twelve FeLV Taiwan strains were correctly identified using ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA. The genotypes of the strains matched the defined FeLV wild-type strain genotype with at least 91.17% confidence. A higher degree of sequence polymorphism was found throughout the p27 gene compared with the long terminal repeat region. In conclusion, the current study describes the phylogenetic relationship of the FeLV Taiwan strains and demonstrates that the developed ARMS RT-PCR assay is able to be used to detect the replication of a vaccine strain that has not been properly inactivated, thus acting as a safety check for the quality of FeLV vaccines.
Interleukin-28B Genotyping by Melt-Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay PCR Analysis Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917, a Useful Tool for Prediction of Therapy Response in Hepatitis C Patients ▿
Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Vaughan, Gilberto; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra Yolanda; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Ruiz-Pacheco, Juan Alberto; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro
Several studies have identified associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring near the interleukin-28B (IL-28B) gene and response to antiviral treatment among hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Here, we describe a reliable melt-mismatch amplification mutation assay (melt-MAMA) PCR-based genotyping method for IL-28B which can be used in the management of HCV patients, helping to better define the course of therapy. PMID:21613433
Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E
This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay.
Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Levenson, Robert
We have developed a modification of bioorthogonal click chemistry to assay the palmitoylation of cellular proteins. This assay utilizes 15-hexadecynoic acid (15-HDYA) as a chemical probe in combination with protein immunoprecipitation using magnetic beads in order to detect S-palmitoylation of proteins of interest. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach for the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), a GPCR responsible for mediating the analgesic and addictive properties of most clinically relevant opioid agonist drugs. This technique provides a rapid, non-isotopic, and efficient method to assay the palmitoylation status of a variety of cellular proteins including most GPCRs. PMID:24463015
Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Vray, Muriel; Plantier, Jean Christophe; Maillard, Theodora; Adjout, Zidan; de Olivera, Fabienne; Schnepf, Nathalie; Maylin, Sarah; Simon, Francois; Delaugerre, Constance
Dried blood spots (DBS) are widely proposed as a plasma surrogate for monitoring antiretroviral treatment efficacy based on the HIV-1 RNA level (viral load [VL]) in resource-limited settings. Interfering coamplification of cell-associated HIV-1 DNA during reverse transcription (RT)-PCR can be avoided by using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technology, which is based on an RNA template and isothermic conditions. We analyzed VL values obtained with DBS and plasma samples by comparing isothermic NASBA (NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 V2.0; bioMérieux) with real-time RT-PCR (Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 V2.0; Roche). Samples from 197 HIV-1-infected patients were tested (non-B subtypes in 51% of the cases). Nucleic acid extractions were performed by use of NucliSENS EasyMAG (bioMérieux) and Cobas AmpliPrep (Roche) before the NASBA and RT-PCR quantifications, respectively. Both quantification assays have lower limits of detection of 20 (1.3) and 800 (2.9) log10 copies/ml (log) in plasma and DBS, respectively. The mean (DBS minus plasma) differences were -0.39 and -0.46 log, respectively, for RT-PCR and NASBA. RT-PCR on DBS identified virological failure in 122 of 126 patients (sensitivity, 97%) and viral suppression in 58 of 70 patients (specificity, 83%), yielding 12 false-positive results (median, 3.2 log). NASBA on DBS identified virological failure in 85 of 96 patients (sensitivity, 89%) and viral suppression in 95 of 97 patients (specificity, 98%) and yielded 2 false-positive results (3.0 log for both). Both technologies detected HIV-1 RNA in DBS at a threshold of 800 copies/ml. This higher specificity of NASBA technology could avoid overestimation of poor compliance or the emergence of resistance when monitoring antiretroviral efficacy with the DBS method.
van Doornum, G J J; Schutten, M; Voermans, J; Guldemeester, G J J; Niesters, H G M
Several real-time PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) primer pairs and a modified real-time PCR primer pair for the detection of enteroviruses were compared. The modified real-time PCR primer pair was evaluated on clinical samples in comparison with cell culture using the MagnaPure LC Isolation instrument for nucleic acid extraction. Six hundred forty samples could be examined both by cell culture and real-time PCR. Faecal specimens (n = 285), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 210), throat swabs (n = 113), biopsies (n = 1--, vesicular fluid (n = 11), and pleural fluid specimens (n = 9) were included. By culture, 26/640 (4%) samples were positive for enterovirus. By real-time PCR, the number of positive specimens was 50 (7.8%). Of the 210 cerebrospinal fluid samples, three were positive by culture and nine by real-time PCR. Seventeen and 33 of a total of 285 faecal specimens were positive by culture and real-time PCR, respectively. In case of discrepant results, the clinical symptoms were in accordance with an infection due to enteroviruses. Genotyping using the VP1 gene correlated with serotyping by neutralization. In contrast, six of the 19 specimens that could be typed both by neutralization and by sequencing using the VP4 domain yielded a different genotype, yet within the same species. Real-time PCR turned out to be suitable for the detection of enteroviruses in the daily routine setting. In comparison to rapid culture, it offers a rapid, more sensitive, and reliable assay; especially in cerebrospinal fluid, the yield of enteroviruses is much higher.
Zhang, Xin; Zhang, He; Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 10(3) spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China.
Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590
Córdova, Armando; Sundén, Henrik; Xu, Yongmei; Ibrahem, Ismail; Zou, Weibiao; Engqvist, Magnus
The origins of biological homochirality have intrigued researchers since Pasteur's discovery of the optical activity of biomolecules. Herein, we propose and demonstrate a novel alternative for the evolution of homochirality that is not based on autocatalysis and forges a direct relationship between the chirality of sugars and amino acids. This process provides a mechanism in which a racemic mixture of an amino acid can catalyze the formation of an optically active organic molecule in the presence of a sugar product of low enantiomeric excess.
Arribas, María; de Vicente, Aránzazu; Arias, Armando; Lázaro, Ester
The process of catalysis of biochemical reactions has been essential since the first organic molecules appeared on Earth. As the complexity of the ensemble of primitive biomolecules was very low, primitive catalysts had necessarily to be very simple molecules or ions. The evolution of catalysts had to be in parallel with the evolution of the molecular species reacting. An example of this parallel evolution is nucleic acid polymerization. Synthesis of primitive short oligonucleotides could have been catalysed by metal ions either in solution or on the surface of minerals such as montmorillonite clays. Some oligonucleotides could start to function as templates for the synthesis of complementary copies and there is experimental evidence supporting the role also played by metal ions in this process. In later stages of evolution, a group of enzymatic proteins, nucleic acid polymerases, has been selected to catalyse nucleic acid replication. The presence of Mg2+ in the active centre of these enzymes suggests that evolution has preserved some of the primitive catalysts, including them as cofactors of more complex molecules. However, the reasons why Mg2+ was selected among other ions that possibly were present in primitive environments are unknown. In this paper we try to approach this question by analysing the amplification efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction of a DNA fragment in the presence of different metal ions. In some cases the conditions of the reaction have been displaced from optimum (by the presence of nucleotide imbalances and a suboptimal Mg2+concentration). The results obtained permit one to draw interesting conclusions about how some metallic cations can help replication to proceed in conditions of limited substrate availability, a circumstance that could have been frequent at prebiotic stages, when nucleic acid synthesis was dependent on the physico-chemical conditions of the environment.
Klamp, Tobias; Yahiatène, Idir; Lampe, André; Schüttpelz, Mark; Sauer, Markus
The sensitive and rapid detection of pathogenic DNA is of tremendous importance in the field of diagnostics. We demonstrate the ability of detecting and quantifying single- and double-stranded pathogenic DNA with picomolar sensitivity in a bead-based fluorescence assay. Selecting appropriate capturing and detection sequences enables rapid (2 h) and reliable DNA quantification. We show that synthetic sequences of S. pneumoniae and M. luteus can be quantified in very small sample volumes (20 μL) across a linear detection range over four orders of magnitude from 1 nM to 1 pM, using a miniaturized wide-field fluorescence microscope without amplification steps. The method offers single molecule detection sensitivity without using complex setups and thus volunteers as simple, robust, and reliable method for the sensitive detection of DNA and RNA sequences.
Apostu, M; Bibire, Nela; Dorneanu, V
Famotidine, belonging to H2-antagonist group, is a compound containing a thiazolic moiety and it is used in peptic ulcer therapy. This paper debates the possibility of developing a new ultraviolet spectrophotometric assessment by using the reaction between famotidine and picrolonic acid. We carried out our determinations at 362 nm, where the absorbency of famotidine - picrolonic acid complex is maximal, and we have established the optimal reaction conditions. This method was successfully applied for famotidine assay from pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Kage, Karen L; Richardson, Paul L; Traphagen, Linda; Severin, Jean; Pereda-Lopez, Ana; Lubben, Thomas; Davis-Taber, Rachel; Vos, Melissa H; Bartley, Diane; Walter, Karl; Harlan, John; Solomon, Larry; Warrior, Usha; Holzman, Thomas F; Faltynek, Connie; Surowy, Carol S; Scott, Victoria E
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the enzyme responsible for the rapid degradation of fatty acid amides such as the endocannabinoid anandamide. Inhibition of FAAH activity has been suggested as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic pain, depression and anxiety, through local activation of the cannabinoid receptor CB1. We have developed a high throughput screening assay for identification of FAAH inhibitors using a novel substrate, decanoyl 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (D-AMC) that is cleaved by FAAH to release decanoic acid and the highly fluorescent molecule 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (AMC). This assay gives an excellent signal window for measuring FAAH activity and, as a continuous assay, inherently offers improved sensitivity and accuracy over previously reported endpoint assays. The assay was validated using a panel of known FAAH inhibitors and purified recombinant human FAAH, then converted to a 384 well format and used to screen a large library of compounds (>600,000 compounds) to identify FAAH inhibitors. This screen identified numerous novel FAAH inhibitors of diverse chemotypes. These hits confirmed using a native FAAH substrate, anandamide, and had very similar rank order potency to that obtained using the D-AMC substrate. Collectively these data demonstrate that D-AMC can be successfully used to rapidly and effectively identify novel FAAH inhibitors for potential therapeutic use.
Nliwasa, Marriott; MacPherson, Peter; Chisala, Palesa; Kamdolozi, Mercy; Khundi, McEwen; Kaswaswa, Kruger; Mwapasa, Mphatso; Msefula, Chisomo; Sohn, Hojoon; Flach, Clare; Corbett, Elizabeth L.
Background Current tuberculosis diagnostics lack sensitivity, and are expensive. Highly accurate, rapid and cheaper diagnostic tests are required for point of care use in low resource settings with high HIV prevalence. Objective To investigate the sensitivity and specificity, and cost of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults with chronic cough compared to Xpert® MTB/RIF, fluorescence smear microscopy. Methods Between October 2013 and March 2014, consecutive adults at a primary care clinic were screened for cough, offered HIV testing and assessed for tuberculosis using LAMP, Xpert® MTB/RIF and fluorescence smear microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity (with culture as reference standard), and costs were estimated. Results Of 273 adults recruited, 44.3% (121/273) were HIV-positive and 19.4% (53/273) had bacteriogically confirmed tuberculosis. The sensitivity of LAMP compared to culture was 65.0% (95% CI: 48.3% to 79.4%) with 100% (95% CI: 98.0% to 100%) specificity. The sensitivity of Xpert® MTB/RIF (77.5%, 95% CI: 61.5% to 89.2%) was similar to that of LAMP, p = 0.132. The sensitivity of concentrated fluorescence smear microscopy with routine double reading (87.5%, 95% CI: 73.2% to 95.8%) was higher than that of LAMP, p = 0.020. All three tests had high specificity. The lowest cost per test of LAMP was at batch size of 14 samples (US$ 9.98); this was lower than Xpert® MTB/RIF (US$ 13.38) but higher than fluorescence smear microscopy (US$ 0.65). Conclusion The sensitivity of LAMP was similar to Xpert® MTB/RIF but lower than fluorescence smear microscopy; all three tests had high specificity. These findings support the Malawi policy that recommends a combination of fluorescence smear microscopy and Xpert® MTB/RIF prioritised for people living with HIV, already found to be smear-negative, or being considered for retreatment of tuberculosis. PMID:27171380
Kurosaki, Yohei; Magassouba, N’Faly; Oloniniyi, Olamide K.; Cherif, Mahamoud S.; Sakabe, Saori; Takada, Ayato; Hirayama, Kenji; Yasuda, Jiro
Given the current absence of specific drugs or vaccines for Ebola virus disease (EVD), rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic methods are required to stem the transmission chain of the disease. We have developed a rapid detection assay for Zaire ebolavirus based on reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and coupled with a novel portable isothermal amplification and detection platform. The RT-LAMP assay is based on primer sets that target the untranscribed trailer region or nucleoprotein coding region of the viral RNA. The test could specifically detect viral RNAs of Central and West African Ebola virus strains within 15 minutes with no cross-reactivity to other hemorrhagic fever viruses and arboviruses, which cause febrile disease. The assay was evaluated using a total of 100 clinical specimens (serum, n = 44; oral swab, n = 56) collected from suspected EVD cases in Guinea. The specificity of this diagnostic test was 100% for both primer sets, while the sensitivity was 100% and 97.9% for the trailer and nucleoprotein primer sets, respectively, compared with a reference standard RT-PCR test. These observations suggest that our diagnostic assay is useful for identifying EVD cases, especially in the field or in settings with insufficient infrastructure. PMID:26900929
Umali, Alona P.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Wright, Aaron T.; Blieden, Clifford R.; Smith, Carolyne K.; Tian, Tian; Truong, Jennifer A.; Crumm, Caitlin E.; Garcia, Jorge E.; Lee, Soal; Mosier, Meredith; Nguyen, Chester P.
The use of an indicator displacement assay permits the visualization of binding events between host and guest molecules. An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to demonstrate the technique in the determination of citric acid content in commercially available beverages such as soda pop and fruit juices. Through the technique, students…
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying a Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid assay into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.
... detection and identification of a combination of the following viruses: (1) Influenza A and Influenza B; (2) Influenza A subtype H1 and Influenza A subtype H3; (3) Respiratory Syncytial Virus subtype A and Respiratory... Metapneumovirus (hMPV) Using Nucleic Acid Assays;” and (3) For a device that detects and differentiates...
... detection and identification of a combination of the following viruses: (1) Influenza A and Influenza B; (2) Influenza A subtype H1 and Influenza A subtype H3; (3) Respiratory Syncytial Virus subtype A and Respiratory... Metapneumovirus (hMPV) Using Nucleic Acid Assays;” and (3) For a device that detects and differentiates...
... detection and identification of a combination of the following viruses: (1) Influenza A and Influenza B; (2) Influenza A subtype H1 and Influenza A subtype H3; (3) Respiratory Syncytial Virus subtype A and Respiratory... Metapneumovirus (hMPV) Using Nucleic Acid Assays;” and (3) For a device that detects and differentiates...
Response to oxalic acid was evaluated as a potential assay for screening peanut breeding lines for resistance to Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor. Detached stems of seven Spanish- and six runner-type peanut cultivars and advanced breeding lines, varying in resistance to Sclerotinia bl...
Abdul-Ali, Deborah; Loeffler, Juergen; White, P. Lewis; Wickes, Brian; Herrera, Monica L.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Clancy, Cornelius; Denning, David; Nguyen, M. Hong; Sugrue, Michele; Wheat, L. Joseph; Wingard, John R.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Barnes, Rosemary; Patterson, Thomas F.; Caliendo, Angela M.
Twelve laboratories evaluated candidate material for an Aspergillus DNA calibrator. The DNA material was quantified using limiting-dilution analysis; the mean concentration was determined to be 1.73 × 1010 units/ml. The calibrator can be used to standardize aspergillosis diagnostic assays which detect and/or quantify nucleic acid. PMID:23616459
Carruthers, M M; Jenkins, K E; Kabat, W J; Buranosky, T
Sera from individuals with Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis and osteomyelitis and from some individuals with other forms of gram-positive endocarditis yielded higher readings in a microenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against lipoteichoic acid from S. aureus than did sera from individuals with other types of serious staphylococcal infection or non-staphylococcal osteomyelitis, or from unselected inpatients. PMID:6715523
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was employed for determination of the pyrethroid biomarker, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in human urine samples. The optimized coating antigen concentration was 0.5 ng/mL with a dilution of 1:4000 for the 3-PBA antibody and 1:6...
Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Spoto, Giuseppe
The integration of nucleic acids detection assays in microfluidic devices represents a highly promising approach for the development of convenient, cheap and efficient diagnostic tools for clinical, food safety and environmental monitoring applications. Such tools are expected to operate at the point-of-care and in resource-limited settings. The amplification of the target nucleic acid sequence represents a key step for the development of sensitive detection protocols. The integration in microfluidic devices of the most popular technology for nucleic acids amplifications, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is significantly limited by the thermal cycling needed to obtain the target sequence amplification. This review provides an overview of recent advances in integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices. Isothermal methods, that operate at constant temperature, have emerged as promising alternative to PCR and greatly simplify the implementation of amplification methods in point-of-care diagnostic devices and devices to be used in resource-limited settings. Possibilities offered by isothermal methods for digital droplet amplification are discussed.
Next-Generation Assessment of Human Growth Factor Receptor 2 (ERBB2) Amplification Status: Clinical Validation in the Context of a Hybrid Capture-Based, Comprehensive Solid Tumor Genomic Profiling Assay.
Ross, Dara S; Zehir, Ahmet; Cheng, Donavan T; Benayed, Ryma; Nafa, Khedoudja; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Weigelt, Britta; Razavi, Pedram; Hyman, David M; Baselga, José; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E
Establishing ERBB2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)] amplification status in breast and gastric carcinomas is essential to treatment selection. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) constitute the current standard for assessment. With further advancements in genomic medicine, new clinically relevant biomarkers are rapidly emerging and options for targeted therapy are increasing in patients with advanced disease, driving the need for comprehensive molecular profiling. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an attractive approach for up-front comprehensive assessment, including ERBB2 status, but the concordance with traditional methods of HER2 assessment is not well established. The Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) assay, a hybrid capture-based NGS assay interrogating the coding regions of 410 cancer-related genes, was performed on manually macrodissected unstained sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast (n = 213) and gastroesophageal (n = 39) tumors submitted for clinical mutation profiling. ERBB2 status was assessed using a custom bioinformatics pipeline, and NGS results were compared to IHC and FISH. NGS ERBB2 amplification calls had an overall concordance of 98.4% (248/252) with the combined IHC/FISH results in this validation set. Discrepancies occurred in the context of low tumor content and HER2 heterogeneity. ERBB2 amplification status can be reliably determined by hybridization capture-based NGS methods, allowing efficient concurrent testing for other potentially actionable genomic alterations, particularly in limited material.
Wang, Dennis Y; Chang, Chien-Wei; Lagacé, Robert E; Calandro, Lisa M; Hennessy, Lori K
Analysis of length polymorphism at short tandem repeat (STR) loci utilizing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the primary method for genotyping forensic samples. The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit is an improved version of the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) PCR Amplification Kit and amplifies the core CODIS loci: D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, and vWA. Additional loci amplified in the multiplex reaction are the sex-determinant, amelogenin, and two internationally accepted loci, D2S1338 and D19S433. While the primer sequences and dye configurations were unchanged, the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit features an enhanced buffer formulation and an optimized PCR cycling protocol that increases sensitivity, provides better tolerance to PCR inhibitors, and improves performance on mixture samples. The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit has been validated according to the FBI/National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines. The validation results support the use of the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit for human identity and parentage testing.
Parida, Manmohan; Shukla, Jyoti; Sharma, Shashi; Ranghia Santhosh, Sanna; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Mani, Reeta; Thomas, Maria; Khare, Shashi; Rai, Arvind; Kant Ratho, Radha; Pujari, Sujit; Mishra, Bijayanti; Lakshmana Rao, Putcha Venkata; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan
The recent emergence of the swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus (S-OIV) poses a serious global health threat. Rapid detection and differentiation of S-OIV from seasonal influenza is crucial for patient management and control of the epidemics. A one-step, single-tube accelerated and quantitative S-OIV-specific H1 reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RTLAMP) assay for clinical diagnosis of S-OIV by targeting the H1 gene is reported in this article. A comparative evaluation of the H1-specific RTLAMP assay vis-à-vis the World Health Organization-approved real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), involving 239 acute-phase throat swab samples, demonstrated exceptionally higher sensitivity by picking up all of the 116 H1N1-positive cases and 36 additional positive cases among the negatives that were sequence-confirmed as S-OIV H1N1. None of the real-time RTPCR-positive samples were missed by the RTLAMP system. The comparative analysis revealed that S-OIV RTLAMP was up to tenfold more sensitive than the World Health Organization real-time RTPCR; it had a detection limit of 0.1 tissue culture infectious dosage of (50)/ml. One of the most attractive features of this isothermal gene amplification assay is that it seems to have an advantage in monitoring gene amplification by means of SYBR Green I dye-mediated naked-eye visualization within 30 minutes compared to 2 to 3 hours for a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This suggests that the RTLAMP assay is a valuable tool for rapid, real-time detection and quantification of S-OIV in acute-phase throat swab samples without requiring sophisticated equipment.
del Carmen, Sofía; Gatius, Sonia; Franch-Arcas, Guzmán; Baena, José Antonio; Gonzalez, Oscar; Zafon, Carlos; Cuevas, Dolors; Valls, Joan; Pérez, Angustias; Martinez, Mercedes; Ros, Susana; Macías, Carmen García; Iglesias, Carmela; Matías-Guiu, Xavier; de Álava, Enrique
Tumor resection in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is often accompanied by lymph node (LN) removal of the central and lateral cervical compartments. One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) is a polymerase chain reaction-based technique that quantifies cytokeratin 19 (CK19) messenger RNA copies. Our aim is to assess the value of OSNA in detection of LN metastases in PTC, in comparison with imprints and microscopic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. A total of 387 LNs from 37 patients were studied. From each half LN, 2 imprints were taken and analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and CK19 immunostaining. One half of the LN was submitted to OSNA and one half to FFPE processing and H&E and CK19 staining. For concordance analysis, every single LN was considered as a case. A group of 11 cases with discordant results between OSNA and H&E/CK19 FFPE sections were subjected to additional FFPE serial sectioning and H&E and CK19 staining. We found a high degree of concordance between the assays used, with sensitivities ranging from 0.81 to 0.95, and specificities ranging from 0.87 and 0.98. OSNA allowed upstaging of patients from pN0 to pN1, in comparison with standard pathologic analysis. Identification of a metastatic LN with more than 15000 CK19 messenger RNA copies predicted the presence of a second LN with macrometastasis (<5000 copies). In summary, the study shows that OSNA application in sentinel or suspicious LN may be helpful in assessing nodal status in PTC patients.
Vyth, Rebecka; Leval, Amy; Eriksson, Björn; Ericson, Eva-Lena; Marions, Lena; Hergens, Maria-Pia
Gonorrhoea incidence has increased substantially in Stockholm during the past years. These increases have coincided with changes in testing practice from solely culture-based to nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). Gonorrhoea NAAT is integrated with Chlamydia trachomatis testing and due to opportunistic screening for chlamydia, testing prevalence for gonorrhoea has increased substantially in the Stockholm population. The aim of this study was to examine epidemiological risk-factors for discordant case which are NAAT positive but culture negative. These discordant cases are especially problematic as they give rise to diagnostic and treatment uncertainties with risk for subsequent sequelae. All gonorrhoea cases from Stockholm county during 2011-2012 with at least one positive N. gonorrhoea NAAT test and follow-up cultures were included (N = 874). Data were analysed using multivariate and stratified logistic regression models. Results showed that women were 4-times more likely (OR 4.9; 95% CI 2.4-6.7) than men to have discordant cultures. Individuals tested for gonorrhoea without symptoms were 2.3 times more likely (95% CI 1.5-3.5) than those with symptoms to be discordant. NAAT method and having one week or more between NAAT and culture testing were also indicative of an increased likelihood for discordance. Using NAAT should be based on proper clinical or epidemiological indications and, when positive, followed-up with a culture-based test within one week if possible. Routine gonorrhoea testing is not recommended in low prevalence populations.
Weber, T; Frye, S; Bodemer, M; Otto, M; Lüke, W
Amplification of viral nucleic acids from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has considerably improved the diagnosis of several acute, subacute and chronic viral infections of the nervous system. In herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become the method of choice for the rapid, non invasive diagnosis. Other herpes virus associated diseases which can now be reliably diagnosed are encephalitis, ventriculoencephalitis, polymyeloradiculitis, myelitis and an inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), HSV, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBV associated primary B-cell-lymphoma of the brain, acute aseptic meningitis in young adults allied with VZV, and meningoencephalitis with recurrent seizures due to human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6). In AIDS patients, PCR has helped to differentiate lesions either due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself or to opportunistic infections such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus (JCV) or CMV related complications. HIV can be detected early in the course of infection in the CSF and the amount of proviral DNA in CSF cells seems to be correlated with the severity and/or progression of neurological signs and symptoms. Acute epidemic aseptic meningitis caused by enterovirus infections can now be reliably diagnosed and typed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Meningitis cases caused by vaccination with the Jeryl Lynn and Urabe vaccine strain of mumps virus have been identified using RT-PCR and sequencing of the amplified products (amplicon).
Singh, Mini P; Galhotra, Shipra; Saigal, Karnika; Kumar, Archit; Ratho, Radha Kanta
Recently, a number of techniques have been approved for quantification of viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral load (VL) tests have considerable importance in the management of patients and are widely used in routine diagnosis. In clinical virology, VL testing are important to monitor the antiviral treatment, to initiate preemptive therapy, to understand pathogenesis, and to evaluate the infectivity. These tests have now become a part of many diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Considering the various challenges for in-house viral testing related to the standardization, validation, and precision; they are gradually being replaced by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) cleared tests. This review summarizes the various viral quantification methods and also discusses the clinical applicability of these in human immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein Barr virus infected patients. Further the challenges and future perspectives of VL testing have also been discussed. PMID:28251100
Singh, Mini P; Galhotra, Shipra; Saigal, Karnika; Kumar, Archit; Ratho, Radha Kanta
Recently, a number of techniques have been approved for quantification of viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral load (VL) tests have considerable importance in the management of patients and are widely used in routine diagnosis. In clinical virology, VL testing are important to monitor the antiviral treatment, to initiate preemptive therapy, to understand pathogenesis, and to evaluate the infectivity. These tests have now become a part of many diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Considering the various challenges for in-house viral testing related to the standardization, validation, and precision; they are gradually being replaced by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) cleared tests. This review summarizes the various viral quantification methods and also discusses the clinical applicability of these in human immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein Barr virus infected patients. Further the challenges and future perspectives of VL testing have also been discussed.
Bres, Vanessa; Yang, Hua; Hsu, Ernie; Ren, Yan; Cheng, Ying; Wisniewski, Michele; Hanhan, Maesa; Zaslavsky, Polina; Noll, Nathan; Weaver, Brett; Campbell, Paul; Reshatoff, Michael; Becker, Michael
The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay, developed by Roka Bioscience Inc., was compared to a reference culture method for seven food types (hot dogs, cured ham, deli turkey, chicken salad, vanilla ice cream, frozen chocolate cream pie, and frozen cheese pizza) and one surface (stainless steel, grade 316). A 125 g portion of deli turkey was tested using a 1:4 food:media dilution ratio, and a 25 g portion for all other foods was tested using 1:9 food:media dilution ratio. The enrichment time and media for Roka's method was 24 to 28 h for 25 g food samples and environmental surfaces, and 44 to 48 h for 125 g at 35 ± 2°C in PALCAM broth containing 0.02 g/L nalidixic acid. Comparison of the Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay to the reference method required an unpaired approach. For each matrix, 20 samples inoculated at a fractional level and five samples inoculated at a high level with a different strain of Listeria monocytogenes were tested by each method. The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay was compared to the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL 993.12 method for dairy products, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 8.08 method for ready-to-eat meat and environmental samples, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 10 method for frozen foods. In the method developer studies, Roka's method, at 24 h (or 44 h for 125 g food samples), had 126 positives out of 200 total inoculated samples, compared to 102 positives for the reference methods at 48 h. In the independent laboratory studies, vanilla ice cream, deli turkey and stainless steel grade 316 were evaluated. Roka's method, at 24 h (or 44 h for 125 g food samples), had 64 positives out of 75 total inoculated samples compared to 54 positives for the reference methods at 48 h. The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay detected all 50
Xie, Yonghua; Tan, Ying; Liu, Renxuan; Zhao, Rui; Tan, Chunyan; Jiang, Yuyang
We report a novel continuous and sensitive fluorescence turn-on assay for ACPs, which consists of a cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte (PPE4+) and a commonly used phosphatase substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). The kinetics of the ACP catalyzed hydrolysis of the substrate pNPP was monitored by the fluorescence change of PPE4+ and corresponding kinetic parameters were derived to be consistent with the literature reports. The applications of PPE4+/pNPP-based ACP assay in high-throughput screening of ACP inhibitors and detection of prostatic acid phosphotase (PAP) in vitro were demonstrated.
Tran, Thuy Thi; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Dalsgaard, Søren; Yu, Shukun
Phytase (EC 3.1.3.-) hydrolyzes phytate (IP(6)) present in cereals and grains to release inorganic phosphate (P(i)), thereby making it bioavailable. The most commonly used method to assay phytase, developed nearly a century ago, measures the P(i) liberated from IP(6). This traditional endpoint assay is time-consuming and well known for its cumbersomeness in addition to requiring extra caution for handling the toxic regents used. This article reports a simple, fast, and nontoxic kinetic method adaptable for high throughput for assaying phytase using IP(6)-lysozyme as a substrate. The assay is based on the principle that IP(6) forms stable turbid complexes with positively charged lysozyme in a wide pH range, and hydrolysis of the IP(6) in the complex is accompanied by a decrease in turbidity monitored at 600 nm. The turbidity decrease correlates well to the released P(i) from IP(6). This kinetic method was found to be useful in assaying histidine acid phytases, including 3- and 6-phytases, a class representing all commercial phytases, and alkaline β-propeller phytase from Bacillus sp. The influences of temperature, pH, phosphate, and other salts on the kinetic assay were examined. All salts, including NaCl, CaCl(2), and phosphate, showed a concentration-dependent interference.
Vickers, Timothy A.; Crooke, Stanley T.
Protein-nucleic acid interactions play a crucial role in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Elucidating the roles that protein-nucleic acid complexes play in the regulation of transcription, translation, DNA replication, repair and recombination, and RNA processing continues to be a crucial aspect of understanding of cell biology and the mechanisms of disease. In addition, proteins have been demonstrated to interact with antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics in a sequence and chemistry dependent manner, influencing ASO potency and distribution in cells and in vivo. While many assays have been developed to measure protein-nucleic acid interactions, many suffer from lack of throughput and sensitivity, or challenges with protein purification and scalability. In this report we present a new BRET assay for the analysis of DNA-protein interactions which makes use of an extremely bright luciferase as a tag for the binding protein, along with a long-wavelength fluorophore conjugated to the nucleic acid. The resulting assay is high throughput, sensitive, does not require protein purification, and even allows for quantitative characterization of these interactions within the biologically relevant context of whole cells. PMID:27571227
Jakmunee, Jaroon; Rujiralai, Thitima; Grudpan, Kate
A simple sequential injection analysis (SIA) with spectrophotometric detection for an assay of acidity in fruit juice was investigated. An alkaline reagent (sodium hydroxide), a sample and an indicator (phenolphthalein) were first aspirated and stacked as adjacent zones in a holding coil. With flow reversal through a reaction coil to the detector, zone penetration occurred, leading to a neutralization reaction that caused a decrease in the color intensity of the indicator being monitored for absorbance at 552 nm. The effects of various parameters were studied. Linear calibration graphs for acidities of 0.2 - 1.0 and 0.5 - 2.5% w/v citric acid as a standard, with a relative standard deviation of 1% (acidity of 0.3 - 0.6% w/v as citric acid, n=11) and a sample throughput of 30 samples h(-1), were achieved. The developed method was validated by a standard titrimetric method for assaying the acidity of fruit juice samples.
Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida
Since serological donor-screening tests for HIV were introduced in 1985, the safety of donated blood components has improved dramatically. However, these tests do not completely prevent the risk of transfusion-associated HIV infection related to the use of blood donated during the pre-seroconversion window period. Testing based on nucleic acid amplification is being implemented to screen for HIV-infected blood donated during this period, which has reduced the probability of transmitting HIV through transfusion by shortening the window period. This article describes a case of acute HIV-1 infection, detected using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) in a repeat blood donor who donated during the pre-seroconversion window period and whose antigen and anti-HIV antibody expression was observed after molecular marker detection. In addition, the possible route of infection is discussed based on the patient's history, and finally, the need for NAT technology for blood donor screening is emphasized.
Wenrich, Broc R; Trumbo, Toni A
The Bradford assay has been used reliably for decades to quantify protein in solution. The analyte is incubated in acidic solution of Coomassie Blue G-250 dye, during which reversible ionic and nonionic binding interactions form. Bradford assay color yields were determined for salmon, bovine, shrimp, and kiwi fruit genomic DNA; baker's yeast RNA; bovine serum albumin (BSA); and hen egg lysozyme. Pure DNA and RNA bound the dye, with color yields of 0.0017 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹ and 0.0018 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹, respectively. The nucleic acid-Coomassie Blue response was significant, at roughly 9% of that for BSA and 18% of that for lysozyme.
Koopman, R.P.; Langlois, R.G.; Nasarabadi, S.; Benett, W.J.; Richards, J.B.; Hadley, D.R.; Miles, R.R.; Brown, S.B.; Stratton, P.L.; Milanovich, F.P.
The objective of this project was to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction). This entailed not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This project had two principal deliverables: (1) design, construct, test and deliver a 24 chamber, multiplex capable suitcase sized PCR instrument, and (2) develop and reduce to practice a multiplex assay for the detection of PCR product by flow cytometry. In addition, significant resources were allocated to test and evaluation of the Hand-held Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA). This project helps provide the signature and intelligence gathering community the ability to perform, on-site or remote, rapid analysis of environmental or like samples for the presence of a suite of biological warfare pathogens.
Reichelt, Wieland N; Waldschitz, Daniel; Herwig, Christoph; Neutsch, Lukas
Determining total protein content is a routine operation in many laboratories. Despite substantial work on assay optimization interferences, the widely used bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay remains widely recognized for its robustness. Especially in the field of bioprocess engineering the inaccuracy caused by interfering substances remains hardly predictable and not well understood. Since the introduction of the assay, sample pre-treatment by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation has been indicated as necessary and sufficient to minimize interferences. However, the sample matrix in cultivation media is not only highly complex but also dynamically changing over process time in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition. A significant misestimation of the total protein concentration of bioprocess samples is often observed when following standard work-up schemes such as TCA precipitation, indicating that this step alone is not an adequate means to avoid measurement bias. Here, we propose a modification of the BCA assay, which is less influenced by sample complexity. The dynamically changing sample matrix composition of bioprocessing samples impairs the conventional approach of compensating for interfering substances via a static offset. Hence, we evaluated the use of a correction factor based on an internal spike measurement for the respective samples. Using protein spikes, the accuracy of the BCA protein quantification could be improved fivefold, taking the BCA protein quantification to a level of accuracy comparable to other, more expensive methods. This will allow reducing expensive iterations in bioprocess development to due inaccurate total protein analytics.
Ayoub, Nahla A
The new trimethoxy-ellagic glycoside, 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-beta-glucupyranuronide and twelve known phenolics were isolated from the leaves of Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae). Structures of all compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods and chemical degradation. The new compound, together with four of the isolated known constituents and the plant extract itself, showed potent inhibitory effect against reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid in a dose-dependent manner adopting xanthine/hypoxanthine oxidase assay.
Nakano, Takuo; Ozimek, Lech
Sialic acid is a carbohydrate moiety of k-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), which is a 64 amino acid residue C-terminal sialylated phosphorylated glycopeptide released from k-casein by the action of chymosin during cheese making. GMP lacks aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Because of its unique amino acid composition and various biological activities, GMP is thought to be a potential ingredient for dietetic foods (e.g., a food for PKU patients) and pharmaceuticals. Thus, increased attention has been given to the development of techniques to purify GMP. In this review, techniques of GMP purification described in patents and scientific research papers were introduced. A sialic acid assay is the important method to track GMP isolation and purification processes, for which the thiobarbituric acid reaction with 1-propanol as a chromophore extracting solvent is an inexpensive, practical and specific technique. Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography, cellulose acetate electrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are the major techniques to identify sialic acid specific to GMP. Sephacryl S-200 chromatography and cellulose acetate electrophoresis are also used to detect GMP sialic acid in whey pearmeate and whey added commercial margarine samples. Future research includes development of an economical industrial scale method to produce high purity GMP.
Weusten, Jos J. A. M.; Carpay, Wim M.; Oosterlaken, Tom A. M.; van Zuijlen, Martien C. A.; van de Wiel, Paul A.
For quantitative NASBA-based viral load assays using homogeneous detection with molecular beacons, such as the NucliSens EasyQ HIV-1 assay, a quantitation algorithm is required. During the amplification process there is a constant growth in the concentration of amplicons to which the beacon can bind while generating a fluorescence signal. The overall fluorescence curve contains kinetic information on both amplicon formation and beacon binding, but only the former is relevant for quantitation. In the current paper, mathematical modeling of the relevant processes is used to develop an equation describing the fluorescence curve as a function of the amplification time and the relevant kinetic parameters. This equation allows reconstruction of RNA formation, which is characterized by an exponential increase in concentrations as long as the primer concentrations are not rate limiting and by linear growth over time after the primer pool is depleted. During the linear growth phase, the actual quantitation is based on assessing the amplicon formation rate from the viral RNA relative to that from a fixed amount of calibrator RNA. The quantitation procedure has been successfully applied in the NucliSens EasyQ HIV-1 assay. PMID:11884645
Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Lijuan; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Liu, Kai; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun
We have devised a novel isothermal amplification technology, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time multiple cross displacement amplification (ET-MCDA), which facilitated multiplex, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of nucleic-acid sequences at a constant temperature. The ET-MCDA integrated multiple cross displacement amplification strategy, restriction endonuclease cleavage and real-time fluorescence detection technique. In the ET-MCDA system, the functional cross primer E-CP1 or E-CP2 was constructed by adding a short sequence at the 5' end of CP1 or CP2, respectively, and the new E-CP1 or E-CP2 primer was labeled at the 5' end with a fluorophore and in the middle with a dark quencher. The restriction endonuclease Nb.BsrDI specifically recognized the short sequence and digested the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5' end short sequences and their complementary sequences), which released the quenching, resulting on a gain of fluorescence signal. Thus, the ET-MCDA allowed real-time detection of single or multiple targets in only a single reaction, and the positive results were observed in as short as 12 min, detecting down to 3.125 fg of genomic DNA per tube. Moreover, the analytical specificity and the practical application of the ET-MCDA were also successfully evaluated in this study. Here, we provided the details on the novel ET-MCDA technique and expounded the basic ET-MCDA amplification mechanism.
Floquet, Cedric F A; Sieben, Vincent J; MacKay, Bruce A; Mostowfi, Farshid
Using the carminic acid assay, we determined the concentration of boron in oilfield waters. We investigated the effect of high concentrations of salts and dissolved metals on the assay performance. The influence of temperature, development time, reagent concentration, and water volume was studied. Ten produced and flowback water samples of different origins were measured, and the method was successfully validated against ICP-MS measurements. In water-stressed regions, produced water is a potential source of fresh water for irrigation, industrial applications, or consumption. Therefore, boron concentration must be determined and controlled to match the envisaged waste water reuse. Fast, precise, and onsite measurements are needed to minimize errors introduced by sample transportation to laboratories. We found that the optimum conditions for our application were a 5:1 mixing volume ratio (reagent to sample), a 1 g L(-1) carminic acid concentration in 99.99% sulfuric acid, and a 30 min reaction time at ambient temperature (20 °C to 23 °C). Absorption values were best measured at 610 nm and 630 nm and baseline corrected at 865 nm. Under these conditions, the sensitivity of the assay to boron was maximized while its cross-sensitivity to dissolved titanium, iron, barium and zirconium was minimized, alleviating the need for masking agents and extraction methods.
Li, Xu; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde
The potential of a solution-based hybridization assay using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) molecular beacon (MB) probes to quantify 16S rRNA of specific populations in RNA extracts of environmental samples was evaluated by designing PNA MB probes for the genera Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma. In a kinetic study with 16S rRNA from pure cultures, the hybridization of PNA MB to target 16S rRNA exhibited a higher final hybridization signal and a lower apparent rate constant than the hybridizations to nontarget 16S rRNAs. A concentration of 10 mM NaCl in the hybridization buffer was found to be optimal for maximizing the difference between final hybridization signals from target and nontarget 16S rRNAs. Hybridization temperatures and formamide concentrations in hybridization buffers were optimized to minimize signals from hybridizations of PNA MB to nontarget 16S rRNAs. The detection limit of the PNA MB hybridization assay was determined to be 1.6 nM of 16S rRNA. To establish proof for the application of PNA MB hybridization assays in complex systems, target 16S rRNA from Dechlorosoma suillum was spiked at different levels to RNA isolated from an environmental (bioreactor) sample, and the PNA MB assay enabled effective quantification of the D. suillum RNA in this complex mixture. For another environmental sample, the quantitative results from the PNA MB hybridization assay were compared with those from clone libraries.
Cunliffe, C J; Franklin, T J; Gaskell, R M
An assay for prolyl 4-hydroxylase (EC 18.104.22.168) is described which measures succinic acid produced during the decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutaric acid in the presence of poly(L-Pro-Gly-L-Pro). [1-14C]Succinic acid was separated from its precursor 2-oxo[5-14C]glutaric acid by using ion-exchange minicolumns. The contamination of succinic acid by 2-oxoglutaric acid was approx. 1%, and the recovery of succinic acid was 100%. Kinetic parameters of prolyl 4-hydroxylase measured by the assay showed good agreement with published values. Our experience indicates that the measurement of prolyl 4-hydroxylase by the production of succinic acid is especially suited to investigations involving large numbers of assays. PMID:3028379
Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J
A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain.
Pyrosequencing-based validation of a simple cell-suspension polymerase chain reaction assay for Campylobacter with application of high-processivity polymerase and novel internal amplification controls for rapid and specific detection.
Oakley, Brian B; Line, J Eric; Berrang, Mark E; Johnson, Jessica M; Buhr, R Jeff; Cox, Nelson A; Hiett, Kelli L; Seal, Bruce S
Although Campylobacter is an important food-borne human pathogen, there remains a lack of molecular diagnostic assays that are simple to use, cost-effective, and provide rapid results in research, clinical, or regulatory laboratories. Of the numerous Campylobacter assays that do exist, to our knowledge none has been empirically tested for specificity using high-throughput sequencing. Here we demonstrate the power of next-generation sequencing to determine the specificity of a widely cited Campylobacter-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and describe a rapid method for direct cell suspension PCR to quickly and easily screen samples for Campylobacter. We present a specific protocol which eliminates the need for time-consuming and expensive genomic DNA extractions and, using a high-processivity polymerase, demonstrate conclusive screening of samples in <1 h. Pyrosequencing results show the assay to be extremely (>99%) sensitive, and spike-back experiments demonstrated a detection threshold of <10(2) CFU mL(-1). Additionally, we present 2 newly designed broad-range bacterial primer sets targeting the 23S rRNA gene that have wide applicability as internal amplification controls. Empirical testing of putative taxon-specific assays using high-throughput sequencing is an important validation step that is now financially feasible for research, regulatory, or clinical applications.
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Chuanhui; Cui, Jian; Bai, Wei; Zhou, Jing
The present study explores the application of LAMP for rapid diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in clinical sputum specimens of AECOPD as compared with conventional sputum culturing method. 120 sputum specimens of AECOPD patients, 46 sputum specimens of healthy controls, as well as 166 serum specimens as negative controls, were evaluated by LAMP assay using primers of eight typical respiratory pathogens. No cross-reactivity was observed in these negative control species using LAMP assay. The lower detection limit of LAMP assay was approximately 10(3) copies. 25 cases (20.8%) were detected at least one positive bacteria species by conventional sputum culturing method, while 73 cases (60.8%) were tested positive in LAMP assay. Moreover, compared with sputum culture, bacterial titers results of LAMP assay were more consistent with FEV1/FVC value of AECOPD patients. These results indicated that the sensitivity of LAMP assay was significantly higher than that of sputum culturing method.
Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P
This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.
Fallahi, Shirzad; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Pournia, Yadollah; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kazemi, Bahram
Toxoplasmosis diagnosis constitutes an important measure for disease prevention and control. In this paper, a newly described DNA amplification technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and nested-PCR targeting the repeated element (RE) and B1 gene, were compared to each other for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in blood samples of children with leukaemia. One hundred ten blood samples from these patients were analyzed by LAMP and nested-PCR. Out of 50 seropositive samples (IgM+, IgG+), positive results were obtained with 92% and 86% on RE, B1-LAMP and 82% and 68% on RE, B1-nested PCR analyses, respectively. Of the 50 seronegative samples, three, two and one samples were detected positive by RE-LAMP, B1-LAMP and RE-nested PCR assays, respectively, while none were detected positive by B1-nested PCR. None of the 10 IgM-, IgG+ samples was detected positive after testing LAMP and nested-PCR assays in duplicate. This is the first report of a study in which the LAMP method was applied with high sensitivity and efficacy for the diagnosis of T. gonii in blood samples of children with leukaemia.
Asam, Stefan; Habler, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael
The content of tenuazonic acid in human urine was determined by a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) that was recently developed for the analysis of food commodities and extensively re-validated for urine matrix in this study. Linearity of the response curve was proven between molar ratios n(labeled standard)/n(analyte) of 0.02-100. The limits of detection and determination were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively. The mean recovery of the stable isotope dilution assay was 102 ± 3 % in the range between 1.0 and 100 μg/L. Interassay precision was 6.7 % (relative standard deviation of three triplicate analyses of a human urine sample during 3 weeks). The method was applied to two studies dealing with urinary excretion of tenuazonic acid: In the first study, tenuazonic acid was quantified in the 24-h urine of six volunteers from Germany (three female, three male) in a concentration range of 1.3-17.3 μg/L or 2.3-10.3 ng/mg(-1) creatinine, respectively. In the second study, two volunteers (one female, one male) ingested 30 μg tenuazonic acid by consumption of naturally contaminated whole meal sorghum infant cereals and tomato juice, respectively. The urinary excretion of the ingested tenuazonic acid was 54-81 % after 6 h, depending on matrix and volunteer. After 24 h, 87-93 % of the ingested amount of tenuazonic acid was excreted, but the fate of the remaining about 10 % is open. Thus, it is not possible to exclude potential health hazards for the consumer, completely.
Practical Prediction of Ten Common Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes/Serogroups in One PCR Reaction by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and Melting Curve (MLPA-MC) Assay in Shenzhen, China
Zheng, Lei; Zou, Jianhua; Jin, Ping; Hu, Yanwei; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Xu; Wang, Qian
Background Streptococcus pneumoniae has more than 95 distinct serotypes described to date. However, only certain serotypes are more likely to cause pneumococcal diseases. Thus serotype surveillance is important for vaccine formula design as well as in post-vaccine serotype shift monitor. The goal of this study was to develop a practical screening assay for ten Shenzhen China common pneumococcal serotypes/serogroups in one molecular reaction. Methods A molecular assay, based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and melting curve (MC) analysis, was developed in an integrated approach (MLPA-MC) for the detection of ten capsular serotypes/serogroups 4, 6 (6A/6B/6C/6D), 9V/9A, 14, 15F/15A, 15B/15C, 18 (18F/18A/18B/18C), 19F, 19A and 23F. We designed serotype/serogroup-specific MLPA probes and fluorescent detection probes to discriminate the different serotypes/serogroups in one molecular reaction. The three steps of MLPA-MC assay are continuous reactions in one well detected by LightCycler 480. A total of 210 S. pneumoniae isolates from our local Maternity and Child Health Hospital were randomly chosen to evaluate the assay against published multiplex PCR assays. Results Our results showed that 198 (94.3%) of S. pneumoniae isolates were type-able by our assays and the results were in complete concordance with the published multiplex PCRs. Using the MLPA-MC assay, 96 S. pneumoniae isolates could be typed within 3 hours with limited hands-on time. This serotype/serogroup-screening assay can be easily modified or extended by modification of the serotype/serogroup-specific MLPA probes combinations according to the needs of different laboratories. Conclusions We recommend use of this assay as a starting point for screening serotype/serogroup frequencies. There is a need for this assay to be combined with other molecular typing assays, like published serotype specific PCRs, or even the Quellung reaction for serotype confirmation. PMID:26151828
Huang, Tao; Long, Mian; Huo, Bo
Although Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) has been widely used to determine protein concentration, the mechanism of interaction between protein, copper ion and BCA in this assay is still not well known. Using the Micro BCA protein assay kit (Pierce Company), we measured the absorbance at 562 nm of BSA solutions with different concentrations of protein, and also varied the BCA concentration. When the concentration of protein was increased, the absorbance exhibited the known linear and nonlinear increase, and then reached an unexpected plateau followed by a gradual decrease. We introduced a model in which peptide chains competed with BCA for binding to cuprous ions. Formation of the well-known chromogenic complex of BCA-Cu1+-BCA was competed with the binding of two peptide bonds (NTPB) to cuprous ion, and there is the possibility of the existence of two new complexes. A simple equilibrium equation was established to describe the correlations between the substances in solution at equilibrium, and an empirical exponential function was introduced to describe the reduction reaction. Theoretical predictions of absorbance from the model were in good agreement with the measurements, which not only validated the competitive binding model, but also predicted a new complex of BCA-Cu1+-NTPB that might exist in the final solution. This work provides a new insight into understanding the chemical bases of the BCA protein assay and might extend the assay to higher protein concentration. PMID:21625379
Huang, Tao; Long, Mian; Huo, Bo
Although Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) has been widely used to determine protein concentration, the mechanism of interaction between protein, copper ion and BCA in this assay is still not well known. Using the Micro BCA protein assay kit (Pierce Company), we measured the absorbance at 562 nm of BSA solutions with different concentrations of protein, and also varied the BCA concentration. When the concentration of protein was increased, the absorbance exhibited the known linear and nonlinear increase, and then reached an unexpected plateau followed by a gradual decrease. We introduced a model in which peptide chains competed with BCA for binding to cuprous ions. Formation of the well-known chromogenic complex of BCA-Cu(1+)-BCA was competed with the binding of two peptide bonds (NTPB) to cuprous ion, and there is the possibility of the existence of two new complexes. A simple equilibrium equation was established to describe the correlations between the substances in solution at equilibrium, and an empirical exponential function was introduced to describe the reduction reaction. Theoretical predictions of absorbance from the model were in good agreement with the measurements, which not only validated the competitive binding model, but also predicted a new complex of BCA-Cu(1+)-NTPB that might exist in the final solution. This work provides a new insight into understanding the chemical bases of the BCA protein assay and might extend the assay to higher protein concentration.
Christian, Allen T.; Pattee, Melissa S.; Attix, Cristina M.; Tucker, James D.
Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been useful for detecting point mutations in isolated nucleic acids, but its application in cytological preparations has been problematic. By pretreating cells with a combination of restriction enzymes and exonucleases, we demonstrate RCA in solution and in situ to detect gene copy number and single base mutations. It can also detect and quantify transcribed RNA in individual cells, making it a versatile tool for cell-based assays.
Farach-Carson, M C; Wright, G C; Butler, W T
A number of commercially available matrix filter supports have been designed for the immobilization of proteins following either electrotransfer from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels or direct application during dot blotting assays. These matrices differ with respect to chemical composition, charge, pore size, and degree of hydrophobicity. It follows that the properties of the protein(s) of interest will greatly influence the degree to which they interact with and ultimately bind to various filters. Acidic bone proteins contain diverse post-translational modifications that influence their interactions with solid phase matrices such as those used in immunoblotting (Western or dot blotting) or ion binding (overlay) procedures. This communication describes the results of a study comparing binding of various mixtures of non-collagenous acidic bone matrix phosphoproteins as well as purified osteopontin and osteocalcin to various filters including nitrocellulose and cationized paper or nylon. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of cationized filters for solid phase assays requiring the binding of these acidic macromolecules to background supports.
Qiao, Tian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu-Jiang; Han, Shan; Zhu, Tian-Hui
Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium. The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products. PMID:27721691
Qiao, Tian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu-Jiang; Han, Shan; Zhu, Tian-Hui
Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium. The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products.
Rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes by NS1 specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay in patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad, India.
Neeraja, M; Lakshmi, V; Lavanya, Vanjari; Priyanka, E N; Parida, M M; Dash, P K; Sharma, Shashi; Rao, P V Lakshmana; Reddy, Gopal
Early and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection during the acute phase of illness is crucial for proper patient management and prevention of the spread of the infection. In the present study, the standardization and validation of a one step, four tube reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) for rapid detection and serotyping of the DENV targeting NS1 gene using the Genie® II flourometer was carried out. The performance of the RT-LAMP was compared to RT-PCR, CDC 1-4 Real time PCR and the NS1 antigen ELISA, IgM and IgG anti DENV antibodies. Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 250/300 patients suspected clinically of DENV infection. RT- LAMP and CDC 1-4 Real time PCR assay was positive in 148/250 patients, while 92/250 patients were positive for anti- Dengue IgM and IgG antibodies. The RT-LAMP assay and the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay showed high concordance (k=1.0). The detection rate of acute DENV infection improved to 96% (240/250) when the results of RT-LAMP were combined with NS1 Ag, IgM and IgG ELISA. The RT-LAMP had a detection limit of 100 copies for DEN-1 and DEN-2, 10 copies for DEN-3 and DEN-4 compared to 1000 copies for DEN-1 and DEN-2, 100 copies for DEN-3 and DEN-4 by the conventional RT-PCR. The assay showed 100% specificity. The RT-LAMP assay developed in this study has potential use for early clinical diagnosis, serotyping and surveillance of DENV infection in endemic countries such as India.
Hernández-Goenaga, Juan; López-Abán, Julio; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio
Background Schistosomiasis remains one of the most common endemic parasitic diseases affecting over 230 million people worlwide. Schistosoma mansoni is the main species causing intestinal and hepatic schistosomiasis and the fresh water pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of the parasite. The development of new molecular monitoring assays for large-scale screening of snails from transmission sites to detect the presence of schistosomes is an important point to consider for snail control interventions related to schistosomiasis elimination. Our work was focussed on developing and evaluating a new LAMP assay combined with a simple DNA extraction method to detect S. mansoni in experimentally infected snails as a diagnostic tool for field conditions. Methodology/Principal findings A LAMP assay using a set of six primers targeting a sequence of S. mansoni ribosomal intergenic spacer 28S-18S rRNA was designed. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 0.1 fg of S. mansoni DNA at 63°C for 50 minutes. LAMP was evaluated by examining S. mansoni DNA in B. glabrata snails experimentally exposed to miracidia at different times post-exposure: early prepatent period (before cercarial shedding), light infections (snails exposed to a low number of miracidia) and detection of infected snails in pooled samples (within a group of uninfected snails). DNA for LAMP assays was obtained by using a commercial DNA extraction kit or a simple heat NaOH extraction method. We detected S. mansoni DNA in all groups of snails by using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA obtaining. Conclusions/Significance Our LAMP assay, named Biompha-LAMP, is specific, sensitive, rapid and potentially adaptable as a cost-effective method for screening of intermediate hosts infected with S. mansoni in both individual snails and pooled samples. The assay could be suitable for large-scale field surveys for schistosomes control campaigns in endemic
Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li
The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited.
Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li
The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited. PMID:26172450
Qian, Jifeng; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Shinde, Deepali N.; Ramírez-Borrero, Alissa J.; Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph; Niemz, Angelika
Isothermal nucleic acid amplification is becoming increasingly important for molecular diagnostics. Therefore, new computational tools are needed to facilitate assay design. In the isothermal EXPonential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR), template sequences with similar thermodynamic characteristics perform very differently. To understand what causes this variability, we characterized the performance of 384 template sequences, and used this data to develop two computational methods to predict EXPAR template performance based on sequence: a position weight matrix approach with support vector machine classifier, and RELIEF attribute evaluation with Naïve Bayes classification. The methods identified well and poorly performing EXPAR templates with 67–70% sensitivity and 77–80% specificity. We combined these methods into a computational tool that can accelerate new assay design by ruling out likely poor performers. Furthermore, our data suggest that variability in template performance is linked to specific sequence motifs. Cytidine, a pyrimidine base, is over-represented in certain positions of well-performing templates. Guanosine and adenosine, both purine bases, are over-represented in similar regions of poorly performing templates, frequently as GA or AG dimers. Since polymerases have a higher affinity for purine oligonucleotides, polymerase binding to GA-rich regions of a single-stranded DNA template may promote non-specific amplification in EXPAR and other nucleic acid amplification reactions. PMID:22416064
Zhu, Xiao; Xing, Da
A new label-free isothermal fluorescence amplification detection for nucleic acid has been developed. In this paper, we first developed a novel sensitive and specific detection platform with an unmodified hairpin probe (HP) combination of the graphene oxid (GO)/ SYBR green I dye (SG), which was relied on the selective principle of adsorption and the high quenching efficiency of GO. Then for the application of this new strategy, we used Mirco RNA-21 (Mir-21) as the target to evaluate this working principle of our design. When the target was hybridizing with the HP and inducing its conformation of change, an efficient isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction was activating to assist the first signal amplification. In this format, the formed complex conformation of DNA would interact with its high affinity dye, then detached from the surface of GO after incubating with the platform of GO/intercalating dye. This reaction would accompany with obvious fluorescence recovery, and accomplish farther signal enhancement by a mass of intercalating dye inserting into the minor groove of the long duplex replication product. By taking advantage of the multiple amplification of signal, this method exerted substantial enhancement in sensitivity and could be used for rapid and selective detection of Mir-21 with attomole range. It is expected that this cost-effective GO based sensor might hold considerable potential to apply in bioanalysis studies.
Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Jing-Jing; Rui, Kai; Gai, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie
We report an electrochemical sensor for telomerase activity detection based on spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles (SNAs AuNPs) triggered mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) enzyme-free dual signal amplification. In the detection strategy, SNAs AuNPs and two hairpin probes were employed. SNAs AuNPs as the primary amplification element, not only hybridized with the telomeric repeats on the electrode to amplify signal but also initiated the subsequent secondary amplification, mimic-hybridization chain reaction of two hairpin probes. If the cells' extracts were positive for telomerase activity, SNAs AuNPs could be captured on the electrode. The carried initiators could trigger an alternative hybridization reaction of two hairpin probes that yielded nicked double helices. The signal was further amplified enzyme-free by numerous hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting into double-helix DNA long chain by electrostatic interaction, each of which could generate an electrochemical signal at appropriate potential. With this method, a detection limit of down to 2 HeLa cells and a dynamic range of 10-10,000 cells were achieved. Telomerase activities of different cell lines were also successfully evaluated.
Sheet, O H; Grabowski, N T; Klein, G; Abdulmawjood, A
Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is one of the most important animal pathogens causing bovine mastitis. Also, it is a major human pathogen that may produce a variety of toxins which cause staphylococcal food poisoning. In the present study a LAMP assay based on gene nuc to identify S. aureus was developed and validated. The specificity of the LAMP assay was confirmed by using 70 S. aureus isolates and 21 non-S. aureus strains. The optimal temperature-time combination to amplify gene nuc successfully was 65 °C and 30 min. The analytical sensitivity of the developed LAMP assay was 0.26 pg of S. aureus DNA per reaction. The limit of detection evaluated with milk spiked with S. aureus was 9 × 10(2) CFU mL(-1). The final results of this assay were available within less than 2 h. The present study showed that the LAMP assay based on gene nuc appeared to be rapid and simple, and could also be used to identify S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk of dairy cows.
Ahmed, Sofia; Mustaan, Nafeesa; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Nabi, Syeda Ayesha Ahmed un; Ahmad, Iqbal
The present study has been carried out to validate a UV spectrometric method for the assay of tolfenamic acid (TA) in organic solvents. TA is insoluble in water; therefore, a total of thirteen commonly used organic solvents have been selected in which the drug is soluble. Fresh stock solutions of TA in each solvent in a concentration of 1 × 10−4 M (2.62 mg%) were prepared for the assay. The method has been validated according to the guideline of International Conference on Harmonization and parameters like linearity, range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and robustness have been studied. Although the method was found to be efficient for the determination of TA in all solvents on the basis of statistical data 1-octanol, followed by ethanol and methanol, was found to be comparatively better than the other studied solvents. No change in the stock solution stability of TA has been observed in each solvent for 24 hours stored either at room (25 ± 1°C) or at refrigerated temperature (2–8°C). A shift in the absorption maxima has been observed for TA in various solvents indicating drug-solvent interactions. The studied method is simple, rapid, economical, accurate, and precise for the assay of TA in different organic solvents. PMID:26783497
Hong, Christopher S; Yang, Chunzhang; Zhuang, Zhengping
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic oligonucleotides with many applications. Compared with DNA, PNAs bind their complementary DNA strand with higher specificity and strength, an attribute that can make it an effective polymerase chain reaction clamp. A growing body of work has demonstrated the utility of PNAs in detecting low levels of mutant DNA, particularly in the detection of circulating mutated tumor cells in the peripheral blood. The PNA-based assay has greater sensitivity than direct sequencing and is significantly more affordable and rapid than next-generation deep sequencing. We have previously demonstrated that PNAs can successfully detect somatic mosaicism in patients with suspected disease phenotypes. In this report, we detail our methodology behind PNA design and application. We describe our protocol for optimizing the PNA for sequencing use and for determining the sensitivity of the PNA-based assay. Lastly, we discuss the potential applications of our assay for future laboratory and clinical purposes and highlight the role of PNAs in the detection of somatic mosaicism. PMID:27115839
Kralj, Jason G; Munson, Matthew S; Ross, David
We investigated the ability of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) to assay total protein concentration using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reaction. We chose this format because GEMBE-C(4) D behaves as a concentration dependent detection system, unlike optical methods that also rely on pathlength (due to Beer's law). This system tolerates proteins well compared with other capillary electrophoretic methods, allowing the capillary to be reused without coatings or additional hydroxide wash steps. The typical reaction protocol was modified by reducing the pH slightly from 11.25 to 9.4, which enabled elimination of tartrate from the reagents. We estimated that copper (I) could be detected at approximately 3.0 μmol/L, which agrees with similar GEMBE and CZE systems utilizing C(4) D. Under conditions similar to the BCA "micro method" assay, we determined the LOD for three common proteins (insulin, BSA, and bovine gamma globulin) and found that they agree well with the existing spectroscopic detection methods. Further, we investigated how long reaction times impact the LOD and found that the conversion was proportional to log(time). This indicated that little sensitivity is gained by extending the reaction past 1 h. Hence, GEMBE provides an alternative platform for total protein assays while maintaining the excellent sensitivity of the optical-based methods.
Li, Hua; Fang, Xueen; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie
Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (FRET) is gaining great interest in detecting macro-biological molecule. It is difficult to achieve conveniently and fast detection for macro-biological molecule. Herein, a graphene oxide (GO)-based paper chip (glass fiber) integrated with fluorescence labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for fast, inexpensive and direct detection of biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) has been developed. In this paper, we employed the Cy3/FAM-labeled ssDNA as the reporter and the GO as quencher and the original glass fiber paper as data acquisition substrates. The chip which was designed and fabricated by a cutting machine is a miniature biosensor that monitors fluorescence recovery from resonance energy transfer. The hybridization assays and fluorescence detection were all simplified, and the surface of the chip did not require immobilization or washing. A Nikon Eclipse was employed as excited resource and a commercial digital camera was employed for capturing digital images. This paper-based microfluidics chip has been applied in the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. The biosensing capability meets many potential requirements for disease diagnosis and biological analysis.
Sugiharto, Ariff, Arbakariya; Ahmad, Syahida; Hamid, Muhajir
Ultra violet (UV) exposure and oxidative stress are casually linked to skin disorders. They can increase melanin synthesis, proliferation of melanocytes, and hyperpigmentation. It is possible that antioxidants or inhibitors may have a beneficial effect on skin health to reduce hyperpigmentation. In the last few years, a huge number of natural herbal extracts have been tested to reduce hyperpigmentation. The objective of this study was to determine and to compare of kojic acid and curcumin properties to viability cell B16-F1. In this study, our data showed that the viability of cell B16-F1 was 63.91% for kojic acid and 64.12% for curcumin at concentration 100 µg/ml. Further investigation assay of antioxidant activities, indicated that IC50 for kojic acid is 63.8 µg/ml and curcumin is 16.05 µg/ml. Based on the data, kojic acid and curcumin have potential antioxidant properties to reduce hyperpigmentation with low toxicity effect in cell B16-F1.
Li, Haiyan; Xin, Hongyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau
Pathogenic microorganisms are responsible for many infectious diseases, and pathogen monitoring is important and necessary for water quality control. This study for the first time explored a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) to simultaneously detect viable Legionella pneumophila, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus in one reaction from water samples. Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) was applied to enhance the dead bacterial permeability of PMA. The sensitivity of the multiplex PMA-qPCR assay achieved two colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for L. pneumophila and three CFU per reaction for S. typhimurium and S. aureus. No PCR products were amplified from all nontarget control samples. Significantly, with comparable specificity and sensitivity, this newly invented multiplex PMA-qPCR assay took a much shorter time than did conventional culture assays when testing water samples with spiked bacteria and simulated environmental water treatment. The viable multiplex PMA-qPCR assay was further successfully applied to pathogen detection from rivers, canals, and tap water samples after simple water pretreatment.
Accurate Classification of Germinal Center B-Cell-Like/Activated B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Using a Simple and Rapid Reverse Transcriptase-Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Assay: A CALYM Study.
Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Bagacean, Cristina; Marchand, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Figeac, Martin; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Molina, Thierry Jo; Fest, Thierry; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Leroy, Karen; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is subdivided into germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like subtypes. Unfortunately, these lymphomas are difficult to differentiate in routine diagnosis, impeding the development of treatments. Patients with these lymphomas can benefit from specific therapies. We therefore developed a simple and rapid classifier based on a reverse transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and 14 gene signatures. Compared with the Affymetrix U133+2 gold standard, all 46 samples (95% CI, 92%-100%) of a validation cohort classified by both techniques were attributed to the expected subtype. Similarly, 93% of the 55 samples (95% CI, 82%-98%) of a second independent series characterized with a mid-throughput gene expression profiling method were classified correctly. Unclassifiable sample proportions reached 13.2% and 13.8% in these cohorts, comparable with the frequency originally reported. The developed assay was also sensitive enough to obtain reliable results from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and flexible enough to include prognostic factors such as MYC/BCL2 co-expression. Finally, in a series of 135 patients, both overall (P = 0.01) and progression-free (P = 0.004) survival differences between the two subtypes were confirmed. Because the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method is already in use and requires only common instruments and reagents, it could easily be applied to clinical trial patient stratification to help in treatment decisions.
Machado, R L; Garret, D O; Adagu, I S; Warhurst, D C; Póvoa, M M
We report an adaptation of a technique for the blood sample collection (GFM) as well as for the extraction and amplification of Plasmodium DNA for the diagnosis of malaria infection by the PCR/ELISA. The method of blood sample collection requires less expertise and saves both time and money, thus reducing the cost by more than half. The material is also suitable for genetic analysis in either fresh or stored specimens prepared by this method.
Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida
The diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined according to the results obtained from screening assays, and confirmation made by supplemental tests, in order to exclude the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results and, therefore, a misdiagnosis. Identifying the patient's true clinical status is of crucial importance to direct an accurate course of therapy, but, often, the definition of this status is only possible after conjunctions and analysis of the results obtained from each methodology applied, considering the limitations of each assay. In this manuscript, it is discussed briefly the possible results obtained from the three methods most commonly applied in routine laboratory and their contribution in the diagnosis of HCV infection.
Li, Qianjin; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei
Addition of crosslinked polymer nanoparticles into a solution of a 3-nitrophenylboronic acid-alizarin complex leads to significant enhancement of fluorescence emission. Using the nanoparticle-enhanced boronic acid-alizarin system has improved greatly the sensitivity and extended the dynamic range of separation-free fluorescence assays for carbohydrates.
Li, Bingchen; Liu, Fei; Peng, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yunlei; Fan, Wenxuan; Yin, Huanshun; Ai, Shiyun; Zhang, Xiansheng
MicroRNA (miRNA) is riveting nowadays due to its close relevance to human malignancies. Exploiting a fast and convenient biosensor for sensitive and specific detecting miRNA is necessary and it has significant meaning for oncology. In this work, to understand the relationship between miRNA-21 and gastric cancer, we employ T4 RNA ligase 2 to initiate specific ligation reaction depending on the sequence of target RNA, and T7 exonuclease to catalyze the first stage cyclic enzymatic amplification method (CEAM) specifically, which also resting on the target RNA sequence, and the second stage CEAM to further amplify the response resulting from the initial target RNA. Our two-stage CEAM strategy can detect miRNA-21 as low as 0.36fM with remarkable specificity, and most importantly, it can be used to inspect the expression level of miRNA-21 in blood serum of gastric cancer patients. This will offer new perspective for figuring out the pathways of miRNA-21 involving in cancer.
Chantratita, Wasun; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Kaewpongsri, Supaporn; Srichunrusami, Chutatip; Pairoj, Wantanit; Thitithanyanont, Arunee; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakron, Parntep; Songserm, Thaweesak; Damrongwatanapokin, Sudarat; Landt, Olfert
The aim of this study was to determine the performance of real-time amplification based methods - NASBA, TaqMan, RT-FRET, and RT-PCR LUXtrade mark formats - for the detection of influenza A (H5N1) virus RNA. In an analysis of 54 samples obtained from a range of animal species in Thailand during the period 2003-2006, results showed that the NASBA (H5=98.2%, N1=96.3%), TaqMan (H5=98.2%, N1=96.3%) and FRET (H5=98.2%, N1=96.3%) had significantly higher rates of positive detection than LUX (H5=94.4%, N1=50.0%; P<0.001) for influenza A, H5 and N1 isolates. There were no false-positive results from any methods used in the negative-control group of samples. The limits of analytical detection were at least 10copies/reaction in real-time NASBA and LUX assays, while FRET and TaqMan assay appeared to be less sensitive at > or =100copies/reaction. The assays were relatively specific without cross-reactivity to a number of other influenza strains or viral pathogens. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that real-time NASBA, TaqMan and FRET assays can be used to detect influenza A (H5N1) from a wide range of hosts, and be specific for H5N1 samples obtained during different outbreaks (2003-2006). All assays provided the benefit of rapid influenza H5N1 identification for early diagnosis, in the range of hours, and they are well suited to high throughput analyses.
Gülsoy, Nagihan; Yavas, Cüneyd; Mutlu, Özal
The present study is conducted to determine the potential mechanisms of Boron compounds, boric acid (BA) and borax (BX), on genotoxicity of zebrafish Danio rerio for 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours acute exposure (level:1, 4, 16, 64 mg/l BA and BX) in semi-static bioassay experiment. For that purpose, peripheral erythrocytes were drawn from caudal vein and Comet assay was applied to assess genotoxicity. Acute (96 hours) exposure and high concentrations of boric acid and borax increases % tail DNA and Olive tail moment. Genotoxicity was found for BA as concentration-dependent and BX as concentration and time dependent manner. In general, significant effects (P < 0,05) on both concentrations and exposure times were observed in experimental groups. DNA damage was highest at 96 h and 24 h for all BX and BA concentrations, respectively in peripheral blood of D. rerio. For the first time, our study demonstrates the effect of waterborne BA and BX exposure on genotoxicity at the molecular level, which may contribute to understanding the mechanism of boric acid and borax-induced genotoxicity in fish. PMID:26862320
Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.
Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168
Gülsoy, Nagihan; Yavas, Cüneyd; Mutlu, Özal
The present study is conducted to determine the potential mechanisms of Boron compounds, boric acid (BA) and borax (BX), on genotoxicity of zebrafish Danio rerio for 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours acute exposure (level:1, 4, 16, 64 mg/l BA and BX) in semi-static bioassay experiment. For that purpose, peripheral erythrocytes were drawn from caudal vein and Comet assay was applied to assess genotoxicity. Acute (96 hours) exposure and high concentrations of boric acid and borax increases % tail DNA and Olive tail moment. Genotoxicity was found for BA as concentration-dependent and BX as concentration and time dependent manner. In general, significant effects (P < 0,05) on both concentrations and exposure times were observed in experimental groups. DNA damage was highest at 96 h and 24 h for all BX and BA concentrations, respectively in peripheral blood of D. rerio. For the first time, our study demonstrates the effect of waterborne BA and BX exposure on genotoxicity at the molecular level, which may contribute to understanding the mechanism of boric acid and borax-induced genotoxicity in fish.
Development and evaluation of a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip LAMP) for rapid and simultaneous detection of ten pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals.
Zhou, Qian-Jin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jiong; Wang, Rui-Na; Shi, Yu-Hong; Li, Chang-Hong; Zhang, De-Min; Yan, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Jun
Rapid, low-cost, and user-friendly strategies are urgently needed for early disease diagnosis and timely treatment, particularly for on-site screening of pathogens in aquaculture. In this study, we successfully developed a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip LAMP), which was capable of simultaneously detecting 10 pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, i.e., Nocardia seriolae, Pseudomonas putida, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio rotiferianus, and Vibrio vulnificus. The assay provided a nearly-automated approach, with only a single pipetting step per chip for sample dispensing. This technique could achieve limits of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.40 to 6.42pg per 1.414μL reaction in less than 30 min. The robust reproducibility was demonstrated by a little variation among duplications for each bacterium with the coefficient of variation (CV) for time to positive (Tp) value less than 0.10. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of this on-chip LAMP assay in detecting field samples were 96.2% and 93.8% by comparison with conventional microbiological methods. Compared with other well-known techniques, on-chip LAMP assay provides low sample and reagent consumption, ease-of-use, accelerated analysis, multiple bacteria and on-site detection, and high reproducibility, indicating that such a technique would be applicable for on-site detection and routine monitoring of multiple pathogens in aquaculture.
Rossi, Omar; Maggiore, Luana; Necchi, Francesca; Koeberling, Oliver; MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane
Genetically induced outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are being investigated as vaccines. Rapid methods are required for estimating the protein content for in-process assays during production. Since GMMA are complex biological structures containing lipid and polysaccharide as well as protein, protein determinations are not necessarily straightforward. We compared protein quantification by Bradford, Lowry, and Non-Interfering assays using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as standard with quantitative amino acid (AA) analysis, the most accurate currently available method for protein quantification. The Lowry assay has the lowest inter- and intra-assay variation and gives the best linearity between protein amount and absorbance. In all three assays, the color yield (optical density per mass of protein) of GMMA was markedly different from that of BSA with a ratio of approximately 4 for the Bradford assay, and highly variable between different GMMA; and approximately 0.7 for the Lowry and Non-Interfering assays, highlighting the need for calibrating the standard used in the colorimetric assay against GMMA quantified by AA analysis. In terms of a combination of ease, reproducibility, and proportionality of protein measurement, and comparability between samples, the Lowry assay was superior to Bradford and Non-Interfering assays for GMMA quantification.
Pandit, Kunal R; Nanayakkara, Imaly A; Cao, Weidong; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; White, Ian M
While nucleic acid amplification tests have great potential as tools for rapid diagnostics, complicated sample preparation requirements inhibit their use in near-patient diagnostics and low-resource-setting applications. Recent advancements in nucleic acid purification have leveraged pH-modulated charge switching polymers to reduce the number of steps required for sample preparation. The polycation chitosan (pKa 6.4) has been used to efficiently purify DNA by binding nucleic acids in acidic buffers and then eluting them at a pH higher than 8.0. Though it is an improvement over conventional methods, this multistep procedure has not transformed the application of nucleic acid amplification assays. Here we describe a simpler approach using magnetic chitosan microparticles that interact with DNA in a manner that has not been reported before. The microparticles capture DNA at a pH optimal for PCR (8.5) just as efficiently as at low pH. Importantly, the captured DNA is still accessible by polymerase, enabling direct amplification from the microparticles. We demonstrate quantitative PCR from DNA captured on the microparticles, thus eliminating nearly all of the sample preparation steps. We anticipate that this new streamlined method for preparing DNA for amplification will greatly expand the diagnostic applications of nucleic acid amplification tests.
Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D
Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P < 0.0001) for all AA when all 16 MBM samples were included in the analysis. However, when the MBM samples with the 2 lowest and the 2 highest rooster digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin.
Katano, Hajime; Takakuwa, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Hajime; Kimoto, Hisashi
A colorimetric method for the glucosamine (GlcN) assay was applied for the determination of chitin, which can be hydrolyzed to produce GlcN. A 10-mg sample was mixed with 10 mL of a 5 mol/L HCl aqueous solution, and the mixture was kept at 100°C for 12 h. Under these conditions, chitin was completely depolymerized and deacetylated to produce GlcN, even when the sample was a crab shell. A 20-μL aliquot of the hydrolysate was mixed with 20 μL of a 5 mol/L NaOH aqueous solution and 200 μL of a 50 mmol/L Na2SiO3, 600 mmol/L Na2MoO4, 1.5 mol/L CH3COOH and 30% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide solution. The mixture was kept at 70°C for 30 min. In the mixture, GlcN reduced the Mo(VI) species to form a blue molybdosilicate anion, which gave an absorbance maximum at around 750 nm. Since N-acetylglucosamine and chitin oligosaccharides could not render the reaction mixture blue, GlcN in the hydrolysate could be assayed colorimetrically with high selectivity. When a standard chitin sample was examined, the GlcN concentration in the hydrolysate was determined to be 0.97 ± 0.02 g/L (as hydrochloride salt), indicating that the sample contained 10.0 ± 0.2 mg chitin (as an N-acetylglucosamine homopolymer). Calcium cation, amino acids, and proteins did not interfere with the GlcN assay. Thus, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine chitin in a crab shell sample.
Benoit, V; Steel, A; Torres, M; Yu, Y Y; Yang, H; Cooper, J
Three-dimensional, flow-through microchannel glass substrates have a potential for enhanced performance, including increased sensitivity and dynamic range, over traditional planar substrates used in medium-density microarray platforms. This paper presents a methodology for the implementation of multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization fluorescence assays on microchannel glass substrates. Fluorescence detection was achieved, in a first instance, using conventional low-magnification microscope objective lenses, as imaging optics whose depth-of-field characteristics match the thickness of the microchannel glass chip. The optical properties of microchannel glass were shown, through experimental results and simulations, to be compatible with the quantitative detection of heterogeneous hybridization events taking place along the microchannel sidewalls, with detection limits for oligonucleotide targets in the low-attomole range.
Rashid, K A; Mumma, R O
Beta-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) is used as a plant growth regulator on tomatoes and strawberries. It is the active ingredient in Blossom-Set and Berry-Set, two plant hormone sprays for fruit-set. The mutagenic activity of BNOA was evaluated in four strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA1535) in the presence and absence of liver microsomal and cytosolic enzymes derived from Aroclor induced rats. BNOA did not produce any significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the reversion of any of the four tester strains in the standard plate incorporation assay. Results of the agar overlay toxicity tests indicates that the chemical shows toxic effects at concentrations above 500 micrograms/plate. It was concluded that under the conditions of these tests, BNOA did not exhibit any mutagenic activity.
Duan, Ningjun; Lv, Wansheng; Zhu, Lingli; Zheng, Weijuan; Hua, Zichun
Hyaluronan is a widely distributed glycosaminoglycan which has multiple functions. Hyaluronic acid (HA) accumulation has been reported in many human diseases. Understanding the role of hyaluronan and its binding proteins in the pathobiology of disease will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics for many critical diseases. Current techniques described for the analysis of HA are mainly for HA quantification in solutions, not for the direct detection of HA in tissues or on cell surfaces. In our study, a fusion protein, named C-terminal domain of RHAMM-enhanced green fluorescence protein (RHC-EGFP), combined the HA-binding domain, C-terminal of receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, with EGFP, a widely used enhanced green fluorescence protein, was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli with high purity. Based on the sensitivity and convenience of fluorescence detection, methods for direct assay of HA in solutions, on cell surface or in tissues were established using RHC-EGFP. The binding specificity was also confirmed by competitive binding experiment and hyaluronidase degradation experiment. Our results provide an alternative choice for the specific and convenient assay of HA in various samples, and maybe helpful for further understanding of the fundamental and comprehensive functions of HA.
Intarakamhang, Sireerat; Leson, Christian; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Schulte, Albert
Automatic ascorbic acid (AA) voltammetry was established in 24-well microtiter plates. The assay used a movable assembly of a pencil rod working, an Ag/AgCl reference and a Pt counter electrode with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for concentration-dependent current generation. A computer was in command of electrode (z) and microtiter plate (x, y) positioning and timed potentiostat operation. Synchronization of these actions supported sequential approach of all wells and subsequent execution of electrode treatment procedures or AA voltammetry at defined intervals in a measuring cycle. DPV in well solutions offered a linear current/concentration range between 0.1 and 8.0 mM, a sensitivity of about 1 μA mM(-1) AA, and a detection limit of 50 μM. When used with a calibration curve or standard addition, automated voltammetry of samples with added known amounts of AA demonstrated good recovery rates. Also, the assay achieved the accurate determination of the AA content of vitamin C tablets, a fruit juice and an herbal tea extract. Robotic AA voltammetry has the advantage of conveniently handling multiple samples in a single measuring run without the continuous attention of laboratory personnel. It is a good option when the goal is cost-effective AA screening of sample libraries and has potential for applications in health care and the food processing, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej
Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living
Jordan, Gregor; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Heinrich, Julia; Staack, Roland F
Ligand-binding assays are ideal for routine bioanalysis, but we reason that the straightforward replacement of the conventional chromogenic horseradish peroxidase substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, of a routinely used preclinical immunoassay to detect hIgG, with the fluorogenic 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid would broaden the narrow dynamic range. The replacement leads to a sensitivity of 0.47 (minimum required dilution [MRD] 10) and 1.02 (MRD 50) ng/ml, and dynamic ranges of 3.3 (MRD 10) and 3.6 (MRD 50) orders of magnitude, and thereby had improved sensitivity and dynamic range compared with other conventional colorimetric ELISAs, other ligand-binding assay technologies or LC-MS assays. Improvements in sensitivity and dynamic range were achieved for the sera of horse, mice and monkeys without assay optimization.
Thirapanmethee, Krit; Pothisamutyothin, Kanokporn; Nathisuwan, Surakit; Chomnawang, Mullika T; Wiwat, Chanpen
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) produced by Enterobacteriaceae are one of the resistance mechanisms to most β-lactam antibiotics. ESBLs are currently a major problem in both hospitals and community settings worldwide. Rapid and reliable means of detecting ESBL-producing bacteria