Science.gov

Sample records for acid b-glucosidase effects

  1. Enhanced production of cellulase, hemicellulase, and b-glucosidase by trichoderma reesei, (rut c-30)

    SciTech Connect

    Kishen Tangnu, S.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-08-01

    The production of cellulases and hemicellulases was studied with Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30. This organism produced, together with high cellulase activities, considerable amounts of xylanases and B-glucosidase. Three cellulose concentrations (1, 2.5, and 5.0%) were examined to determine the maximum levels of cellulase activity obtainable in submerged culture. Temperature and pH profiling was used to increase cell mass to maximum levels within two days and thereby enhancing fermentor productivity at higher substrate levels. The effect of temperature, pH, Tween-80 concentration, carbon source, and substrate concentration on the ratio of mycelial growth and extracellulose enzyme production are described. (Refs. 19).

  2. Effects of CO[sub 2] and climate change on forest trees: Soil biology and enzymology

    SciTech Connect

    Moldenke, A.R.; Baumeister, N.; Caldwell, B.A.; Griffith, R.; Ingham, E.R.; Wernz, J. ); Johnson, M.G.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Tingey, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    Samples of Teracosm soils were analyzed shortly after initial setup to determine whether initial conditions were equivalent and matched expected values for local soils. Total and active fungal biomass, active bacterial biomass and protozoan numbers were reduced, with greatest decreases occurring in the A horizon. No effect was observed on total bacterial biomass, nematode or anthropod densities, but changes in nematode and arthropod species composition occurred. Significant differences in total density and species composition occurred between the enclosed Teracosms and the open controls. Arthropod and nematode community structure in the three altitudinal field sites had significantly diverged. No significant differences in activities of key soil enzymes in C- and N-cycling (acid phosphatase, protease, B-glucosidase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase) were found between initial samples relative to treatment, but all levels were significantly difference relative to depth in soil profile. Activities were within ranges previously observed in forests of the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  4. Effects of acids on gravels and proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S.K.

    1988-05-01

    The effects of acids on the integrity of gravels and proppants should be considered in acid treatments. This paper reports on the influence of acid type, acid concentration, and contact duration on the acid solubility of five sands and bauxitic materials. The effects of the acids on the mechanical strength and the size distribution of the solids are determined. The authors found that intermediate-density and low-density bauxites (IDB and LDB) are very soluble in HF acid and that sintered bauxite is weakened by HF acid.

  5. Background on health effects of acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.

    1989-02-01

    This introduction to the 1987 NIEHS-EPA Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols reviews the state of our knowledge on this topic as of the close of the 1984 NIEHS Conference on the Health Effects of Acid Precipitation and the results of some key studies completed since that time. These studies, together with the results of the studies presented in the papers that follow, provide a substantial increment in our knowledge of the health effects of acid aerosols.

  6. Beneficial effects of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Rose, Maximas H

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are playing a vital role in our day-to-day life. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid), a biomaterial, receives special attention among them. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polyanionic natural polymer occurring as linear polysaccharide composed of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine repeats via a β-1,4 linkage. It is the most versatile macromolecule present in the connective tissues of all vertebrates. Hyaluronic acid has a wide range of applications with its excellent physicochemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and nonimmunogenicity and serves as an excellent tool in biomedical applications such as osteoarthritis surgery, ocular surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. It plays a key role in cushioning and lubricating the body and is abundant in the eyes, joints, and heart valves. A powerful antioxidant, hyaluronic acid is perhaps best known for its ability to bond water to tissue. Hyaluronan production increases in proliferating cells, and the polymer may play a role in mitosis. This chapter gives an overview of hyaluronic acid and its physicochemical properties and applications. This chapter gives a deep understanding on the special benefits of hyaluronic acid in the fields of pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental applications. Hyaluronic acid paves the way for beneficial research and applications to the welfare of life forms.

  7. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  8. Effects of acid precipitation on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of acid rain on crop yield have been studied using field-grown and potted plants. Results have shown that the chemicals in acid rain can affect crop growth and yield at ambient concentrations. For many crops, the dose-response curve probably has at least one peak and crossover point from stimulatory to inhibitory response may depend on other environmental factors. Plant parts often are affected differently, suggesting that acid rain can change the allocation of energy within plants. Available experimental results are not transferable to agricultural situations. The characteristics of acid rain which have the greatest influence on crop yield have not been determined. Interactions between acid rain and other environmental factors have scarcely been studied. Before a believable assessment of the economic impact of acid rain on crops can be done, the mechanisms of response have to be studied and the predictive capability enhanced and validated.

  9. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    TCDD appeared to interfere with fatty acid metabolism leading to an increase in unsaturation. Furthermore, Andersen et al. (2) proposed that such an...increase in cellular unsaturated fatty acids may lead-to excessive membrane fluidity (as indicated by induced changes in red blood cell fragility) and...TASK WORK UNITELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Claificati on) ~/~. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Ac ds 12. PERSONAL

  10. Comparison of antioxidant effectiveness of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2011-01-01

    The abilities of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) to scavenge peroxynitrite (ONOO(-) ), galvinoxyl radical, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cation radical (ABTS(+•) ), and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) were higher than those of lipoic acid (LA). The effectiveness of DHLA to protect methyl linoleate against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH)-induced oxidation was about 2.2-fold higher than that of LA, and DHLA can retard the autoxidation of linoleic acid (LH) in the β-carotene-bleaching test. DHLA can also trap ∼0.6 radicals in AAPH-induced oxidation of LH. Moreover, DHLA can scavenge ∼2.0 radicals in AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA and AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes, whereas LA can scavenge ∼1.5 radicals at the same experimental conditions. DHLA can protect erythrocytes against hemin-induced hemolysis, but accelerate the degradation of DNA in the presence of Cu(2+) . Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of -SH in DHLA is higher than S-S in LA.

  11. Effect of folic acid on zinc absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, L.; Keating, S.; King, J.C.; Stokstad, E.L.R.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of folic acid on zinc uptake was studied in the human and in the rat. The serum zinc response to a 25 mg oral dose or zinc was measured with and without a 10 mg dose of folic acid. Serum zinc levels were measured prior to the oral dose of zinc and at hourly intervals up to 4 hours after the dose. When zinc was given along, the increases in serum zinc from baseline at hours 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 92, 118, 92 and 66 ..mu..g/dl, respectively. When both zinc and folic acid were given, the increases in serum zinc at hours 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 100, 140, 110 and 75 ..mu..g/dl, respectively. When the increases in serum zinc were plotted against time, there was no significant difference between the areas under the two curves. The everted jejunal sac from the rat was used to study the effect of folate on zinc transport using 100 ..mu..M zinc in the mucosal buffer. The addition of folic acid at levels up to 10/sup -3/M had no significant effect on zinc transport to the serosal side solution or on uptake by the intestinal mucosa. This in vivo study with humans and in vitro study with rat intestine does not support a direct adverse effect of folic acid on zinc absorption.

  12. Effect of rosmarinic acid on atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Koh, Jassook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Park, Deokhoon

    2008-12-01

    Rosmarinic acid is known to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of rosmarinic acid on atopic dermatitis (AD), one of the inflammatory disorders of the skin. Twenty-one subjects (14 women and seven men, 5-28 years of age) with mild AD participated in this study. Rosmarinic acid (0.3%) emulsion was topically applied to the elbow flexures of AD patients twice a day (once in the morning and once in the evening). All subjects were evaluated for skin conditions before treatment at the first visit, and then at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. According to local Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index results, erythema on antecubital fossa was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Transepidermal water loss of the antecubital fossa was significantly reduced at 8 weeks compared to before treatment (P < 0.05). The results from self-questionnaires on the efficacy of rosmarinic acid indicated that dryness, pruritus and general AD symptoms improved. Our investigation into the AD-mitigating effect of rosmarinic acid through in vivo experiments demonstrated the possible clinical use of rosmarinic acid as a therapeutic agent for AD.

  13. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  14. Effects of acid rain on grapevines

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Dee, R.J.; Kender, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature vineyard-growing Concord grapevines were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.5 to 5.5 both as acute treatments at anthesis and chronically throughout the season in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, 8 additional varieties were also treated with simulated acid rain solutions at pH 2.75 and 3.25. With Concord in 1981, few foliar lesions on leaves were visible at pH 2.75. In contrast, many leaf lesions with decreased fruit soluble solids were observed at pH 2.5 in 1980. The relationship between acid-rain and oxidant stipple, chlorosis, and soluble solids in the absence of acid rain leaf lesions at pH>2.5 remains unclear. Acute sprays (pH2.75) at anthesis reduced pollen germination in four grape cultivars. However, fruit set was reduced in only one of these. Grape yields were not influenced by acid rain treatments. There was no evidence that acid-rain at ambient pH levels had negative effects on grape production or fruit quality.

  15. Effects of acid rain on grapevines

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Dee, R.J.; Kender, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature vineyard-growing Concord grapevines (Vitis labrusca, Bailey) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.5 to pH 5.5 both as acute treatments at anthesis and chronically throughout the season in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, eight additional varieties were also treated with simulated acid rain solutions at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. With Concord in 1981, few foliar lesions on leaves were visible at pH 2.75. In contrast, many leaf lesions with decreased fruit soluble solids in the absence of acid rain leaf lesions at pH>2.5 remains unclear. Acute sprays (pH 2.75) at anthesis reduced pollen germination in four grape cultivars. However, fruit set was reduced in only one of these. Only the cultivars de Chaunac and Ives had reduced berry soluble solids with chronic weekly sprays at pH 2.75. Reduction in soluble solids was not associated with increased oxidant stipple (ozone injury) in Concord and de Chaunac cultivars, but this association was observed in Ives. There was no evidence that acid rain in combination with ozone increased oxidant stipple as occurs when ozone and SO/sub 2/ are combined. Grape yields were not influenced by acid rain treatments. There was no evidence that acid rain at ambient pH levels had negative effects on grape production or fruit quality.

  16. Acidic Depositions: Effects on Wildlife and Habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of 'acid rain' is not new; it was recognized in the mid-1800s in industrialized Europe. In the 1960s a synthesis of information about acidification began in Europe, along with predictions of ecological effects. In the U.S. studies of acidification began in the 1920s. By the late 1970s research efforts in the U.S. and Canada were better coordinated and in 1980 a 10-year research program was undertaken through the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Plan (NAPAP) to determine the causes and consequences of acidic depositions. Much of the bedrock in the northeastern U.S. and Canada contains total alkalinity of 20 kg/ha/yr of wet sulphate depositions and are vulnerable to acidifying processes. Acidic depositions contribute directly to acidifying processes of soil and soil water. Soils must have sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity or acidity of soil will increase. Natural soil-forming processes that lead to acidification can be accelerated by acidic depositions. Long-term effects of acidification are predicted, which will reduce soil productivity mainly through reduced availability of nutrients and mobilization of toxic metals. Severe effects may lead to major alteration of soil chemistry, soil biota, and even loss of vegetation. Several species of earthworms and several other taxa of soil-inhabiting invertebrates, which are important food of many vertebrate wildlife species, are affected by low pH in soil. Loss of canopy in declining sugar maples results in loss of insects fed on by certain neotropical migrant bird species. No definitive studies categorically link atmospheric acidic depositions with direct or indirect effects on wild mammals. Researchers have concentrated on vegetative and aquatic effects. Circumstantial evidence suggests that effects are probable for certain species of aquatic-dependent mammals (water shrew, mink, and otter) and that these species are at risk from the loss of foods or contamination of these foods by metals

  17. Polymer matrix effects on acid generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Goodman, Russell B.; Roberts, Jeanette

    2008-03-01

    We have measured the acid generation efficiency with EUV exposure of a PAG in different polymer matrixes representing the main classes of resist polymers as well as some previously described fluoropolymers for lithographic applications. The polymer matrix was found to have a significant effect on the acid generation efficiency of the PAG studied. A linear relationship exists between the absorbance of the resist and the acid generation efficiency. A second inverse relationship exists between Dill C and aromatic content of the resist polymer. It was shown that polymer sensitization is important for acid generation with EUV exposure and the Dill C parameter can be increased by up to five times with highly absorbing non-aromatic polymers, such as non-aromatic fluoropolymers, over an ESCAP polymer. The increase in the Dill C value will lead to an up to five fold increase in resist sensitivity. It is our expectation that these insights into the nature of polymer matrix effects on acid generation could lead to increased sensitivity for EUV resists.

  18. Cardiovascular Effects of Salvianolic Acid B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SAB, Sal B) is the representative component of phenolic acids derived from the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (Labiatae) which has been used widely and successfully in Asian countries for clinical therapy of various vascular disturbance-related diseases for hundreds of years. However, its exact cardioprotective components and the underlying mechanism for therapeutic basis are still poorly understood. This paper discussed and elucidated the underlying biological mechanisms and pharmacology of Sal B and their potential cardioprotective effects. PMID:23840250

  19. Distinct effects of sorbic acid and acetic acid on the electrophysiology and metabolism of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, J W A; Teixeira de Mattos, M J; Hellingwerf, K J; Brul, S

    2014-10-01

    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated acid and less on the nature of the acid. Recovery of the internal pH depends on the presence of an energy source, but acidification of the cytosol causes a decrease in glucose flux. Furthermore, sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid. Together these effects may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain sorbic acid's effectiveness.

  20. Effects of acidic precipitation on field crops

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Gmur, N.F.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of acid rain on yields of field-grown soybeans has been investigated. Plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 4.1, 3,3 and 2.7 had decreased seed yields of 10.6, 16.8 and 23.9% below yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 5.6. (ACR)

  1. Effects of acid rain on crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Cowling, E.B.; Dochinger, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    A general treatment of the subject of acid rain and its effets are discussed along with sources of acid rain and its near-term (the last couple of decades). The effects of acid rain on terrestrial ecosystems are treated in some detail. Some treatment is given of the ecosystem-level effects of acid precipitation.

  2. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  3. The pleiotropic effects of ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Somberg, John C; Molnar, Janos

    2009-01-01

    Ethacrynic acid (EC), an effective loop diuretic especially in patients allergic to sulfa-containing drugs, possesses a number of potentially useful actions in addition to the inhibition of the Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ kidney symport. Inhibition of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase plays an important role in reducing chemotherapy drug resistance. Chemical modifications of EC increase inhibition of glutathione S-transferase and reduce toxicity due to diuretic action (hypotension and hypovolemia). This work may lead to effective therapies in reducing chemotherapy resistance in cancer chemotherapeutics. In addition, EC or conjurers may be a radiation enhancer, an anti-inflammatory agent, or a treatment for glaucoma.

  4. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  5. Studies of the effect of gibberellic acid on algal growth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. K.; Sorokin, C.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid on exponential growth rate of four strains of Chlorella was investigated under variety of experimental conditions. In concentrations from 10 ppm to 100 ppm, gibberellic acid was shown to have no effect on Chlorella growth. In concentration of 200 ppm, gibberellic acid exerted some unfavorable effect on algal growth.

  6. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  7. The greenhouse effect and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  9. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  10. Effect of chloroacetic acids on the kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.E.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) administered in drinking water were studied. At high concentrations of either compound, weight loss, or failure to gain weight, was observed. Food consumption was also decreased; both effects were attributed to decreased water consumption. Renal phosphate-dependent glutaminase activity was increased at the highest concentration, and urinary ammonia was also increased. These changes indicated renal adaptation to an acid load. DCA, in pharmacological doses, impairs glucoenogenesis from lactate in part by decreasing lactate availability. Similar tendencies were observed in the present studies; however, female rats showed a biphasic response. At lower DCA concentrations, tissue lactate and plasma glucose concentrations were increased, whereas at higher concentrations of DCA, the expected decreases were observed.

  11. Effect of chloroacetic acids on the kidneys.

    PubMed

    Davis, M E

    1986-11-01

    The effects of dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) administered in drinking water were studied. At high concentrations of either compound, weight loss, or failure to gain weight, was observed. Food consumption was also decreased; both effects were attributed to decreased water consumption. Renal phosphate-dependent glutaminase activity was increased at the highest concentration, and urinary ammonia was also increased. These changes indicated renal adaptation to an acid load. DCA, in pharmacological doses, impairs glucoenogenesis from lactate in part by decreasing lactate availability. Similar tendencies were observed in the present studies; however, female rats showed a biphasic response. At lower DCA concentrations, tissue lactate and plasma glucose concentrations were increased, whereas at higher concentrations of DCA, the expected decreases were observed.

  12. Beneficial Effects of the Amino Acid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zuniga-Munoz, Alejandra María; Guarner-Lans, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is the smallest non-essential, neutral and metabolically inert amino acid, with a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms, and to an amino and a carboxyl group. This amino acid is an essential substrate for the synthesis of several biologically important biomolecules and compounds. It participates in the synthesis of proteins, of the tripeptide glutathione and in detoxification reactions. It has a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties. To exert its actions, glycine binds to different receptors. The GlyR anion channel is the most studied receptor for glycine. However, there are GlyR-independent mechanisms for glycine cytoprotection and other possible binding molecules of glycine are the NMDA receptor and receptors GlyT1 and GlyT2. Although, in humans, the normal serum level of glycine is approximately 300 μM, increasing glycine intake can lead to blood levels of more than 900 μM that increase its benefic actions without having harmful side effects. The herbal pesticide glyphosate might disrupt glycine homeostasis. Many in vitro studies involving different cell types have demonstrated beneficial effects of the addition of glycine. Glycine also improved conditions of isolated perfused or stored organs. In vivo studies in experimental animals have also tested glycine as a protector molecule and some studies on the beneficial effects of glycine after its clinical application have been done. Although at high-doses, glycine may cause toxic effects, further studies are needed to investigate the safe range of usage of this aminoacid and to test the diverse routes of administration.

  13. Effects of hypochlorous acid on unsaturated phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, J; Osipov, A N; Spalteholz, H; Panasenko, O M; Schiller, J

    2001-11-01

    Effects of hypochlorous acid and of the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system on mono- and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were analyzed by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Chlorohydrins and glycols were detected as main products according to the characteristic shift of molecular masses. Mainly mono-chlorohydrins result upon the incubation of HOCl/(-)OCl with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, whereas only traces of mono-glycols were detected. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine yielded a complex mixture of products. Mono-chlorohydrins and glycols dominated only at short incubation, while bis-chlorohydrins as well as products containing one chlorohydrin and one glycol moiety appeared after longer incubation. Similarly, a complex product mixture resulted upon incubation of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine with hypochlorous acid. Additionally, tris-chlorohydrins, products with two chlorohydrin and one glycol moiety, as well as lysophosphatidylcholines and fragmentation products of the arachidonoyl side chain were detectable. Mono-chlorohydrins of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were detected after the incubation of the latter phospholipid with the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system at pH 6.0. These chlorohydrins were not observed in the absence of chloride, hydrogen peroxide, or myeloperoxidase as well as in the presence of methionine, taurine, or sodium azide. Thus, mono-chlorohydrins in 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine produced by hypochlorous acid from the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system can also be detected by means of MALDI-TOF MS.

  14. Electrostatic effects on hyaluronic acid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezney, John; Saleh, Omar

    2015-03-01

    In systems of polyelectrolytes, such as solutions of charged biopolymers, the electrostatic repulsion between charged monomers plays a dominant role in determining the molecular conformation. Altering the ionic strength of the solvent thus affects the structure of such a polymer. Capturing this electrostatically-driven structural dependence is important for understanding many biological systems. Here, we use single molecule manipulation experiments to collect force-extension behavior on hyaluronic acid (HA), a polyanion which is a major component of the extracellular matrix in all vertebrates. By measuring HA elasticity in a variety of salt conditions, we are able to directly assess the contribution of electrostatics to the chain's self-avoidance and local stiffness. Similar to recent results from our group on single-stranded nucleic acids, our data indicate that HA behaves as a swollen chain of electrostatic blobs, with blob size proportional to the solution Debye length. Our data indicate that the chain structure within the blob is not worm-like, likely due to long-range electrostatic interactions. We discuss potential models of this effect.

  15. More on Effects Controlling Carboxylic Acidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1981-01-01

    Gas phase acidity data shown are offered to writers of elementary organic chemistry texts for replacement of the aqueous phase data that are universally used. Relative acidities in the gas phase are controlled virtually exclusively by enthalpic factors. Structural-energetic explanations of acidic trends can therefore be used. (SK)

  16. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  17. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  18. Oleic acid prevents detrimental effects of saturated fatty acids on bovine oocyte developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Aardema, Hilde; Vos, Peter L A M; Lolicato, Francesca; Roelen, Bernard A J; Knijn, Hiemke M; Vaandrager, Arie B; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2011-07-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress will increase the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and, thus, may affect oocyte quality. In this in vitro study, the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated oleic acid) were presented to maturing oocytes to test whether fatty acids can affect lipid storage of the oocyte and developmental competence postfertilization. Palmitic and stearic acid had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the amount of fat stored in lipid droplets and a concomitant detrimental effect on oocyte developmental competence. Oleic acid, in contrast, had the opposite effect, causing an increase of lipid storage in lipid droplets and an improvement of oocyte developmental competence. Remarkably, the adverse effects of palmitic and stearic acid could be counteracted by oleic acid. These results suggest that the ratio and amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid is relevant for lipid storage in the maturing oocyte and that this relates to the developmental competence of maturing oocytes.

  19. Effects of acid diffusibility and affinity to cellulose on strength loss of polycarboxylic acid crosslinked fabrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bolin; Zhao, Cunyi; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-25

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) imparts good anti-wrinkle property to cotton fabrics and results in significant strength loss due to cross-linking and acid degradation of cellulose simultaneously. However, benzophenone-3,3',4,4'- tetracarboxylic acid (BPTCA), an aromatic acid, crosslinks cellulose effectively but causes less strength loss to the products under similar conditions. The difference in damages to cellulose fibers was analyzed by using diffusibility and corresponding affinity of the acids to cellulose fibers, which were estimated by their molecular sizes and Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). Both experimental results and theoretical speculations revealed consistent agreement, indicating that smaller acid molecules could diffuse into cellulose fiber more rapidly and deeply, resulting in more acid degradation. Besides, the aliphatic acid such as BTCA has higher molecular affinity than BPTCA to cellulose, causing additional more degradation of cellulose. Both factors are potential reasons of the observed more severe tensile strength loss of the BTCA treated cotton fabrics.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Oleic Acid on Octanoylated Ghrelin Production.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Shigeru; Nobe, Miyuki; Iwasaki, Syuhei; Nii, Wakana; Goto, Natsumi; Seki, Yukari; Nakajima, Kensuke; Nakamura, Kazuo; Kariyazono, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone-releasing peptide that also displays orexigenic activity. Since serine-3 acylation with octanoylate (octanoylation) is essential for the orexigenic activity of ghrelin, suppression of octanoylation could lead to amelioration or prevention of obesity. To enable the exploration of inhibitors of octanoylated ghrelin production, we developed a cell-based assay system using AGS-GHRL8 cells, in which octanoylated ghrelin concentration increases in the presence of octanoic acid. Using this assay system, we investigated whether fatty acids contained in foods or oils, such as acetic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, have inhibitory effects on octanoylated ghrelin production. Acetic acid did not suppress the increase in octanoylated ghrelin production in AGS-GHRL8 cells, which was induced by the addition of octanoic acid. However, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid significantly suppressed octanoylated ghrelin production, with the effect of oleic acid being the strongest. Additionally, oleic acid decreased the serum concentration of octanoylated ghrelin in mice. The serum concentration of des-acyl ghrelin (without acyl modification) was also decreased, but the decrease was smaller than that of octanoylated ghrelin. Decreased octanoylated ghrelin production likely resulted from post-translational ghrelin processing, as there were no significant differences in gene expression in the stomach between oleic acid-treated mice and controls. These results suggest that oleic acid is a potential inhibitor of octanoylated ghrelin production and that our assay system is a valuable tool for screening compounds with suppressive effects on octanoylated ghrelin production.

  1. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  2. Stimulatory effect of phytin on acid production by Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, A

    1997-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of phytin added to skim milk on acid production of Lactobacillus casei was examined. Phytin stimulated acid production of L. casei fairly well. The stimulatory effect of phytin on acid production was not shown when phytin was treated with Dowex 50 (H+) and neutralized by NaOH solution. The incinerated product of phytin maintained almost equal stimulatory effect on acid production as that before processing. The addition of Mn2+ in the amount contained in a reagent phytin augmented the stimulatory effect on acid production markedly. The further addition of Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and PO4(3-) in amounts corresponding to their contents in the preparation of phytin as well as Mn2+ increased the effect slightly. The four preparations of phytin contained 0.045-0.20% of Mn, and the greater the Mn content was, the greater the potentiation of acid production.

  3. The Effects of Acid Rain on Forest Nutrient Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dale W.; Turner, John; Kelly, J. M.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status must be assessed within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire, and fertilization. In all cases the anion associated with acid inputs must be mobile in the soil if leaching is to occur; immobilization of anions can effectively prevent cation leaching. Soil acidification will occur only if the often substantial buffering capacity of the soil in question is exceeded by acid inputs and if cation weathering from primary minerals is insufficient to offset cation losses by leaching. Such circumstances are rare but certainly could occur in theory, at least, given sufficiently large acid inputs on poorly buffered soils. Soils most sensitive to change are thought to be those of moderately acid pH and low cation exchange capacity. Neither very acid soils nor neutral, highly buffered soils are sensitive to acidification by acid rain. Given extremely high acid inputs, acid rain can cause temporary increases in nitrogen mineralization and nitritication as well as Al mobilization in soils. While temporary increases in N availability can cause increased forest growth in N-deficient forests, increased Al availability can cause toxic reactions in tree roots. Little is known about tree Al toxicity levels as yet, however. It must be emphasized that assessment of acid rain effects is a problem of quantification. Given sufficiently high inputs on sensitive sites, negative effects of acid rain must occur, as is true of inputs of any substance, including H2O. Acid rain inputs of sufficient magnitude to cause acute effects, such as growth increase due to N mobilization or growth decrease due to Al mobilization, are apparently very rare under ambient field conditions. Long-term effects on forest nutrient status can be either beneficial or adverse, depending on site nutrient status, silvicultural

  4. Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings.

    PubMed

    Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Shirazi, Jafir Hussain; Khan, Ikram Ullah

    2011-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that produce lactic acid as their major fermented product. Most of them are normal flora of human being and animals and produce myriad beneficial effects for human beings include, alleviation of lactose intolerance, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, stimulation of immune system, antiallergic effects, antifungal actions, preservation of food, and prevention of colon cancer. This review highlights the potential species of Lactic acid bacteria responsible for producing these effects. It has been concluded that lactic acid bacteria are highly beneficial microorganisms for human beings and are present abundantly in dairy products so their use should be promoted for good human health.

  5. Effects of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Si, Kaiwei; Wei, Linlin; Yu, Xiaozhuo; Wu, Feng; Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Chen; Cheng, Yanbin

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii pathogen is a threat to human health that results in economic burden. Unfortunately, there are very few high-efficiency and low-toxicity drugs for toxoplasmosis in the clinic. (+)-Usnic acid derived from lichen species has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-parasitology, and even anti-cancer activities. Herein, the systematic effect of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on toxoplasma were studied in vitro and in vivo. The viability of toxoplasma tachyzoite was assayed with trypan blue and Giemsa staining; while the invasive capability of tachyzoite to cardiofibroblasts was detected using Giemsa staining. The survival time of mice and the changes in tachyzoite ultrastructure were studied in vivo. The results showed that (+)-usnic acid inhibited the viability of tachyzoite; pretreatment with (+)-usnic acid significantly decreased the invasion of tachyzoite to cardiofibroblasts in vitro; (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome extensively prolonged the survival time of mice about 90.9% and 117%, respectively; and improved the ultrastructural changes of tachyzoite, especially in dense granules, rhoptries, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other membrane organelles. In summary, these results demonstrate that (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome with low toxicity have an inhibitory effect on the viability of toxoplasma tachyzoite, and mainly destructed membrane organelles which are connected with the virulence of toxoplasma. These findings provide the basis for further study and development of usnic acid as a potential agent for treating toxoplasmosis.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms for Sweet-suppressing Effect of Gymnemic Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-01-01

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca2+]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. PMID:25056955

  7. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  8. EFFECTIVE ACIDITY CONSTANT BEHAVIOR NEAR ZERO CHARGE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface site (>SOH group) acidity reactions require expressions of the form: Ka = [>SOHn-1(z-1)]aH+EXP(-DG/RT)/[>SOHnz] (where all variables have their usual meaning). One can rearrange this expression to generate an effective acidity constant historically defined as: Qa = Ka...

  9. Potential effects of chlorogenic acids on platelet activiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee (Coffea sp) is a most consumed beverage world-wide. Chlorogenic acids (CHAs) are naturally occurring phenolic acid esters abundantly found in coffee. They are reported to have potential health effects on several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). At...

  10. Effects of acid precipitation on Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, S.; Cheetham, R.D.

    1980-08-01

    Pollutants derived from fossil fuel combustion and precipitated from the atmosphere have substantially increased in the past decades. These materials, precipitated in such industrialized areas as southeastern Canada, have caused considerable alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation over most of the eastern United States is presently 10 to 500 times more acidic than is natural. Most affected aquatic ecosystems contain oligotrophic waters in regions of thin poorly buffered soils. Zooplankton are an important link in food chains of aquatic ecosystems and their disappearance or decline could drastically affect trophic relationships. Declines in zooplankton density in response to acid precipitation have been reported and short term survival of Daphnia pulex between pH 4.3 and 10.4; however, its potential for reproduction was limited to a fairly narrow range. Anderson (1944) noted the advantages of using daphnia as test organisms, and concluded that Daphnia magna was representative of other abundant zooplankton in sensitivity to toxic substances.

  11. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Beparva, Paniz

    2014-03-15

    The effects of two common organic acids; lactic and acetic acids (150 mg/kg) on physicochemical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches were investigated prior and after gelatinization. These acids caused formation of some cracks and spots on the granules. The intrinsic viscosity of both starches decreased in the presence of the acids particularly after gelatinization. Water solubility increased while water absorption reduced after addition of the acids. The acids caused reduction in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization of both starches. The starch gels became softer, less cohesive, elastic and gummy when acids were added. These changes may indicate the degradation of the starch molecules by the acids. Cross-linked wheat starch was more resistant to the acids. However, both starches became more susceptible to the acids after gelatinization. The effect of lactic acid on physicochemical properties of both starches before and after gelatinization was greater than acetic acid.

  12. Temperature effect on a high stearic acid sunflower mutant.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moya, Valle; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Vegetable oil with elevated saturated fatty acid content may be useful for producing solid fat without hydrogenation or transesterification. Under the nutritional point of view stearic acid is preferred to other saturated fatty acids because of its neutral effect on serum cholesterol lipoproteins. Selection of a very high stearic acid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line (CAS-14), with up to a 37.3% of stearic acid in the seed oil, and the relationship between the expression of this character and the growth temperature are presented. The mutant was selected from the M(2) progeny of 3000 mutagenized seeds (4 mM sodium azide mutagenesis treatment) by analysing the fatty acid composition of half-seed by gas liquid chromatography. In order to genetically fix the mutant character, plants were grown at high day/night temperatures during seed formation. We found that temperatures higher than 30/20 degrees C are required for good expression of the phenotype, the maximum stearic acid content being obtained at 39/24 degrees C. This behaviour is totally opposed to that observed in normal and previously isolated high-stearic acid sunflower lines that contain more stearic acid at low temperature. Thus, a new type of temperature regulation on the stearate desaturation must occur. This line is the sunflower mutant with the highest stearic acid content reported so far.

  13. Effect of mixed additives on lead-acid battery electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Basumallick, Indra Narayan

    This paper describes the corrosion behaviour of the positive and negative electrodes of a lead-acid battery in 5 M H 2SO 4 with binary additives such as mixtures of phosphoric acid and boric acid, phosphoric acid and tin sulphate, and phosphoric acid and picric acid. The effect of these additives is examined from the Tafel polarisation curves, double layer capacitance and percentage of inhibition efficiency. A lead salt battery has been fabricated replacing the binary mixture with an alternative electrolyte and the above electrochemical parameters have been evaluated for this lead salt battery. The results are explained in terms of H + ion transport and the morphological change of the PbSO 4 layer.

  14. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Y; Ohtsuka, Y; Shimizu, T; Nittono, H; Urao, M; Miyano, T; Kawakami, S; Hayasawa, H

    1994-03-01

    To assess whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment has any beneficial effect on essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in patients who have had a Kasai operation for extrahepatic atresia (EBA), responses of serum fatty acids to UDCA administration (15 mg/kg/d) were investigated in eight jaundice-free patients and in eight patients with jaundice (serum total bilirubin > or = 1.0 mg/dL). All patients were also given taurine supplementation (100 mg/kg/d). Serum fatty acid composition was determined before and 6 months after UDCA treatment. Serum total bile acid concentration and serum total bilirubin value, as a part of conventional liver function tests, were measured before and during UDCA therapy. Before UDCA treatment, the concentrations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly lower (P > .05 for the former; P > .01 for the latter) in both the jaundice and jaundice-free groups than in the controls. After 6 months of treatment, the linoleic acid concentration significantly increased (P > .05), to the normal range, in the jaundice-free group, but not in the jaundice group. The arachidonic acid concentration did not increase significantly in either group. The serum total bile acid concentration was lower in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients. The serum total bilirubin value decreased in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients; however, the degree of improvement was not statistically significant in either group. No side effects developed, and there were no changes in blood chemistry values unrelated to liver disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-06-08

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be

  16. EFFECTS OF NITRIC ACID ON CRITICALITY SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-18

    As nitric acid molarity is increased, there are two competing phenomena affecting the reactivity of the system. First, there is interaction between each of the 10 wells in the basket-like insert. As the molarity of the nitric acid solution is increased (it moves from 100% water to 100% HNO{sub 3}), the hydrogen atom density decreases by about 80%. However, it remains a relatively efficient moderator. The moderating ratio of nitric acid is about 90% that of water. As the media between the wells is changed from 100% water to 100% nitric acid, the density of the media increases by 50%. A higher density typically leads to a better reflector. However, when the macroscopic scattering cross sections are considered, nitric acid is a much worse reflector than water. The effectiveness of nitric acid as a reflector is about 40% that of water. Since the media between the wells become a worse reflector and still remains an effective moderator, interaction between the wells increases. This phenomenon will cause reactivity to increase as nitric acid molarity increases. The seond phenomenon is due to the moderating ratio changing in the high concentration fissile-nitric acid solution in the 10 wells. Since the wells contain relatively small volumes of high concentration solutions, a small decrease in moderating power has a large effect on reactivity. This is due to the fact that neutrons are more likely to escape the high concentration fissile solution before causing another fission event. The result of this phenomenon is that as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases. Recent studies have shown that the second phenomenon is indeed the dominating force in determining reactivity changes in relation to nitric acid molarity changes. When considering the system as a whole, as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases.

  17. Inhibitory effects of tannic acid on fatty acid synthase and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huijin; Wu, Dan; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2013-07-01

    Tannic acid is a hydrolyzable tannin that exists in many widespread edible plants with a variety of biological activities. In this study, we found that tannic acid potently inhibited the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 0.14 microM. The inhibition kinetic results showed that the inhibition of FAS by tannic acid was mixed competitive and noncompetitive manner with respect to acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, but uncompetitive to NADPH. Tannic acid prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, and thus repressed intracellular lipid accumulation. In the meantime, tannic acid decreased the expression of FAS and down-regulated the mRNA level of FAS and PPARgamma during adipocyte differentiation. Further studies showed that the inhibitory effect of tannic acid did not relate to FAS non-specific sedimentation. Since FAS was believed to be a therapeutic target of obesity, these findings suggested that tannic acid was considered having potential in the prevention of obesity.

  18. Ferulic acid, a dietary phenolic acid, modulates radiation effects in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Karthikeyan, Arumugam; Bandugula, Venkata Reddy; Rajendra Prasad, Nagarajan

    2012-09-15

    The radioprotective efficacy of Ferulic acid (FA) against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. To study the radiation protection, mice were administered with ferulic acid intraperitoneally (i.p) (50 mg/kg body weight.), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ferulic acid on the sixth day, animals were whole body exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiations. Effect of ferulic acid pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation status in spleen, liver and intestine was analyzed. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzymatic status and decreased lipid peroxidation marker levels were observed in ferulic acid pretreated group, when compared to the irradiated animals. Our study also shows increased % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice blood lymphocytes. Ferulic acid (50 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment significantly decreased the % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice lymphocytes. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by ferulic acid pretreatment. In conclusion, present study indicated ferulic acid treatment prevents radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and restored antioxidant status and histopathological changes in experimental animals.

  19. Inhibitory effects of acetylsalicylic acid on exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, H; Oztas, H; Yıldız, D; Koc, A; Kalipci, E

    2013-05-01

    We investigated short (6 months) and long (12 months) term inhibitory effects of low (200 ppm) and high (400 ppm) dosages of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis. It is known that exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis can be detected by the presence of atypical acinar cell foci (AACF) in pancreas. We investigated possible inhibitory effects of acetylsalicylic acid in an azaserine-treated rat model. AACF were produced in rats by injection with azaserine according to previous studies. Our findings showed that the number, volume and diameter of pancreatic AACF were reduced after acetylsalicylic acid application. These observations suggest that acetylsalicylic acid may exert a protective effect against neoplastic development of pancreatic acinar cells in azaserine injected rats. Our findings corroborate reports in the literature concerning the effects of aspirin in reducing neoplastic development.

  20. Comparative effects of retinoic acid or glycolic acid vehiculated in different topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness.

  1. Comparative Effects of Retinoic Acid or Glycolic Acid Vehiculated in Different Topical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness. PMID:25632398

  2. Proton Conductivity in Phosphoric Acid: The Role of Quantum Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heres, M.; Wang, Y.; Griffin, P. J.; Gainaru, C.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    Phosphoric acid has one of the highest intrinsic proton conductivities of any known liquids, and the mechanism of this exceptional conductivity remains a puzzle. Our detailed experimental studies discovered a strong isotope effect in the conductivity of phosphoric acids caused by (i) a strong isotope shift of the glass transition temperature and (ii) a significant reduction of the energy barrier by zero-point quantum fluctuations. These results suggest that the high conductivity in phosphoric acids is caused by a very efficient proton transfer mechanism, which is strongly assisted by quantum effects.

  3. Proton Conductivity in Phosphoric Acid: The Role of Quantum Effects

    DOE PAGES

    Heres, M.; Wang, Y.; Griffin, P. J.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Phosphoric acid has one of the highest intrinsic proton conductivities of any known liquids, and the mechanism of this exceptional conductivity remains a puzzle. In our detailed experimental studies we discovered a strong isotope effect in the conductivity of phosphoric acids caused by (i) a strong isotope shift of the glass transition temperature and (ii) a significant reduction of the energy barrier by zero-point quantum fluctuations. Our results suggest that the high conductivity in phosphoric acids is caused by a very efficient proton transfer mechanism, which is strongly assisted by quantum effects.

  4. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  5. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Peizhen Rockwell, Cheryl E. Cui, Julia Yue Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2015-02-15

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  6. Effects of pyrazinamide on fatty acid synthesis by whole mycobacterial cells and purified fatty acid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, Helena I; Mizrahi, Valerie; Barry, Clifton E

    2002-04-01

    The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during intracellular hydrolysis of the corresponding amides, was not a direct consequence of modulation of fatty acid synthesis by these compounds but reflected the response to inorganic acid stress. Analysis of fatty acid synthesis in crude mycobacterial cell extracts demonstrated that pyrazinoic acid failed to directly modulate the fatty acid synthase activity catalyzed by fatty acid synthase I (FAS-I). However, fatty acid synthesis was irreversibly inhibited by 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in a time-dependent fashion. Moreover, we demonstrate that pyrazinoic acid does not inhibit purified mycobacterial FAS-I, suggesting that this enzyme is not the immediate target of pyrazinamide.

  7. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  8. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid – treated patients (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects. PMID:27904577

  9. [PECULIARITIES OF THE CEREBROVASCULAR EFFECTS OF GLUTAMIC ACID].

    PubMed

    Gan'shina, T S; Kurza, E V; Kurdyumov, I N; Maslennikov, D V; Mirzoyan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on nonlinear rats subjected to global transient cerebral ischemia revealed the ability of glutamic acid to improve cerebral circulation. Consequently, the excitatory amino acid can produce adverse (neurotoxic) and positive (anti-ischemic) effects in cerebral ischemia. The cerebrovascular effect of glutamic acid in cerebral ischemia is attenuated on the background action of the MNDA receptor blocker MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg intravenously) and eliminated by bicuculline. When glutamic acid is combined with the non-competitive MNDA receptor antagonist MK-801, neither one nor another drug shows its vasodilator effect. The results are indicative of the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory systems on the level of cerebral vessels and once again confirm our previous conclusion about the decisive role of GABA(A) receptors in brain vessels in the implementation of anti-ischemic activity of endogenous compounds (melatonin) and well-known pharmacological substances (mexidol, afobazole), and new chemical compounds based on GABA-containing lipid derivatives.

  10. Effect of phytic acid on suicidal erythrocyte death.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Matthias; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2010-02-10

    Phytic acid, an anticarcinogenic food component, stimulates apoptosis of tumor cells. Similar to apoptosis, human erythrocytes may undergo suicidal death or eryptosis, characterized by cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Triggers of eryptosis include energy depletion. Phytate intake could cause anemia, an effect attributed to iron complexation. The present experiments explored whether phytic acid influences eryptosis. Supernatant hemoglobin concentration was determined to reveal hemolysis, annexin V-binding in FACS analysis was utilized to identify erythrocytes with scrambled cell membrane, forward scatter in FACS analysis was taken as a measure of cell volume, and a luciferin-luciferase assay was employed to determine erythrocyte ATP content. As a result, phytic acid (>or=1 mM) did not lead to significant hemolysis, but significantly increased the percentage of annexin V-binding erythrocytes, significantly decreased forward scatter, and significantly decreased cellular ATP content. In conclusion, phytic acid stimulates suicidal human erythrocyte death, an effect paralleling its proapoptotic effect on nucleated cells.

  11. Patterns of effective permeability of leaf cuticles to acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, H.D.; Walters, K.D.; Berg, V.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Plants in the field are frequently exposed to anthropogenic acid precipitation with pH values of 4 and below. For the acid to directly affect leaf tissues, it must pass through the leaf cuticle, but little is known about the permeability of cuticles to protons, of about the effect of different anions on this permeability. We investigated the movement of protons through isolated astomatous leaf cuticles of grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfady.), rough lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm. fils cv Ponderosa), and pear (Pyrus communis L.) using hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids. Cuticles were enzymically isolated from leaves and placed in a diffusion apparatus with pH 4 acid on the morphological outer surface of the cuticle and degassed distilled water on the inner surface. Changes in pH of the solution on the inner surface were used to determine rates of effective permeability of the cuticles to the protons of these acids. Most cuticles exhibited an initial low permeability, lasting hours to days, then after a short transition displayed a significant higher permeability, which persisted until equilibrium was approached. The change in effective permeability appears to be reversible. Effective permeabilities were higher for sulfuric acid than for the others. A model of the movement of protons through the cuticle is presented, proposing that dissociated acid groups in channels within the cutin are first protonated by the acid, accounting for the low initial effective permeability; then protons pass freely through the channels, resulting in a higher effective permeability. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The evaluation method for antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Haruko; Mastumura, Takashi; Soeda, Shinji; Suzuki, Yuji; Watanabe, Masayuki; Kashiwakura, Emiko; Saso, Takayuki; Ikeda, Noriyuki; Tokuoka, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Reduced platelet aggregation by acetylsalicylic acid administration has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with thrombotic diseases, thus it is important to determine aspirin resistance in those cases. The antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid is rarely measured, but it has many problems. The aim of this study was to find the evaluation method for antiplatelet effect after administration of acetylsalicylic acid. We developed a particle counting method based upon laser light scattering, and utilized the platelet aggregation agonists, collagen, at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μM, to determine their effective concentrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers were administered acetylsalicylic acid at 162 mg/day, with platelet aggregation determined before and 20 min after administration. In all subjects, the rate of platelet aggregation induced by 1.0 μg/mL of collagen before taking acetylsalicylic acid was the highest value obtained, while 20 min after acetylsalicylic acid administration, aggregation induced by collagen at 1.0 μg/mL was significantly decreased as compared to before administration. As for the other concentrations of collagen and all those of ADP tested, platelet aggregation was either not significantly induced before taking acetylsalicylic acid or the rate of aggregation was not significantly decreased after taking acetylsalicylic acid. Our results indicate that collagen at 1.0 μg/mL is appropriate as a platelet aggregation agonist for evaluating the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid. Thus, it is useful that the measurement is performed only once.

  13. Effects of high pressure on unsaturated fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povedano, Isabel; Guignon, Bérengère; Montoro, Óscar R.; Sanz, Pedro D.; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of high pressure processing on the molecular structure of some unsaturated fatty acids. Samples of elaidic acid, linoleic acid, ZE and EE conjugated linoleic acid are treated at 293 or 333 K at pressures up to 700 MPa. It is observed that the adiabatic heat generated from compression is able to bring the sample temperature above 373 K after 700 MPa. These relatively extreme conditions are of great interest for food sterilization, but they may induce undesirable change in fatty acid quality characteristics. To check for structural changes, Raman spectra of the samples are analysed after treatments. The comparison with Raman spectra of samples kept at atmospheric pressure shows that pressure induces some conformational changes at the hydrocarbon skeleton in solid samples, while the liquid ones remain unchanged. No cis/trans isomerization occurs, but gauche conformers are likely to be present.

  14. Relativistic effects on acidities and basicities of Brønsted acids and bases containing gold.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Ilmar A; Burk, Peeter; Kasemets, Kalev; Koppel, Ivar

    2013-11-07

    It is usually believed that relativistic effects as described by the Dirac-Schrödinger equation (relative to the classical or time-independent Schrödinger equation) are of little importance in chemistry. A closer look, however, reveals that some important and widely known properties (e.g., gold is yellow, mercury is liquid at room temperature) stem from relativistic effects. So far the influence of relativistic effects on the acid-base properties has been mostly ignored. Here we show that at least for compounds of gold such omission is completely erroneous and would lead to too high basicity and too low acidity values with errors in the range of 25-55 kcal mol(-1) (or 20 to 44 powers of ten in pK(a) units) in the gas-phase. These findings have important implications for the design of new superstrong acids and bases, and for the understanding of gold-catalysed reactions.

  15. [Effect of acetic acid on adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Huang, Qiaoyun; Jiang, Xin; Yu, Guifen; Wang, Fang; Li, Xueyuan

    2004-03-01

    This paper studied the effect of acetic acid with different concentrations and pH values on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals (SCCM). The results showed that the pH values for the maximum adsorption of the enzyme were between the IEP of the enzyme and the PZC of SCCM. In the acetic acid systems, the amount of the enzyme adsorbed by SCCM was in the order of goethite > yellow brown soil > latosol > kaolinite > delta-MnO2. A remarkable influence of acetic acid concentration on the adsorption amount and the binding energy of the enzyme was observed. With the increase of the concentration from 0 to 200 mmol.L-1 in the system, acetic acid exhibited an enhanced effect, followed by an inhibition action on the adsorption of the enzyme on SCCM. The changes of the binding energy (K value) for the enzyme on SCCM were on the contrary to those of the maximum adsorption. The possible mechanisms for the influence of acetic acid on the adsorption of enzyme by SCCM were also discussed.

  16. Enzymatic polymerization of natural anacardic acid and antibiofouling effects of polyanacardic acid coatings.

    PubMed

    Chelikani, Rahul; Kim, Yong Hwan; Yoon, Do-Young; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2009-05-01

    Anacardic acid, separated from cashew nut shell liquid, is well known for its strong antibiotic and antioxidant activities. Recent findings indicate that phenolic compounds from plant sources have an effect on Gram-negative bacteria biofilm formation. In this work, a polyphenolic coating was prepared from anacardic acid using enzymatic synthesis and tested for its effects on biofilm formation of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Natural anacardic acid was enzymatically polymerized using soybean peroxidase. Hydrogen peroxide and phenothiazine-10-propionic acid were used as an oxidizing agent and redox mediator, respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses showed the formation of oxyphenylene and phenylene units through the phenol rings. No linkage through the alkyl chain was observed, which proved a high chemo-selectivity of the enzyme. Aqueous solvents turned out to play an important role in the polymer production yield and molecular weight. With 2-propanol, the highest production yield (61%) of polymer (molecular weight = 3,900) was observed, and with methanol, higher-molecular-weight polymers (5,000) were produced with lower production yields (43%). The resulting polyanacardic acid was cross-linked on a solid surface to form a permanent natural polymer coating. The FTIR analysis indicates that the cross-linking between the polymers took place through the unsaturated alkyl side chains. The polyanacardic acid coating was then tested for its antibiofouling effect against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and compared with the antibiofouling effects of polycardanol coatings reported in the literature. The polyanacardic acid coating showed more reduction in biofilm formation on its surface than polycardanol coatings in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, while in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, it showed a similar reduction in biofilm formation as polycardanol.

  17. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  18. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid.

  19. Acidic precipitation, Vol. 2: Biological and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Adriano, D.C.; Johnson, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. The chapters in this volume cover a wide array of topics on the biological and ecological effects of acidic precipitation. A chapter on soil productivity emphasizes changes in biological and chemical characters of forest soils impacted by acidic deposition. Additional chapters discuss specific effects on soil microorganisms, trees, and crops. The importance of aluminum in this environmental issue is highlighted by a discussion on the mobility and phytotoxicity of this element in acidic soils. This chapter puts into perspective the biology of Al stressed plants. Two major chapters discuss the effect of acidic precipitation on forest ecosystems; one emphasizing North America, and the other Europe. Effects of soil acidification on key soil processes, including litter decomposition and depletion of essential plant nutrients in the soil profile are emphasized. Finally, three major chapters comprehensively cover limnological ecosystems and their response to acidic perturbation. These chapters discuss the response of stream and lake communities, both floral and faunal, to water acidification, including reduced biodiversity in these systems. Ten chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. Effects of electrolytes on virus inactivation by acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Nishide, Mitsunori; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Ikeda, Keiko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime; Arakawa, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Acidic pH is frequently used to inactivate viruses. We have previously shown that arginine synergizes with low pH in enhancing virus inactivation. Considering a potential application of the acid inactivation of viruses for the prevention and treatment of superficial virus infection at body surfaces and fixtures, herein we have examined the effects of various electrolytes on the acid-induced inactivation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), the influenza A virus (IAV) and the poliovirus upon their incubation at 30˚C for 5 min. Eight electrolytes, i.e., phosphate, NaCl, glutamate, aspartate, pyrrolidone carboxylate, citrate, malate and acetate were tested. No detectable inactivation of the poliovirus was observed under the conditions examined, reflecting its acid-resistance. HSV-1 and HSV-2 responded similarly to the acid-treatment and electrolytes. Some electrolytes showed a stronger virus inactivation than others at a given pH and concentration. The effects of the electrolytes were virus-dependent, as IAV responded differently from HSV-1 and HSV-2 to these electrolytes, indicating that certain combinations of the electrolytes and a low pH can exert a more effective virus inactivation than other combinations and that their effects are virus-specific. These results should be useful in designing acidic solvents for the inactivation of viruses at various surfaces.

  1. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Elner, Victor M

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipase in situ, in vitro, and after challenge with phagocytic stimuli. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of fluorescently labeled native, aceto-acetylated, and oxidized LDL was studied in vitro and in vivo. LDL effects on RPE lysosomal enzymes were assessed. Lysosomal enzyme activity was compared in RPE cells from monkeys fed diets rich in fish oil to those from control animals and in cultured RPE cells exposed to sera from these monkeys. RESULTS: RPE acid lipase activity was substantial and comparable to that of mononuclear phagocytes. Acid lipase activity increased significantly following phagocytic challenge with photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of labeled lipoproteins was determined in vitro. Distinctive uptake of labeled lipoproteins occurred in RPE cells and mononuclear phagocytes in vivo. Native LDL enhanced RPE lysosomal enzyme activity. RPE lysosomal enzymes increased significantly in RPE cells from monkeys fed fish oil-rich diets and in cultured RPE cells exposed to their sera. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cells contain substantial acid lipase for efficient metabolism of lipids imbibed by POS phagocytosis and LDL uptake. Diets rich in fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids, by enhancing acid lipase, may reduce RPE lipofuscin accumulation, RPE oxidative damage, and the development of ARMD. PMID:12545699

  2. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  3. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects.

  4. Physiological effects of γ-linolenic acid and sesamin on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi; Iwase, Haruka; Amano, Saaya; Sunahara, Saki; Tachihara, Ayuka; Yagi, Minako; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Interrelated effects of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and sesamin, a sesame lignan, on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation were examined. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) and containing 100 g/kg of palm oil (saturated fat), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, or oil of evening primrose origin containing 43% GLA (GLA oil) for 18 days. In rats fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, increased the activity and mRNA levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, except for some instances. Sesamin greatly increased these parameters, and the enhancing effects of sesamin on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate and acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities were more exaggerated in rats fed GLA oil than in the animals fed other oils. The combination of sesamin and GLA oil also synergistically increased the mRNA levels of some peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes and of several enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism located in other cell organelles. In the groups fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, markedly reduced the activity and mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes. Sesamin reduced all these parameters, except for malic enzyme, in rats fed palm and safflower oils, but the effects were attenuated in the animals fed GLA oil. These changes by sesamin and fat type accompanied profound alterations in serum lipid levels. This may be ascribable to the changes in apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins.

  5. The effect of propionic acid and valeric acid on the cell cycle in root meristems of Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Tramontano, W.A.; Yang, Shauyu; Delillo, A.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Propionic acid and valeric acid at 1mM reduced the mitotic index of root meristem cells of Pisum sativum to < 1% after 12 hr in aerated White's medium. This effect varied with different acid concentrations. After a 12 hr exposure to either acid, seedlings transferred to fresh medium without either acid, resumed their normal mitotic index after 12 hr, with a burst of mitosis 8 hr post-transfer. Exposure of root meristem cells to either acid also inhibited ({sup 3}H)-TdR incorporation. Neither acid significantly altered the distribution of meristematic cells in G1 and G2 after 12 hr. The incorporation of ({sup 3}H) - uridine was also unaltered by the addition of either acid. This information suggests that propionic acid and valeric acid, limit progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting DNA synthesis and arresting cells in G1 and G2. These results were consistent with previous data which utilized butyric acid.

  6. The inhibitory effect of glycolic acid and lactic acid on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Akiko; Ohashi, Akiko; Sato, Hirofumi; Ochiai, Yasunobu; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Funasaka, Yoko

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) such as glycolic acid (GA) and lactic acid (LA) have been reported to be effective in treating pigmentary lesions such as melasma, solar lentigines, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. The mechanism of this effect might be due to epidermal remodeling and accelerated desquamation, which would result in quick pigment dispersion. However, the direct effect of AHAs on melanin synthesis has not yet been well studied. To elucidate such a direct effect of AHAs on melanogenesis, we performed melanin assays, growth curve determinations, Northern and Western blotting for melanogenic proteins [tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2], and tyrosinase and, 4-dihydroxyphenylalaninechrome tautomerase enzyme activity assays using mouse B16 and human melanoma cells. GA or LA (at doses of 300 or 500 microg/ml) inhibited melanin formation in similar dose-dependent manner, without affecting cell growth. Although the mRNA and protein expression or molecular size of tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 were not affected, tyrosinase activity was inhibited. To see whether GA and/or LA directly inhibit tyrosinase catalytic function, the effect of GA and LA on human tyrosinase purified from the melanosome-rich large granule fraction of human melanoma cells was performed. GA or LA were shown to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity directly, but this effect was not due to the acidity of GA or LA, because adjusting the pH to 5.6 (the pH of GA and LA at concentrations of 2500 microg/ml), did not affect tyrosinase activity. Taken together, these results show that GA and LA suppress melanin formation by directly inhibiting tyrosinase activity, an effect independent of their acidic nature. GA and LA might work on pigmentary lesions not only by accelerating the turnover of the epidermis but also by directly inhibiting melanin formation in melanocytes.

  7. [Allelopathy effects of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Huang, Guo-He; Gao, Pan-Feng; Chai, Tian; Yan, Bin; Liao, Huan

    2013-04-01

    The inhibitory effects and allelopathy mechanism of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated by measuring the D680 value, the content of chlorophyll-a, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical O*- value. Ferulic acid and coumarin had allelopathic effects on the growth of M. aeruginosa and promoted the physiological metabolism at low concentrations while inhibited the metabolism at high concentrations. Obvious inhibitory effects were observed when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was over 100 mg x L(-1). The average inhibitory rates reached 80.3% and 58.0% after six days when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was 200 mg x L(-1). The content of chlorophyll-a was decreased while the EC value and O2*- concentration were promoted by higher concentrations of ferulic acid or coumarin, suggesting that the growth of algae was inhibited probably by the damage of cell membrane, increase in the content of O2*- and decrease in the content of chlorophyll-a. In addition, seed germination test elucidated that Ferulic acid was safer than Coumarin.

  8. Carryover effects of dichloroacetic acid on hepatic tumorigenesis in mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of drinking water chlorination. Chronic DCA exposure has been shown to increase liver tumors in mice, although carryover effects and interactions with other promotional agents are not known. Here we evaluated effects...

  9. An Inquiry into the Effect of Heating on Ascorbic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigations that study the effect of heating on ascorbic acid are commonly performed in schools, but the conclusions obtained are quite variable and controversial. Some results indicate that heating may destroy vitamin C, but others suggest that heating may have no effect. This article reports an attempt to resolve this confusion through a…

  10. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  11. Gallic acid and gallic acid derivatives: effects on drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yin-Yin; Stupans, Ieva

    2003-06-01

    Gallic acid and its structurally related compounds are found widely distributed in fruits and plants. Gallic acid, and its catechin derivatives are also present as one of the main phenolic components of both black and green tea. Esters of gallic acid have a diverse range of industrial uses, as antioxidants in food, in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, gallic acid is employed as a source material for inks, paints and colour developers. Studies utilising these compounds have found them to possess many potential therapeutic properties including anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties. In this review, studies of the effects of gallic acid, its esters, and gallic acid catechin derivatives on Phase I and Phase II enzymes are examined. Many published reports of the effects of the in vitro effects of gallic acid and its derivatives on drug metabolising enzymes concern effects directly on substrate (generally drug or mutagen) metabolism or indirectly through observed effects in Ames tests. In the case of the Ames test an antimutagenic effect may be observed through inhibition of CYP activation of indirectly acting mutagens and/or by scavenging of metabolically generated mutagenic electrophiles. There has been considerable interest in the in vivo effects of the gallate esters because of their incorporation into foodstuffs as antioxidants and in the catechin gallates with their potential role as chemoprotective agents. Principally an induction of Phase II enzymes has been observed however more recent studies using HepG2 cells and primary cultures of human hepatocytes provide evidence for the overall complexity of actions of individual components versus complex mixtures, such as those in food. Further systematic studies of mechanisms of induction and inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes by this group of compounds are warranted in the light of their distribution and consequent ingestion, current uses and suggested therapeutic potential. However, it

  12. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Torres, María José; Fierro, Angélica; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Romero-Parra, Javier; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Faúndez, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase is a soluble enzyme with epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities catalysing the conversion of leukotriene A4 to leukotriene B4 and the hydrolysis of the peptide proline-glycine-proline. Imbalances in leukotriene B4 synthesis are related to several pathologic conditions. Currently there are no available drugs capable to modulate the synthesis of leukotriene B4 or to block its receptors. Here we show the inhibitory profile of alpha lipoic acid on the activity of leukotriene A4 Hydrolase. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited both activities of the enzyme at concentrations lower than 10μM. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK-886, were unable to inhibit the activity of the enzyme. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells were differentiated to leukotriene A4 hydrolase expressing neutrophil-like cells. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited the aminopeptidase activity of the cytosolic fraction from neutrophil-like cells but had no effect on the cytosolic fraction from undifferentiated cells. Docking and molecular dynamic approximations revealed that alpha lipoic acid participates in electrostatic interactions with K-565 and R-563, which are key residues for the carboxylate group recognition of endogenous substrates by the enzyme. Alpha lipoic acid is a compound widely used in clinical practice, most of its therapeutic effects are associated with its antioxidants properties, however, antioxidant effect alone is unable to explain all clinical effects observed with alpha lipoic acid. Our results invite to evaluate the significance of the inhibitory effect of alpha lipoic acid on the catalytic activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase using in vivo models.

  13. Opposing effects of bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid on signal transduction pathways in oesophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Reynolds, John V

    2016-09-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was reported to reduce bile acid toxicity, but the mechanisms underlying its cytoprotective effects are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of UDCA on the modulation of deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced signal transduction in oesophageal cancer cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was assessed using a gel shift assay. NF-κB activation and translocation was performed using an ELISA-based assay and immunofluorescence analysis. COX-2 expression was analysed by western blotting and COX-2 promoter activity was assessed by luciferase assay. DCA induced NF-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activities in SKGT-4 and OE33 cells. UDCA pretreatment inhibited DCA-induced NF-κB and AP-1 activation and NF-κB translocation. This inhibitory effect was coupled with a blockade of IκB-α degradation and inhibition of phosphorylation of IKK-α/β and ERK1/2. Moreover, UDCA pretreatment inhibited COX-2 upregulation. Using transient transfection of the COX-2 promoter, UDCA pretreatment abrogated DCA-induced COX-2 promoter activation. In addition, UDCA protected oesophageal cells from the apoptotic effects of deoxycholate. Our findings indicate that UDCA inhibits DCA-induced signalling pathways in oesophageal cancer cells. These data indicate a possible mechanistic role for the chemopreventive actions of UDCA in oesophageal carcinogenesis.

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Glutamate Antagonists and Extracellular Acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, David A.; Giffard, Rona G.; Choi, Dennis W.

    1993-06-01

    Glutamate antagonists protect neurons from hypoxic injury both in vivo and in vitro, but in vitro studies have not been done under the acidic conditions typical of hypoxia-ischemia in vivo. Consistent with glutamate receptor antagonism, extracellular acidity reduced neuronal death in murine cortical cultures that were deprived of oxygen and glucose. Under these acid conditions, N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isox-azolepropionate-kainate antagonists further reduced neuronal death, such that some neurons tolerated prolonged oxygen and glucose deprivation almost as well as did astrocytes. Neuroprotection induced by this combination exceeded that induced by glutamate antagonists alone, suggesting that extracellular acidity has beneficial effects beyond the attenuation of ionotropic glutamate receptor activation.

  15. Polymeric complexes of isonicotinic acid hydrazide with antituberculosis effects.

    PubMed

    Slivkin, A I; Lapenko, V L; Bychuk, A I; Suslina, S N; Slivkin, D A; Kornienko, S V; Belenova, A S

    2013-10-01

    We studied the effects of an analogue of isonicotinic acid hydrazide on the treatment course of experimental tuberculosis. Complex analysis has demonstrated the efficiency of isonicotinic acid hydrazide immobilized on a carrier that consisted of water-soluble cation-active analogue of chitosan (N-chlorohydroxypropyl chitosan) in a complex with cobalt ions in the therapy of experimental tuberculosis. Immunostimulating activity of the polymeric metal complex was revealed. The obtained data can be used for the development of highly effective methods for tuberculosis treatment.

  16. [Is ursodeoxycholic acid effective in primary biliary cirrhosis?].

    PubMed

    Rada, Gabriel; Mac-Namara, Macarena

    2014-09-24

    Ursodeoxycholic acid is considered as first line treatment in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Its mechanism of action in this disease is unknown and there is controversy about its clinical impact. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 19 databases, we identified four systematic reviews including 16 studies. We combined the evidence using tables with summary of findings following the GRADE approach and concluded ursodeoxycholic acid may not have any effect on pruritus, and there is uncertainty about its effect on mortality, need for liver transplantation or on any other important outcome for the patient.

  17. Anti-thrombotic effect of a novel formula from Corni fructus with malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Chun; Zhao, Yue; Bian, Hui-Min

    2014-05-01

    Our previous investigation had confirmed the inhibition of platelet aggregation of a novel Corni fructus-derived formula composed of malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid with a ratio of 3:2:2. The present study was to further evaluate the anti-thrombotic effect of the formula in vivo. Mice of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, and rats of arterial thrombosis were used to determine the anti-thrombotic effect of the formula. Histology analysis of endothelium was conducted with hematoxylin and eosin stain. TXB2 , 6-K-PGF1α , cAMP, cGMP and NO in rat plasma were determined. In vitro assay of αIIbβ3 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were performed in ADP-treated platelet. The formula significantly reduced the recovery time and mortality rate of mice with acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Remarkably extended occlusion time, decreased thrombus weight and more integrated endothelium were observed in rat with the formula. Enhanced 6-K-PGF1α , cGMP and NO, but not TXB2 and cAMP, were demonstrated in rat plasma with treatment of the formula. Finally, the formula was shown to inhibit αIIbβ3 expression and activation of ERK1/2 in platelet. The formula shows positive anti-thrombotic effect. The direct interference on ADP activated signaling in platelet and regulation of endothelium function are two primary pathways involved in the action on thrombosis.

  18. Acid rain and its environmental effects: Recent scientific advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aherne, Julian; Gay, David A.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The term 'acid rain' refers to atmospheric deposition of acidic constituents that impact the earth as rain, snow, particulates, gases, and vapor. Acid rain was first recognized by Ducros (1845) and subsequently described by the English chemist Robert Angus Smith (Smith, 1852) whose pioneering studies linked the sources to industrial emissions and included early observations of deleterious environmental effects (Smith, 1872). Smith's work was largely forgotten until the mid-20th century when observations began to link air pollution to the deposition of atmospheric sulfate (SO42-) and other chemical constituents, first near the metal smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and later at locations in Europe, North America, and Australia (Gorham, 1961). Our modern understanding of acid rain as an environmental problem caused largely by regional emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) stems from observations in the 1960s and early 1970s in Sweden by Svante Odén (Odén, 1976), and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues (Likens and Bormann, 1974). These scientists and many who followed showed the link to emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources, and documented the environmental effects of acid rain such as the acidification of surface waters and toxic effects on vegetation, fish, and other biota.

  19. Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Cole, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    In five forest sites (three in eastern Tennessee and two in western Washington) the effect of natural carbonic acid production on soil leaching was equaled or exceeded by that of atmospheric acid inputs. In a nitrogen-fixing red alder site in Washington, however, internal leaching by nitrification and nitric acid formation far exceeded atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs at any site. All other sites retained NO/sub 3//sup -/, and soil SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ adsorption reduced the effectiveness of atmospheric H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ inputs on soil leaching in two of the Tennessee sites and in the Washington red alder site. Atmospheric sulfur inputs exceeded the forest sulfur requirement in all five sites. Decomposer invertebrates appeared to be affected negatively by unrealistically large applications of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, either as KHSO/sub 4/ or K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Forest floor buffering prevented large changes in pH with acid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ treatments. Results indicate that effects of acid deposition on decomposer invertebrates are unlikely except at input levels much higher than ambient.

  20. Acid rain and its environmental effects: Recent scientific advances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aherne, Julian; Gay, David A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘acid rain’ refers to atmospheric deposition of acidic constituents that impact the earth as rain, snow, particulates, gases, and vapor. Acid rain was first recognized by Ducros (1845) and subsequently described by the English chemist Robert Angus Smith (Smith, 1852) whose pioneering studies linked the sources to industrial emissions and included early observations of deleterious environmental effects (Smith, 1872). Smith's work was largely forgotten until the mid-20th century when observations began to link air pollution to the deposition of atmospheric sulfate (SO42−) and other chemical constituents, first near the metal smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and later at locations in Europe, North America, and Australia (Gorham, 1961). Our modern understanding of acid rain as an environmental problem caused largely by regional emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) stems from observations in the 1960s and early 1970s in Sweden by Svante Odén (Odén, 1976), and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues (Likens and Bormann, 1974). These scientists and many who followed showed the link to emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources, and documented the environmental effects of acid rain such as the acidification of surface waters and toxic effects on vegetation, fish, and other biota.

  1. Effects of monoesters of dicarboxylic acids on jet fuel lubricity

    SciTech Connect

    Kislenko, A.S.; Krylov, I.F.; Sokolova, G.I.; Seregin, V.P.; Skovorodin, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have prepared monoesters of dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and aliphatic alcohols to study their effects on jet fuel lubricity. The effects of the synthesized compounds on the lubricity of a hydrotreated jet fuel were evaluated in a KIIGA-2 unit. The monoesters were added to the fuel at a concentration of 0.15 mole/m/sup 3/ and an analysis of the data shows that the monoesters of the DCAs do have significant effects on the fuel lubricity. The lubricity effect of these compounds depends on the molecular structure. It was found that dicarboxylic acids and higher fatty alcohols can be used to prepare effective lubricity additives for hydrotreated jet fuels.

  2. Effect of inclusion complex on nitrous acid reaction with flavonoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Sedaghat, Sajjad

    2011-10-01

    The kinetic of the nitrous acid reactions with quercetin and catechin has been studied using spectrophotometric method in aqueous solution. The results show that these antioxidants participate in oxidation reactions with nitrous acid which is derived from protonation of nitrite ion in mild acidic conditions. Corresponding o-quinones as relatively stable products were detected by spectrophotometric techniques. pH dependence of the reactions has been examined and the rate constants of reactions were obtained by non-linear fitting of kinetic profiles. The effect of β-cyclodextrin on the oxidation pathway was another object of this study. It is shown that β-cyclodextrin has an inhibitory effect on the oxidation reaction. The rate constants of oxidation reactions for complexed forms and their stability constants were obtained based on changes in the reaction rates as a function of β-cyclodextrin concentration.

  3. Geometry and cooperativity effects in adenosine-carboxylic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Sebastian; Mladenovic, Milena; Basílio Janke, Eline M; Engels, Bernd; Weisz, Klaus

    2005-11-23

    NMR experiments and theoretical investigations were performed on hydrogen bonded complexes of specifically 1- and 7-15N-labeled adenine nucleosides with carboxylic acids. By employing a freonic solvent of CDClF2 and CDF3, NMR spectra were acquired at temperatures as low as 123 K, where the regime of slow hydrogen bond exchange is reached and several higher-order complexes were found to coexist in solution. Unlike acetic acid, chloroacetic acid forms Watson-Crick complexes with the proton largely displaced from oxygen to the nitrogen acceptor in an ion pairing structure. Calculated geometries and chemical shifts of the proton in the hydrogen bridge favorably agree with experimentally determined values if vibrational averaging and solvent effects are taken into account. The results indicate that binding a second acidic ligand at the adenine Hoogsteen site in a ternary complex weakens the hydrogen bond to the Watson-Crick bound carboxylic acid. However, substituting a second adenine nucleobase for a carboxylic acid in the trimolecular complex leads to cooperative binding at Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen faces of adenosine.

  4. Biosynthesis, biological effects, and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Powell, William S; Rokach, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    Arachidonic acid can be oxygenated by a variety of different enzymes, including lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450s, and can be converted to a complex mixture of oxygenated products as a result of lipid peroxidation. The initial products in these reactions are hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HpETEs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) can be formed by the actions of various dehydrogenases on HETEs or by dehydration of HpETEs. Although a large number of different HETEs and oxo-ETEs have been identified, this review will focus principally on 5-oxo-ETE, 5S-HETE, 12S-HETE, and 15S-HETE. Other related arachidonic acid metabolites will also be discussed in less detail. 5-Oxo-ETE is synthesized by oxidation of the 5-lipoxygenase product 5S-HETE by the selective enzyme, 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase. It actions are mediated by the selective OXE receptor, which is highly expressed on eosinophils, suggesting that it may be important in eosinophilic diseases such as asthma. 5-Oxo-ETE also appears to stimulate tumor cell proliferation and may also be involved in cancer. Highly selective and potent OXE receptor antagonists have recently become available and could help to clarify its pathophysiological role. The 12-lipoxygenase product 12S-HETE acts by the GPR31 receptor and promotes tumor cell proliferation and metastasis and could therefore be a promising target in cancer therapy. It may also be involved as a proinflammatory mediator in diabetes. In contrast, 15S-HETE may have a protective effect in cancer. In addition to GPCRs, higher concentration of HETEs and oxo-ETEs can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and could potentially regulate a variety of processes by this mechanism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  5. Interaction effects of lactic acid and acetic acid at different temperatures on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in corn mash.

    PubMed

    Graves, Tara; Narendranath, Neelakantam V; Dawson, Karl; Power, Ronan

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of lactic acid and acetic acid on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae in corn mash, as influenced by temperature, were examined. Duplicate full factorial experiments (three lactic acid concentrations x three acetic acid concentrations) were performed to evaluate the interaction between lactic and acetic acids on the ethanol production of yeast at each of the three temperatures, 30, 34, and 37 degrees C. Corn mash at 30% dry solids adjusted to pH 4 after lactic and acetic acid addition was used as the substrate. Ethanol production rates and final ethanol concentrations decreased (P<0.001) progressively as the concentration of combined lactic and acetic acids in the corn mash increased and the temperature was raised from 30 to 37 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, essentially no ethanol was produced after 96 h when 0.5% w/v acetic acid was present in the mash (with 0.5, 2, and 4% w/v lactic acid). At 34 and 37 degrees C, the final concentrations of ethanol produced by the yeast were noticeably reduced by the presence of 0.3% w/v acetic acid and >or=2% w/v lactic acid. It can be concluded that, as in previous studies with defined media, lactic acid and acetic acid act synergistically to reduce ethanol production by yeast in corn mash. In addition, the inhibitory effects of combined lactic and acetic acid in corn mash were more apparent at elevated temperatures.

  6. Effects of acid fog and ozone on conifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; McCool, P.M.; Musselman, R.C.

    1989-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0) on the physiological, biochemical, and growth responses of two coniferous tree species (Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor), and determined if exposure to acidic fog predisposed the tree seedlings to the phytotoxic effects of ozone (O{sub 3}). Results provide evidence that the growth and metabolic responses of two coniferous tree species could be altered by multiple applications of acidic fog, and by exposure to ambient O{sub 3}. In general, the alterations were slight to modest, which may be attributed to the low degree of stress severity, and the slow rate of tree growth. The findings indicate that exposure to acidic fog followed by O{sub 3} does not cause detectable changes in conifer seedling growth within a single-growing season. Nevertheless, it is clear that acidic fog and O{sub 3} cause temporal alterations in seedling physiology and biochemistry.

  7. Effects of lactic acid bacteria contamination on lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slower fermentation rates, mixed sugar compositions, and lower sugar concentrations may make lignocellulosic fermentations more susceptible to contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is a common and costly problem to the corn-based fuel ethanol industry. To examine the effects of LAB con...

  8. Acid deposition in Asia: Emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lei; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Yuepeng; Larssen, Thorjørn; Tang, Jie; Mulder, Jan

    2016-12-01

    We review and synthesize the current state of knowledge regarding acid deposition and its environmental effects across Asia. The extent and magnitude of acid deposition in Asia became apparent only about one decade after this issue was well described in Europe and North America. In addition to the temperate zone, much of eastern and southern Asia is situated in the tropics and subtropics, climate zones hitherto little studied with respect to the effects of high loads of acid deposition. Surface waters across Asia are generally not sensitive to the effects of acid deposition, whereas soils in some regions are sensitive to acidification due to low mineral weathering. However, soil acidification was largely neutralized by such processes as base cation deposition, nitrate (NO3-) denitrification, and sulfate (SO42-) adsorption. Accompanying the decrease in S deposition in recent years, N deposition is of increasing concern in Asia. The acidifying effect of N deposition may be more important than S deposition in well drained tropical/subtropical soils due to high SO42- adsorption. The risk of regional soil acidification is a major threat in Eastern Asia, indicated by critical load exceedance in large areas.

  9. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Title:

    Effects Of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure During Pregnancy In The Mouse

    Authors & affiliations:
    Lau, C., J.R. Thibodeaux*, R.G. Hanson* and J.M. Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC
    Abstract:<...

  10. The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids on threo-Ds-isocitric acid production from rapeseed oil by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Allayarov, Ramil K; Lunina, Julia N; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids, the inhibitors of the isocitrate lyase, on the production of isocitric acid by the wild strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in the medium containing rapeseed oil was studied. In the presence of oxalic and itaconic acids, strain Y. lipolytica accumulated in the medium isocitric acid (70.0 and 82.7 g/L, respectively) and citric acid (23.0 and 18.4 g/L, respectively). In control experiment, when the inhibitors were not added to the medium, the strain accumulated isocitric and citric acids at concentrations of 62.0 and 28.0 g/L, respectively. Thus, the use of the oxalic and itaconic acids as additives to the medium is a simple and convenient method of isocitric acid production with a minimum content of citric acid.

  11. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Phytic Acid and Tannic Acid on Iron Bioavailability from Reconstituted Ferritin Measured by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ascorbic acid, phytate and tannic acid on Fe bioavailability from Fe supplied as ferritin was compared to FeSO4 using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Horse spleen ferritin (HSF) was chemically reconstituted into a plant-type ferritin (P-HSF). In the presence of ascorbic acid...

  12. A new atherogenic effect of saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Poledne, R

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary saturated fatty acids (SAFA) have not only an indirect atherogenic effect due to increasing LDL-cholesterol concentration but also a direct effect by activating the inflammation process. This review summarizes several recent publications in this field. The effect of SAFA on the inflammation process mediated by Toll-like receptor 4/NF-kappaB pathway has been well documented in various in vitro culture studies of macrophages and adipocytes or in their co-culture. In contrast to these in vitro data, in vivo epidemiological studies or clinical experiments in men are less consistent. Well controlled cross-over studies in volunteers might enlighten the differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids dietary intake and proatherogenic inflammation effects.

  13. The cardioprotective effects of citric Acid and L-malic Acid on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xilan; Liu, Jianxun; Dong, Wei; Li, Peng; Li, Lei; Lin, Chengren; Zheng, Yongqiu; Hou, Jincai; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids in Chinese herbs, the long-neglected components, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet aggregation activities; thus they may have potentially protective effect on ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. In in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found that treatments with citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum levels of TNF-α, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that both citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced LDH release, decreased apoptotic rate, downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. These results suggest that both citric acid and L-malic acid have protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; the underlying mechanism may be related to their anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and direct cardiomyocyte protective effects. These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease.

  14. Is tranexamic acid effective for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    PubMed

    Flores, Sebastián; Avilés, Carolina; Rada, Gabriel

    2015-12-07

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding constitutes a medical-surgical emergency given its important associated morbidity and mortality. The antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid might help stopping bleeding, but controversy remains about its role in this setting. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified five systematic reviews including eight randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded tranexamic acid probably decreases rebleeding and mortality, without increasing thromboembolic adverse effects in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. Effects of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Dementia.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory effects and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia; however, the epidemiological evidence is very limited. Therefore, the literature about the association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was searched, by using Pubmed. In the analyses of observational studies, n-3 PUFA has been reported to be beneficially associated with dementia in 17 studies; however, the beneficial association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was denied by three studies. In the analyses of intervention studies, n-3 PUFA supplementation was beneficially associated with dementia in eight studies; however, five studies reported the negligible effect of n-3 PUFA for dementia. N-3 PUFA may improve Alzheimer's disease by increasing clearance of amyloid-β peptide, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, and by anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, patients with mild memory and/or cognitive impairment can be treated by a long-term and higher intake of n-3 PUFA.

  16. Effects of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory effects and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia; however, the epidemiological evidence is very limited. Therefore, the literature about the association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was searched, by using Pubmed. In the analyses of observational studies, n-3 PUFA has been reported to be beneficially associated with dementia in 17 studies; however, the beneficial association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was denied by three studies. In the analyses of intervention studies, n-3 PUFA supplementation was beneficially associated with dementia in eight studies; however, five studies reported the negligible effect of n-3 PUFA for dementia. N-3 PUFA may improve Alzheimer’s disease by increasing clearance of amyloid-β peptide, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, and by anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, patients with mild memory and/or cognitive impairment can be treated by a long-term and higher intake of n-3 PUFA. PMID:27924168

  17. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  18. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159. PMID:24349782

  19. Parsing the life-shortening effects of dietary protein: effects of individual amino acids.

    PubMed

    Arganda, Sara; Bouchebti, Sofia; Bazazi, Sepideh; Le Hesran, Sophie; Puga, Camille; Latil, Gérard; Simpson, Stephen J; Dussutour, Audrey

    2017-01-11

    High-protein diets shorten lifespan in many organisms. Is it because protein digestion is energetically costly or because the final products (the amino acids) are harmful? To answer this question while circumventing the life-history trade-off between reproduction and longevity, we fed sterile ant workers on diets based on whole proteins or free amino acids. We found that (i) free amino acids shortened lifespan even more than proteins; (ii) the higher the amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, the shorter ants lived and the lower their lipid reserves; (iii) for the same amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, ants eating free amino acids had more lipid reserves than those eating whole proteins; and (iv) on whole protein diets, ants seem to regulate food intake by prioritizing sugar, while on free amino acid diets, they seem to prioritize amino acids. To test the effect of the amino acid profile, we tested diets containing proportions of each amino acid that matched the ant's exome; surprisingly, longevity was unaffected by this change. We further tested diets with all amino acids under-represented except one, finding that methionine, serine, threonine and phenylalanine are especially harmful. All together, our results show certain amino acids are key elements behind the high-protein diet reduction in lifespan.

  20. Substituent effects on the gas-phase acidity of silane

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, M.S.; Volk, D.E. ); Gano, D.R. )

    1989-12-20

    In a previous paper, the gas-phase acidities of XH{sub n} compounds (X = C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl) were predicted with ab initio wave functions. At the MP4{sup 2} level of theory with extended basis sets acidities for these species were determined to be within 2 kcal/mol of experimental value. In the present work, with 6-31G(d) geometries and full MP4/MC-311++G{sup 6}(3df,2pd) energies, the effects of CH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, OH, F, SiH{sub 3}, PH{sub 2}, SH, and Cl on the gas-phase acidity of silane are examined. Only a few related calculations have been carried out. All calculations were performed with Gaussian86, and all structures were verified as minima by diagonalizing the analytically determined hessians. Only the valence electrons were correlated in the perturbation theory calculations.

  1. Antibacterial effectiveness of peracetic acid and conventional endodontic irrigants.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Faria-Junior, Norberto Batista; Berbert, Fábio Luis Camargo Vilela; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of conventional and experimental endodontic irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis. The following substances were evaluated by direct contact test: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); 1% peracetic acid. After different contact periods (30 s, 1, 3, and 10 min), a neutralizing agent was applied. Serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared and plated onto tryptic soy agar (TSA) and the number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was determined. Sterile saline was used as a negative control. Both 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX eliminated E. faecalis after 30 s of contact. Peracetic acid reduced the bacterial counts by 86% after 3 min and completely eliminated E. faecalis after 10 min. These results allow us to conclude that 1% peracetic acid is effective against E. faecalis, despite its slower action compared with 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX.

  2. The effect of ascetic acid on mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mariana, Oana C; Trujillo, Antoinette; Sanders, Claire K; Burnett, Kassidy S; Freyer, James P; Mourant, Judith R

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the contrast agent, acetic acid, on mammalian cells are studied using light scattering measurements, viability and fluorescence pH assays. Results depend on whether cells are in PBS or are live and metabolizing. Acetic acid is a contrast agent used to aid the detection of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. Typically 3% or 5% acetic acid is applied to the swface of the cervix and areas of the tissue that turn 'acetowhite' are considered more likely to be precancerous. The mechanism of action of acetic acid has never been understood in detail, although there are several hypotheses. One is that a decrease in pH causes cytokeratins in epithelial cells to polymerize. We will present data demonstrating that this is not the sole mechanism of acetowhitening. Another hypothesis is that a decrease in pH in the nucleus causes deacetylation of the histones which in turn results in a dense chromatin structure. Relevant to this hypothesis we have measured the internal pH of cells. Additional goals of this work are to understand what physical changes result in acetowhitening, to understand why there is variation in how cells respond to acetic acid, and to investigate how acetowhitening affects the light scatter properties measured by a fiber-optic probe we have developed for cervical cancer diagnostics.

  3. The Effect of Hetrogeneous Reactions on Model Performance for Nitrous Acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies suggest that emissions, heterogeneous reactions, and surface photolysis of adsorbed nitric acid may produce additional nitrous acid in the atmosphere. The effects of these sources on nitrous acid formation are evaluated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality m...

  4. Effects of boric acid and borax on titanium dioxide genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan

    2008-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is a potential carcinogenic/mutagenic agent although it is used in many areas including medical industries and cosmetics. Boron (as boric acid and borax) has also well-described biological effects and therapeutic benefits. In a previous study, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) rates were assessed in control and TiO(2)-treated (1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) human whole blood cultures. The results showed that the rates of SCE (at 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) and MN (at 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) formation in peripheral lymphocytes were increased significantly by TiO(2) compared with the controls. The present study also investigated the genetic effects of boric acid and borax (2.5, 5 and 10 microm) on cultures with and without TiO(2) addition. No significant increase in SCE and MN frequencies were observed at all concentrations of boron compounds. However, TiO(2)-induced SCE and MN could be reduced significantly by the presence of boric acid and borax. In conclusion, this study indicated for the first time that boric acid and borax led to an increased resistance of DNA to damage induced by TiO(2).

  5. Effects of amino acid additives during hemodialysis of children.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C L; Mrozinska, K; Mandel, S; McVicar, M; Wapnir, R A

    1984-01-01

    The intradialytic losses into the dialysate of free amino acids (AA) and alpha-amino nitrogen were determined during the dialysis of three children. Variations in plasma AA were determined pre- and postdialysis. The effect of these losses with the addition of an Abbott General Amino Acid Mixture to the dialysate in concentrations of 8.5, 17, and 34 mg/100 ml was studied. The major determinant of AA losses was the plasma concentration of the AA before beginning the dialysis treatment. Dialysance of individual AA varied inversely with their molecular weights. A zero flux of alpha-amino nitrogen occurred at a derived concentration of 22 mg/100 ml of the AA additive in the dialysate. Plasma concentrations of nonessential amino acids were little affected by the dialysate additive. In contrast, total essential amino acid nitrogen which fell during baseline dialyses showed significant improvement when the AA solution was added to the dialysate. This study suggests that the addition of AA to the dialysate bath may be effective in decreasing AA nitrogen losses during dialysis.

  6. Effect of borax on the crystallization kinetics of boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ömer

    2002-03-01

    The effect of different borax concentrations on the growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals were measured in a fluidized bed crystallizer under well-established conditions of supersaturation and undersaturation and fluidization. It was found that the presence of borax in boric-acid solution decreases the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and reaction order r pertaining to growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals. The effectiveness factors were estimated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitudes of the two resistances in series, diffusion and integration. The controlling mechanism is mainly by integration for the crystal growth of boric acid in the pure state and in the presence of borax in solution. The kinetic parameters ( kr, kd, r) were determined by a new method which is called trial and error under no assumption. This method gives a high accuracy of determination of the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and surface-reaction order, r. The relative standard deviation between the equation Rg= kr(( ρα- ρeq)- Rg(1- wα)/ kd) r and those experimentally obtained and represented by the equation Rg= kg( ρα- ρeq) g do not exceed 0.013 for both the growth and dissolution regions.

  7. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.

  8. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  9. Genotoxic effect of ethacrynic acid and impact of antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, William M.; Hoffman, Jared D.; Loo, George

    2015-07-01

    It is known that ethacrynic acid (EA) decreases the intracellular levels of glutathione. Whether the anticipated oxidative stress affects the structural integrity of DNA is unknown. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in EA-treated HCT116 cells, and the impact of several antioxidants was also determined. EA caused both concentration-dependent and time-dependent DNA damage that eventually resulted in cell death. Unexpectedly, the DNA damage caused by EA was intensified by either ascorbic acid or trolox. In contrast, EA-induced DNA damage was reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. In elucidating the DNA damage, it was determined that EA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine but not by ascorbic acid and trolox. Also, EA decreased glutathione levels, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. But, ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine neither inhibited nor enhanced the capacity of EA to decrease glutathione. Interestingly, the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoxime, lowered glutathione to a similar degree as EA, but no noticeable DNA damage was found. Nevertheless, buthionine sulfoxime potentiated the glutathione-lowering effect of EA and intensified the DNA damage caused by EA. Additionally, in examining redox-sensitive stress gene expression, it was found that EA increased HO-1, GADD153, and p21mRNA expression, in association with increased nuclear localization of Nrf-2 and p53 proteins. In contrast to ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the EA-induced upregulation of GADD153, although not of HO-1. Overall, it is concluded that EA has genotoxic properties that can be amplified by certain antioxidants. - Highlights: • Ethacrynic acid (EA) caused cellular DNA damage. • EA-induced DNA damage was potentiated by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA increased ROS production, not inhibited by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA

  10. Stabilizing and destabilizing effects of arginine on deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Hirano, Atsushi; Shiraki, Kentaro; Kita, Yoshiko; Koyama, A Hajime

    2010-03-01

    Aqueous arginine solution now finds a wide range of applications in biotechnology fields, including protein refolding, chromatography and virus inactivation. While progress has been made for mechanistic understanding of the effects of arginine on proteins, we have little understanding on how arginine inactivates viruses. One of the viral components is nucleic acid. We have examined the effects of arginine on the structure and thermal stability of calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using circular dichroism (CD). Both NaCl and arginine reduced CD intensity. At low concentrations, arginine showed a stronger effect on CD intensity than NaCl. Both NaCl and arginine sharply increased the melting temperature at low concentrations (below 0.25 M). However, they had an opposite effect at higher concentrations. Above this concentration, NaCl gradually increased the melting temperature, leading to the onset melting temperature above 90 degrees C. On the other hand, the thermal stability in the presence of arginine reached a maximum at 0.2-0.5 M, after which further addition of arginine caused decreased melting temperature. It is most likely that the increased melting temperature at low concentration is due to electrostatic stabilization of DNA structure by both NaCl and arginine and that the opposite effects at higher salt concentration are due to salt-specific effects, i.e., stabilizing (salting-out) effects of NaCl and destabilizing (salting-in) effects of arginine. Solubility measurements of nucleic acid bases showed that arginine, but not NaCl, increases the solubilities of the bases, supporting their effects on DNA stability at higher concentration.

  11. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident melasma were included in the study. 82% Lactic acid peel was applied on the face for 12 weeks in each patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and photographically at various intervals and in follow-up till 24 weeks. Assessment of patient satisfaction and side effects were also noted. All the subjects completed the study. Application of this peel for 12 weeks significantly decreased the melasma area severity index score and also melasma severity scale score. Patient and physician analogue scales also showed the improvement by the treatment. Regarding the adverse effects, burning sensation was the only side effect noted in our study. In conclusion, 82% lactic acid peel is well tolerated and can be used for the treatment of melasma. PMID:27355080

  12. Effect of mineral supplements to citric acid on enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Meyer, K; Hellwig, E; Buchalla, W; Lennon, A M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral supplements to citric acid (1%; pH 2.21) on enamel erosion under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. From each of 156 bovine incisors one polished enamel sample was prepared. The samples were divided among 13 experimental groups (n=12). In group 1 citric acid only was used (control). In groups 2-10 either calcium, phosphate or fluoride in various low concentrations was admixed to the citric acid. In groups 11-13 the citric acid was supplemented with a mixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. For demineralisation the specimens were rinsed with the respective solution for 1 min, immediately followed by a remineralisation period with artificial saliva (1 min). The specimens were cycled through this alternating procedure five times followed by rinsing for 8 h with artificial saliva. The de- and remineralisation cycle was repeated three times for each specimen interrupted by the 8 h-remineralisation periods. Before and after the experiments, the specimens were examined using microhardness testing (Knoop hardness) and laser profilometry. Hardness loss and enamel dissolution was significantly higher for the controls as compared to the remaining groups. Significantly lowest hardness loss for all groups was recorded for group 12 with admixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride to citric acid. The significantly highest enamel loss was recorded for the controls compared to all other samples. Groups 3 and 4 revealed significantly lower and higher tissue loss compared to the remaining groups (2-13), respectively. The other groups did not differ significantly from each other. Modification of citric acid with calcium, phosphate and fluoride exerts a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. However, with the low concentrations applied enamel dissolution could not be completely prevented.

  13. Effects of humic acids on the growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, V. V.; Yakushev, A. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Byzov, B. A.; Demin, V. V.

    2010-03-01

    The influence of humic acids of different origins on the growth of bacterial cultures of different taxa isolated from the soil and the digestive tracts of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa)—habitats with contrasting conditions—was studied. More than half of the soil and intestinal isolates from the 170 tested strains grew on the humic acid of brown coal as the only carbon source. The specific growth rate of the bacteria isolated from the intestines of the earthworms was higher than that of the soil bacteria. The use of humic acids by intestinal bacteria confirms the possibility of symbiotic digestion by earthworms with the participation of bacterial symbionts. Humic acids at a concentration of 0.1 g/l stimulated the growth of the soil and intestinal bacteria strains (66 strains out of 161) on Czapek’s medium with glucose (1 g/l), probably, acting as a regulator of the cell metabolism. On the medium with the humic acid, the intestinal bacteria grew faster than the soil isolates did. The most active growth of the intestinal isolates was observed by Paenibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Delftia acidovorans, Microbacterium terregens, and Aeromonas sp.; among the soil ones were the representatives of the Pseudomonas genus. A response of the bacteria to the influence of humic acids was shown at the strain level using the example of Pseudomonas representatives. The Flexom humin preparation stimulated the growth of the hydrocarbon-oxidizing Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. This effect can be used for creating a new compound with the elevated activity of bacteria that are destroyers of oil and oil products.

  14. Different effects of bile acids, ursodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid, on cell growth and cell death in human colonic adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Fuke, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tomoko; Miyashita, Kazumi; Yamanaka, Takenari; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nabeshima, Kazuo; Nakano, Takeshi; Takase, Koujiro

    2005-10-01

    Secondary bile acids have been implicated as an important etiological factor in colorectal cancer. We investigated the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on the growth and cytotoxicity in HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells. Proliferation assay, cell cycle analysis and cell death characterization by bile acids were performed. Both UDCA and DCA reduced their proliferation rate of HT29 over 48 h in a concentration- and time-dependent manner compared with control cultures. In terms of cell cycle effects, however, UDCA induced G2/M arrest, while DCA induced G1 arrest in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. As for the effects of each bile acid on cell toxicity, UDCA induced early apoptosis and DCA induced both early apoptosis and necrosis. Bile acids play an important role in regulating cell survival and cell death in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  15. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  16. Biphasic effect of linoleic acid on connexin 46 hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista-Martínez, Flavio; León-Paravic, Carmen G.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.; Reuss, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Connexins form hemichannels at undocked plasma membranes and gap-junction channels (GJCs) at intercellular contacting zones. Under physiological conditions, hemichannels have low open probabilities, but their activation under pathological conditions, such as ischemia, induces and/or accelerates cell death. Connexin 46 (Cx46) is a major connexin of the lens, and mutations of this connexin induce cataracts. Here, we report the effects of linoleic acid (LA) on the electrical properties of Cx46 GJCs and hemichannels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. LA has a biphasic effect, increasing hemichannel current at 0.1 μM and decreasing it at concentrations of 100 μM or higher. The effects of extracellular and microinjected LA conjugated to coenzyme A (LA-CoA) suggest that the current activation site is accessible from the intracellular but not extracellular compartment, whereas the current inhibitory site is either located in a region of the hemichannel pore inaccessible to intracellular LA-CoA, or requires crossing of LA through an organelle membrane. Experiments with other fatty acids demonstrated that the block of hemichannels depends on the presence of a hydrogenated double bond at position 9 and is directly proportional to the number of double bonds. Experiments in paired oocytes expressing Cx46 showed that LA does not affect GJCs. The block by unsaturated fatty acids reported here opens the possibility that increases in the concentration of these lipids in the lens induce cataract formation by blocking Cx46 hemichannels. PMID:21360038

  17. Phosphoric acid impurities in phosphoric acid fuel cell electrolytes. 2: Effects on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sugishima, Noboru; Hinatsu, J.T.; Foulkes, F.R. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The effects of phosphorus acid additions on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes in concentrated phosphoric acid were studied. The oxygen reduction currents decreased, and the Tafel slopes became more negative upon the addition of small concentrations of phosphorus acid. In addition,the phosphorus acid oxidation current tended to complete with the oxygen reduction current. These effects became more pronounced at higher phosphorus acid concentrations and at higher temperatures. Upon the addition of phosphorus acid the number of electrons involved in the oxygen reduction reaction decreased from a value close to four to a value approaching two, suggesting promotion of a two-electron reduction to peroxide. Therefore, in studies of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in hot concentrated phosphoric acid or in fuel cell systems using hot concentrated phosphoric acid as electrolyte, it is recommended that precautions be taken against the inadvertent formation of the phosphorus acid. The removal of phosphorus acid from concentrated phosphoric acid by repeated potential cycling at 100 mV/s between + 0.5 and +1.50 V (vs. dynamic hydrogen electrode) was demonstrated.

  18. The solvent effect on the acidities of haloacetic acids in aqueous solution. A RISM-SCF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Masaaki; Ten-no, Seiichiro; Kato, Shigeki; Hirata, Fumio

    1995-06-01

    The acidities of acetic, fluoracetic and chloroacetic acids in aqueous solution are calculated by means of the ab initio method combined with the reference interaction site method in the statistical mechanics of molecular liquids (the RISM-SCF method). The inversion in the order of acidities experimentally observed when a series of haloacetic acids is immersed into aqueous solution is reproduced. It is shown that the inversion is caused by competition between substitution and solvation effects. The solvation effect is discussed in molecular detail in terms of the charge distribution of the solute and the solute-solvent radial distribution functions.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Jia; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Seong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from honeybee hives, is a bioactive compound with strong antioxidant activity. This study was designed to test the neuroprotective effect of CAPE in 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP)-induced striatal neurotoxicity, a chemical model of Huntington's disease (HD). Initially, to test CAPE's antioxidant activity, a 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) antioxidant assay was employed, and CAPE showed a strong direct radical-scavenging eff ect. In addition, CAPE provided protection from 3NP-induced neuronal cell death in cultured striatal neurons. Based on these observations, the in vivo therapeutic potential of CAPE in 3NP-induced HD was tested. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were repeatedly given 3NP to induce HD-like pathogenesis, and 30 mg/kg of CAPE or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide and 95% peanut oil) was administered daily. CAPE did not cause changes in body weight, but it reduced mortality by 29%. In addition, compared to the vehicle-treated group, robustly reduced striatal damage was observed in the CAPE-treated animals, and the 3NP-induced behavioral defi cits on the rotarod test were signifi cantly rescued after the CAPE treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemical data showed that immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD45, markers for astrocyte and microglia activation, respectively, were strikingly reduced. Combined, these data unequivocally indicate that CAPE has a strong antioxidant eff ect and can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against HD. PMID:27162482

  20. Impact of effects of acid precipitation on toxicity of metals.

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, G F; Goyer, R A; Clarkson, T W

    1985-01-01

    Acid precipitation may increase human exposure to several potentially toxic metals by increasing metal concentrations in major pathways to man, particularly food and water, and in some instances by enhancing the conversion of metal species to more toxic forms. Human exposures to methylmercury are almost entirely by way of consumption of fish and seafood. In some countries, intakes by this route may approach the levels that can give rise to adverse health effects for population groups with a high consumption of these food items. A possible increase in methylmercury concentrations in fish from lakes affected by acid precipitation may thus be of concern to selected population groups. Human exposures to lead reach levels that are near those associated with adverse health effects in certain sensitive segments of the general population in several countries. The possibility exists that increased exposures to lead may be caused by acid precipitation through a mobilization of lead from soils into crops. A route of exposure to lead that may possibly be influenced by acid precipitation is an increased deterioration of surface materials containing lead and a subsequent ingestion by small children. A similar situation with regard to uptake from food exists for cadmium (at least in some countries). Human metal exposures via drinking water may be increased by acid precipitation. Decreasing pH increases corrosiveness of water enhancing the mobilization of metal salts from soil; metallic compounds may be mobilized from minerals, which may eventually reach drinking water. Also, the dissolution of metals (Pb, Cd, Cu) from piping systems for drinking water by soft acidic waters of high corrosivity may increase metal concentrations in drinking water. Exposures have occasionally reached concentrations which are in the range where adverse health effects may be expected in otherwise healthy persons. Dissolution from piping systems can be prevented by neutralizing the water before

  1. The ecological effects of trichloroacetic acid in the environment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T E; Wolfinger, T F; Barta, M L

    2004-10-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) is a member of the family of compounds known as chloroacetic acids, which includes mono-, di- and trichloroacetic acid. The significant property these compounds share is that they are all phytotoxic. TCAA once was widely used as a potent herbicide. However, long after TCAA's use as a herbicide was discontinued, its presence is still detected in the environment in various compartments. Methods for quantifying TCAA in aqueous and solid samples are summarized. Concentrations in various environmental compartments are presented, with a discussion of the possible formation of TCAA through natural processes. Concentrations of TCAA found to be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms in laboratory and field studies were compiled and used to estimate risk quotients for soil and surface waters. TCAA levels in most water bodies not directly affected by point sources appear to be well below toxicity levels for the most sensitive aquatic organisms. Given the phytotoxicity of TCAA, aquatic plants and phytoplankton would be the aquatic species to monitor for potential effects. Given the concentrations of TCAA measured in various soils, there appears to be a risk to terrestrial organisms. Soil uptake of TCAA by plants has been shown to be rapid. Also, combined uptake of TCAA from soil and directly from the atmosphere has been shown. Therefore, risk quotients derived from soil exposure may underestimate the risk TCAA poses to plants. Moreover, TCE and TCA have been shown to be taken up by plants and converted to TCAA, thus leading to an additional exposure route. Mono- and di-chloroacetic acids can co-occur with TCAA in the atmosphere and soil and are more phytotoxic than TCAA. The cumulative effects of TCAA and compounds with similar toxic effects found in air and soil must be considered in subsequent terrestrial ecosystem risk assessments.

  2. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  3. Genotoxic effect of ethacrynic acid and impact of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ward, William M; Hoffman, Jared D; Loo, George

    2015-07-01

    It is known that ethacrynic acid (EA) decreases the intracellular levels of glutathione. Whether the anticipated oxidative stress affects the structural integrity of DNA is unknown. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in EA-treated HCT116 cells, and the impact of several antioxidants was also determined. EA caused both concentration-dependent and time-dependent DNA damage that eventually resulted in cell death. Unexpectedly, the DNA damage caused by EA was intensified by either ascorbic acid or trolox. In contrast, EA-induced DNA damage was reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. In elucidating the DNA damage, it was determined that EA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine but not by ascorbic acid and trolox. Also, EA decreased glutathione levels, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. But, ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine neither inhibited nor enhanced the capacity of EA to decrease glutathione. Interestingly, the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoxime, lowered glutathione to a similar degree as EA, but no noticeable DNA damage was found. Nevertheless, buthionine sulfoxime potentiated the glutathione-lowering effect of EA and intensified the DNA damage caused by EA. Additionally, in examining redox-sensitive stress gene expression, it was found that EA increased HO-1, GADD153, and p21mRNA expression, in association with increased nuclear localization of Nrf-2 and p53 proteins. In contrast to ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the EA-induced upregulation of GADD153, although not of HO-1. Overall, it is concluded that EA has genotoxic properties that can be amplified by certain antioxidants.

  4. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide.

    PubMed

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  5. Effects of acid fog and dew on materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfeld, F.; Henry, R.; Vijayakumar, R.

    1989-10-01

    Field exposure tests have been carried out in order to separate the effects of acidic fog on materials damage from those caused by rain, dew and natural weathering. The test sites were McKittrick and Visalia in the Central Valley and West Casitas Pass in Ventura County. The field tests have been supported by laboratory tests in which materials damage has been determined during exposure to carefully controlled fog water chemistry. Analysis of the field exposure results for galvanized steel and the paint samples shows that the corrosivity of the atmosphere at the three test sites have been very low. The result is confirmed by the ACRM data which show very low corrosion activity. Since corrosion rates were so low approaching those for natural weathering, it was not possible to determine the effects of acidic fog. Based on the aerometric data and the observed corrosion behavior, it is doubtful that acidic fog conditions prevailed for significant times during the exposure period of 1/87 - 3/88 at Visalia and McKittrick. The results of the laboratory tests show that exposure to HNO3 at low pH and to high pollutant concentration increased the corrosion rate of galvanized steel to over 10 micro m/year. Exposure to HNO3 caused serious corrosion damage to anodized aluminum and the paint.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers: differences in metabolism and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2009-01-01

    The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, characterized by having conjugated double bonds, not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. CLA isomers appear as a minor component of the lipid fraction, found mainly in meat and dairy products from cows and sheep. The most abundant isomer is cis-9,trans-11, which represents up to 80% of total CLA in food. These isomers are metabolized in the body through different metabolic pathways, but important differences, that can have physiological consequences, are observed between the two main isomers. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer is more efficiently oxidized than the cis-9,trans-11 isomer, due to the position of its double bounds. Interest in CLA arose in its anticarcinogenic action but there is an increasing amount of specific scientific literature concerning the biological effects and properties of CLA. Numerous biological effects of CLA are due to the separate action of the most studied isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. It is also likely that some effects are induced and/or enhanced by these isomers acting synergistically. Although the cis-9,trans-11 isomer is mainly responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, the trans-10,cis-12 isomer reduces body fat and it is referred as the most effective isomer affecting blood lipids. As far as insulin function is concerned, both isomers seem to be responsible for insulin resistance in humans. Finally, with regard to the immune system it is not clear whether individual isomers of CLA could act similarly or differently.

  7. Effect of humic acid source on humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Erhayem, Mohamed; Sohn, Mary

    2014-02-01

    In many studies, different humic acid (HA) sources are used interchangeably to evaluate the effect of organic matter on geochemical processes in the environment. This research looks more specifically at the effect of HA source on HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and how HA adsorption affects the fate and transport of nano-TiO2. In this study, six humic acids (HAs) were studied which were derived from soils (SLHA), or from sediments (SDHA) all originating from the state of Florida. Humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and the sedimentation of HA-coated and uncoated nano-TiO2 were monitored by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Synchronous scan fluorescence (SSF) spectroscopy was used to complement the study of HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2. Phosphate buffer was found to reduce the amount of HA adsorbed onto nano-TiO2 relative to solutions of NaCl of the same pH and ionic strength. Adsorption constant values (Kads) for HAs varied in the order SLHA>FSDHA (freshwater sedimentary HA)>ESDHA (estuarine sedimentary HA). SSF results suggested that the more highly conjugated fractions of HA, which are more prevalent in SLHAs versus SDHAs, were preferentially adsorbed. In order to better understand the relationship between adsorption and aggregation, sedimentation studies were conducted and it was found that the percentage of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was preferentially enhanced in the order of the presence of SLHA>FSDHA>ESDHA. The extent of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was decreased with increasing HA concentration. TEM imaging of nano-TiO2 confirmed that nano-TiO2 was aggregated in the presence of HAs. The findings in this study suggest that HAs from different sources influence the fate and transport of nano-TiO2 in the environment differently.

  8. Effect of mitochondrial ascorbic acid synthesis on photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Senn, M E; Gergoff Grozeff, G E; Alegre, M L; Barrile, F; De Tullio, M C; Bartoli, C G

    2016-07-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is synthesized in plant mitochondria through the oxidation of l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-GalL) and then distributed to different cell compartments. AA-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (vtc2) and exogenous applications of l-GalL were used to generate plants with different AA content in their leaves. This experimental approach allows determining specific AA-dependent effects on carbon metabolism. No differences in O2 uptake, malic and citric acid and NADH content suggest that AA synthesis or accumulation did not affect mitochondrial activity; however, l-GalL treatment increased CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport rate in vtc2 (but not wt) leaves demonstrating a stimulation of photosynthesis after l-GalL treatment. Increased CO2 assimilation correlated with increased leaf stomatal conductance observed in l-GalL-treated vtc2 plants.

  9. Effects of ultrasonic fields in the phosphoric acid process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalska, E.; Mizera, J.; Jakobiec, H.

    1974-01-01

    A process of apatite decomposition with sulfuric acid was studied under the influence of ultrasound in the phosphoric acid production process. The studies were carried out with and without ultrasonic fields in the reaction mixture, which resembled the mixing ratio used in technical production processes. Ultrasound with a frequency of 20 kHz and an intensity of 1 W/sq cm was used in the studies. A very favorable ultrasonic effect upon the degree of apatite decomposition was observed. The ultrasonic field affects the shape of byproduct gypsum crystals. In the H3PO4 production process without ultrasound, the byproduct gypsum crystallizes as long, thin needles which cause problems in filtration. In the trials involving the application of wound, gypsum crystallized in the form of small platelets possessing a favorable ratio of length to width.

  10. Interactions of gaseous-pollutant and acid-rain effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    This research addresses the significance of individual and combined effects of gaseous pollutants and acid rain on plant growth and development. It is specifically structured to determine the importance of pollutant interactions at concentrations, combinations and exposure frequencies typical of the eastern regional environment. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies are designed to establish pollutant-concentration thresholds for damage from SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, and acid rain. Research to date has determined visible-injury thresholds and growth-and-yield thresholds for a variety of cultivars of bean, wheat, radish, tomato, and loblolly pine. The thresholds vary within cultivars of a species and between species.

  11. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Broor, S L; Slota, T; Ammon, H V

    1980-01-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 16 healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that intraluminal cholesterol can mitigate the fluid secretion induced by dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. Fluid secretion in the presence of 5 mM taurodeoxycholate was somewhat reduced by 4 mM mono-olein which was used for the solubilization of cholesterol. Addition of 0.8 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion further (P less than 0.05). Fluid secretion induced by 4 mM oleic acid was changed to net absorption in a linear fashion with increasing cholesterol concentration in the perfusion solutions. 1 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion induced by 6 mM oleic acid (P less than 0.005), but had no effect on fluid secretion induced by 6 mM linolenic acid. Glucose absorption was generally affected in a similar manner as water transport. In vitro, 1 mM cholesterol reduced monomer activity of 6 mM oleic acid to 72.3 +/- 0.9% of control and that of linolenic acid to 81.1 +/- 1.7% of control. Although statistically significant (P less than 0.001), the difference in the effects of cholesterol on monomer activities of the two fatty acids was rather small and it is unlikely that changes in monomer concentration of fatty acids and bile acids account for the protective effect of cholesterol. The in vivo observations point to a new physiological role for biliary cholesterol: the modification of the response of the small intestine to the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. PMID:7358850

  12. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  13. Anti-glycative effects of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in kidney of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-hong; Hsu, Cheng-chin; Huang, Chien-ning; Yin, Mei-chin

    2010-02-25

    Inhibitory effects of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) on aldose reductase (AR) and glycative products in kidney of diabetic mice were examined. OA or UA at 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% was supplied for 10 weeks. Diabetic mice with 0.1 or 0.2% OA or UA treatments had significantly higher body weight and lower kidney weight at weeks 5 and 10 (P<0.05). OA or UA intake at 0.1 or 0.2% increased their content in the kidney, dose-dependently decreased plasma glucose, HbA1c, renal N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, urinary glycated albumin and urinary albumin levels; elevated plasma insulin and renal creatinine clearance levels; as well as decreased renal sorbitol and fructose concentrations (P<0.05). OA or UA treatments at 0.1 and 0.2% also significantly diminished renal AR activity and dose-dependently down-regulated renal AR mRNA expression (P<0.05). These two compounds at 0.2% significantly reduced renal sorbitol dehydrogenase activity (P<0.05). OA, not UA, treatments at 0.1 or 0.2% dose-dependently enhanced renal glyoxalase I (GLI) activity, up-regulated renal GLI mRNA expression and lowered renal methylglyoxal level (P<0.05). Based on these marked anti-glycative effects, the supplement of OA or UA might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of glycation associated renal diseases.

  14. Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

  15. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PPARs regulate metabolism and can be activated by environmental contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOA induces neonatal mortality, developmental delay, and growth deficits in mice. Studies in genetically altered mice showed that PPARa is required for PFOA-induced developmental toxicity. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice were dosed orally from GD1-17 with water or 5 mg PFO/kg to examine PPARa, PPARß, and PPARy expression and profile the effects of PFOA on PPAR-regulated genes. Prenatal and postnatal liver, heart, adrenal, kidney, intestine, stomach, lung, spleen, and thymus were collected at various developmental ages. RNA and protein were examined using qPCR and Western blot analysis. PPAR expression varied with age in all tissues, and in liver PPARa and PPARy expression correlated with nutritional changes as the pups matured. As early as GD14, PFOA affected expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose homeostatic control. The metabolic disruption produced by PFOA may contribute to poor postnatal survival and persistent weight deficits of neonates This paper represents the continuing efforts at ORD, in response to the call for assistance from OPPTS, to investigate the potential developmental toxicities of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a compound which persists and is found ubiquitously in the environment, wildlife and humans. Studies in our laboratory using an in vitro transfected cell model showed that PFO

  16. Pulmonary effects of acid sulfate inhalation in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Silbaugh, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Wolff, R.K.; Carpenter, R.L.; Brownstein, D.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Rothenberg, S.J.

    1982-07-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed by inhalation for 1 to 8 hours to sulfuric acid aerosols of various sizes and concentrations in order to provide quantitative information for standards setting. The effects of sulfuric acid aerosols were examined to determine acute mortality, changes in respiratory function and morphology, response mechanisms, differences in individual sensitivity and changes in airway response to bronchoconstrictors. An aerosol generator for another sulfur-containing pollutant, ammonium bisulfite, was developed for use in animal exposures. Also, lung lesions which simulate human emphysema were produced by intratracheal elastase instillation to investigate a potential impaired animal model for sulfur pollutant exposures. Pulmonary mechanics, lung morphology, and histamine sensitivity data all suggest that the guinea pig reacts to sulfuric acid aerosols with a nearly all-or-none airway constrictive response. Results also indicate that the concentration at which this response occurs is affected by aerosol size, exposure profile and individual animal sensitivity. No acute pulmonary function changes were noted at concentrations below 15 mg/m/sup 3/. The reason for these differences is unknown.

  17. Temperature effect on photolysis decomposing of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiliang; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is recalcitrant to degrade and mineralize. Here, the effect of temperature on the photolytic decomposition of PFOA was investigated. The decomposition of PFOA was enhanced from 34% to 99% in 60 min of exposure when the temperature was increased from 25 to 85°C under UV light (201-600 nm). The limited degree of decomposition at 25°C was due to low quantum yield, which was increased by a factor of 12 at 85°C. Under the imposed conditions, the defluorination ratio increased from 8% at 25°C to 50% at 85°C in 60 min. Production of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C7-C5), PFCAs (C4-C3) and TFA (trifluoroacetic acid, C2) accelerated and attained a maximum within 30 to 90 min at 85°C. However, these reactions did not occur at 25°C despite extended irradiation to 180 min. PFOA was decomposed in a step-wise process by surrendering one CF2 unit. In each cyclical process, increased temperature enhanced the quantum yields of irradiation and reactions between water molecules and intermediates radicals. The energy consumption for removing each μmol of PFOA was reduced from 82.5 kJ at 25°C to 10.9 kJ at 85°C using photolysis. Photolysis coupled with heat achieved high rates of PFOA degradation and defluorination.

  18. Effect of fulvic acids on the electrolytes physiology in vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, O. Y.; Navarrete, J. M.; Gracia, I.; Macias, L.; Rivera, M.; Sanchez, F.

    2011-10-01

    Fulvic acids are the active principle in humus fertilizers which are the cause of better absorption of mineral ions from soil to plant tissues. Tested in mice by making use of radioactive labeled ions, they showed their action of enhancing by a factor greater than two the filtration through liver of PO 43- and Ca 2+ from digestive tract to blood serum as well as through kidney from blood serum to urine. Following this research, Fe 3+ and I 1- ions labeled with 59Fe and 131I have been tested and reported in the present paper. Results showed that iron ions are completely fixed in red cells, with no residue eliminated by urine, while iodine ions are fixed in thyroid gland, with some residue eliminated by urine. Both ions were fixed in said tissues by factors larger than two when they are escorted by fulvic acids. A general distribution of these ions in blood, urine, feces, liver, kidney and thyroid gland has been surveyed, trying to find the earliest effect of fulvic acids in the physiology of vertebrates.

  19. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  20. Protective effects of organic acids on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidic environments.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir, K; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of disease due to acid-tolerant bacterial pathogens in apple cider and orange juice have raised questions about the safety of acidified foods. Using gluconic acid as a noninhibitory low-pH buffer, we investigated the killing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in the presence or absence of selected organic acids (pH of 3.2), with ionic strength adjusted to 0.60 to 0.68. During a 6-h exposure period in buffered solution (pH 3.2), we found that a population of acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 strains was reduced by 4 log cycles in the absence of added organic acids. Surprisingly, reduced lethality for E. coli O157:H7 was observed when low concentrations (5 mM) of fully protonated acetic, malic, or l-lactic acid were added. Only a 2- to 3-log reduction in cell counts was observed, instead of the 4-log reduction attributed to pH effects in the buffered solution. Higher concentrations of these acids at the same pH aided in the killing of the E. coli cells, resulting in a 6-log or greater reduction in cell numbers. No protective effect was observed when citric acid was added to the E. coli cells. d-Lactic acid had a greater protective effect than other acids at concentrations of 1 to 20 mM. Less than a 1-log decrease in cell numbers occurred during the 6-h exposure to pH 3.2. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the protective effect of organic acids on the survival of E. coli O15:H7 under low-pH conditions.

  1. Effects of charge-carrying amino acids on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenting; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of charge-carrying amino acids (lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch. Acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) showed a decreasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but increased amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Alkaline amino acid (Arg) showed an increasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but decreasing amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Lys had no effect on the swelling power of potato starch, except at a high content (0.2 mol/kg). Like other two acidic amino acids, Lys also increased gelatinization temperature. Moreover, the addition of alkaline amino acids (Arg) decreased syneresis value of potato starch but acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) increased it. Compared to Arg, the syneresis of potato starch with Lys was similar to that of its native starch.

  2. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Huh, Wooseong; Jung, Jin Ah; Yoo, Hye Min; Ko, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jung-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L). There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI]) of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively). Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. PMID:26309401

  3. Protective Effects of Norursodeoxycholic Acid Versus Ursodeoxycholic Acid on Thioacetamide-induced Rat Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Buko, Vyacheslav U.; Lukivskaya, Oxana Y.; Naruta, Elena E.; Belonovskaya, Elena B.; Tauschel, Horst-Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives Effects of norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on liver fibrosis progression and liver fibrosis reversal in thioacetamide (TAA)-treated rats were studied. Methods Advanced liver fibrosis was induced by TAA treatment (200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 12 weeks. In the second experiment resolution of liver fibrosis was assessed after 8 weeks of TAA withdrawal. During 8 last weeks of each trial, fibrotic rats were daily administered with UDCA (80 mg/kg) and norUDCA (equimolar to 80 mg/kg of UDCA) by oral gavage. Liver fibrosis was assessed by Sirius red staining, liver hydroxyproline and serum fibrosis markers determination. Results The TAA treatment resulted in advanced fibrosis and increase in liver hydroxyproline content and serum fibrosis markers. These signs of fibrosis were less pronounced in rats after TAA withdrawal. Treatment with of norUDCA significantly decreased the total and relative liver hydroxyproline contents in rats with fibrosis reversal, whereas UDCA did not change these parameters. Both compounds decreased serum TGFβ and type IV collagen contents, whereas other serum markers did not differ from the placebo group. In the fibrosis progression model the square of connective tissue was decreased by norUDCA. Serum type IV collagen and procollagen III-NT contents in these experiments were lowered by both UDCA and norUDCA, whereas rest of serum fibrosis markers were diminished only by norUDCA. Conclusions Both norUDCA and UDCA showed therapeutic and prophylactic antifibrotic effect in rats with TAA-induced liver fibrosis. For most of tested parameters norUDCA was more effective than UDCA, especially in the experiment with liver fibrosis regression. PMID:25755576

  4. Distribution and effects of acidic deposition on wildlife and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Longcore, J.R.; Kaemar, Peter; Legath, J.

    1987-01-01

    Acidic deposition occurs over most of the United States and the deposition patterns and theoretical vulnerabilities of aquatic ecosystems to chemical changes can be delineated, but few data exist on concomitant biological effects. Hypothetical direct effects are limited primarily to toxicity of various heavy metals mobilized at reduced pH. Results of studies in Scandinavia suggest that aluminum interferes with avian reproduction near acidified lakes. Some amphibian populations located on acid-vulnerable substrates may be adversely affected by reduced pH in the vernal pools used for egg laying and larval growth. Indirect effects on populations are difficult to detect because few historical data exist for wildlife populations and trophic relationships in vulnerable areas. Current research in the U.S.A. focuses on measuring habitat characteristics, food availability, and avian use of vulnerable wetland habitats. Results of Scandinavian studies suggest that some species of waterfowl may prefer acidified, I fish-free habitats because invertebrates essential for meeting nutritional requirements are more easily obtained in the absence of competition from fish. However, avian species dependent on fish would be absent from these habitats. Alteration of either the vegetative structure or primary productivity of wetlands might indirectly affect avian populations by causing decreased invertebrate productivity and consequent food limitations for birds.

  5. Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.; Van Rye, D.M.; Lassoie, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are attempting to determine the effects acid rain may have on these crucial stages in the life histories of northeastern tree species. The first stage of this work assessed the effects of acidity in the growth medium on in vitro pollen germination for four deciduous forest species common to central New York State, Betula lutea (yellow birch), B. lenta (black birch), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). Measurements were taken at the end of the growth period to determine the percentage of grains which had germinated, and to estimate the average tube length. To determine the effects of pollen on the growth medium, the pH of the germination drop was measured at the end of the growth period.

  6. Iron dissolution of dust source materials during simulated acidic processing: the effect of sulfuric, acetic, and oxalic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2013-09-17

    Atmospheric organic acids potentially display different capacities in iron (Fe) mobilization from atmospheric dust compared with inorganic acids, but few measurements have been made on this comparison. We report here a laboratory investigation of Fe mobilization of coal fly ash, a representative Fe-containing anthropogenic aerosol, and Arizona test dust, a reference source material for mineral dust, in pH 2 sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid, respectively. The effects of pH and solar radiation on Fe dissolution have also been explored. The relative capacities of these three acids in Fe dissolution are in the order of oxalic acid > sulfuric acid > acetic acid. Oxalate forms mononuclear bidentate ligand with surface Fe and promotes Fe dissolution to the greatest extent. Photolysis of Fe-oxalate complexes further enhances Fe dissolution with the concomitant degradation of oxalate. These results suggest that ligand-promoted dissolution of Fe may play a more significant role in mobilizing Fe from atmospheric dust compared with proton-assisted processing. The role of atmospheric organic acids should be taken into account in global-biogeochemical modeling to better access dissolved atmospheric Fe deposition flux at the ocean surface.

  7. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Vescina, C M; Sálice, V C; Cortizo, A M; Etcheverry, S B

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activity seems to depend on the geometry around the vanadium atom more than on the oxidation state. Our results indicate a correlation between the PTPase activity and the sensitivity to vanadate and vanadyl cation.

  8. THE EFFECT OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID ON PLATELET FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Geoffrey; Packham, Marian A.; Nishizawa, Edward E.; Mustard, James F.; Murphy, Edmund A.

    1968-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) and sodium salicylate inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, antigen-antibody complexes, gamma globulin-coated particles or thrombin. These compounds suppress the release of platelet constituents, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and serotonin, induced by such stimuli. Since ASA and sodium salicylate do not inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, it appears that their effect on the action of the other stimuli is due to a decrease in the amount of ADP released. The administration of ASA to rabbits (in doses which inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation) impaired hemostasis, prolonged platelet survival, and diminished the amount of deposit formed in an extracorporeal shunt. PMID:4176225

  9. Effect of rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid on AGEs formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ou, Juanying; Huang, Junqing; Wang, Mingfu; Ou, Shiyi

    2017-04-15

    This work aimed to investigate the effect of the two main components of rosemary extracts, namely rosmarinic acid (RA) and carnosic acid (CA), on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in vitro. In the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose model, addition of RA and CA at 400μg/mL inhibited fluorescent AGEs by more than 90%, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and carboxyethyl lysine (CEL) by 82.7% and 75.2%, and 71.4% and 64.2%, respectively. Moreover, the addition of RA and CA at 400μg/mL inhibited fluorescent AGEs by more than 90% both in the BSA/glyoxal (GO) and BSA/methylglyoxal (MGO) models, the formation of CML by 64.9% and 53.9% in BSA/GO model, and CEL by 28.9% and 24.3% in BSA/MGO model, respectively. RA and CA also significantly decreased the concentration of MGO and protein carbonylation.

  10. Apoptotic effect of tannic acid on fatty acid synthase over-expressed human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nie, Fangyuan; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Li, Xiabing; Xun, Hang; He, Wei; Lau, Hay Tong; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Novel therapies and chemo-therapeutic drugs are urgently needed to be developed for the treatment of breast cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that fatty acid synthase (FAS) plays an important role in breast cancer, for the expression of FAS is significantly higher in human breast cancer cells than in normal cells. Tannic acid (TA), a natural polyphenol, possesses significant biological functions, including bacteriostasis, hemostasis, and anti-oxidant. Our previous studies demonstrated that TA is a natural FAS inhibitor whose inhibitory activity is stronger than that of classical FAS inhibitors, such as C75 and cerulenin. This study further assessed the effect and therapeutic potential of TA on FAS over-expressed breast cancer cells, and as a result, TA had been proven to possess the functions of inhibiting intracellular FAS activity, down-regulating FAS expression in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, and inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Since high-expressed FAS is recognized as a molecular marker for breast cancer and plays an important role in cancer prognosis, these findings suggest that TA is a potential drug candidate for treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Effect of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on the morphology of quantum dot-hyaluronic acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiseok; Park, Kitae; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2008-01-01

    The morphological analysis of novel quantum dot-hyaluronic acid (QDot-HA) conjugates was carried out with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Adipic acid dihydrazide-modified HA (HA-ADH) was synthesized and conjugated to quantum dots (QDots) having carboxyl terminal ligands which were activated with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS). HA molecules with a molecular weight (MW) of 20K, 234 K and 3000 K were used to investigate the effect of MW on the morphology of QDot-HA conjugates. The TEM micrographs of QDot-HA conjugates showed branched and multi-layered chain type morphology formed by inter- and intra-molecular conjugation of QDots to HA molecules. The size of QDot-HA conjugate increased with the MW of HA. QDot-HA conjugate could be successfully used for real-time bio-imaging of HA derivatives in nude mice. The novel QDot-HA conjugate will be further used to investigate the biological roles of HA with a different MW in the body.

  12. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  13. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  14. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  15. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  16. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  17. Comparison of natural antioxidants and their effects on omega-3 fatty acid oxidation in fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to offer a variety of health benefits including cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory effect and human development. It is known that fish and algae o...

  18. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.

    PubMed

    Francois, C A; Connor, S L; Wander, R C; Connor, W E

    1998-02-01

    Although it is known that the fatty acid profile of human milk is altered by diet, the rapidity with which this occurs has not been addressed. We hypothesized that after absorption the fatty acids of a given meal would be transferred rapidly from the chylomicrons of the blood into human milk. Fourteen lactating women drank six test formulas, each containing a different fat: menhaden oil, herring oil, safflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, or cocoa butter. The subjects collected a midfeeding milk sample before consuming the breakfast test formula and additional samples at 6, 10, 14, and 24 h and then once daily for 4-7 d. Fatty acids of special interest included eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from menhaden oil, cetoleic acid from herring oil, linoleic acid from safflower oil, linolenic acid from canola oil, lauric acid from coconut oil, and palmitic and stearic acids from cocoa butter. Each of these fatty acids increased significantly in human milk within 6 h of consumption of the test formulas (P < 0.001). Maximum increases occurred 10 h after safflower oil; 14 h after cocoa utter, coconut oil, canola oil, and menhaden oil (eicosapentaenoic acid); and 24 h after herring oil and menhaden oil (docosahexaenoic acid). All of these fatty acids remained significantly elevated in milk (P < 0.05) for 10-24 h, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which remained significantly elevated for 2 d, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which remained elevated for 3 d. These data support the hypothesis that there is a rapid transfer of dietary fatty acids from chylomicrons into human milk.

  19. Going natural: Effective weed control in squash with pelargonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonic acid, a natural, but not certified organic herbicide, has been shown to be phytotoxic, acting as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants through cell membrane disruption. Pelargonic acid, a fatty acid also known as nonanoic acid, is a nine-carbon chained organic compound found in...

  20. Galantamine potentiates the protective effect of rofecoxib and caffeic acid against intrahippocampal Kainic acid-induced cognitive dysfunction in rat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Pahwa, Deeksha

    2011-05-30

    Role of neuroinflammatory mediators particularly cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), have been well suggested in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Rofecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase 2 enzymes belongs to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, commonly called as coxibs. Whereas, caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is one of the natural phenolic compounds and reported to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity as one of mechanisms. Present study has been designed to investigate the effects of rofecoxib, caffeic acid and its potentiation by galantamine against intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced cognitive impairment, oxidative damage and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme alterations in rats. Kainic acid (KA) was administrated in the hippocampus region of rat brain. Various behavioral (locomotor activity and memory performances were assessed by using actophotometer and Morris water maze respectively) followed by oxidative stress, mitochondrial enzyme complex were assessed. Intrahippocampal administration of KA significantly impaired locomotor activity, memory performance, mitochondrial enzyme complexes and caused oxidative stress as compared to sham treatment. Rofecoxib (5 and 10mg/kg), caffeic acid (5 and 10mg/kg), Gal (2.5 and 5mg/kg) treatment for 14 days significantly improved locomotor activity, memory retention and oxidative defense (as evidenced by decrease lipid peroxidation, nitrite, increased superoxide dismutase activity and redox ratio) in hippocampus. Besides, alterations in the levels of mitochondrial enzymes and acetylcholine esterase enzyme were significantly restored by rofecoxib and caffeic acid as compared to control. Further, combination of rofecoxib (5mg/kg) with caffeic acid (5mg/kg) and lower dose of gal (2.5mg/kg) with rofecoxib (5mg/kg) treatments significantly potentiated their protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. The results of the present study suggest that galantamine

  1. Effects of Iron Overload on Ascorbic Acid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Wapnick, A. A.; Lynch, S. R.; Krawitz, P.; Seftel, H. C.; Charlton, R. W.; Bothwell, T. H.

    1968-01-01

    Studies of the ascorbic acid status in two subjects with idiopathic haemochromatosis and in 12 with transfusional siderosis showed that all had decreased levels of white cell ascorbic acid. The urinary excretion of ascorbic acid was also diminished in those subjects in whom such measurements were made. The administration of ascorbic acid was followed by only a small rise in the urinary ascorbic acid output, while the oxalic acid levels (measured in two subjects) showed a significant rise. These findings resemble those described in siderotic Bantu, and support the thesis that increased iron stores lead to irreversible oxidation of some of the available ascorbic acid. PMID:5673960

  2. Effects of iron overload on ascorbic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wapnick, A A; Lynch, S R; Krawitz, P; Seftel, H C; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H

    1968-09-21

    Studies of the ascorbic acid status in two subjects with idiopathic haemochromatosis and in 12 with transfusional siderosis showed that all had decreased levels of white cell ascorbic acid. The urinary excretion of ascorbic acid was also diminished in those subjects in whom such measurements were made. The administration of ascorbic acid was followed by only a small rise in the urinary ascorbic acid output, while the oxalic acid levels (measured in two subjects) showed a significant rise. These findings resemble those described in siderotic Bantu, and support the thesis that increased iron stores lead to irreversible oxidation of some of the available ascorbic acid.

  3. The effect of skin fatty acids on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Yvonne; Ohlsen, Knut; Donat, Stefanie; Engelmann, Susanne; Kusch, Harald; Albrecht, Dirk; Cartron, Michael; Hurd, Alexander; Foster, Simon J

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of the human nose and skin. Human skin fatty acids, in particular cis-6-hexadecenoic acid (C-6-H), have high antistaphylococcal activity and can inhibit virulence determinant production. Here, we show that sub-MIC levels of C-6-H result in induction of increased resistance. The mechanism(s) of C-6-H activity was investigated by combined transcriptome and proteome analyses. Proteome analysis demonstrated a pleiotropic effect of C-6-H on virulence determinant production. In response to C-6-H, transcriptomics revealed altered expression of over 500 genes, involved in many aspects of virulence and cellular physiology. The expression of toxins (hla, hlb, hlgBC) was reduced, whereas that of host defence evasion components (cap, sspAB, katA) was increased. In particular, members of the SaeRS regulon had highly reduced expression, and the use of specific mutants revealed that the effect on toxin production is likely mediated via SaeRS.

  4. [Effects of UV radiation on the aggregation performance of small molecular organic acids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Dong; Wang, Ya-Bo; Fan, Qing-Hai; Ding, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Wen; Song, Shan; Zhang, Yin-Ting

    2014-10-01

    This study systematically investigated the effects of UV radiation on the aggregation of small molecular aliphatic carboxylic acids and phenolic acids by jar test. Experimental results show that solution pH has little effect on the coagulation of small molecular aliphatic carboxylic acids including citric acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and succinic acid. For the solutions pretreated with UV light, the removal rates of the selected aliphatic carboxylic acids in coagulation are higher than that without UV radiation. Further study shows that photochemical reactions occur during UV radiation which decreases the negative charge in aliphatic carboxylic acids, and thereby increases their aggregation properties. Different from aliphatic carboxylic acids, phenol, salicylic acid, and benzoic acid have poor coagulation properties, and UV radiation does not have notable effects on their aggregation in the coagulation process. The coagulation performance of tannic acid is better than the other phenolic acids. At pH = 6, its removal rate is above 90%, which may be contributed to the aliphatic carboxylic acid structure in its molecular. Meanwhile, the large molecular of tannic acid is also easier to be adsorbed by the hydrolysis products of PAC1.

  5. Antinociceptive effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bagdas, Deniz; Ozboluk, Hasret Yucel; Cinkilic, Nilufer; Gurun, Mine Sibel

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate possible antinociceptive effects of chlorogenic acid in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain in rats. Chlorogenic acid (100 mg/kg) was administered daily for 14 days. Our study showed for the first time that both single and chronic chlorogenic acid treatments produced significant antinociceptive effects in diabetic rats. In contrast, single dose of chlorogenic acid showed no signs of an antinociceptive effect, but chronic treatment exerted antinociceptive potential in nondiabetic rats. Additionally, chronic treatment effectively reduced hyperglycemia that induced by diabetes. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid has beneficial effects for the management of diabetic neuropathic pain.

  6. Protective effects of arachidonic acid against palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity in HIT-T15 cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Sik; Kim, Chi Hyun; Kim, Ki Young; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2012-05-01

    Saturated fatty acids have been considered major contributing factors in type 2 diabetes, whereas unsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects for preventing the development of diabetes. However, the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in pancreatic β cells have not been reported. Here, we examined the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on palmitic acid (PA)-mediated lipotoxicity in clonal HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells. AA prevented the PA-induced lipotoxicity as indicated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), a non-metabolizable AA, had little effect on PA-induced lipotoxicity. In parallel with its protective effects against PA-induced lipotoxicity, AA restored impaired insulin expression and secretion induced by PA. AA but not ETYA increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) in the presence of PA compared with PA alone, and xanthohumol, a diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) inhibitor, reversed AA-induced protection from PA. Taken together, our results suggest that AA protects against PA-induced lipotoxicity in clonal HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells, and the protective effects may be associated with TG accumulation, possibly through sequestration of lipotoxic PA into TG.

  7. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    PubMed

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014.

  8. Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Olivier F.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George; Edwards, Michael; Gerhard, Glenn S.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs) as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes. PMID:27006824

  9. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (p<0.05). Therefore, HA could be a promising cryoprotectant for boar sperm.

  10. Humic acid adsorption and surface charge effects on schwertmannite and goethite in acid sulphate waters.

    PubMed

    Kumpulainen, Sirpa; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2008-04-01

    In acid conditions, as in acid mine drainage waters, iron oxide particles are positively charged, attracting negatively charged organic particles present in surrounding natural waters. Schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6SO4) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH) are the most typical iron oxide minerals found in mine effluents. We studied schwertmannite formation in the presence of humic acid. Further, surface charge and adsorption of humic acid on synthetic schwertmannite and goethite surfaces in pH 2-9 and in humic acid concentrations of 0.1-100 mg/L C were examined. Schwertmannite did precipitate despite the presence of humic acid, although it contained more sulphate and had higher specific surface area than ordinary schwertmannite. Specific surface area weighted results showed that schwertmannite and goethite had similar humic acid adsorption capacities. Sulphate was released from schwertmannite surfaces with increasing pH, resulting in an increase in specific surface area. Presence of sulphate in solution decreased the surface charge of schwertmannite and goethite similarly, causing coagulation. In acid conditions (pH 2-3.5), according to the zeta potential, schwertmannite is expected to coagulate even in the presence of high concentrations of humic acid (< or = 100 mg/L C). However, at high humic acid concentrations (10-100 mg/L C) with moderate acid conditions (pH>3.5), both schwertmannite and goethite surfaces are strongly negatively charged (zeta potential < -30 mV) thus posing a risk for colloid stabilization and colloidal transport.

  11. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase.

  12. Quantitative Analysis and In vitro Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Quercetin from Radix Sanguisorbae

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Lee, Na-Ri; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radix Sanguisorbae has long been used to treat diarrhea, enteritis, duodenal ulcers, and internal hemorrhage. Objective: We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of Radix Sanguisorbae and performed quantitative analyses of three marker components, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Materials and Methods: The three marker components were separated using a reversed-phase Gemini C18 analytical column maintained at 40°C by the gradient elution with two solvent systems. We examined the biological effects of the three marker compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, by determining their anti-inflammatory activities in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results: All of the marker compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with no cytotoxicity. Particularly, ellagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ellagic acid is the most potent bioactive phytochemical component of radix Sanguisorbae in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY Established high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied in the quantitative analysis of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin present in an extract from radix SanguisorbaeAmong the three compounds, the ellagic acid.(7.65.mg/g) is main component in radix SanguisorbaeEllagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, PDA: Photodiode array, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL: Interleukin, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, PGE2: Prostaglandin E2, NSAIDs

  13. Fatty Acid Transporter CD36 Mediates Hypothalamic Effect of Fatty Acids on Food Intake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moullé, Valentine S.; Le Foll, Christelle; Philippe, Erwann; Kassis, Nadim; Rouch, Claude; Marsollier, Nicolas; Bui, Linh-Chi; Guissard, Christophe; Dairou, Julien; Lorsignol, Anne; Pénicaud, Luc; Levin, Barry E.; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Variations in plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are detected by FA sensing neurons in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus. These neurons play a physiological role in the control of food intake and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Le Foll et al. previously showed in vitro that at least 50% of the FA sensing in ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons is attributable to the interaction of long chain FA with FA translocase/CD36 (CD36). The present work assessed whether in vivo effects of hypothalamic FA sensing might be partly mediated by CD36 or intracellular events such as acylCoA synthesis or β-oxidation. To that end, a catheter was implanted in the carotid artery toward the brain in male Wistar rats. After 1 wk recovery, animals were food-deprived for 5 h, then 10 min infusions of triglyceride emulsion, Intralipid +/− heparin (IL, ILH, respectively) or saline/heparin (SH) were carried out and food intake was assessed over the next 5 h. Experimental groups included: 1) Rats previously injected in ventromedian nucleus (VMN) with shRNA against CD36 or scrambled RNA; 2) Etomoxir (CPT1 inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH; and 3) Triacsin C (acylCoA synthase inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH. ILH significantly lowered food intake during refeeding compared to SH (p<0.001). Five hours after refeeding, etomoxir did not affect this inhibitory effect of ILH on food intake while VMN CD36 depletion totally prevented it. Triacsin C also prevented ILH effects on food intake. In conclusion, the effect of FA to inhibit food intake is dependent on VMN CD36 and acylCoA synthesis but does not required FA oxidation. PMID:24040150

  14. Acidosis, magnesium and acetylsalicylic acid: Effects on thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj; Loznikova, Svetlana; Sukhodola, Aleksandr; Halets, Inessa; Bryszewska, Maria; Shcharbin, Dzmitry

    2013-03-01

    Thrombin, an enzyme from the hydrolase family, is the main component of the blood coagulation system. In ischemic stroke it acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin forming blood clots in the brain. It has been found to phosphoresce at room temperature in the millisecond and microsecond ranges. The phosphorescence of thrombin was studied under physiological conditions, in acidosis (decrease of pH from 8.0 to 5.0) and on the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) and of acetylsalicylic acid, and its connection with thrombin function is discussed. Acidosis significantly increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. We propose that lactate-acidosis plays a protective role in stroke, preventing the formation of clots. The addition of NaCl and MgSO4 in different concentrations increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. Also, the addition of MgSO4 decreased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. However, magnesium sulfate and acetylsalicylic acid in the therapeutic concentrations used for treatment of ischemic stroke had no effect on thrombin internal dynamics. The data obtained will help to elucidate the conformational stability of thrombin under conditions modulating lactate-acidosis and in the presence of magnesium sulfate.

  15. Inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on digestion of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Karim, Zida; Holmes, Melvin; Orfila, Caroline

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the chlorogenic acid isomer 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) on digestion of potato starch by porcine pancreatic alpha amylase (PPAA) was investigated using isolated starch and cooked potato tuber as substrates. In vitro digestion was performed on five varieties of potato with varying phenolic content. Co- and pre-incubation of PPAA with 5-CQA significantly reduced PPAA activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of about 2mgmL(-1). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that 5-CQA exerts a mixed type inhibition as km increased and Vmax decreased. The total polyphenol content (TPC) of peeled tuber tissue ranged from 320.59 to 528.94mg 100g(-1)dry weight (DW) in raw tubers and 282.03-543.96mg 100g(-1)DW in cooked tubers. With the exception of Désirée, TPC and 5-CQA levels decreased after cooking. Principle component analysis indicated that digestibility is affected by multiple factors including phenolic, dry matter and starch content.

  16. Effect of oxalic acid on Nosema ceranae infection.

    PubMed

    Nanetti, Antonio; Rodriguez-García, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano

    2015-10-01

    Nosema ceranae is a honey bee pathogen parasitizing the ventricular epithelium and potentially causing colony death. The effect of 0.25 M oxalic acid solution administered to the bees in the form of sugar syrup was determined in laboratory and field trials. The spore numbers in an 8-day laboratory experiment were significantly lower when AO was administered (treated: 11.86 ± 0.94 s.e. × 10^6; untreated: 30.64 ± 0.31 s.e.x10^6). When administered in autumn to free flying colonies twice, 3 weeks apart, the infection prevalence decreased in young (relative reduction of 53.8% ± 6.5 s.e.) and old bees (relative reduction of 44.4% ± 6.0 s.e.). Meanwhile increased prevalence in all the controls was detected (young and old bees: relative increase of 45.7% ± 22.8 s.e. and 10.2% ± 5.9 s.e., respectively). While all the treated colonies overwintered correctly, the untreated ones did not (3 out of 5 were dead). In the absence of commercial products approved in several countries to control nosemosis, oxalic acid syrup appears promising in the development of alternative management strategies.

  17. Effect of amino acids on the interaction between cobalamin(II) and dehydroascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereven'kov, I. A.; Thi, Thu Thuy Bui; Salnikov, D. S.; Makarov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between one-electron-reduced cobalamin (cobalamin(II), Cb(II)) and the two-electron-oxidized form of vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) with amino acids in an acidic medium is studied by conventional UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the oxidation of Cbl(II) by dehydroascorbic acid proceeds only in the presence of sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine, acetylcysteine). A proposed reaction mechanism includes the step of amino acid coordination on the Co(II)-center through the sulfur atom, along with that of the interaction between this complex and DHA molecules, which results in the formation of ascorbyl radical and the corresponding Co(III) thiolate complex.

  18. ACIDIC DEPOSITION IN THE NORTHEASTERN U.S.: SOURCES AND INPUTS, ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS, AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic deposition results from the emissions of air pollutants. Effects of acidic deposition in the northeastern US include the acidification of soil and water, causing stresses to terrestrial and aquatic biota.

  19. Ascorbic acid does not reduce the anticancer effect of radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Saga, Ryo; Monzen, Satoru; Terashima, Shingo; Tsuruga, Eichi

    2017-01-01

    The present study hypothesized that the therapeutic use of ascorbic acid (AsA) in combination with radiation may reduce therapy-related side effects and increase the antitumor effects. The aim of the study was to examine the association between the scavenged activity of AsA and the biological anticancer effect of hydroxyl (OH) radicals generated by X-ray irradiation. Cell survival, DNA fragmentation of human leukemia HL60 cells and the amount of OH radicals were investigated following X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment. The number of living cells decreased, and DNA fragmentation increased at AsA concentrations >1 mM. Electron spin resonance spectra revealed that X-ray irradiation generated OH radicals, which were scavenged by AsA at concentrations >75 µM. The AsA concentration inside the cell was 75 µM when cells underwent extracellular treatment with 5 mM AsA, which significantly induced HL60 cell death even without irradiation. No increase in the number of viable HL60 cells was observed following AsA treatment with irradiation when compared to irradiation alone. In conclusion, the disappearance of the radiation anticancer effects with AsA treatment in combination with radiotherapy for cancer treatment is not a cause for concern. PMID:28123717

  20. Effects of acetic acid, ethanol, and SO(2) on the removal of volatile acidity from acidic wines by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strains.

    PubMed

    Vilela-Moura, Alice; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2010-07-01

    Herein, we report the influence of different combinations of initial concentration of acetic acid and ethanol on the removal of acetic acid from acidic wines by two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains S26 and S29. Both strains reduced the volatile acidity of an acidic wine (1.0 gl(-1) acetic acid and 11% (v/v) ethanol) by 78% and 48%, respectively. Acetic acid removal by strains S26 and S29 was associated with a decrease in ethanol concentration of 0.7 and 1.2% (v/v), respectively. Strain S26 revealed better removal efficiency due to its higher tolerance to stress factors imposed by acidic wines. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the concentration range 95-170 mg l(-1)inhibits the ability of both strains to reduce the volatile acidity of the acidic wine used under our experimental conditions. Therefore, deacidification should be carried out either in wines stabilized by filtration or in wines with SO(2)concentrations up to 70 mg l(-1). Deacidification of wines with the better performing strain S26 was associated with changes in the concentration of volatile compounds. The most pronounced increase was observed for isoamyl acetate (banana) and ethyl hexanoate (apple, pineapple), with an 18- and 25-fold increment, respectively, to values above the detection threshold. The acetaldehyde concentration of the deacidified wine was 2.3 times higher, and may have a detrimental effect on the wine aroma. Moreover, deacidification led to increased fatty acids concentration, but still within the range of values described for spontaneous fermentations, and with apparently no negative impact on the organoleptical properties.

  1. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Guimbaud, C.; Ammann, M.

    2008-01-01

    Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g). The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5-50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond) had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15), which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12) and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  2. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Guimbaud, C.; Ammann, M.

    2008-09-01

    Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g). The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5 50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond) had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15), which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12) and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  3. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Reiko; Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan; Shafiqul, Islam Md.; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Ushio, Hideki . E-mail: hushio@kaiyodai.ac.jp

    2007-06-29

    NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors are involved in numerous cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. It was reported that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HADs) are inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B activation. Rice bran oil contains a lot of phytosteryl ferulates, one of HADs. We have investigated effects of phytosteryl ferulates on NF-{kappa}B activation in macrophage. Cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of phytosteryl ferulates, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenese-2 but upregulated SOD activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that CAF inhibited DNA-binding of NF-{kappa}B. CAF and phytosteryl ferulates probably have potentially anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. The Effect of Supercritical Fluids on Solid Acid Catalyst Alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Thompson, David Neil; Burch, Kyle Coates; Zalewski, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    The alkylation of isobutane with trans-2-butene was explored over six solid acid catalysts in the liquid, near-critical liquid, and supercritical regions through the addition of an inert cosolvent to the reaction feed mixture. The addition of supercritical cosolvents did not result in sustained catalytic alkylation activity. A modest improvement in product yield was obtained with the addition of methane in the modified-liquid region; however, catalyst longevity and product selectivity were decreased compared to cosolvent-free liquid conditions. This paper describes the catalyst screening and selection process, an exploration of catalyst performance with varying concentrations of methane, and an examination of the effects of seven supercritical fluids on catalyst performance. The catalysts included two zeolites, two sulfated metal oxides, and two Nafion catalysts. Three hydrocarbons, two fluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, and sulfur hexafluoride were explored as inert cosolvents added to the reaction mixture.

  6. THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLORACETIC ACID (TCAA) IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) is a member of the family of compounds known as chloroacetic acids, which includes mono-, di- and trichloroacetic acid. The significant property these compounds share is that they are all phytotoxic. TCAA once was widely used as a potent herbicide. ...

  7. Nonequilibrium 2-Hydroxyoctadecanoic Acid Monolayers: Effect of Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lendrum, Conrad D.; Ingham, Bridget; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Toney, Michael F.; McGrath, Kathryn M.

    2012-02-06

    2-Hydroxyacids display complex monolayer phase behavior due to the additional hydrogen bonding afforded by the presence of the second hydroxy group. The placement of this group at the position {alpha} to the carboxylic acid functionality also introduces the possibility of chelation, a utility important in crystallization including biomineralization. Biomineralization, like many biological processes, is inherently a nonequilibrium process. The nonequilibrium monolayer phase behavior of 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid was investigated on each of pure water, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate crystallizing subphases as a precursor study to a model calcium carbonate biomineralizing system, each at a pH of {approx}6. The role of the bicarbonate co-ion in manipulating the monolayer structure was determined by comparison with monolayer phase behavior on a sodium chloride subphase. Monolayer phase behavior was probed using surface pressure/area isotherms, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, and synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. Complex phase behavior was observed for all but the sodium chloride subphase with hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and steric effects defining the symmetry of the monolayer. On a pure water subphase hydrogen bonding dominates with three phases coexisting at low pressures. Introduction of calcium ions into the aqueous subphase ensures strong cation binding to the surfactant head groups through chelation. The monolayer becomes very unstable in the presence of bicarbonate ions within the subphase due to short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the monolayer and bicarbonate ions facilitated by the sodium cation enhancing surfactant solubility. The combined effects of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding are observed on the calcium carbonate crystallizing subphase.

  8. Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid coordination polymer nanowires: an effective sensing platform for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yunchun; Liu, Qian; Sun, Xuping; Kong, Rongmei

    2017-02-01

    The determination of specific nucleic acid sequences is key in identifying disease-causing pathogens and genetic diseases. In this paper we report the utilization of Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid coordination polymer nanowires as an effective nanoquencher for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection. The detection is fast and the whole process can be completed within 15 min. This nanosensor shows a low detection limit of 0.2 nM with selectivity down to single-base mismatch. This work provides us with an attractive sensing platform for applications.

  9. ACID-BASE ACCOUNT EFFECTIVENESS FOR DETERMINATION OF MINE WASTE POTENTIAL ACIDITY. (R825549C048)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine waste is a widespread source of resource degradation, often resulting in the generation of acidic water and mobilization of heavy metals. The quantity of acid forming minerals present in mine waste, dominantly as pyrite (FeS2

  10. Pharmacological effects of asiatic acid in glioblastoma cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Flourina Kumar; Wan, Ka-Wai; Welsby, Philip John; Welsby, Gail

    2017-02-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current treatment options including surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide and cisplatin, the median survival rate remains low (<16 months). Combined with increasing drug resistance and the inability of some compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier, novel compounds are being sought for the treatment of this disease. Here, we aimed to examine the pharmacological effect of Asiatic acid (AA) in glioblastoma under hypoxia. To investigate the effects of AA on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, and wound healing, SVG p12 fetal glia and U87-MG grade IV glioblastoma cells were cultured under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. In normoxia, AA reduced cell viability in U87-MG cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. A significant decrease in viability, compared to cisplatin, was observed following 2 h of AA treatment with no significant changes in cell proliferation or cell cycle progression observed. Under hypoxia, a significantly greater number of cells underwent apoptosis in comparison to cisplatin. While cisplatin showed a reduction in wound healing in normoxia, a significantly greater reduction was observed following AA treatment. An overall reduction in wound healing was observed under hypoxia. The results of this study show that AA has cytotoxic effects on glioma cell lines and has the potential to become an alternative treatment for glioblastoma.

  11. Effects of intermediate metabolite carboxylic acids of TCA cycle on Microcystis with overproduction of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shijie; Dai, Jingcheng; Xia, Ming; Ruan, Jing; Wei, Hehong; Yu, Dianzhen; Li, Ronghui; Jing, Hongmei; Tian, Chunyuan; Song, Lirong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-04-01

    Toxic Microcystis species are the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwaters. It is imperative to develop efficient techniques to control these notorious harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we present a simple, efficient, and environmentally safe algicidal way to control Microcystis blooms, by using intermediate carboxylic acids from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The citric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid all exhibited strong algicidal effects, and particularly succinic acid could cause the rapid lysis of Microcystis in a few hours. It is revealed that the Microcystis-lysing activity of succinic acid and other carboxylic acids was due to their strong acidic activity. Interestingly, the acid-lysed Microcystis cells released large amounts of phycocyanin, about 27-fold higher than those of the control. On the other hand, the transcription of mcyA and mcyD of the microcystin biosynthesis operon was not upregulated by addition of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and other carboxylic acids. Consider the environmental safety of intermediate carboxylic acids. We propose that administration of TCA cycle organic acids may not only provide an algicidal method with high efficiency and environmental safety but also serve as an applicable way to produce and extract phycocyanin from cyanobacterial biomass.

  12. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness.

  13. Effect of calcium, tannic acid, phytic acid and pectin over iron uptake in an in vitro Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M; Briones, L; Jaramillo, A; Pizarro, F; Arredondo, M

    2014-04-01

    Calcium, phytic acid, polyphenols and fiber are major inhibitors of iron absorption and they could be found in excess in some diets, thereby altering or modifying the iron nutrition status. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of calcium, tannic acid, phytic acid, and pectin over iron uptake, using an in vitro model of epithelial cells (Caco-2 cell line). Caco-2 cells were incubated with iron (10-30 μM) with or without CaCl2 (500 and 1,000 μM) for 24 h. Then, cells were challenged with phytic acid (50-150 μM); pectin (50-150 nM) or tannic acid (100-500 μM) for another 24 h. Finally, (55)Fe (10 μM) uptake was determined. Iron dialyzability was studied using an in vitro digestion method. Iron uptake in cells pre-incubated with 20 and 30 μM Fe was inhibited by CaCl2 (500 μM). Iron uptake decreased in cells cultured with tannic acid (300 μM) and CaCl2 (500-1,000 μM) (two-way ANOVA, p = 0.002). Phytic acid also decreased iron uptake mainly when cells were treated with CaCl2 (1,000 μM) (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05). Pectin slightly decreased iron uptake (p = NS). Iron dialyzability decreased when iron was mixed with CaCl2 and phytic or tannic acid (T test p < 0.0001, for both) but not when mixed with pectin. Phytic acid combined with calcium is a strong iron uptake inhibitor. Pectin slightly decreased iron uptake with or without calcium. Tannic acid showed an unexpected behavior, inducing an increase on iron uptake, despite its low Fe dialyzability.

  14. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  15. Neurotoxic effects induced by gammahydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Carmen; García, Francisca Belén; Navarro, José Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Gammahydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous constituent of the central nervous system that has acquired great social relevance for its use as a recreational 'club drug'. GHB, popularly known as 'liquid ecstasy', is addictive when used continuously. Although the symptoms associated with acute intoxication are well known, the effects of prolonged use remain uncertain. We examined in male rats the effect of repeated administration of GHB (10 and 100 mg/kg) on various parameters: neurological damage, working memory and spatial memory, using neurological tests, the Morris water maze and the hole-board test. The results showed that repeated administration of GHB, especially at doses of 10 mg/kg, causes neurological damage, affecting the 'grasping' reflex, as well as alteration in spatial and working memories. Stereological quantification showed that this drug produces a drastic neuronal loss in the CA1 hippocampal region and in the prefrontal cortex, two areas clearly involved in cognitive and neurological functions. No effects were noted after quantification in the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), a region lacking GHB receptors. Moreover, NCS-382, a putative antagonist of GHB receptor, prevented both neurological damage and working- memory impairment induced by GHB. This suggests that the effects of administration of this compound may be mediated, at least partly, by specific receptors in the nervous system. The results show for the first time that the repeated administration of GHB, especially at very low doses, produces neurotoxic effects. This is very relevant because its abuse, especially by young persons, could produce considerable neurological alterations after prolonged abuse.

  16. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    PubMed

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  17. Effects of bile acid administration on bile acid synthesis and its circadian rhythm in man

    SciTech Connect

    Pooler, P.A.; Duane, W.C.

    1988-09-01

    In man bile acid synthesis has a distinct circadian rhythm but the relationship of this rhythm to feedback inhibition by bile acid is unknown. We measured bile acid synthesis as release of 14CO2 from (26-14C)cholesterol every 2 hr in three normal volunteers during five separate 24-hr periods. Data were fitted by computer to a cosine curve to estimate amplitude and acrophase of the circadian rhythm. In an additional six volunteers, we measured synthesis every 2 hr from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. only. During the control period, amplitude (expressed as percentage of mean synthesis) averaged 52% and acrophase averaged 6:49 a.m. During administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 126% of baseline (p less than 0.1), amplitude averaged 43% and acrophase averaged 6:20 a.m. During administration of chenodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 43% of baseline (p less than 0.001), amplitude averaged 53% and acrophase averaged 9:04 a.m. Addition of prednisone to this regimen of chenodeoxycholic acid to eliminate release of 14CO2 from corticosteroid hormone synthesis resulted in a mean amplitude of 62% and a mean acrophase of 6:50 a.m., values very similar to those in the baseline period. Administration of prednisone alone also did not significantly alter the baseline amplitude (40%) or acrophase (6:28 a.m.). We conclude that neither chenodeoxycholic acid nor ursodeoxycholic acid significantly alters the circadian rhythm of bile acid synthesis in man.

  18. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  19. Molecular dissection of the valproic acid effects on glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoja, Sabine; Schulze, Markus; Rehli, Michael; Proescholdt, Martin; Herold-Mende, Christel; Hau, Peter; Riemenschneider, Markus J.

    2016-01-01

    Many glioblastoma patients suffer from seizures why they are treated with antiepileptic agents. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that apart from its anticonvulsive effects in some retrospective studies has been suggested to lead to a superior outcome of glioblastoma patients. However, the exact molecular effects of VPA treatment on glioblastoma cells have not yet been deciphered. We treated glioblastoma cells with VPA, recorded the functional effects of this treatment and performed a global and unbiased next generation sequencing study on the chromatin (ChIP) and RNA level. 1) VPA treatment clearly sensitized glioma cells to temozolomide: A protruding VPA-induced molecular feature in this context was the transcriptional upregulation/reexpression of numerous solute carrier (SLC) transporters that was also reflected by euchromatinization on the histone level and a reexpression of SLC transporters in human biopsy samples after VPA treatment. DNA repair genes were adversely reduced. 2) VPA treatment, however, also reduced cell proliferation in temozolomide-naive cells: On the molecular level in this context we observed a transcriptional upregulation/reexpression and euchromatinization of several glioblastoma relevant tumor suppressor genes and a reduction of stemness markers, while transcriptional subtype classification (mesenchymal/proneural) remained unaltered. Taken together, these findings argue for both temozolomide-dependent and -independent effects of VPA. VPA might increase the uptake of temozolomide and simultaneously lead to a less malignant glioblastoma phenotype. From a mere molecular perspective these findings might indicate a surplus value of VPA in glioblastoma therapy and could therefore contribute an additional ratio for clinical decision making. PMID:27556305

  20. Ameliorative effects of phycocyanin against gibberellic acid induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohamed M A; Ali, Haytham A; Ahmed, Mona M

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) was used extensively unaware in agriculture in spite of its dangerous effects on human health. The current study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of the co-administration of phycocyanin with GA3 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the liver. Forty male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group) received normal saline for 6 weeks, Group II (GA3 treated group) received 3.85 mg/kg body weight GA3 once daily for 6 weeks, Group III (phycocyanin treated group) received Phycocyanin 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks orally dissolved in distilled water and Group IV was treated with GA3 and phycocyanin at the same doses as groups 2 and 3. All treatments were given daily using intra-gastric intubation and continued for 6 weeks. Our results revealed significant downregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities and their mRNA levels (CAT, GPx and Cu-Zn, SOD) with marked elevation of liver enzymes and extensive fibrous connective tissue deposition with large biliary cells in hepatic tissue of GA3 treated rats, while treatment with phycocyanin improved the antioxidant defense system, liver enzymes and structural hepatocytes recovery in phycocyanin treated group with GA3. These data confirm the antioxidant potential of Phycocyanin and provide strong evidence to support the co-administration of Phycocyanin during using GA3.

  1. Antitumor effect of sonodynamically activated pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Nishi, Koji; Fujimori, Junya; Fukai, Toshio; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shin; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene (PTF) was investigated. Sonodynamically induced antitumor effects of PTF by focused ultrasound were investigated using isolated sarcoma-180 cells and mice bearing ectopically-implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Cell damage induced by ultrasonic exposure was enhanced by 5-fold in the presence of 80 µM PTF. The combined treatment of ultrasound and PTF suppressed the growth of the implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Ultrasonically induced 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-1-oxyl (4oxoTEMPO) production in the presence and absence of PTF was assessed, and it was shown that 80 µM PTF enhanced 4oxoTEMPO production as measured by ESR spectroscopy. Histidine, a reactive oxygen scavenger, significantly reduced cell damage and 4oxoTEMPO generation caused by ultrasonic exposure in the presence of PTF. These results suggest that singlet oxygen is likely to be involved in the ultrasonically induced cell damage enhanced by PTF.

  2. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Begum, Pathan Shajahan

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states. PMID:28337245

  3. Effects of amino acid dialysate on appetite in CAPD patients.

    PubMed

    Musk, M; Anderson, H; Oreopoulos, D; Leiter, L; Bargman, J; Pettit, J; Jones, M

    1992-01-01

    The use of amino acid (AA) dialysate in CAPD patients may have theoretical disadvantages, since protein ingestion is known to suppress food intake in humans disproportionately to its energy value. Therefore we measured subjective appetite and food intake of CAPD patients in a cross-over study of 16 subjects (age 22-75 years, BMI 19-31, > 3 months on CAPD, non-diabetic and not protein malnourished). They received, in random order, either 4 weeks of dextrose only (their usual treatment), or one AA (1%) exchange replacing the first dextrose exchange each day. Subjective measurements of food intake (3 day food record) and quantitative measurements of lunch time food intake were obtained during a morning dextrose exchange after 28 days of each regimen. Except for a reduction in feelings of fullness during the AA treatment, there were no effects on feelings of hunger/satiety, food appeal, lunch-time food intake, or on 3-day food intake. We conclude that the use of a daily AA (1%) dialysate for 4 weeks does not affect subjective appetite or food intake of CAPD patients. There may even be a beneficial effect as the feeling of fullness decreased with the AA treatment.

  4. Effect of humic acid on sorption of technetium by alumina.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Rawat, N; Kar, A S; Tomar, B S; Manchanda, V K

    2011-09-15

    Sorption of technetium by alumina has been studied in absence as well as in presence of humic acid using (95)Tc(m) as a tracer. Measurements were carried out at fixed ionic strength (0.1M NaClO(4)) under varying pH (3-10) as well as redox (aerobic and reducing anaerobic) conditions. Under aerobic conditions, negligible sorption of technetium was observed onto alumina both in absence and in presence of humic acid. However, under reducing conditions (simulated with [Sn(II)] = 10(-6)M), presence of humic acid enhanced the sorption of technetium in the low pH region significantly and decreased at higher pH with respect to that in absence of humic acid. Linear additive as well as surface complexation modeling of Tc(IV) sorption in presence of humic acid indicated the predominant role of sorbed humic acid in deciding technetium sorption onto alumina.

  5. Modulatory Effects of Dietary Amino Acids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Sangam, Supraj Raja; Singh, Shubham; Joginapally, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are playing a vital role in maintaining the cellular integrity and function, as well as for brain cells. Protein intake and supplementation of individual amino acids can affect the brain functioning and mental health, and many of the neurotransmitters in the brain are made from amino acids. The amino acid supplementation has been found to reduce symptoms, as they are converted into neurotransmitters which in turn extenuate the mental disorders. The biosynthesis of amino acids in the brain is regulated by the concentration of amino acids in plasma. The brain diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD) are the most common mental disorders that are currently widespread in numerous countries. The intricate biochemical and molecular machinery contributing to the neurological disorders is still unknown, and in this chapter, we revealed the involvement of dietary amino acids on neurological diseases.

  6. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  7. Acid rain and our nation`s capital: A guide to effects on buildings and monuments

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, E.

    1997-03-01

    This booklet focuses on acid rain and its impact on our Nation`s capital. This booklet will define acid rain, explain what effects it has on marble and limestone buildings, and show, on a walking tour, some of the places in our Nation`s capital where you can see the impact of acid precipitation.

  8. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  9. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: Effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.; De Vuyst, P.; Yernault, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    The biological effects of acid fog composed primarily of ammonium ions and sulfate are described. Subjects with asthma were exposed for one hour to sulfuric acid aerosol. Significant changes were not observed. Other asthma subjects were exposed to acid fog containing sulfate and ammonium ions. Again, pulmonary and bronchial function were not modified after inhalation.

  10. Effect of d-amino acids on IgE binding to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids are formed when L-amino acids are exposed to heat. The objective was to determine the existence of D-amino acids in roasted peanut and their effect on IgE binding. Raw and roasted peanut protein extracts were hydrolyzed in 6 N HCL under vacuum. The hydrolysates were then analyzed for D...

  11. Synergistic effect of thymol and carvacrol combined with chelators and organic acids against Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Hui; Yang, Zhiwei; Li, Jingjing; Li, Jihai; Ren, Yali; Yan, Wenjie

    2007-07-01

    To identify synergistic combinations of different food additives, the antimicrobial effects of thymol and carvacrol against Salmonella Typhimurium were assessed alone and in combination with various other preservatives including EDTA, acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid. Overall, growth of Salmonella Typhimurium was significantly inhibited in Mueller-Hinton broth containing thymol, carvacrol, EDTA, acetic acid, lactic acid, or citric acid at concentrations of 400 mg/liter, 400 microl/liter, 300 mg/liter, 0.2% (vol/vol), 0.2% (vol/vol), and 0.2% (wt/vol), respectively. The combination of different antimicrobials such as thymol or carvacrol with EDTA, thymol or carvacrol with acetic acid, and thymol or carvacrol with citric acid all resulted in significantly reduced populations of Salmonella Typhimurium. In samples treated with combinations, these antimicrobials had synergistic effects compared with samples treated with thymol, carvacrol, EDTA, acetic acid, or citric acid alone. However, the combined use of lactic acid with thymol or carvacrol did not produce a synergistic effect against Salmonella Typhimurium. Thus, some chelators or organic acids can be used as food preservatives in combination with thymol and carvacrol to reduce the concentrations needed to produce an adequate antimicrobial effect.

  12. Effects of phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid on stomata and the photosynthetic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Raschke, K.

    1980-02-01

    Plant extracts containing phaseic acid (PA), as well as solutions of purified PA and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were applied to leaves, isolated mesophyll cells, and isolated epidermal strips. In Commelina communis, stomatal closure began 4 minutes after the addition of either 20 micromolar (+-)-abscisic acid or 10 micromolar PA. Stomata closed less rapidly after treatment with 10 micromolar PA than after treatment with 10 micromolar (+-)-abscisic acid in Amaranthus powelli, Hordeum vulgare, Xanthium strumarium, and Zea mays and did not respond at all to PA in Vicia faba. DPA (10 micromolar) did not cause stomatal closure in any species. Plant extracts containing PA reduced photosynthesis. Subsequent experiments with PA purified by crystallization and with residues of solvents employed in the extraction of PA proved that it was not PA that impaired photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution or CO/sub 2/ uptake but unidentified contaminants of the allegedly pure solvents.

  13. Effect of carboxylic acid on sintering of inkjet-printed copper nanoparticulate films.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Youngwoo; Lee, Byungyoon; Kim, Jonghee; Moon, Jooho

    2011-07-01

    The reduction effect of various carboxylic acids on inkjet-printed copper film was investigated. Carboxylic acids were exposed to the film by nitrogen gas that was bubbled through the liquid acids during the annealing process. It was observed that in the case of saturated monocarboxylic acid (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric), the acids with shorter hydrocarbon chains perform better in reducing the surface copper oxides in the printed copper conductive film. The printed films exposed to formic acid vapor exhibited the lowest resistivity (3.10 and 2.30 μΩ cm when annealed at 200 and 250 °C, respectively). In addition, the oxalic acid more effectively reduces copper oxide than formic acid and its usage can shorten the annealing time for highly conductive printed copper film. This reductive annealing process allows fabrication of copper patterns with low resistivity, (3.82 μΩ cm annealed at 250 °C) comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper.

  14. Effect of guanidino-propionic acid on lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shainkin-Kestenbaum, R; Winikoff, Y; Dvilansky, A; Chaimovitz, C; Nathan, I

    1986-01-01

    The 'uremic toxin', guanidino propionic acid (GPA), which was detected in uremic serum in correlation with BUN level, modified the mitogenic response of normal lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Mild modifications can be detected in the concentrations which are found in uremic patients. Other guanidino compounds which have been detected in uremic sera, such as guanidino succinic acid (GSA), guanidino butyric acid (GBA) and guanidino acetic acid (GAA), show similar inhibitory pathways. It is suggested that guanidino compounds contribute to the immunological disturbances in uremia. The complexity of their action on lymphocyte mitogenic response is probably the cause of the conflicting results which have been reported in the literature.

  15. Effect of soil acidity, soil strength and macropores on root growth and morphology of perennial grass species differing in acid-soil resistance.

    PubMed

    Haling, Rebecca E; Simpson, Richard J; Culvenor, Richard A; Lambers, Hans; Richardson, Alan E

    2011-03-01

    It is unclear whether roots of acid-soil resistant plants have significant advantages, compared with acid-soil sensitive genotypes, when growing in high-strength, acid soils or in acid soils where macropores may allow the effects of soil acidity and strength to be avoided. The responses of root growth and morphology to soil acidity, soil strength and macropores by seedlings of five perennial grass genotypes differing in acid-soil resistance were determined, and the interaction of soil acidity and strength for growth and morphology of roots was investigated. Soil acidity and strength altered root length and architecture, root hair development, and deformed the root tip, especially in acid-soil sensitive genotypes. Root length was restricted to some extent by soil acidity in all genotypes, but the adverse impact of soil acidity on root growth by acid-soil resistant genotypes was greater at high levels of soil strength. Roots reacted to soil acidity when growing in macropores, but elongation through high-strength soil was improved. Soil strength can confound the effect of acidity on root growth, with the sensitivity of acid-resistant genotypes being greater in high-strength soils. This highlights the need to select for genotypes that resist both acidity and high soil strength.

  16. Effects of Boric Acid on Fracture Healing: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Gölge, Umut Hatay; Kaymaz, Burak; Arpaci, Rabia; Kömürcü, Erkam; Göksel, Ferdi; Güven, Mustafa; Güzel, Yunus; Cevizci, Sibel

    2015-10-01

    Boric acid (BA) has positive effects on bone tissue. In this study, the effects of BA on fracture healing were evaluated in an animal model. Standard closed femoral shaft fractures were created in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats under general anesthesia. The rats were allocated into five groups (n = 8 each): group 1, control with no BA; groups 2 and 3, oral BA at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively; group 4, local BA (8 mg/kg); and group 5, both oral and local BA (8 mg/kg/day orally and 8 mg/kg locally). After closed fracture creation, the fracture line was opened with a mini-incision, and BA was locally administered to the fracture area in groups 4 and 5. In groups 2, 3, and 5, BA was administered by gastric gavage daily until sacrifice. The rats were evaluated by clinical, radiological, and histological examinations. The control group (group 1) significantly differed from the local BA-exposed groups (groups 4 and 5) in the clinical evaluation. Front-rear and lateral radiographs revealed significant differences between the local BA-exposed groups and the control and other groups (p < 0.05). Clinical and radiological evaluations demonstrated adequate agreement between observers. The average histological scores significantly differed across groups (p = 0.007) and were significantly higher in groups 4 and 5 which were the local BA (8 mg/kg) and both oral and local BA (8 mg/kg/day orally and 8 mg/kg locally), respectively, compared to the controls. This study suggests that BA may be useful in fracture healing. Further research is required to demonstrate the most effective local dosage and possible use of BA-coated implants.

  17. Effects of ethacrynic acid on intraocular pressure of anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Searles, R V; Johnson, M; Shikher, V; Balaban, C D; Severs, W B

    1999-03-01

    Ethacrynic acid (ECA) lowers intraocular pressure (i.o.p.) by an effect usually ascribed to increased drainage of aqueous humor by the trabecular meshwork. Here, we describe the effects of a continuous 2-hr intracameral infusion of balanced salt solution (BSS), with or without 2 mM ECA (sodium salt), on IOP of pentobarbital anesthetized rats. The infusion was divided into a constant (0.05 microliter/min) and a periodic (0.25 microliter/min) component that cycled 4 min on then 4 min off. This permitted the calculation of dynamic changes in resistive (trabecular and uveoslceral drainage) and nonresistive (aqueous synthesis, episcleral venous pressure) components of IOP by fitting a second-order transfer function to the responses. ECA markedly blunted the BSS-induced rise in IOP (P < 0.01). The rise in resistive mechanisms (ocular impedance) was transiently blunted by ECA (P < 0.05) during the third and fourth 8-min cycles, and nonresistive mechanisms were reduced by ECA from cycles 3-10 (P < 0.05). Then, at the end of the infusion, the control and ECA dynamic values were similar (P < 0.05), although IOP of ECA-treated rats was still slightly reduced (P < 0.05). The most likely explanation is a summation of small changes in both resistive and nonresistive components of IOP dynamics. Systemic blood pressure was unchanged within either group. The well-known effects of ECA on the trabecular meshwork, alone, are insufficient to explain the dynamic changes in IOP observed in this model.

  18. Effect of common polymorphisms of the farnesoid X receptor and bile acid transporters on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Fok, Benny S P; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Lee, Vincent H L; Zuo, Zhong; Tomlinson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a natural, dihydroxy bile acid, promotes gallstone dissolution and has been attributed with several other beneficial effects. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) may influence the pharmacokinetics of UDCA by modulating the expression of bile acid transporters. This exploratory study examined whether common functional polymorphisms in FXR and in bile acid transporter genes affect the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA. Polymorphisms in genes for transporters involved in bile acid transport, solute carrier organic anion 1B1 (SLCO1B1) 388A>G and 521T>C, solute carrier 10A1 (SLC10A1) 800 C>T and ATP-binding cassette B11 (ABCB11) 1331T>C, and the FXR -1G>T polymorphism were genotyped in 26 male Chinese subjects who ingested single oral 500-mg doses of UDCA. Plasma concentrations of UDCA and its major conjugate metabolite glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) were determined. The mean systemic exposure of UDCA was higher in the five subjects with one copy of the FXR -1G>T variant allele than in those homozygous for the wild-type allele (n = 21) (AUC0-24 h : 38.5 ± 28.2 vs. 20.9 ± 8.0 μg h/mL, P = 0.021), but this difference appeared mainly due to one outlier with the -1GT genotype and elevated baseline and post-treatment UDCA concentrations. After excluding the outlier, body weight was the only factor associated with plasma concentrations of UDCA and there were no significant associations with the other polymorphisms examined. None of the polymorphisms affected the pharmacokinetics of GUDCA. This study showed that the common polymorphisms in bile acid transporters had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA but an effect of the FXR polymorphism cannot be excluded.

  19. Why is sulfuric acid a much stronger acid than ethanol? Determination of the contributions by inductive/field effects and electron-delocalization effects.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kevin; Maloney, Adam; Sowell, Austin; Wang, Changwei; Mo, Yirong; Karty, Joel M

    2015-01-07

    Two different and complementary computational methods were used to determine the contributions by inductive/field effects and by electron-delocalization effects toward the enhancement of the gas-phase deprotonation enthalpy of sulfuric acid over ethanol. Our alkylogue extrapolation method employed density functional theory calculations to determine the deprotonation enthalpy of the alkylogues of sulfuric acid, HOSO2-(CH2CH2)n-OH, and of ethanol, CH3CH2-(CH2CH2)n-OH. The inductive/field effect imparted by the HOSO2 group for a given alkylogue of sulfuric acid was taken to be the difference in deprotonation enthalpy between corresponding (i.e., same n) alkylogues of sulfuric acid and ethanol. Extrapolating the inductive/field effect values for the n = 1-6 alkylogues, we obtained a value of 51.0 ± 6.4 kcal mol(-1) for the inductive/field effect for n = 0, sulfuric acid, leaving 15.4 kcal mol(-1) as the contribution by electron-delocalization effects. Our block-localized wavefunction method was employed to calculate the deprotonation enthalpies of sulfuric acid and ethanol using the electron-localized acid and anion species, which were compared to the values calculated using the electron-delocalized species. The contribution from electron delocalization was thus determined to be 18.2 kcal mol(-1), which is similar to the value obtained from the alkylogue extrapolation method. The two methods, therefore, unambiguously agree that both inductive/field effects and electron-delocalization effects have significant contributions to the enhancement of the deprotonation enthalpy of sulfuric acid compared with ethanol, and that the inductive/field effects are the dominant contributor.

  20. Effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les

    2015-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis is an important chemical modification that can significantly change the structural and functional properties of starch without disrupting its granular morphology. A deep understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality is of great importance for starch scientific research and its industrial applications. During acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions are hydrolyzed preferentially, which enhances the crystallinity and double helical content of acid hydrolyzed starch. This review discusses current understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality. The effects of acid hydrolysis on amylose content, chain length distribution of amylopectin molecules, molecular and crystalline organization (including lamellar structure) and granular morphology are considered. Functional properties discussed include swelling power, gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting, gel texture, and in vitro enzyme digestibility. The paper also highlights some promising applications of acid hydrolyzed starch (starch nanocrystals) in the preparation of biodegradable nanocomposites, bio-hydrogen, and slowly digestible starch-based healthy foods.

  1. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  2. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids that have wide commercial applications, has recently been detected in humans and wildlife. The current study characterizes the developmental toxicity of PFOA in the mouse. Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were given 1,...

  3. Tumorigenic effects of dichloroacetic acid in female F344 rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a halogenated organic acid produced during oxidant disinfection of drinking water. Prior studies indicate that DCA may increase liver tumors in mice. Here we evaluated the hepatic tumorigenicity of DCA in female rats when given alone ...

  4. Effect of essential fatty acids on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G; Das, U N; Koratkar, R; Padma, M; Sagar, P S

    1992-01-01

    An earlier study showed that essential fatty acids and their metabolites can kill tumor cells in vitro. This tumoricidal action can be correlated to an increase in generation of free radicals in the tumor cells. Evening primrose oil (EPO) is a rich source of linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. We report that EPO can kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. This tumoricidal action of EPO was associated with a threefold increase in superoxide generation. One of the factors that is capable of interfering with the cytotoxic action of fatty acids appears to be the protein content of the medium. Fatty acids can bind to protein and thus prevent their cytotoxic action.

  5. Chemopreventive effects of rosmarinic acid on rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Ricardo A; Oliveira, Barthira R; Silva, Luciana R; Cleto, Sabrina S; Munari, Carla C; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C

    2015-03-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenolic compound that shows a number of interesting biological activities, such as antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antineurodegenerative, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of RA to prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced primary DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Wistar rat colon. The animals were treated by gavage with doses of 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg body weight/day. Next, the animals received a single subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg DMH and were killed 4 h later for the evaluation of DNA damage using the comet assay. In addition, two doses of 40 mg/kg DMH were administered weekly for 2 weeks and the animals were killed 2 weeks after the last injection for the evaluation of ACF formation in rat colon. The results showed that RA exerted no genotoxic/carcinogenic effects. Treatment with different doses of RA combined with DMH led to a significant reduction in the extent of DNA damage and in the frequency of ACF compared with animals treated with DMH alone. These findings suggest that RA reduces DNA damage and suppresses the formation of ACF.

  6. The study of gamma irradiation effects on poly (glycolic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao Nakka, Rajeswara; Rao Thumu, Venkatappa; Reddy SVS, Ramana; Rao Buddhiraju, Sanjeeva

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on chemical structure, thermal and morphological properties of biodegradable semi-crystalline poly (glycolic acid) (PGA). PGA samples were subjected to irradiation treatment using a 60Co gamma source with a delivered dose of 30, 60 and 90 kGy, respectively. Gamma irradiation induces cleavage of PGA main chains forming ∼OĊH2 and ĊH2COO∼ radicals in both amorphous and crystalline regions. The free radicals formed in the amorphous region abstract atmospheric oxygen and convert them to peroxy radicals. The peroxy radical causes chain scission at the crystal interface through hydrogen abstraction from methylene groups forming the ∼ĊHCOO∼ (I) radical. Consequently, the observed electron spin resonance (ESR) doublet of irradiated PGA is assigned to (I). The disappearance of the ESR signal above 190°C indicates that free radicals are formed in the amorphous region and decay below the melting temperature of PGA. Fourier transform infrared and optical absorption studies confirm that the ? groups are not influenced by gamma irradiation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed that the melting temperature of PGA decreased from 212°C to 202°C upon irradiation. Degree of crystallinity increased initially and then decreased with an increase in radiation as per DSC and X-ray diffraction studies. Irradiation produced changes in the physical properties of PGA as well as affecting the morphology of the material.

  7. Acidic deposition--ecological effects on surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, P.

    1989-01-01

    The acidification of soft water aquatic ecosystems, with consequent damage to the flora and fauna, is considered in this report. The evidence that environmental effects are ocurring is examined to see if a trend of increasing acidification can be related to changes in atmospheric deposition of sulphates and nitrates. Possible causes of change are considered, to clarify the contributions of variations in human activities and natural factors. It is concluded that acidic deposition, originating partly from emissions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds arising from man-made sources including combustion of fossil fuels, is causing acidification of surface waters in some areas of Europe and North America. There is proof that acidification of surface waters (to less than pH 6) is deleterious to many of the organisms whose habitat it forms. Acidified surface waters in some of the impacted areas are showing signs of recovery, where emissions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds from human activities are decreasing. There is some evidence that reversibility of acidification has started to occur, in some instances, about a decade after emissions were reduced. 219 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Effect of amino acid intake on brush-border membrane uptake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Padilla, M; Lippincott, S

    1986-07-01

    Alterations in the intake of sulfur amino acids (SAA) changes the rat renal brush-border membrane uptake of the beta-amino acid, taurine. A low-SAA diet enhances and a high-taurine diet reduces uptake (Chesney et al., Kidney Int. 24: 588-594, 1983). Neither the low-SAA diet nor the high-taurine diet alters the time course or concentration-dependent accumulation of the sulfur amino acids methionine and cystine or of inorganic sulfate. By contrast the uptake of beta-alanine, another beta-amino acid that competes with taurine, is greater in animals on the low-SAA diet. The high-taurine diet does not change beta-alanine uptake. The plasma levels of taurine are altered by dietary change, but not the values for methionine and cystine. This study indicates that renal adaptation is expressed for beta-alanine, a nonsulfur-containing beta-amino acid. By contrast, methionine, cystine, and sulfate, which participate in a variety of synthetic and conjugative processes, are not conserved by the renal brush-border surface following ingestion of either a low-methionine and -cystine diet or high-taurine diet.

  9. Persistent behavioral effects following early life exposure to retinoic acid or valproic acid in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Karbhari, Nishika; Brooks, Roy A.J.; De La Rocha, Amberlene J.; Janardhan, Sheila; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Moderate to severe dysregulation in retinoid signaling during early development is associated with a constellation of physical malformations and/or neural tube defects, including spina bifida. It is thought that more subtle dysregulation of this system, which might be achievable via dietary (i.e. hypervitaminosis A) or pharmacological (i.e. valproic acid) exposure in humans, will manifest on behavioral domains including sociability, without overt physical abnormalities. METHODS During early life, zebrafish were exposed to low doses of two chemicals that disrupt retinoid signaling. From 0-5 dpf, larvae were reared in aqueous solutions containing retinoic acid (0, 0.02, 0.2 or 2 nM) or valproic acid (0, 0.5, 5.0 or 50 uM). One cohort of zebrafish was assessed using a locomotor activity screen at 6-dpf; another was reared to adulthood and assessed using a neurobehavioral test battery (startle habituation, novel tank exploration, shoaling, and predator escape/avoidance). RESULTS There was no significant increase in the incidence of physical malformation among exposed fish compared to controls. Both retinoic acid and valproic acid exposures during development disrupted larval activity with persisting behavioral alterations later in life, primarily manifesting as decreased social affiliation. CONCLUSIONS Social behavior and some aspects of motor function were altered in exposed fish; the importance of examining emotional or psychological consequences of early life exposure to retinoid acting chemicals is discussed. PMID:26439099

  10. Effects of humic acid-metal complexes on hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase, carnitine acetyltransferase and catalase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fungjou Lu; Youngshin Chen . Dept. of Biochemistry); Tienshang Huang . Dept. of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    A significant increase in activities of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase was observed in male Balb/c mice intraperitoneally injected for 40 d with 0.125 mg/0.1 ml/d humic acid-metal complexes. Among these complexes, the humic acid-As complex was relatively effective, whereas humic acid-25 metal complex was more effective, and humic acid-26 metal complex was most effective. However, humic acid or metal mixtures, or metal such as As alone, was not effective. Humic acid-metal complexes also significantly decreased hepatic catalase activity. A marked decrease of 60-kDa polypeptide in liver cytoplasm was also observed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after the mice had been injected with the complexes. Morphological analysis of a histopathological biopsy of such treated mice revealed several changes in hepatocytes, including focal necrosis and cell infiltration, mild fatty changes, reactive nuclei, and hypertrophy. Humic acid-metal complexes affect activities of metabolic enzymes of fatty acids, and this results in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increase of the lipid peroxidation. The products of lipid peroxidation may be responsible for liver damage and possible carcinogenesis. Previous studies in this laboratory had shown that humic acid-metal complex altered the coagulation system and that humic acid, per se, caused vasculopathy. Therefore, humic acid-metal complexes may be main causal factors of not only so-called blackfoot disease, but also the liver cancer prevailing on the southwestern coast of Taiwan.

  11. Effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the acid-soluble collagen from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wei, Guanmian; Li, Tiancheng; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Zhou, Peng

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the production of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from grass carp skin. For alkaline pretreatment, 0.05 and 0.1M NaOH removed non-collagenous proteins without significant loss of ASC at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C; while 0.2 and 0.5M NaOH caused significant loss of ASC, and 0.5M NaOH caused structural modification of ASC at 15 and 20 °C. For acid extraction at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C, ASC was partly extracted by 0.1 and 0.2M acetic acid, while 0.5 and 1.0M acetic acid resulted in almost complete extraction. The processing conditions involving 0.05-0.1M NaOH for pretreatment, 0.5M acetic acid for extraction and 4-20 °C for both pretreatment and extraction, produced ASC with the structural integrity being well maintained and hence were recommended to prepare ASC from grass carp skin in practical application.

  12. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  13. Effectiveness and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Spinal Deformity Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Yong; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2017-01-01

    Objective Spinal deformity surgery has the potential risk of massive blood loss. To reduce surgical bleeding, the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) became popular in spinal surgery, recently. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intra-operative TXA use to reduce surgical bleeding and transfusion requirements in spinal deformity surgery. Methods A total of 132 consecutive patients undergoing multi-level posterior spinal segmental instrumented fusion (≥5 levels) were analyzed retrospectively. Primary outcome measures included intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusion amount and rate of transfusion. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative transfusion amount, rate of transfusion, and complications associated with TXA or allogeneic blood transfusions. Results The number of patients was 89 in TXA group and 43 in non-TXA group. There were no significant differences in demographic or surgical traits between the groups except hypertension. The EBL was significantly lower in TXA group than non-TXA group (841 vs. 1336 mL, p=0.002). TXA group also showed less intra-operative and postoperative transfusion requirements (544 vs. 812 mL, p=0.012; 193 vs. 359 mL, p=0.034). Based on multiple regression analysis, TXA use could reduce surgical bleeding by 371 mL (37 % of mean EBL). Complication rate was not different between the groups. Conclusion TXA use can effectively reduce the amount of intra-operative bleeding and transfusion requirements in spinal deformity surgery. Future randomized controlled study could confirm the routine use of TXA in major spinal surgery. PMID:28061495

  14. Effect of erythorbic acid on cooked color in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A L; Mancini, R; Sun, Q; Lynch, M P; Faustman, C

    2001-01-01

    Consumers often use the color of cooked ground beef as an indicator of doneness. For safety reasons, it is recommended that the center of ground beef products be heated to 71°C. In some instances beef may appear done before reaching 71°C, a condition termed premature browning (PMB). Ground beef (15% fat), with added erythorbic acid (ERY) at 0.04 and 0.06% was formed into patties, wrapped in oxygen permeable film, and stored in the dark at 4°C. Patties were stored for either 10 h or 58 h and then cooked to internal end point temperatures of 60, 66, 71 or 77°C. Internal cooked color L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values were measured. For beef patties stored 10 h, there was no effect of ERY on internal cooked color. After 58 h storage, ground beef with 0.04 and 0.06% ERY had higher a(∗) values than controls at 60°C (P<0.05). Beef with 0.04% ERY cooked to an internal temperature of 66°C had higher a(∗) values than 0.06% ERY and controls (P<0.05). There was no effect of ERY on color of beef patties cooked to 71 or 77°C. The presence of 0.04% ERY in ground beef patties stored 58 h appeared to maintain red color at internal temperatures of 60 and 66°C.

  15. Effect of dietary fatty acids on jejunal and ileal oleic acid uptake by rat brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Prieto, R M; Stremmel, W; Sales, C; Tur, J A

    1996-04-18

    To test the effect of dietary fatty acids on fatty acid uptake, the influx kinetics of a representative long-chain fatty acid, 3H-oleic acid, in both the jejunum and ileum of rats has been studied using brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Animals were fed with semipurified diets containing 5 g fat/100 g diet, as corn oil (control group), safflower oil (unsaturated group) and coconut oil hydrogenated (saturated group). With increasing unbound oleate concentration in the medium, the three dietary groups showed saturable kinetics in both jejunal and ileal BBMV (controls: Vmax = 0.15 +/- 0.01 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 136 +/- 29.1 nmol for jejunum, and Vmax = 0.23 +/- 0.03 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 196 +/- 50.3 nmol for ileum; unsaturated: Vmax = 0.28 +/- 0.05 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 242.7 +/- 91.8 nmol for jejunum, and Vmax = 1.29 +/- 0.06 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 509.8 +/- 97.5 nmol for ileum; saturated: Vmax = 0.03 +/- 0.01 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 124.5 +/- 72.6 nmol for jejunum, and Vmax = 0.04 +/- 0.01 nmol x mg protein -1.5 min-1 and Km = 205.6 +/- 85.3 nmol for ileum). These results support the theory that feeding an isocaloric diet containing only unsaturated fatty acids enhanced oleic acid uptake, and feeding an isocaloric diet containing only saturated fatty acids decreased oleic acid uptake. The results obtained in the present work also show the adaptative ability of jejunum and ileum to the type of dietary fat.

  16. Ultrasonic Destruction of Acid Orange 7: Effect of Humic Acid, Surfactants and Complex Matrices.

    PubMed

    Hamdaoui, Oualid; Merouani, Slimane

    2017-03-01

      The ultrasonic degradation at 600 kHz of an azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), in the presence of various dissolved natural organic matters (humic acid and surfactants) and in environmentally relevant matrices (natural water and seawater) was investigated. Additionally, the dependence of AO7 degradation on several operating parameters was clarified. The obtained results showed that ultrasound completely destroyed AO7 in 90 min of treatment but only 10% of TOC was removed after a long irradiation time. Investigations using the radical scavengers tert-butyl alcohol and KI revealed that AO7 degradation proceeds through radical reactions occurring at the bubble-liquid interface. AO7 conversion was strongly affected by the operating conditions. While the degradation of the dye was not affected by the presence of humic acid, it was impacted negatively by the presence of surfactants. Replacing deionized water by natural water and seawater as real environmental matrices did not affect the degradation of the dye.

  17. Solvation and Acid Strength Effects on Catalysis by Faujasite Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Gounder, Rajamani P.; Jones, Andrew J.; Carr, Robert T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2012-02-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and chemical titration data indicate that differences in monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation and methanol dehydration turnover rates (per H+) among FAU zeolites treated thermally with steam (H-USY) and then chemically with ammonium hexafluorosilicate (CDHUSY) predominantly reflect differences in the size and solvating properties of their supercage voids rather than differences in acid strength. The number of protons on a given sample was measured consistently by titrations with Na+, with CH3 groups via reactions of dimethyl ether, and with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine during methanol dehydration catalysis; these titration values were also supported by commensurate changes in acidic OH infrared band areas upon exposure to titrant molecules. The number of protons, taken as the average of the three titration methods, was significantly smaller than the number of framework Al atoms (Alf) obtained from X-ray diffraction and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on H-USY (0.35 H+/Alf) and CD-HUSY (0.69 H+/Alf). These data demonstrate that the ubiquitous use of Alf sites as structural proxies for active H+ sites in zeolites can be imprecise, apparently because distorted Al structures that are not associated with acidic protons are sometimes detected as Alf sites. Monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation rate constants, normalized non-rigorously by the number of Alf species, decreased with increasing Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples and became undetectable at sub-stoichiometric exchange levels (0.32 and 0.72 Na+/Alf ratios, respectively), an unexpected finding attributed incorrectly in previous studies to the presence of minority ‘‘super-acidic’’ sites. These rate constants, when normalized rigorously by the number of residual H+ sites were independent of Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples, reflecting the stoichiometric replacement of protons that are uniform in

  18. Protective Effect of Folic Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Cui, Huan; Zhang, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Chaonan; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hui; Qiu, Wenting; Zhang, Chuanwu; Yang, Zuopeng; Chen, Zhu; Mao, Guangyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although previous reports have linked DNA damage with both transmissions across generations as well as our own survival, it is unknown how to reverse the lesion. Based on the data from a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of folic acid supplementation (FAS) on DNA oxidative damage reversal. In this randomized clinical trial (RCT), a total of 450 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive folic acid (FA) 0.4 mg/day (low-FA), 0.8 mg/day (high-FA), or placebo (control) for 8 weeks. The urinary 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and creatinine (Cr) concentration at pre- and post-FAS were measured with modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. A multivariate general linear model was applied to assess the individual effects of FAS and the joint effects between FAS and hypercholesterolemia on oxidative DNA damage improvement. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02235948. Of the 438 subjects that received FA fortification or placebo, the median (first quartile, third quartile) of urinary 8-OHdG/Cr for placebo, low-FA, and high-FA groups were 58.19 (43.90, 82.26), 53.51 (38.97, 72.74), 54.73 (39.58, 76.63) ng/mg at baseline and 57.77 (44.35, 81.33), 51.73 (38.20, 71.30), and 50.65 (37.64, 76.17) ng/mg at the 56th day, respectively. A significant decrease of urinary 8-OHdG was observed after 56 days FA fortification (P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, after adjusting for some potential confounding factors, including the baseline urinary 8-OHdG/Cr, the urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentration significantly decreased after 56 days FAS [β (95% confidence interval) = −0.88 (−1.62, −0.14) and P = 0.020 for low-FA; and β (95% confidence interval) = −2.68 (−3.42, −1.94) and P < 0.001 for high-FA] in a dose-response fashion (Ptrend

  19. [Effects of zoledronic acid on osteoporosis patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-01-01

    Zoledronic acid is a bisphosphonate with the most potent anti-bone resorbing activity. Several previous studies demonstrated that zoledronic acid once a year significantly reduced the risk of vertebral, non-vertebral, and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. In a phase Ⅲ 2-year placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind comparative study in Japan(ZONE study)demonstrated that once-yearly infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg increased lumbar spine and proximal femoral BMD, and reduced the incidence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in Japanese patients with primary osteoporosis compared to placebo.

  20. Carboxyatractylate inhibits the potentiating effect of lipophylic cation TPP+ on uncoupling activity of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Dedukhova, V I; Mokhova, E N; Starkov, A A; Leikin YuN

    1993-08-01

    The effect of TPP+ on the fatty acid or FCCP-induced uncoupling in rat heart mitochondria was studied. It was found that (a) TPP+ increases the stimulation of oxygen consumption by palmitic acid or FCCP in the presence of oligomycin, (b) TPP+ greatly enhances the palmitic acid or FCCP-induced delta psi decrease. Both effects of TPP+ were strongly suppressed by carboxyatractylate in the case of palmitate but were not in the case of FCCP. The role of ATP/ADP-antiporter in the TPP+ and palmitic acid effects is discussed.

  1. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-06

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well.

  2. Effects of dietary trans-9 octadecenoic acid, trans-11 vaccenic acid and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lim, Ji-Na; Lee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bum; Hwang, Jin-Hee; Jung, U-Suk; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Sang-Rak; Roh, Sang-Gun; Lee, Hong-Gu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans fatty acids in mice. Following the administration of a 0.5/100 g diet of trans-9 octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11 vaccenic acid (TVA) or cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 4 weeks, the body weights and the weights of the liver, testis and mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of the animals gradually decreased (P<0.05). The EA group exhibited the lowest levels of magnesium and triglycerides (P<0.05). CLA increased villus length (P<0.05), while EA and TVA decreased villus length (P<0.05). The TVA group exhibited the lowest levels of low-density lipoprotein and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.05). Taken together, EA, TVA and CLA affected the physiological conditions of mice differently. The potential effects of three well-known fatty acids, including trans-9 octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11 vaccenic acid (TVA) and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), in animals or humans remain to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, 32 animals were randomly divided into four groups and administered a 0.5/100 g diet of EA, TVA or CLA for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that the body weights and the weights of the liver, testis and mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of the animals gradually decreased (P<0.05). Blood was collected individually via the external jugular veins and the EA group exhibited the lowest levels of magnesium and triglycerides (P<0.05). CLA increased villus length (P<0.05), while EA and TVA decreased villus length (P<0.05). The TVA group exhibited the lowest levels of low-density lipoprotein and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.05). Taken together, EA, TVA and CLA affected the physiological conditions of mice differently and these may further our understanding of the various effects of these fatty acids on animals and humans.

  3. Effect of Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Soil Atmosphere on Tylenchorhynchus spp.

    PubMed Central

    McElderry, Claire F.; Browning, Marsha; Amador, José A.

    2005-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids can be produced under anaerobic conditions by fermentative soil microbes and have nematicidal properties. We evaluated the effects of butyric and propionic acids on death and recovery of stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), a common parasite of turfgrass. Nematodes in a sand-soil mix (80:20) were treated with butyric or propionic acid and incubated under air or N₂ for 7 days at 25 °C. Amendment of soil with 0.1 and 1.0 µmol (8.8 and 88 µg) butyric acid/g soil or 1.0 µmol (74 µg) propionic acid/g soil resulted in the death of all nematodes. The composition of the soil atmosphere had no effect on the nematicidal activity of the acids. Addition of hydrochloric acid to adjust soil pH to 4.4 and 3.5 resulted in nematode mortality relative to controls (41% to 86%) but to a lesser degree than short-chain fatty acids at the same pH. Nematodes did not recover after a 28-day period following addition of 10 µmol butyric acid/g soil under air or N₂. Carbon mineralization decreased during this period, whereas levels of inorganic N and microbial biomass-N remained constant. Short-chain fatty acids appear to be effective in killing Tylenchorhynchus spp. independent of atmospheric composition. Nematode mortality appears to be a function of the type and concentration of fatty acid and soil pH. PMID:19262845

  4. Kinetics and Effects of Dichloroacetic Acid in Rainbow Trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) are continuously released to surface waters in municipal wastewater effluents. Very little is known, however, about their potential to adversely impact aquatic life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake, distribution, elimination...

  5. Effect of sulfonylureas on hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-08-01

    In isolated rat livers perfused with oleic acid (0.1 mM), infusion of tolbutamide or glyburide decreased the rate of ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was maximal at 2.0 mM and 10 M concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide, respectively. Neither tolbutamide nor glyburide inhibited ketogenesis in livers perfused with octanoate. The inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by sulfonylureas was independent of perfusate oleic acid concentration. Additionally, in rat livers perfused with oleic acid in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine (10 mM), submaximal concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide did not inhibit hepatic ketogenesis. Finally, glyburide infusion into livers perfused with (U- $C)oleic acid (0.1 mM) increased the rate of UC label incorporation into hepatic triglycerides by 2.5-fold. These data suggest that both tolbutamide and glyburide inhibit long-chain fatty acid oxidation by inhibition the key regulatory enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, most probably by competing with L-(-)-carnitine.

  6. The effects of phytic acid on the Maillard reaction and the formation of acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhou, Yamin; Ma, Jimei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Hong

    2013-11-01

    Phytic acid, myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid, exists in substantial (1-5%) amounts in edible plant seeds. In this study the effects of phytic acid on the Maillard reaction and the formation of acrylamide were investigated. Both phytic acid and phosphate enhanced browning in glucose/β-alanine system, but phytic acid was less effective than phosphate. Higher pH favoured the catalytic activities for both of them. The influence of the types of sugar and amino acid on the reaction was also examined. Browning was suppressed by the addition of calcium and magnesium ions, but an additive effect was observed for ferrous ions and phytic acid in glucose/β-alanine solution at pH 8.0. Both phytic acid and phosphate promoted the polymerisation of the reaction intermediates. The kinetics of Maillard reaction was first-ordered reaction in the presence of phytic acid. Phytic acid was less effective than phosphate in the formation of acrylamide. When potato slices were treated with sodium phytate and calcium chloride successively, the formation of acrylamide was greatly suppressed.

  7. Ethacrynic acid can be effective for refractory congestive heart failure and ascites.

    PubMed

    Alisky, Joseph M; Tuttle, Thomas F

    2003-11-01

    Ethacrynic acid is a loop diuretic little used today because of its side-effect profile and the availability of multiple alternative agents. However, in our clinical experience, ethacrynic acid can alleviate acute congestive heart failure and ascites resistant to other diuretics. Two patients aged 89 and 94 in life-threatening pulmonary edema were stabilized by ethacrynic acid after furosemide proved ineffective. A third patient, aged 83, with a pleural effusion and ascites secondary to end-stage hepatitis B and C, responded to ethacrynic acid when spironolactone and furosemide produced little urine output. Ethacrynic acid may have a unique niche as a diuretic of last resort, especially in geriatric practice.

  8. Therapeutic effects of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yin-E; Dai, Shu-Fang; Wang, Bin; Qu, Wei; Gao, Jun-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of combined 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on genital warts and the safety. Methods: One hundred ten patients with genital warts who were treated in our hospital from June 2013 to October 2014 were selected. The warts and affected parts were disinfected with benzalkonium bromide solution, and the warts were covered with absorbent cotton that had already been added freshly prepared 20% ALA solution, packaged and fixed. Then they were wet-dressed in dark, into which ALA solution was added according to the proportion of 5:3:2 every 30 minutes for three consecutive hours. Afterwards, the warts were illuminated by using photodynamic laser apparatus. The clinical outcomes, adverse reactions and recurrence rates were observed. Results: Genital warts were relieved in 107 out of the 110 cases (cure rate: 97.3%). Male patients had significantly better treatment outcomes at the urethral orifice than those in other affected parts. In the 107 patients, the cure rate of male patients was 98.8%, and they were cured after being treated four times. In contrast, female patients, who were cured after 5 times of treatment, had the cure rate of 91.7%. Their cure rates were similar (χ2=0, P>0.05), but the males were cured after significantly fewer times of treatment than the females (t=-7.432, P<0.05). Five patients suffered from mild tingling or burning sensation upon dressing at the urethral orifice, and the others were all free from systemic adverse reactions. After illumination, a small portion of the patients had mildly red, swelling, painful affected parts, with mild edema that almost disappeared within three days. Three patients relapsed at the urethral orifice and were then cured after further treatment. Conclusion: ALA-PDT can treat genital warts safely with high cure rate and low recurrence rate, particularly working for those of males at the urethral orifice. PMID:27648048

  9. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Jéssica A; Fragoso, Thais N; Yamamoto, Eduardo S; Laurenti, Márcia D; Silva, Marcelo S; Ferreira, Aurea F; Lago, João Henrique G; Gomes, Gabriela S; Passero, Luiz Felipe D

    2017-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA), isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae), were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L.) infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  10. Ingested boric acid effect on the venom chemistry of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a field evaluation of a boric acid bait against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, it was observed that workers of intoxicated colonies produced stings with less toxic effects compared to workers from healthy colonies. In this study, the effect of boric acid on the levels o...

  11. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  12. Ursolic acid plays a role in Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham CNS depressing effects.

    PubMed

    Taviano, M F; Miceli, N; Monforte, M T; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2007-04-01

    The sedative, anticonvulsant and analgesic activity of ursolic acid, a terpenoid bioassay-isolated from Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham, was evaluated in mice. The oral administration of ursolic acid (2.3 mg/kg) produced a significant depressant effect on CNS by reducing spontaneous motor activity and the number and lethality of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Two models of nociception, the writhing test and the hot plate test, were also used to examine the analgesic effect of ursolic acid. At a dose of 2.3 mg/kg, ursolic acid caused an inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, but was inactive in the hot plate test. Treatment at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) significantly increased the reaction time in the hot plate test. This effect, reversed by naloxone, evidently involves opioid receptors, but the analgesic activity of ursolic acid may be related also to the antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of this compound.

  13. Effect of anions and humic acid on the performance of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles coated with polyacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Seok; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Lee, Seockheon; Hwang, Inseong

    2014-10-01

    Effects of anions (NO3(-), HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and humic acid on the reactivity and core/shell chemistries of polyacrylic acid-coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (PAA-NZVI) and inorganically modified NZVI (INORG-NZVI) particles were investigated. The reactivity tests under various ion concentrations (0.2-30mN) revealed the existence of a favorable molar ratio of anion/NZVI that increased the reactivity of NZVI particles. The presence of a relatively small amount of humic acid (0.5mgL(-1)) substantially decreased the INORG-NZVI reactivity by 76%, whereas the reactivity of PAA-NZVI decreased only by 12%. The XRD and TEM results supported the role of the PAA coating of PAA-NZVI in impeding the oxidation of the Fe(0) core by groundwater solutes. This protective role provided by the organic coating also resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in the trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction capacity of PAA-NZVI compared to that of INORG-NZVI in the presence of anions/humic acid. Ethylene and ethane were simultaneously produced as the major reduction products of TCE in both NZVI systems, suggesting that a hydrodechlorination occurred without the aid of metallic catalysts. The PAA coating, originally designed to improve the mobility of NZVI, enhanced TCE degradation performances of NZVI in the presence of anions and humic acid.

  14. Electronic properties of amino acid side chains: quantum mechanics calculation of substituent effects

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Donard S

    2005-01-01

    Background Electronic properties of amino acid side chains such as inductive and field effects have not been characterized in any detail. Quantum mechanics (QM) calculations and fundamental equations that account for substituent effects may provide insight into these important properties. PM3 analysis of electron distribution and polarizability was used to derive quantitative scales that describe steric factors, inductive effects, resonance effects, and field effects of amino acid side chains. Results These studies revealed that: (1) different semiempirical QM methods yield similar results for the electronic effects of side chain groups, (2) polarizability, which reflects molecular deformability, represents steric factors in electronic terms, and (3) inductive effects contribute to the propensity of an amino acid for α-helices. Conclusion The data provide initial characterization of the substituent effects of amino acid side chains and suggest that these properties affect electron density along the peptide backbone. PMID:16078995

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Glutamic Acid in Piglets Challenged with Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition. PMID:24984001

  16. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  17. Effects of surfactants on low-molecular-weight organic acids to wash soil zinc.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Yao, Ping; Li, Ting; Wang, Guiyin; Gong, Guoshu; Li, Yun; Deng, Ouping

    2016-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid used to remove zinc from contaminated soils were investigated. The Zn removal efficiencies of all washing solutions showed a logarithmic increase with acid concentrations from 0.5 to 10.0 g/L, while they decreased as pH increased from 4 to 9. Increasing the reaction time enhanced the effects of surfactants on Zn removal efficiencies by the acids during washing and significantly (P < 0.05) improved the removal under some mixed cases. Oxalic acid suffered antagonistic effects from the three surfactants and seriously damaged soil nutrients during the removal of soil Zn. Notably, the three surfactants caused synergistic effects on tartaric and citric acid during washing, with NPAM leading to an increase in Zn removal by 5.0 g/L citric acid of 10.60 % (P < 0.05) within 2 h. NPAM also alleviated the loss of cation exchange capacity of washed soils and obviously improved soil nitrogen concentrations. Overall, combining citric acid with NPAM offers a promising approach to the removal of zinc from contaminated soil.

  18. Inhibitory effects of docosahexaenoic acid on colon carcinoma 26 metastasis to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Iigo, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Ishikawa, C.; Iwahori, Y.; Asamoto, M.; Yazawa, K.; Araki, E.; Tsuda, H.

    1997-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA), and a series of n-6 PUFAs were investigated for their anti-tumour and antimetastatic effects in a subcutaneous (s.c.) implanted highly metastatic colon carcinoma 26 (Co 26Lu) model. EPA and DHA exerted significant inhibitory effects on tumour growth at the implantation site and significantly decreased the numbers of lung metastatic nodules. Oleic acid also significantly inhibited lung metastatic nodules. Treatment with arachidonic acid showed a tendency for reduction in colonization. However, treatment with high doses of fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, increased the numbers of lung metastatic nodules. DHA and EPA only inhibited lung colonizations when administered together with the tumour cells, suggesting that their incorporation is necessary for an influence to be exerted. Chromatography confirmed that contents of fatty acids in both tumour tissues and plasma were indeed affected by the treatments. Tumour cells pretreated with fatty acids in vivo, in particular DHA, also showed a low potential for lung colony formation when transferred to new hosts. Thus, DHA treatment exerted marked antimetastatic activity associated with pronounced change in the fatty acid component of tumour cells. The results indicate that uptake of DHA into tumour cells results in altered tumour cell membrane characteristics and a decreased ability to metastasize. PMID:9043019

  19. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum.

  20. Effect of growth temperature on cellular fatty acids in sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Könneke, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2003-11-01

    The effect of growth temperature on the cellular fatty acid composition of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied in 12 species belonging to eight genera including psychrophiles and mesophiles. Most of these species were of marine origin. The investigated SRB with the exception of four Desulfobacter species exhibited only a minor increase in the proportion of cis-unsaturated fatty acids (by < or = 5% per 10 degrees C) when the growth temperature was decreased; psychrophiles maintained their typically high content of cis-unsaturated fatty acids (around 75% of total fatty acids) nearly constant. The four Desulfobacter species, however, increased the proportion of cis-unsaturated among total fatty acids significantly (by > or =14% per 10 degrees C; measured in late growth phase) with decreasing growth temperature. The ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in Desulfobacter species changed not only with the growth temperature, but also with the growth state in batch cultures at constant temperature. Changes of cellular fatty acids were studied in detail with D. hydrogenophilus, the most psychrotolerant (growth range 0-35 degrees C) among the mesophilic SRB examined. Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus also formed cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid (a cyclopropane fatty acid) and 10-methylhexadecanoic acid. At low growth temperature (12 degrees C), the relative amount of these fatty acids was at least threefold lower; this questions the usefulness of 10-methylhexadecanoic acid as a reliable biomarker of Desulfobacter in cold sediments.

  1. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  2. Kinetic studies of the strengthening effect on liquid hot water pretreatments by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Huisheng; Lv, Chunliu; Zhang, Minhua; Liu, Jiatao; Meng, Fanmei; Geng, Zhong Feng

    2017-03-22

    The liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments would be accelerated by the organic acids produced from the process. In the study, the organic acids included not only acetic acid but also lactic acid during LHW hydrolysis of reeds, at 180-220°C and for 15-135min. The lactic acid was presumably produced from xylose degradation in the pretreatment process. The different organic acids, such as acetic acid, lactic acid and acetic-lactic acids, were used to strengthen the LHW pretreatments for increasing xylose production. Moreover, the work presented kinetic models of xylose and hemicellulose at different conditions, considering the generation of lactic acid. The experimental and kinetic results both indicated that acetic-lactic acids had synergistic catalytic effect on the reaction, which could not only inhibit the degradation of xylose, but also promote the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Besides, the highest concentration of xylose of 7.323g/L was obtained at 200°C, for 45min and with 1wt% acetic-lactic acids.

  3. Effect of an acid filler on hydrolysis and biodegradation of poly-lactic acid (PLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iozzino, Valentina; Speranza, Vito; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers is certainly an excellent strategy to solve many of the problems related to the disposal of the traditional polymers, whose accumulation in the environment is harmful and damaging. In order to optimize the use of biodegradable polymers, it is very important to understand and control the transformation processes, the structures and the morphologies resulting from the process conditions used to produce the articles and, not least, the biodegradation. The latter is strictly dependent on the just mentioned variables. The poly-lactic acid, PLA, is a biodegradable polymer. Many studies have been carried out on the degradation process of this polymer. In the course of this work we performed degradation tests on the PLA, with a specific D-isomer content, having amorphous structure, and in particular of biodegradation and hydrolysis. An acid chemical, fumaric acid, was added to PLA with the objective of controlling the rate of hydrolysis and of biodegradation. The hydrolysis process was followed, as function of time, by means of different techniques: pH variation, variation of weight of samples and variation of crystallinity degree and glass transition temperature using DSC analysis. The samples were also analyzed in terms of biodegradability by means of a homemade respirometer apparatus, in controlled composting conditions.

  4. Effect of fatty acids on self-assembly of soybean lecithin systems.

    PubMed

    Godoy, C A; Valiente, M; Pons, R; Montalvo, G

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing interest in natural formulations for drug administration and functional foods, it is desirable a good knowledge of the phase behavior of lecithin/fatty acid formulations. Phase structure and properties of ternary lecithin/fatty acids/water systems are studied at 37°C, making emphasis in regions with relatively low water and fatty acid content. The effect of fatty acid saturation degree on the phase microstructure is studied by comparing a fully saturated (palmitic acid, C16:0), monounsaturated (oleic acid, C18:1), and diunsaturated (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids. Phase determinations are based on a combination of polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Interestingly, unsaturated (oleic acid and linoleic acid) fatty acid destabilizes the lamellar bilayer. Slight differences are observed between the phase diagrams produced by the unsaturated ones: small lamellar, medium cubic and large hexagonal regions. A narrow isotropic fluid region also appears on the lecithin-fatty acid axis, up to 8wt% water. In contrast, a marked difference in phase microsctructure was observed between unsaturated and saturated systems in which the cubic and isotropic fluid phases are not formed. These differences are, probably, a consequence of the high Krafft point of the C16 saturated chains that imply rather rigid chains. However, unsaturated fatty acids result in more flexible tails. The frequent presence of, at least, one unsaturated chain in phospholipids makes it very likely a better mixing situation than in the case of more rigid chains. This swelling potential favors the formation of reverse hexagonal, cubic, and micellar phases. Both unsaturated fatty acid systems evolve by aging, with a reduction of the extension of reverse hexagonal phase and migration of the cubic phase to lower fatty acid and water contents. The kinetic stability of the systems seems to be controlled by the unsaturation of fatty acids.

  5. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24842467

  6. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, C T

    1985-01-01

    Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining "acid-sensitive" watersheds that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. It has been hypothesized that mineral acids from atmospheric deposition have remobilized Al previously precipitated within the soil during soil development. This Al is then thought to be transported to adjacent surface waters. Dissolved mononuclear Al occurs as aquo Al, as well as OH-, F-, SO4(2-), and organic complexes. Although past investigations have often ignored non-hydroxide complexes of Al, it appears that organic and F complexes are the predominant forms of Al in dilute (low ionic strength) acidic surface waters. The concentration of inorganic forms of Al increases exponentially with decreases in solution pH. This response is similar to the theoretical pH dependent solubility of Al mineral phases. The concentration of organic forms of Al, however, is strongly correlated with variations in organic carbon concentration of surface waters rather than pH. Elevated concentrations of Al in dilute acidic waters are of interest because: Al is an important pH buffer; Al may influence the cycling of important elements like P, organic carbon, and trace metals; and Al is potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. An understanding of the aqueous speciation of Al is essential for an evaluation of these processes. PMID:3935428

  7. Effects of acid suppression on microbial flora of upper gut.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, N D; Brimblecombe, R W; Elder, J; Heatley, R V; Misiewicz, J J; Northfield, T C; Pottage, A

    1995-02-01

    Decreased acid secretion, due to therapy or disease, predisposes to increased bacterial counts in gastric juice. As bacterial numbers increase, the number of nitrate-reducing strains and the concentration of luminal nitrite usually also increase. However, there is controversy (mainly because of assay problems) about whether decreased acid increases generation of N-nitroso compounds: these may be produced by acid or by bacterial catalysis, and the relative contributions of each are still uncertain. Other potentially important factors include ascorbate secretion (can prevent nitrite conversion to nitroso compounds) and the particular spectrum of nitroso compounds produced. Nitrosation of several histamine H2-receptor antagonists has been demonstrated experimentally, but under conditions that are very unlikely to be encountered clinically. Some acid suppressant therapies have been claimed to aid eradication of Helicobacter pylori, but more work is needed to evaluate this. If ulcer treatment regimens do not also address eradication of H. pylori (when present), gastritis will progress, and the recently documented association between H. pylori and gastric carcinoma needs to be considered. Enteric flora probably also increase if acid secretion is markedly reduced: this does not appear to have nutritional consequences but probably reduces the resistance to occasional infections, of which cholera is the best documented.

  8. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Crider, Krista S; Bailey, Lynn B; Berry, Robert J

    2011-03-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman's risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.

  9. Isolation and characterisation of lactic acid bacterium for effective fermentation of cellobiose into optically pure homo L-(+)-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Zendo, Takeshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    Effective utilisation of cellulosic biomasses for economical lactic acid production requires a microorganism with potential ability to utilise efficiently its major components, glucose and cellobiose. Amongst 631 strains isolated from different environmental samples, strain QU 25 produced high yields of l-(+)-lactic acid of high optical purity from cellobiose. The QU 25 strain was identified as Enterococcus mundtii based on its sugar fermentation pattern and 16S rDNA sequence. The production of lactate by fermentation was optimised for the E. mundtii QU25 strain. The optimal pH and temperature for batch culturing were found to be 7.0°C and 43°C, respectively. E. mundtii QU 25 was able to metabolise a mixture of glucose and cellobiose simultaneously without apparent carbon catabolite repression. Moreover, under the optimised culture conditions, production of optically pure l-lactic acid (99.9%) increased with increasing cellobiose concentrations. This indicates that E. mundtii QU 25 is a potential candidate for effective lactic acid production from cellulosic hydrolysate materials.

  10. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits.

  11. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-01-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence. PMID:540617

  12. Effects of amino acids on the physiochemical properties of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Fang, Ling; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong

    2014-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different amino acid additives (phenylalanine (Phe), methionine (Met), lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the physicochemical properties of potato starch gels. Charge-carrying amino acids (Lys, Arg, Asp and Glu) significantly decreased the swelling power, solubility, light transmittance, L(∗) value and gel strength of potato starch, but increased syneresis during freeze-thaw treatment, while neutral amino acids (Phe and Met) did not cause modifications in starch gels. During heating, potato starch with fortified charge-carrying amino acids showed a lower peak G' (storage modulus), when compared with Phe and Met. Results showed that charge-carrying amino acids could modify physicochemical properties and improve the nutritional values of starch-based products.

  13. Effect of monolaurin and lactic acid on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, E G; Marshall, D L; Oh, D H

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin.

  14. [Effect of dietary VE on the contents of salivary acid and MDA in RBC membrane].

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Dong, Z; Zhang, Y; Chen, Y

    1997-05-01

    Vitamin E can protect membrane from the damage of lipid peroxidation, Salivary acid is the residual of carbohydrate on the membrane. To evaluate the effect of dietary VE on salivary acid, the contents of MDA and salivary acid of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane of rats were measured. The rats were fed with different amounts of dietary VE and stayed at different temperatures. The results revealed that the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane reduced markly (P < 0.01) and the content of MDA of RBC membrane was stable (P > 0.05) after the rats were exposed to cold for 10 days. High dietary VE intake increased the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane (P < 0.01). There was no correlation between the content of salivary acid and MDA of RBC membrane. It suggested that dietary VE could raise the content of salivary acid in RBC membrane, but it can not be explained by the reduction of LPO.

  15. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors.

  16. The effect of terpenes on percutaneous absorption of tiaprofenic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Okyar, Alper; Nuriyev, Maksat; Yildiz, Ayca; Pala-Kara, Zeliha; Ozturk, Narin; Kaptan, Engin

    2010-11-01

    Tiaprofenic acid is a potent analgesic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and like any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, oral administration of the conventional dosage forms of tiaprofenic acid invariably causes gastrointestinal side effects. In an effort to eliminate these side effects while enhancing the drug concentration at the target tissue, an epidermal application of tiaprofenic acid seems to be an effective alternative drug delivery modality. This study attempts to demonstrate the influence of different terpenes (d-limonene, menthol and nerolidol) in various combinations of preparations on the percutaneous penetration of tiaprofenic acid from Carbopol(®) 940 based gel formulations (1%) in an ex vivo experiment using Franz-type diffusion cells. The enhancement effect of terpenes on skin absorption of tiaprofenic acid was further evaluated by an in vivo method in rats. Amongst the terpenes used, d-limonene was the most outstanding penetration enhancer that was reference to penetration of tiaprofenic acid through rat skin ex vivo. In vivo penetration study shows that the AUC₀(-)₄₈(h) was increased by about 10 fold by the addition of 5% d-limonene to the formulation. Histological studies show that d-limonene causes disruption on the skin surface and is responsible for enhanced penetration of tiaprofenic acid. Since tiaprofenic acid is known to cause gastrointestinal disturbances following systemic administration, topical formulations of tiaprofenic acid in gel form including 5% d-limonene could be suggested as an alternative.

  17. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  18. Is ursodeoxycholic acid effective for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda Marín, Sebastián; Contreras Maragaño, Valeria; Vera, Claudio

    2016-01-08

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition associated with fetal morbidity and mortality. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been proposed as a treatment alternative, but its use remains controversial. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including eight randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded ursodeoxycholic acid reduces prematurity risk and need for admission in neonatal intensive care units. It might also reduce maternal pruritus.

  19. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  20. Effects of acid fog on airway function in people with asthma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R.; Christian, D.

    1988-11-30

    The study was built on earlier work examining the effects of acidic fog on human subjects with asthma. Mouthpiece exposure studies on asthmatic subjects showed that both nitric and sulfuric acids potentiate the bronchoconstrictor effects of fog water, and that these acids appear to be similar in this respect. The work resulted in the exposure chamber at the University of California, San Francisco being extensively modified, based on improvements recommended in an earlier investigation, thus allowing human subjects to be exposed to rigorously controlled and monitored test fogs. The study used the chamber to first examine the effects of fog without acid, and then the effects of fog with acid, on exercising subjects with asthma.

  1. Effect of phytic acid and microbial phytase on the flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the terminal ileum of growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Ravindran, V

    2007-10-01

    The effects of phytic acid and microbial phytase on the flow and composition of endogenous protein at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens were investigated using the peptide alimentation method. Phytic acid (fed as the sodium salt) was included in a synthetic diet at 8.5, 11.5 and 14.5 g/kg (or 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 g/kg phytate-phosphorus) and each diet was fed without or with an Escherichia coli-derived microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg diet. A control containing no phytate was fed as a comparison to estimate basal endogenous flows. Ingestion of phytic acid increased (P < 0.05) the flow of endogenous amino acids and N by an average of 47 % at the lowest phytic acid concentration and 87 % at the highest. The addition of microbial phytase reduced (P < 0.05) the inimical effects of phytic acid on endogenous amino acid flow at all dietary phytic acid levels. The composition of endogenous protein was also influenced (P < 0.10-0.001) by increasing phytic acid concentrations and phytase addition. The effects of phytic acid and phytase on endogenous flow and composition of endogenous protein, however, varied depending on the amino acid. It is concluded that the effects of phytase on amino acid digestibility may be mediated, in part, through a route of reduced endogenous loss.

  2. Effect of L-ascorbic acid on the monophenolase activity of tyrosinase.

    PubMed Central

    Ros, J R; Rodríguez-López, J N; García-Cánovas, F

    1993-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid on the monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, using tyrosine as substrate, has been studied. Over the ranges of ascorbic acid concentration used, no direct effect on the enzyme is found. However, a shortening of the characteristic induction period of the hydroxylation reaction is observed. The evolution of the reaction is dependent on the concentration of ascorbic acid. Low concentrations permit the system to reach the steady state when all ascorbic acid is consumed, whereas high concentrations do not. In the light of these results it is proposed that the influence of ascorbic acid on the reaction is due to its ability to reduce the enzymically generated o-quinones. A relationship between the ascorbic acid concentration, and the induction period generated by it, with the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase is established, which can be used as a basis for the determination of trace amounts of this reducing agent. PMID:8216233

  3. Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors for Point-Of-Care Testing of Uric Acid.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    An enzyme-free redox potential sensor using off-chip extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) with a ferrocenyl-alkanethiol modified gold electrode has been used to quantify uric acid concentration in human serum and urine. Hexacyanoferrate (II) and (III) ions are used as redox reagent. The potentiometric sensor measures the interface potential on the ferrocene immobilized gold electrode, which is modulated by the redox reaction between uric acid and hexacyanoferrate ions. The device shows a near Nernstian response to uric acid and is highly specific to uric acid in human serum and urine. The interference that comes from glucose, bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and hemoglobin is negligible in the normal concentration range of these interferents. The sensor also exhibits excellent long term reliability and is regenerative. This extended gate field effect transistor based sensor is promising for point-of-care detection of uric acid due to the small size, low cost, and low sample volume consumption.

  4. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Satoko; Sugano, Naoyuki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Arai, Noriyuki; Ota, Noriko; Ito, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Butyric acid is detected in periodontal pockets and is thought to be involved in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. We examined the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage. The human gingival carcinoma cell line Ca9-22 was cultured in medium that contained butyric acid with or without sodium bicarbonate. The viability of cells treated with sodium bicarbonate was significantly higher than that of cells treated with butyric acid alone. The effects of butyric acid on ICAM-1 expression were significantly improved by sodium bicarbonate. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, sodium bicarbonate was indicated to be a useful therapeutic agent to reduce the butyric acid-induced periodontal tissue damage.

  5. Comparison of neurotropic effects of L-glutamic acid and its new derivative β-phenylglutamic acid hydrochloride (RGPU-135, glutarone).

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Chernysheva, Yu V; Merkushenkova, O V

    2014-04-01

    In contrast to L-glutamic acid (200 mg/kg), β-phenylglutamic acid hydrochloride (26 mg/kg) produces no anticonvulsant effects during generalized convulsions induced by "maximum electric shock". However, β-phenylglutamic acid hydrochloride was more potent than L-glutamic acid in increasing survival rate, promoting recovery of spontaneous motor activity, and maintainance locomotor and exploratory activity in the open field test and cognitive functions in conditioned passive avoidance test, i.e. exhibited neuroprotective activity. This substance did not change the threshold of pain induced by electric stimulation of paws (up to vocalization) and thermal tail stimulation (tail-flick), whereas L-glutamic acid decreased this parameter. β-Phenylglutamic acid suppressed aggression in the test for provoked unmotivated aggression, while L-glutamic acid enhanced it. Due to these neurotropic effects, β-phenylglutamic acid hydrochloride can be used as the basis for the development of drugs with antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective actions.

  6. Effect of polylactic acid crystallinity on its electret properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzhova, A. A.; Galikhanov, M. F.; Kuznetsova, N. V.; Petrov, V. A.; Khairullin, R. Z.

    2016-09-01

    Electret properties of the polylactic acid films with different degree of crystallinity due to different cooling and annealing conditions were studied. Samples with the higher degree of crystallinity showed more stable electret characteristics resulting from amorphous-crystalline interface boundary growth and capturing bigger amount of injected charge carriers by volume energy traps.

  7. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  8. Uncoupling effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in isolated rat hepatocytes:effect on glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Piquet, M A; Fontaine, E; Sibille, B; Filippi, C; Keriel, C; Leverve, X M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a 4-week deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in isolated rat hepatocytes have been investigated for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid, dihydroxyacetone (DHA) or glycerol metabolism. Oxygen uptake was significantly increased (by 20%) with or without fatty acid addition (octanoate or oleate) in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls. The effect persisted after oligomycin addition but not after that of potassium cyanide, leading to the conclusion that, in these intact cells, the mitochondria were uncoupled. The PUFA-deficient group exhibited a significant decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio, whereas the mitochondrial ratio was not affected. PUFA deficiency led to a 16% decrease in DHA metabolism owing to a 34% decrease in glycerol kinase activity; the significant decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio was accompanied by an increase in the fractional glycolytic flux. In contrast, glycerol metabolism was significantly enhanced in the PUFA-deficient group. The role of the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step in this stimulation was evidenced in hepatocytes perifused with glycerol and octanoate in the presence of increased concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (Dnp): uncoupling with Dnp led to an enhancement of glycerol metabolism, as found in PUFA deficiency, although it was more pronounced than in controls. The matrix/cytosol gradients for redox potential and ATP/ADP ratio were lower in cells from PUFA-deficient rats, suggesting a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in accordance with the uncoupling effect. Moreover, a doubling of the mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls led us to conclude that the activation of glycerol metabolism is the consequence of two mitochondrial effects: uncoupling and an increase in glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8760348

  9. Effect of different polyphenol sources on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Leonardo; de la Cruz, Reynaldo; Buenrostro, José Juan; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan Alberto; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio Francisco; Prado, Arely; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

    2016-01-01

    Fungal hydrolysis of ellagitannins produces hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which is considered an intermediate molecule in ellagic acid release. Ellagic acid has important and desirable beneficial health properties. The aim of this work was to identify the effect of different sources of ellagitannins on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger. Three strains of A. niger (GH1, PSH and HT4) were assessed for ellagic acid release from different polyphenol sources: cranberry, creosote bush, and pomegranate used as substrate. Polyurethane foam was used as support for solid-state culture in column reactors. Ellagitannase activity was measured for each of the treatments. Ellagic acid was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. When pomegranate polyphenols were used, a maximum value of ellagic acid (350.21 mg/g) was reached with A. niger HT4 in solid-state culture. The highest amount of ellagitannase (5176.81 U/l) was obtained at 8h of culture when cranberry polyphenols and strain A. niger PSH were used. Results demonstrated the effect of different polyphenol sources and A. niger strains on ellagic acid release. It was observed that the best source for releasing ellagic acid was pomegranate polyphenols and A. niger HT4 strain, which has the ability to degrade these compounds for obtaining a potent bioactive molecule such as ellagic acid.

  10. Senescence in isolated carnation petals : effects of indoleacetic Acid and inhibitors of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wulster, G; Sacalis, J; Janes, H W

    1982-10-01

    Indoleacetic acid induces senescence in isolated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, cv. White Sim) petals, increasing the duration and amount of ethylene production. This effect is inhibited by Actinomycin D, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, and cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor of protein synthesis. The ability of petals to respond to indoleacetic acid appears to be a function of physiological age. Indoleacetic acid is capable of enhancing ethylene evolution and senescence only in specific portions of the petal.

  11. Effect of scrubbing operating conditions on adipic acid degradation. Final report February-August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.

    1981-02-01

    The report gives results of adipic acid degradation tests at EPA's IERL-RTP limestone SO2 scrubber, to investigate the effects of operating variables on unaccountable adipic acid loss. It was found that: (1) adipic acid degradation could not be totally quenched by only lowering the pH below 5.0; (2) pH change did significantly affect unaccountable adipic acid loss (other factors may increase the adipic acid degradation rate at both high and low pH); (3) an appreciable amount of adipic acid loss was caused by coprecipitation with calcium sulfite; and (4) forced oxidation could aggravate the adipic acid degradation loss even at pH below 5.0. Adipic acid loss could be reduced: at high sulfite concentrations (the adipic acid degradation rate could be decreased by lowering the destructive free radical concentrations by high total sulfite); in the presence of manganous ion at low pH (the metal ion might act as an inhibitor to the oxidative degradation reaction at low pH); and with high natural oxidation (the adipic acid coprecipitation loss might be reduced with the high natural oxidation). Adipic acid degradation (loss) data were compared from four different test facilities. Most of the data also support these conclusions.

  12. Effects of environment and genotype on phenolic acids in wheat in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Li, Li; Harflett, Claudia; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L

    2010-09-08

    Phenolic acid content and composition have been determined in 26 wheat genotypes grown in Hungary over three consecutive years and at three additional locations (France, United Kingdom, and Poland) during the third year. Fractions comprising free, soluble conjugated, and bound phenolic acids were analyzed using HPLC with measurements being made for individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Statistically significant differences in phenolic acid content occurred across the different growing locations with the average total phenolic acid content being highest in the genotypes grown in Hungary. The growth year in Hungary also had a large impact, especially on the free and conjugated phenolic acid contents. Certain genotypes were more resistant to environmental impacts than others. Of the genotypes with high levels of total phenolic acids, Lynx, Riband, Tommi, and Cadenza were most stable with respect to their total contents, whereas Valoris, Herzog, and Malacca, also high in phenolic acid content, were least stable. Of the three fractions analyzed, the free and conjugated phenolic acids were most variable and were also susceptible to the effect of environment, whereas bound phenolic acids, which comprised the greatest proportion of the total phenolic acids, were the most stable.

  13. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  14. Pro-inflammatory effects of uric acid in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Crane, John K.; Mongiardo, Krystin M.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid can be generated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the breakdown of nucleotides ingested in the diet or from purines released from host cells as a result of pathogen-induced cell damage. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine or xanthine into uric acid, a reaction that also generates hydrogen peroxide. It has been assumed that the product of XO responsible for the pro-inflammatory effects of this enzyme is hydrogen peroxide. Recent literature on uric acid, however, has indicated that uric acid itself may have biological effects. We tested whether uric acid itself has detectable pro-inflammatory effects using an in vivo model using ligated rabbit intestinal segments (“loops”) as well as in vitro assays using cultured cells. Addition of exogenous uric acid increased the influx of heterophils into rabbit intestinal loops, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, white blood cells adhered avidly to uric acid crystals, forming large aggregates of cells. Uric acid acts as a leukocyte chemoattractant in the GI tract. The role of uric acid in enteric infections and in non-infectious disorders of the GI tract deserves more attention. PMID:24377830

  15. Effect of nitrous acid on lung function in asthmatics: a chamber study.

    PubMed

    Beckett, W S; Russi, M B; Haber, A D; Rivkin, R M; Sullivan, J R; Tameroglu, Z; Mohsenin, V; Leaderer, B P

    1995-04-01

    Nitrous acid, a component of photochemical smog and a common indoor air pollutant, may reach levels of 100 ppb where gas stoves and unvented portable kerosene heaters are used. Nitrous acid is a primary product of combustion and may also be a secondary product by reaction of nitrogen dioxide with water. Because the usual assays for nitrogen dioxide measure several oxides of nitrogen (including nitrous acid) together, previous studies of indoor nitrogen dioxide may have included exposure to and health effects of nitrous acid. To assess the respiratory effects of nitrous acid exposure alone, we carried out a double-blinded crossover chamber exposure study with 11 mildly asthmatic adult subjects. Each underwent 3-hr exposures to 650 ppb nitrous acid and to filtered room air with three 20-min periods of moderate cycle exercise. Symptoms, respiratory parameters during exercise, and spirometry after exercise were measured. A statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity was seen on days when subjects were exposed to nitrous acid. This effect was most marked at 25 min and 85 min after exposure began. Aggregate respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms were also significantly higher with nitrous acid. We conclude that this concentration and duration of exposure to nitrous acid alters lung mechanics slightly, does not induce significant airflow obstruction, and produces mild irritant symptoms in asthmatics.

  16. Iron binding efficiency of polyphenols: Comparison of effect of ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on catechol and galloyl groups.

    PubMed

    Tamilmani, Poonkodi; Pandey, Mohan Chandra

    2016-04-15

    Dietary polyphenols are markedly studied for their antioxidant activity. They also have a negative impact on nutrition whereby they interfere with iron absorption. Common dietary polyphenols include: catechins, flavonols, flavanols, flavones, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids. Ascorbic acid (AA) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are commonly used to counter act this reaction and increase iron bioavailability. This study was aimed at determining the effect of AA and EDTA on the catechol or galloyl iron binding ability of pure phenolics, coffee and tea. Phenolic concentrations of 40, 80, 610, 240, 320, 400, 520 and 900 μg/ml were tested against six levels of AA and EDTA. These effects were studied in detail using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) with the hypothesis that there would be one or more mean differences between the ratio of enhancer and the different concentrations of samples tested. AA was found to be more efficient than EDTA in a way that lesser quantity is required for completely overcoming negative iron binding effects of polyphenols and similar samples.

  17. The effect of feeding with a tryptophan-free amino acid mixture on rat liver magnesium ion-activated deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, A. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The Widnell & Tata (1966) assay method for Mg2+-activated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was used for initial-velocity determinations of rat liver nuclear RNA polymerase. One unit (U) of RNA polymerase was defined as that amount of enzyme required for 1 mmol of [3H]GMP incorporation/min at 37°C. 2. Colony fed rats were found to have a mean RNA polymerase activity of 65.9μU/mg of DNA and 18h-starved rats had a mean activity of 53.2μU/mg of DNA. Longer periods of starvation did not significantly decrease RNA polymerase activity further. 3. Rats that had been starved for 18h were used for all feeding experiments. Complete and tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixtures were given by stomach tube and the animals were killed 15–120min later. The response of RNA polymerase to the feeding with the complete amino acid mixture was rapid and almost linear over the first hour of feeding, resulting in a doubling of activity. The activity was still elevated above the starvation value at 120min after feeding. The tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixture produced a much less vigorous response about 45min after the feeding, and the activity had returned to the starvation value by 120min after the feeding. 4. The response of RNA polymerase to the feeding with the complete amino acid mixture was shown to occur within a period of less than 5min to about 10min after the feeding. 5. Pretreatment of the animals with puromycin or cycloheximide was found to abolish the 15min RNA polymerase response to the feeding with the complete amino acid mixture, but the activity of the controls was unaffected. 6. The characteristics of the RNA polymerase from 18h-starved animals and animals fed with the complete or incomplete amino acid mixtures for 1h were examined. The effects of Mg2+ ions, pH, actinomycin D and nucleoside triphosphate omissions were determined. The [Mg2+]– and pH–activity profiles of the RNA polymerase from the animal fed with the complete mixture appeared to differ from

  18. The effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculants and formic acid on the formation of biogenic amines in grass silages.

    PubMed

    Steidlová, S; Kalac, P

    2004-06-01

    Silages were prepared in six laboratory experiments from four direct-cut grassland swards and pure swards of perennial ryegrass and false oat with dry matter contents ranging between 180 and 325 g/kg. Grass was fermented at 22 degrees C and silages were stored at the same temperature for 4 months. Untreated silages (negative control) and silages preserved with 3 g/kg of formic acid (positive control) were compared with silages inoculated with commercial strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri and a mixed preparation Microsil. The inoculants were applied at a dose of 5.10(6) CFU/g of grass. Seven biogenic amines were extracted from silages with perchloric acid and determined as N-benzamides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Common chemical quality parameters of silages were also determined. Tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine were the amines occurring at the highest concentration. As compared to untreated silages, formic acid was most effective to suppress formation of the main amines. Also the inoculants often decreased amine contents significantly (P < 0.05). The inoculants decreased levels of polyamine spermidine more efficiently than formic acid. Contents of histamine, tryptamine and polyamine spermine were very low, commonly below the detection limits.

  19. Synergistic effects on enantioselectivity of zwitterionic chiral stationary phases for separations of chiral acids, bases, and amino acids by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Christian V; Pell, Reinhard; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2008-11-15

    In an attempt to overcome the limited applicability scope of earlier proposed Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral weak anion exchangers (WAX) and recently reported aminosulfonic acid-based chiral strong cation exchangers (SCX), which are conceptionally restricted to oppositely charged solutes, their individual chiral selector (SO) subunits have been fused in a combinatorial synthesis approach into single, now zwitterionic, chiral SO motifs. The corresponding zwitterionic ion-exchange-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in fact combined the applicability spectra of the parent chiral ion exchangers allowing for enantioseparations of chiral acids and amine-type solutes in liquid chromatography using polar organic mode with largely rivaling separation factors as compared to the parent WAX and SCX CSPs. Furthermore, the application spectrum could be remarkably expanded to various zwitterionic analytes such as alpha- and beta-amino acids and peptides. A set of structurally related yet different CSPs consisting of either a quinine or quinidine alkaloid moiety as anion-exchange subunit and various chiral or achiral amino acids as cation-exchange subunits enabled us to derive structure-enantioselectivity relationships, which clearly provided strong unequivocal evidence for synergistic effects of the two oppositely charged ion-exchange subunits being involved in molecular recognition of zwitterionic analytes by zwitterionic SOs driven by double ionic coordination.

  20. Effect of acidic amino acids engineered into the active site cleft of Thermopolyspora flexuosa GH11 xylanase.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Turunen, Ossi

    2015-01-01

    Thermopolyspora flexuosa GH11 xylanase (XYN11A) shows optimal activity at pH 6-7 and 75-80 °C. We studied how mutation to aspartic acid (N46D and V48D) in the vicinity of the catalytic acid/base affects the pH activity of highly thermophilic GH11 xylanase. Both mutations shifted the pH activity profile toward acidic pH. In general, the Km values were lower at pH 4-5 than at pH 6, and in line with this, the rate of hydrolysis of xylotetraose was slightly faster at pH 4 than at pH 6. The N46D mutation and also lower pH in XYN11A increased the hydrolysis of xylotriose. The Km value increased remarkably (from 2.5 to 11.6 mg/mL) because of V48D, which indicates the weakening of binding affinity of the substrate to the active site. Xylotetraose functioned well as a substrate for other enzymes, but with lowered reaction rate for V48D. Both N46D and V48D increased the enzyme inactivation by ionic liquid [emim]OAc. In conclusion, the pH activity profile could be shifted to acidic pH due to an effect from two different directions, but the tightly packed GH11 active site can cause steric problems for the mutations.

  1. Interactive effects of cadmium and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Minmin; Wang, Lei; Liang, Chanjuan; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    Interactive effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain and the combined treatment decreased the content of chlorophyll, Hill reaction rate, the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase, maximal photochemical efficiency and maximal quantum yield, increased initial fluorescence and damaged the chloroplast structure in soybean seedlings. In the combined treatment, the change in the photosynthetic parameters and the damage of chloroplast structure were stronger than those of any single pollution. Meanwhile, Cd(2+) and acid rain had the interactive effects on the test indices in soybean seedlings. The results indicated that the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain on the photosynthetic parameters due to the serious damage to the chloroplast structure.

  2. Effects of bile acids on human airway epithelial cells: implications for aerodigestive diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aldhahrani, Adil; Verdon, Bernard; Pearson, Jeffery

    2017-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration have been associated with chronic and end-stage lung disease and with allograft injury following lung transplantation. This raises the possibility that bile acids may cause lung injury by damaging airway epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bile acid challenge using the immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). The immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) was cultured. A 48-h challenge evaluated the effect of individual primary and secondary bile acids. Post-challenge concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and granulocyte−macrophage colony-stimulating factor were measured using commercial ELISA kits. The viability of the BEAS-2B cells was measured using CellTiter-Blue and MTT assays. Lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid were successfully used to stimulate cultured BEAS-2B cells at different concentrations. A concentration of lithocholic acid above 10 μmol·L−1 causes cell death, whereas deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid above 30 μmol·L−1 was required for cell death. Challenge with bile acids at physiological levels also led to a significant increase in the release of IL-8 and IL6 from BEAS-2B. Aspiration of bile acids could potentially cause cell damage, cell death and inflammation in vivo. This is relevant to an integrated gastrointestinal and lung physiological paradigm of chronic lung disease, where reflux and aspiration are described in both chronic lung diseases and allograft injury. PMID:28344983

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  4. Effects of free fatty acids on the organization of cytoskeletal elements in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hoover, R L; Fujiwara, K; Klausner, R D; Bhalla, D K; Tucker, R; Karnovsky, M J

    1981-10-01

    Treatment of mouse lymphocytes with cis-unsaturated free fatty acids produced alterations in the immunofluorescence patterns of the cytoskeleton and contractile proteins. Saturated free fatty acids and trans-unsaturated free fatty acids had no effect. In untreated cells, the microtubular pattern exhibited radiation from an organizing center, resembling the spokes of an umbrella. The addition of linoleic acid produced a polarized submembranous aggregate. Under control conditions, staining for actin revealed a diffuse pattern over the entire cell, but the addition of linoleic acid caused the formation of a single large patch, or polarized submembranous aggregate. The pattern for alpha-actinin normally revealed intense perinuclear staining on a diffuse background. Linoleic acid caused the loss of this pattern and the formation of a polarized submembranous aggregate. Linoleic acid treatment also caused the pattern for myosin to change from diffuse to uniform submembranous patching around the periphery of the cell. For all of these proteins, calcium (8 mM), but not magnesium, partially reversed the effects of linoleic acid. Sodium azide had little effect on the normal distribution of actin, tubulin, and alpha-actinin; however, myosin staining revealed prominent patch formation. Colchicine treatment caused diffuse staining, some polarized submembranous aggregate formation of tubulin, and some patching of myosin, but not as extensively as did treatment with linoleic acid. Actin and alpha-actinin were unaffected. These results, in view of the previously shown facts that pretreatment of cells with linoleic acid followed by anti-immunoglobulin inhibits capping of surface immunoglobulin (Klausner, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:437-441, 1980) and that free fatty acids partition into the surface membrane (Klausner et al., J. Biol. Chem. 255:1286-1295, 1980), suggest that the perturbation of the plasma membrane with unsaturated free fatty acids alters the interaction

  5. EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON UPTAKE AND TRANSFER OF COPPER FROM MICROBES TO CILIATES TO COPEPODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is part of an ongoing project designed to determine the effect of humic acid on the uptake and transfer of metals by marine organisms at the lower end of the food chain. Binding affinities for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Cr to Suwannee River humic acid were determined at variou...

  6. Continuous or discontinuous tranexamic acid effectively inhibits fibrinolysis in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Roland; Rubatti, Marina; Credico, Carmen; Louvain-Quintard, Virginie; Anerkian, Vregina; Doubine, Sylvie; Vasse, Marc; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas

    2014-04-01

    Tranexamic acid is given continuously or discontinuously as an anti-fibrinolytic therapy during cardiac surgery, but the effects on fibrinolysis parameters remain poorly investigated. We sought to assess the effects of continuous and discontinuous tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis parameters in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children requiring cardiac surgery or repeat surgery by sternotomy with CPB for congenital heart disease were randomized to receive either continuous or discontinuous tranexamic acid. Blood tranexamic acid, D-dimers, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), tPA-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (tPA-PAI1) complexes, fibrinogen and fibrin monomers were measured and compared to values obtained from children who did not receive tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid inhibited the CPB-induced increase in D-dimers, with a similar potency between continuous and discontinuous regimens. Time courses for tPA, fibrin monomers, and fibrinogen were also similar for both regimen, and there was a significant difference in tPA-PAI1 complex concentrations at the end of surgery, which may be related to a significantly higher tranexamic acid concentration. Continuous and discontinuous regimen are suitable for an effective inhibition of fibrinolysis in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB, but the continuous regimen was previously shown to be more effective to maintain stable tranexamic acid concentrations.

  7. Fluidised Bed Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid: Effectiveness of Protection under Simulated Tropical Storage Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    evidence of poor microencapsulation were terminated. Trials that resulted in microcapsule breakage did not proceed to the storage study. 2.3.1...UNCLASSIFIED Fluidised Bed Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid: Effectiveness of Protection under Simulated Tropical Storage Conditions...investigates the use of microencapsulation by fluidised bed coating for the protection of ascorbic acid during long-term storage under simulated

  8. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  9. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  10. Reactions in glass ionomer cements: V. Effect of incorporating tartaric acid in the cement liquid.

    PubMed

    Crisp, S; Wilson, A D

    1976-01-01

    A description is give of the effect on the ASPA cement reaction of tartaric acid incorporated in the cement liquid. Tartaric acid acts as an accelerator that aids in the extraction of ions from the aluminosilicate glass and facilitates their binding to the polyanion chains. Postgelation hardening is significantly increased. Working time is unaffected possibly because cations are initially present as complexes.

  11. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of hops extract, on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen microorganisms. Methods and Results: When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by beta-acid rich hops...

  12. Alkyl substituent effects on gas-phase acidities - The influence of hybridization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauman, J. I.; Blair, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Exploration of the effect on acidity of alkyl groups bonded to trigonal and digonal carbon. Some results on the relative acidities of toluene and p-xylene, and acetylene and substitute acetylenes, as determined by ion cyclotron resonance (icr) spectroscopy, are described. Some limitations of the CNDO/2 calculation method are discussed.

  13. Pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid homologues: effect of ring size on hybridization properties.

    PubMed

    Mansawat, Woraluk; Vilaivan, Chotima; Balázs, Árpád; Aitken, David J; Vilaivan, Tirayut

    2012-03-16

    The effect of ring size of four- to six-membered cyclic β-amino acid on the hybridization properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid with an alternating α/β peptide backbone is reported. The cyclobutane derivatives (acbcPNA) show the highest T(m) and excellent specificity with cDNA and RNA.

  14. Simple Amides of Oleanolic Acid as Effective Penetration Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented. PMID:26010090

  15. Stimulating effect of phosphatidic acid on autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase.

    PubMed

    Negami, A I; Sasaki, H; Yamamura, H

    1985-09-16

    Autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle was stimulated by acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidyl-serine. PA stimulated an initial velocity of autophosphorylation 3.8-fold. When fully autophosphorylated, about 11 mol of phosphate per tetramer (alpha beta gamma delta) were incorporated in the presence of PA and about 6.5 mol in the absence of PA. In the presence of PA (100 micrograms/ml), there was a concomitant enhancement of its kinase activity about 25-fold at pH 6.8. PA (100 micrograms/ml) sharply decreased an apparent Ka for Ca2+ on autophosphorylation from 4.0 X 10(-5) M to 1.0 X 10(-6) M. Available evidence indicates that the Ca2+-activated, PA-dependent autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase shows an ability to stimulate glycogen breakdown.

  16. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: cause-to-effect relationships.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous administration of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to second generation rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids was recently found to enrich within 60 min the content of both plasma and liver lipids in such omega3 fatty acids, this coinciding with correction of the perturbation in liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. The present report draws attention to cause-to-effect relationships between changes in liver phospholipid and triglyceride fatty acid content and/or pattern operative under these experimental conditions.

  17. Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

  18. Effects of coating of dicarboxylic acids on the mass-mobility relationship of soot particles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Huaxin; Khalizov, Alexei F; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi

    2009-04-15

    Atandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) and a differential mobility analyzer-aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA-APM) have been employed to study morphology and hygroscopicity of soot aerosol internally mixed with dicarboxylic acids. The effective densities, fractal dimensions, and dynamic shape factors of soot particles before and after coating with succinic and glutaric acids are determined. Coating of soot with succinic acid results in a significant increase in the particle mobility diameter, mass, and effective density, but these properties recover to their initial values once succinic acid is removed by heating, suggesting that no restructuring of the soot core occurs. This conclusion is also supported from the observation of similar fractal dimensions and dynamic shape factors for fresh and coated/heated soot aggregates. Also, no change is observed when succinic acid-coated aggregates are cycled through elevated relative humidity (5% to 90% to 5% RH) below the succinic acid deliquescence point. When soot is coated with glutaric acid, the particle mass increases, but the mobility diameter shrinks by 10-40%. Cycling the soot aerosol coated with glutaric acid through elevated relative humidity leads to an additional mass increase, indicating that condensed water remains within the coating even at low RH. The fractal dimension of soot particles increases after coating and remains high when glutaric acid is removed by heating. The dynamic shape factor of glutaric acid-coated and heated soot is significantly lower than that of fresh soot, suggesting a significant restructuring of the soot agglomerates by glutaric acid. The results imply that internal mixing of soot aerosol during atmospheric aging leads to changes in hygroscopicity, morphology, and effective density, which likely modify their effects on direct and indirect climate forcing and deposition in the human respiratory system.

  19. Effect of milling on DSC thermogram of excipient adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai Kiong; Kwek, Jin Wang; Yuen, Aaron; Tan, Chin Lee; Tan, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate why and how mechanical milling results in an unexpected shift in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measured fusion enthalpy (Delta(fus)H) and melting point (T(m)) of adipic acid, a pharmaceutical excipient. Hyper differential scanning calorimetry (hyper-DSC) was used to characterize adipic acid before and after ball-milling. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate previous postulations such as electrostatic charging using the Faraday cage method, crystallinity loss using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal annealing using DSC, impurities removal using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Karl Fischer titration. DSC thermograms showed that after milling, the values of Delta(fus)H and T(m) were increased by approximately 9% and 5 K, respectively. Previous suggestions of increased electrostatic attraction, change in particle size distribution, and thermal annealing during measurements did not explain the differences. Instead, theoretical analysis and experimental findings suggested that the residual solvent (water) plays a key role. Water entrapped as inclusions inside adipic acid during solution crystallization was partially evaporated by localized heating at the cleaved surfaces during milling. The correlation between the removal of water and melting properties measured was shown via drying and crystallization experiments. These findings show that milling can reduce residual solvent content and causes a shift in DSC results.

  20. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  1. The effect of uric acid on outdoor copper and bronze.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, E; Bowden, D J; Brimblecombe, P; Kenneally, H; Morselli, L

    2009-03-15

    Bird droppings are often quoted as a decay agent for outdoor goods, in particular buildings and statues. Undoubtedly, they represent one of the major causes of aesthetic damage on outdoor materials, but the real chemical damage they are able to induce, in particular on metals, is not so well studied. This work focused on the short term role of uric acid, the main constituent of bird urine, with respect to copper, which make such an important contribution to architectural elements of buildings and outdoor sculpture. Preliminary results of laboratory tests and analyses on real exposed samples showed that uric acid chemically affects copper and bronzes: the surface of the metal is modified and copper urates formed. Also natural patina, formed on statues and roof, react with uric acid, even if it seems to afford some protection toward bird droppings. In general, experimental results confirm that the potential chemical damage by bird droppings is significant when considering external cultural heritage such as statues, metal monuments and buildings with historic copper roofs.

  2. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  3. ORAL AND INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED AMINO ACIDS PRODUCE SIMILAR EFFECTS ON MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN THE ELDERLY

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B.B.; Wolfe, R.R.; Volpi, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in the elderly when amino acid availability is increased. OBJECTIVE To determine which mode of delivery of amino acids (intravenous vs. oral ingestion) is more effective in stimulating the rate of muscle protein synthesis in elderly subjects. DESIGN Fourteen elderly subjects were assigned to one of two groups. Following insertion of femoral arterial and venous catheters, subjects were infused with a primed, continuous infusion of L-[ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained to measure muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) with the precursor-product model, phenylalanine kinetics across the leg with the three-pool model, and whole body phenylalanine kinetics. Protein metabolism parameters were measured in the basal period, and during the administration of oral amino acids (n=8) or a similar amount of intravenous amino acids (n=6). RESULTS Enteral and parenteral amino acid administration increased amino acid arterial concentrations and delivery to the leg to a similar extent in both groups. Muscle protein synthesis as measured by both FSR, and the three-pool model, increased during amino acid administration (P < 0.05 vs. basal) in both groups with no differences between groups. Whole body proteolysis did not change with the oral amino acids whereas it increased slightly during parenteral amino acid administration. CONCLUSIONS Increased amino acid availability stimulates the rate of muscle protein synthesis independent of the route of administration (enteral vs. parenteral). PMID:12459885

  4. Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from supplemented saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). All rations contained identical forage and concentrate components including 37.2% forage and 13.5% cottonseed. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and linearly decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The reduction in ruminal NDF digestibility was because of a linear decrease in digestion rate and a linear increase in passage rate of potentially digestible NDF with increasing saturated FS. Total tract digestibility of NDF was not different between treatments because of compensatory postruminal digestion. Ruminal fatty acid and C18 fatty acid digestibility tended to increase linearly with increasing unsaturated FS, and postruminal C18 fatty acid digestibility decreased with increasing saturated FS. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal organic matter digestibility and decreased intestinal long-chain fatty acid digestibility, although differences in fatty acid digestibility may be partially explained by fatty acid intake.

  5. Investigation of adsorption kinetics and isotherm of cellulase and B-Glucosidase on lignocellulosic substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clear understanding of enzyme adsorption during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to enhance the cost-efficiency of hydrolysis. However, conclusions from literatures often contradicted each other because enzyme adsorption is enzyme, biomass/pretreatment and experimental co...

  6. Effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunliang; Wang, Yutong; Li, Jinfeng; Hua, Linlin; Han, Bing; Zhang, Yuzhen; Yang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Zhilei; Bai, Hongying; Yin, Honglei; Lou, Jiyu

    2016-09-01

    Caffeic acid is a type of phenolic acid and organic acid. It is found in food (such as tomatoes, carrots, strawberries, blueberries and wheat), beverages (such as wine, tea, coffee and apple juice) as well as Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rats were randomly divided into three groups: i) control group, ii) AD model group and iii) caffeic acid group. Caffeic acid significantly rescued learning deficits and increased cognitive function in the rats with AD as demonstrated by the Morris water maze task. Furthermore, caffeic acid administration resulted in a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and nitrite generation in the rats with AD compared with the AD model group. Furthermore, caffeic acid suppressed oxidative stress, inflammation, nuclear factor‑κB‑p65 protein expression and caspase‑3 activity as well as regulating the protein expression of p53 and phosphorylated (p-)p38 MAPK expression in the rats with AD. These experimental results indicate that the beneficial effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of AD were due to the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  7. Effects of long chain fatty acids on solute absorption: perfusion studies in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, H V; Thomas, P J; Phillips, S F

    1977-01-01

    Perfusion studies were performed in healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that net fluid secretion induced by fatty acids is accompanied by parallel reduction in solute transport. Ricinoleic acid provoked a marked net secretion of fluid and concomitantly inhibited the absorption of all solutes tested; these included glucose, xylose, L-leucine, L-lysine, Folic acid, and 2-mono-olein. Oleic acid also reduced net fluid and solute transport, but was less potent in reducing solute absorption than was ricinoleic acid. When fluid secretion was induced osmotically with mannitol, glucose and xylose absorption was not affected. The mechanism for this generalised effect of fatty acids on solute absorption is uncertain, possibly nonspecific, and might be related to mucosal damage and altered mucosal permeability induced by these agents. PMID:590838

  8. Nalidixic Acid and Macromolecular Metabolism in Tetrahymena pyriformis: Effects on Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, J. F.; Carvalho, J. F. O.; Moussatché, N.; de Castro, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study on the effect of nalidixic acid on macromolecular metabolism, particularly of protein, in Tetrahymena pyriformis was performed. It was shown that the compound is a potent inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis for this organism. A conspicuous breakdown of polysomes, accompanied by the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, occurred in cells incubated for 10 min with the drug; polysome formation was prevented. The accumulating 80S particles were shown to be run-off ribosomal units. The incorporation of amino acids by a cell-free system is not affected by nalidixic acid. In nonproliferating cells the incorporation was also not prevented, unless the cells were previously incubated with the drug. These results are discussed in terms of the possible mechanism of action of nalidixic acid in T. pyriformis. PMID:807153

  9. Synergistic effects between Lewis and Brønsted acids: application to the Prins cyclization.

    PubMed

    Breugst, Martin; Grée, René; Houk, K N

    2013-10-04

    Brønsted and Lewis acids can catalyze the Prins cyclization, an efficient method for the synthesis of tetrahydropyrans from homoallylic alcohols and carbonyl compounds. Synergistic effects between weak Brønsted and Lewis acids in these reactions have been analyzed by density functional theory [M06-L/def2-QZVP/IEFPCM(CH2Cl2)//M06-L/6-311+G(2df,2p)]. In order to characterize the reactivities of the employed Lewis acids, methyl anion and hydroxide affinities were determined. On the basis of our calculations, we found that the coordination of Lewis acids to carboxylic and sulfonic acids results in a significant increase in the Brønsted acidities of the latter.

  10. Effect of acidity and elevated PCO2 on acid. Neutralization within pulsed limestone bed reactors receiving coal mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Schwartz, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Limestone has potential for reducing reagent costs and sludge volume associated with the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD), but its use has been restricted by slow dissolution rates and sensitivity to scale forming reactions that retard transport of H+ at the solid-liquid interface. We evaluated a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) remediation process designed to circumvent these problems through use of intermittently fluidized beds of granular limestone and elevated carbon dioxide pressure. PLB limestone dissolution (LD, mg/L), and effluent alkalinity (Alk, mg/L) were correlated with reactor pressure (PCO2, kPa), influent acidity (Acy, mg/L) and reactor bed height (H, cm) using a prototype capable of processing 10 L/min. The PLB process effectively neutralized sulfuric acid acidity over the range of 6-1033 mg/L (as CaCO3) while generating high concentrations of alkalinity (36-1086 mg/L) despite a hydraulic residence time of just 4.2-5.0 min. Alk and LD (mg/L CaCO3) rose with increases in influent acidity and PCO2 (p < 0.001) according to the models: Alk = 58 + 38.4 (PCO2)0.5 + 0.080 (Acy) - 0.0059(PCO2) 0.5 (Acy); LD = 55 + 38.3 (PCO2)0.5 + 1.08 (Acy) - 0.0059 (PCO2)0.5 (Acy). Alkalinity decreased at an increasing rate with reductions in H over the range of 27.3-77.5 cm (p < 0.001). Carbon dioxide requirements (Q(avg)CO2, L/min) increased with PCO2 (p < 0.001) following the model Q(avg)CO2 = 0.858 (PCO2)0.620, resulting in a greater degree of pH buffering (depression) within the reactors, a rise in limestone solubility and an increase in limestone dissolution related to carbonic acid attack. Corresponding elevated concentrations of effluent alkalinity allow for sidestream treatment with blending. Numerical modeling demonstrated that carbon dioxide requirements are reduced as influent acidity rises and when carbon dioxide is recovered from system effluent and recycled. Field trials demonstrated that the PLB process is capable of raising the pH of AMD above that

  11. Effect of Chicoric Acid on Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Young; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Jin, Jong Sik; Bang, Keuk Soo; Eom, Ye-Jin; Hong, Chul-Hee; Nugroho, Agung; Park, Hee-Jun; An, Hyo-Jin

    2015-12-24

    Chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid), is a natural phenolic compound found in a number of plants, such as chicory (Cichorium intybus) and Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and analgesic activities. Although these biological effects of chicoric acid have been investigated, there are no reports of its antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effects in human mast cells (HMC)-1 or anaphylactic activity in a mouse model. Therefore, we investigated the antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effect of chicoric acid and its underlying mechanisms of action using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Chicoric acid decreased the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. We studied the inhibitory effects of chicoric acid on the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activation of caspase-1. However, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was not sufficient to abrogate the stimulus. In addition, we investigated the ability of chicoric acid to inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis in vivo. Oral administration of chicoric acid at 20 mg/kg inhibited histamine release and protected mice against compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic mortality. These results suggest that chicoric acid has an antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effect that involves modulating mast cell-mediated allergic responses. Therefore, chicoric acid could be an efficacious agent for allergy-related inflammatory disorders.

  12. Transport of acetic acid in Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects of ethanol and their implications on the resistance of the yeast to acidic environments.

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, M J; Miranda, L; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    1996-01-01

    Cells of Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 grown in a medium with acetic acid, ethanol, or glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source transported acetic acid by a saturable transport system. This system accepted propionic and formic acids but not lactic, sorbic, and benzoic acids. When the carbon source was glucose or fructose, the cells displayed activity of a mediated transport system specific for acetic acid, apparently not being able to recognize other monocarboxylic acids. In both types of cells, ethanol inhibited the transport of labelled acetic acid. The inhibition was noncompetitive, and the dependence of the maximum transport rate on the ethanol concentration was found to be exponential. These results reinforced the belief that, under the referenced growth conditions, the acid entered the cells mainly through a transporter protein. The simple diffusion of the undissociated acid appeared to contribute, with a relatively low weight, to the overall acid uptake. It was concluded that in Z. bailii, ethanol plays a protective role against the possible negative effects of acetic acid by inhibiting its transport and accumulation. Thus, the intracellular concentration of the acid could be maintained at levels lower than those expected if the acid entered the cells only by simple diffusion. PMID:8795203

  13. Evaluation of toxic effects of several carboxylic acids on bacterial growth by toxicodynamic modelling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of organic acids on microbial fermentation are commonly tested in investigations about metabolic behaviour of bacteria. However, they typically provide only descriptive information without modelling the influence of acid concentrations on bacterial kinetics. Results We developed and applied a mathematical model (secondary model) to capture the toxicological effects of those chemicals on kinetic parameters that define the growth of bacteria in batch cultures. Thus, dose-response kinetics were performed with different bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Carnobacterium pisicola, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Listonella anguillarum) exposed at increasing concentrations of individual carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic). In all bioassays the acids affected the maximum bacterial load (Xm) and the maximum growth rate (vm) but only in specific cases the lag phase (λ) was modified. Significance of the parameters was always high and in all fermentations the toxicodynamic equation was statistically consistent and had good predictability. The differences between D and L-lactic acid effects were significant for the growth of E. coli, L. mesenteroides and C. piscicola. In addition, a global parameter (EC50,τ) was used to compare toxic effects and provided a realistic characterization of antimicrobial agents using a single value. Conclusions The effect of several organic acids on the growth of different bacteria was accurately studied and perfectly characterized by a bivariate equation which combines the basis of dose-response theory with microbial growth kinetics (secondary model). The toxicity of carboxylic acids was lower with the increase of the molecular weight of these chemicals. PMID:22118421

  14. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  15. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common organic acids: Dosage and time effects.

    PubMed

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common low-molecular-weight organic acids with a focus on dosage and time effects. The results show that oxalic acid behaved differently from citric acid and malic acid in terms of mobilizing As that was bound to iron compounds. At an equivalent molar concentration, reactions between oxalic acid and soil-borne Fe were kinetically more favourable, as compared to those between either citric acid or malic acid and the soil-borne Fe. It was found that reductive dissolution of soil-borne Fe played a more important role in liberating As, as compared to non-reductive reactions. Prior to the 7th day of the experiment, As mobility increased with increasing dose of oxalic acid while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in mobilized As among the treatments with different doses of citric acid or malic acid. The dosage effect on soil-borne As mobilization in the citric acid and malic acid treatments became clear only after the 7th day of the experiment. Soluble Ca present in the soils could cause re-immobilization of As by competing with solution-borne Fe for available organic ligands to form practically insoluble organic compounds of calcium (i.e. calcium oxalate). This resulted in transformation of highly soluble organic complexes of iron (i.e. iron oxalate complexes) into slightly soluble organic compounds of iron (i.e. iron oxalate) or free ferric ion, which then reacted with the solution-borne arsenate ions to form practically insoluble iron arsenates in the latter part of the experiment.

  17. Effects of Oxygen Availability on Acetic Acid Tolerance and Intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Capusoni, Claudia; Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Paolo; Moktaduzzaman, M.; Mora, Diego

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, associated with wine and beer production, has recently received attention, because its high ethanol and acid tolerance enables it to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries that produce fuel ethanol. We investigated how different cultivation conditions affect the acetic acid tolerance of D. bruxellensis. We analyzed the ability of two strains (CBS 98 and CBS 4482) exhibiting different degrees of tolerance to grow in the presence of acetic acid under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. We found that the concomitant presence of acetic acid and oxygen had a negative effect on D. bruxellensis growth. In contrast, incubation under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in reproducible growth kinetics that exhibited a shorter adaptive phase and higher growth rates than those with cultivation under aerobic conditions. This positive effect was more pronounced in CBS 98, the more-sensitive strain. Cultivation of CBS 98 cells under oxygen-limited conditions improved their ability to restore their intracellular pH upon acetic acid exposure and to reduce the oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecules caused by the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can protect against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for optimizing industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. IMPORTANCE This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can have a protective role against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for the optimization of industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. PMID:27235432

  18. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study.

  19. Effect of dietary acids on growth performance of nursery pigs: a cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Che, T M; Adeola, O; Azain, M J; Carter, S D; Cromwell, G L; Hill, G M; Mahan, D C; Miller, P S; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-12-01

    An experiment involving 854 crossbred pigs (20 replicate pens of 4 to 8 pigs per pen) was conducted at 8 experiment stations to determine the effects of acids in nursery pig diets and their inclusion amounts on growth performance using diets and weaning ages typical of those used in the United States commercial pork industry. Diets were formulated to have constant a ME and contain 1.45, 1.45, and 1.30% standardized ileal digestible Lys for phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with various types and concentrations of acid at the expense of corn (Zea mays). Treatment diets included 0% acid (control), 0.1 or 0.2% phosphoric acid, 1 or 2% organic acids, and 0.1% phosphoric acid plus 1% organic acids with or without an antibiotic. The organic acids consisted of 50% citric acid and 50% fumaric acid by weight. All but the final diet contained the antibiotic carbadox. All diets contained 3,000 mg of Zn/kg diet from zinc oxide during phases 1 and 2 and had limited acid buffering capacity, ranging from 142, 127, and 122 mEq/kg of feed for phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. At each participating station, pigs were randomly allotted to dietary treatments on the basis of their initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equally distributed across the treatments. Results indicated that treatment effects on pig performance were observed in phases 1 and 2 but not in phase 3. In phase 1, ADG of pigs fed 0.2% phosphoric acid was greater than that of pigs fed the combination of acids with no antibiotic (P = 0.041). In phase 2, pigs fed treatments containing an antibiotic had a greater ADG than those fed the combination of acids without antibiotic (P < 0.05). Addition of acids to diets did not affect growth performance during any phase or the overall period. Over the 4-wk study, growth rate was slowest on the treatment without antibiotic, with specific differences that were often statistically significant (P < 0.05). In summary, under the conditions of this

  20. Effect of acid shock with hydrochloric, citric, and lactic acids on the survival and growth of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium in acidified media.

    PubMed

    Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Escartín, Eduardo F

    2005-10-01

    The effect of acid shock with hydrochloric, citric, or lactic acid on the survival and growth of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium in acidified broth was evaluated. Salmonella serovars were acid shocked (1 h at 35 degrees C) in Trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric, citric, or lactic acid at pH 5.5. Unshocked cells were exposed to the same media that had been neutralized before use to pH 7.0. Shocked and unshocked cells were inoculated into broth acidified with hydrochloric acid (pH 3.0), citric acid (pH 3.0), or lactic acid (pH 3.8), and growth and survival ability were evaluated. The acid shock conferred protection to Salmonella against the lethal effects of low pH and organic acids. The adaptive response was not specific to the anion used for adaptation. The biggest difference in reduction of survival between shocked and unshocked strains (approximately 2 log CFU/ml) was observed when the microorganisms were shocked with lactic acid and then challenged with citric acid. Salmonella Typhi was more tolerant of citric acid than was Salmonella Typhimurium, but Salmonella Typhimurium had higher acid tolerance in response to acid shock than did Salmonella Typhi. The acid shock decreased the extension of the lag phase and enhanced the physiological state values of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium when the pH of growth was 4.5. This increased ability to tolerate acidity may have an important impact on food safety, especially in the case of Salmonella Typhi, given the very low infectious dose of this pathogen.

  1. Acute effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Jens P; Hansen, Carsten P; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-03-01

    We previously identified an N-terminal fragment of progastrin in human antrum and plasma, where it circulates in high concentrations. In this study, we examined the effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion by infusion in healthy individuals. Increasing doses of progastrin fragment 1-35 were infused intravenously during constant gastric acid stimulation by gastrin-17. In addition, the effects of progastrin fragment 1-35, fragment 6-35, and fragment 1-19 on gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion were tested. The gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion decreased 30% after administration of a high dose of progastrin fragment 1-35 (P < 0.05). In extension, a 1-h infusion of fragment 1-35 also decreased gastric acid output. In contrast, fragment 6-35 did not affect acid secretion, and a single infusion of gastrin-17 alone did not reveal fading of gastric acid output during the time course of the experiments. The results show that N-terminal fragments of progastrin may acutely affect gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in vivo. Structure-function analysis suggests that the N-terminal pentapeptide of progastrin is required for the effect.

  2. The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, F O; Budiaman, A; Eng, Y; Olumese, F E; Hoesel, J L; Ejilemele, A; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1 β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  3. The effect of the bacterial product, succinic acid, on neutrophil bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Majid, K B; Kenny, P A; Finlay-Jones, J J

    1997-02-01

    We investigated the effect of succinic acid on neutrophil bactericidal activity in a model of intra-abdominal abscess induced in mice by the peritoneal inoculation of 5 x 10(6) cfu ml-1 E. coli and 5 x 10(8) cfu ml-1 B. fragilis plus 1 mg of bran as faecal fibre analogue. The mean pH of the induced abscesses at week 1 was 6.7, higher than the pH associated with succinic acid inhibitory activity. We therefore determined the effect of succinic acid (0-100 mM) at pH 6.7 on the bactericidal activity of mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils. Phagocytic killing of Proteus mirabilis by neutrophils was significantly inhibited by 30-100 mM succinic acid at pH 6.7 but there was no significant effect of succinic acid on engulfment of bacteria at this pH. However, significant inhibition of intracellular killing (assayed by adding succinic acid to suspensions of neutrophils which had engulfed bacteria in low serum concentrations but in the absence of succinic acid) was noted at 70 and 100 mM. These results indicate that succinic acid inhibits neutrophil bactericidal activity at a physiological pH, principally through inhibition of intracellular killing mechanisms and therefore contributing to bacterial persistence in this model of abscess formation.

  4. Effects of Acid Treatment on Dental Zirconia: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haifeng; Shen, Shuping; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Feimin; Chen, Chen; Tay, Franklin R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, acetic acid, and citric acid treatments on the physical properties and structure of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) at ambient temperature. In total, 110 bar-shaped zirconia specimens were randomly assigned to 11 groups. The specimens in the control group (C) received no surface treatment, while those in the Cage group were hydrothermally aged at 134°C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Ten specimens each were immersed at ambient temperature in 5% and 40% HF acid for 2 h (40HF0), 1 day (5HF1, 40HF1), and 5 days (5HF5, 40HF5), while 10 each were immersed at ambient temperature in 10% acetic acid and 20% citric acid for 7 (AC7, CI7) and 14 days (AC14, CI14). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to quantitatively estimate the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, flexural strength, surface roughness, and surface Vickers hardness were measured after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The Cage group specimens exhibited an increased monoclinic phase and flexural strength. Furthermore, 40% HF acid immersion decreased the flexural strength and surface hardness and deteriorated the surface finish, while 5% HF acid immersion only decreased the surface hardness. All the HF acid-immersed specimens showed an etched surface texture on SEM observations, while the other groups did not. These findings suggest that the treatment of Y-TZP with 40% HF acid at ambient temperature causes potential damage, while treatment with 5% HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid is safe. PMID:26301413

  5. The effect of several organic acids on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liem, A; Pesti, G M; Edwards, H M

    2008-04-01

    Supplementation of some organic acids to a P-deficient diet has been shown to improve phytate P utilization. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 16 d in battery brooders to determine the effect of various organic acids supplementation on phytate P utilization. In both experiments, birds were fed P-deficient corn and soybean meal-based diets. In experiment 1, citric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and EDTA were supplemented. Experiment 2 had a 2 x 2 factorial design with 2 sources of Met, 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) and dl-Met, with or without 500 U/kg of phytase. In experiment 1, the addition of citric, malic, and fumaric acids increased percentage of bone ash, but only the effect of citric acid was significant. The addition of citric and malic acids also significantly increased the retention of P and phytate P (P<0.05). In experiment 2, the addition of phytase to the diet significantly increased 16-d BW gain, feed intake, percentage of bone ash, milligrams of bone ash, phytate P disappearance, and decreased the incidence of P-deficiency rickets. Methionine source did not affect 16-d BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, milligrams of bone ash, or P rickets incidence. However, the birds fed HMB had a higher percentage of bone ash and phytate P disappearance compared with the groups fed dl-Met only when phytase was added to the diets. The additions of citric acid and HMB improved phytate P utilization. However, the reason why some organic acids are effective whereas others are not is not apparent.

  6. Dose-dependent effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid on rat spleen lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L D; Thies, F; Calder, P C

    1999-07-01

    Feeding rodents a diet rich in evening primrose oil (EPO), which contains 5-10 g gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)/100 g total fatty acids, has been shown to decrease lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity. However, EPO contains a very high level of linoleic acid which itself can affect lymphocyte functions and it is not clear to what extent the effects of EPO can be attributed to GLA. The current study investigated the effect of two levels of GLA in the rat diet upon immune cell functions; the level of linoleic acid was maintained below 30 g/100 g total fatty acids. Weanling rats were fed on high fat (178 g/kg) diets which contained 4.4 g or 10 g GLA/100 g total fatty acids in place of a proportion of linoleic acid. The total polyunsaturated fatty acid content and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the diet were maintained at 35 g/100 g total fatty acids and 7, respectively. The fatty acid compositions of the serum and of spleen leukocytes were markedly influenced by that of the diet, with an increase in the proportions of GLA and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid when the diets containing GLA were fed; these diets also increased the proportion of arachidonic acid in spleen leukocytes. Spleen lymphocyte proliferation in response to concanavalin A was significantly reduced (by 60%) by feeding the diet containing the higher level of GLA, but not by the diet containing the lower level of GLA. Spleen natural killer cell activity and prostaglandin E (PGE) production by spleen leukocytes were not significantly affected by inclusion of GLA in the diet, although there was a tendency towards decreased natural killer cell activity by cells from rats fed the high GLA diet. Thus, this study shows that dietary GLA is capable of altering the fatty acid composition of cells of the immune system and of exerting some immunomodulatory effects, but that the level of GLA in the diet must exceed 4.4 g/100 g total fatty acids for these effects to become apparent.

  7. Acid attack on hydrated cement — Effect of mineral acids on the degradation process

    SciTech Connect

    Gutberlet, T.; Hilbig, H.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2015-08-15

    During acid attack on concrete structural components, a degraded layer develops whose properties as a protective barrier are decisive for durability. {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy and {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy were used with XRD to investigate the degraded layer on hardened cement paste exposed to HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The layer comprises an amorphous silica gel with framework silicates, geminate and single silanol groups in which Si is substituted by Al. Amorphous Al(OH){sub 3} and Fe(OH){sub 3} are present. The gel forms by polycondensation and cross-linking of C-A-S-H chains at AlO{sub 4} bridging tetrahedra. In the transition zone between the degraded layer and the undamaged material, portlandite dissolves and Ca is removed from the C-A-S-H phases maintaining their polymer structure at first. With HCl, monosulphate in the transition zone is converted into Friedel's salt and ettringite. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, gypsum precipitates near the degradation front reducing the thickness of the transition zone and the rate of degradation.

  8. Effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the learning ability and fatty acid composition of the brain.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Koizumi, Kyoko; Ooba, Tomoko; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2009-08-01

    The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) connecting phospholipids on the learning ability and fatty acid composition of the brain were investigated in hypercholesterolemic mice. ICR mice were subjected to a very low level of n-3 fatty acids through two generations. At 4 wk of age, the F(1) generation, n-3 fatty acid deficient male mice were provided with an experimental diet containing four kinds of lipids (safflower oil: Saf, DHA connecting triacylglycerols: DHA-TG, DHA connecting phospholipids: DHA-PL, soybean phospholipids: Soy-PL) for 5 wk. Another group of ICR mice were obtained and fed a commercial diet (CE-2, CLEA Japan, Inc.) as a control. The learning and memory abilities of the mice were evaluated by the modified avoidance procedure. The learning and memory ability level was significantly higher in mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the Saf and Soy-PL diets, and was the same level as the control. The DHA levels of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain were significantly higher in the mice fed the two types of DHA-containing diets than in those fed the Saf and Soy-PL diets and was not significantly different between DHA-TG and DHA-PL. The dimethylacetal levels in the brain were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the Saf and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA connecting phospholipids have the effect of improving memory learning, and may be related to the both the DHA and plasmalogen levels in the brain.

  9. Health effects of air pollutants: Sulfuric acid, the old and the new

    SciTech Connect

    Amdur, M.O. )

    1989-05-01

    Data from exposure of experimental animals and human subjects to sulfuric acid presents a consistent picture of its toxicology. Effects on airway resistance in asthmatic subjects were well predicted by data obtained on guinea pigs. Sulfuric acid increases the irritant response to ozone in both rats and man. In donkeys, rabbits, and human subjects, sulfuric acid alters clearance of particles from the lung in a similar manner. These changes resemble those produced by cigarette smoke and could well lead to chronic bronchitis. Data obtained on guinea pigs indicate that very small amounts of sulfuric acid on the surface of ultrafine metal oxide aerosols produce functional, morphological, and biochemical pulmonary effects. Such particles are typical of those emitted from coal combustion and smelting operations. Sulfate is an unsatisfactory surrogate in existing epidemiology studies. Sulfuric acid measurement is a critical need in such studies. 31 references.

  10. Effect of organic/inorganic compounds on the enzymes in soil under acid rain stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-shen; Xu, Dong-mei; Wang, Li-ming; Li, Ke-bin; Liu, Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    The main effects of pollutions including acid rain, Cu2+, atrazine and their combined products on the activities of urease, invertin, acid phosphatase and catalase were studied by means of orthogonal test. The results showed that H+ and Cu2+ had significant influence on the activities of four enzymes and the ability of their inhibiting followed the order: H+ > Cu2+. Al3+ and atrazine only had litter effects on the activity of urease and phosphatase, respectively. Furthermore, interaction analysis revealed that Cu2+ -H+ affected on the activity of acid phosphatase significantly and antagonism on invertin and urease, Cu2+ -atrazine only exhibited the synergism on the activity of acid phosphatase. But atrazine-H+ had non-interaction within the investigated concentration range. Among four enzymes, acid phosphatase was the most sensitive one to the contaminations.

  11. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats: response

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2006-01-01

    A response to Louter-van de Haar J, Wielinga PY, Scheurink AJ, Nieuwenhuizen AG: Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats. Nutr Metabol 2005, 2:23 PMID:16846513

  12. The effects of trans-fatty acids on TAG regulation in mice depend on dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Saín, Juliana; González, Marcela Aída; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Scalerandi, María Victoria; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and β-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased β-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA.

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Biogas Production and the Protective Effect of Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Dasa, Kris Triwulan; Westman, Supansa Y.; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lipid-containing wastes for biogas production is often hampered by the inhibitory effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In this study, the inhibitory effects of LCFAs (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid) on biogas production as well as the protective effect of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) against LCFAs were examined in thermophilic batch digesters. The results showed that palmitic and oleic acid with concentrations of 3.0 and 4.5 g/L resulted in >50% inhibition on the biogas production, while stearic acid had an even stronger inhibitory effect. The encased cells in the MBR system were able to perform better in the presence of LCFAs. This system exhibited a significantly lower percentage of inhibition than the free cell system, not reaching over 50% at any LCFA concentration tested. PMID:27699172

  14. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2014-06-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids, and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measure on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOC), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184 ± 241 ng m-3, 597 ± 159 ng m-3 and 1496 ± 511ng m-3 in PKU, and 1050 ± 303 ng m-3, 475 ± 114 ng m-3 and 1278 ± 372 ng m-3 in Yufa. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa, followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by stearic acid (C18:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from northeast, passing over southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during cleaner events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measure on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested that the

  15. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2015-03-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOCs), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184±241, 597±159 and 1496±511 ng m-3 in Peking University (PKU), and 1050±303, 475±114 and 1278±372 ng m-3 in Yufa, Beijing. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at stearic acid (C18:0), followed by palmitic acid (C16:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from the northeast, passing over the southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from the north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during less pollution events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested

  16. Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

    2010-03-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined.

  17. Health effects of oleic acid and long chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) enriched milks. A review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    Substitution of dietary saturated fat by oleic acid and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been described to reduce the cardiovascular risk by reducing blood lipids, mainly cholesterol. Additional benefits have been described for long chain omega-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA) from fish oils. In recent years, food technology has been used to produce dairy drinks with a reduced content of saturated fat in favour of those fatty acids, most of them claiming cardiovascular benefits. This review summarises all the scientific evidence regarding the effects of milks enriched with long chain omega-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) and/or oleic acid on cardiovascular health. Nine controlled intervention studies with enriched milks have reported effects on healthy volunteers, subjects with increased risk factors and cardiovascular patients. The main effects observed were reductions of blood lipids, mainly cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides.

  18. Comparative hepatic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid and WY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmentally persistent chemical commonly found in humans and wildlife. Induction of liver tumors by PFOA in rodents is thought to be mediated by PPARα activation, although hepatic hypertrophy persists in PPARα-null mice. This study evaluated hepatocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and inflammation in CD-1, SV/129 (WT) or PPARα knock-out (KO) mice after 7 daily treatments of PFOA-NH4+ (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) or the prototype PPARα-agonist Wyeth 14,643 (WY, 50 mg/kg). Tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy, and proliferation was quantified by PCNA labeling index (LI). PFOA produced hepatocyte hypertrophy and increased LI in WT mice dose-dependently; these changes were similar to those elicited by WY. Ultrastructural alterations (primarily peroxisome proliferation) were similar between WY- and PFOA-treated WT mice. WY-treated KO mice were not different from KO-controls. Dose-dependent increase in accumulation of large, clear cytoplasmic vacuoles was seen in PFOA-exposed KO mice, but no hepatic inflammation was indicated, while increased LI was detected only at the 10 mg/kg. These data suggest that PPARα is required for WY- and PFOA-induced alterations in WT mouse liver. Hepatic enlargement in PPAR KO mice may be, in part, due to an accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles that contain PFOA. Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent compound in the environment that has raised human health concer

  19. Effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin wrinkles and pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Mi; An, Hyo Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jung Yun; Choi, Chi Ho; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lim, Joo Hyuck; Choi, Joon-Hun; Song, Hyunnam; Moon, Sung Ho; Park, Young Jun; Chang, Shin-Jae; Choi, Sun Young

    2017-03-16

    Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial. Our results confirmed that the expression of type Ι collagen in dermal fibroblast cells treated with palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid (0.1-4 μg/mL) increased in a dose-dependent manner. In B16F1 cells, treatment with 20 μg/mL palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid reduced the melanin content by approximately 20% compared to alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone treatment. In the clinical trial, application of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream led to an improvement in skin roughness and lightness in 12 and 8 weeks, respectively. Our data show that palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid is an effective anti-aging agent that reduces wrinkles and abnormal skin pigmentation.

  20. Effects of two antioxidants; α-lipoic acid and fisetin against diabetic cataract in mice.

    PubMed

    Kan, Emrah; Kiliçkan, Elif; Ayar, Ahmet; Çolak, Ramis

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether α-lipoic acid and fisetin have protective effects against cataract in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. Twenty-eight male BALB/C mice were made diabetic by the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). Three weeks after induction of diabetes, mice were divided randomly into 4 groups in which each group contained 7 mice; fisetin-treated group (group 1), α-lipoic acid-treated group (group 2), fisetin placebo group (group 3), α-lipoic acid placebo group (group 4). Fisetin and α-lipoic acid were administered intraperitoneally weekly for 5 weeks. Cataract development was assessed at the end of 8 weeks by slit lamp examination, and cataract formation was graded using a scale. All groups developed at least grade 1 cataract formation. In the fisetin-treated group, the cataract stages were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.02). In the α-lipoic acid-treated group, the cataract stages were lower than in the placebo group but it did not reach to a significant value. Both fisetin and α-lipoic acid had a protective effect on cataract development in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. The protective effect of fisetin appears as though more effective than α-lipoic acid.

  1. Combined effects of lead and acid rain on photosynthesis in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Liao, Chenyu; Fan, Caixia; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    To explore how lead (Pb) and acid rain simultaneously affect plants, the combined effects of Pb and acid rain on the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence reaction, Hill reaction rate, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in soybean seedlings were investigated. The results indicated that, when soybean seedlings were treated with Pb or acid rain alone, the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were decreased, while the initial fluorescence (F 0) and maximum quantum yield (Y) were increased, compared with those of the control. The combined treatment with Pb and acid rain decreased the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F(v)/F(m), and Y and increased F 0 in soybean seedlings. Under the combined treatment with Pb and acid rain, the two factors showed additive effects on the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings and exhibited antagonistic effects on the Hill reaction rate. Under the combined treatment with high-concentration Pb and acid rain, the two factors exhibited synergistic effects on the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F 0, F v/F m, as well as Y. In summary, the inhibition of the photosynthetic process is an important physiological basis for the simultaneous actions of Pb and acid rain in soybean seedlings.

  2. Effective diffraction gratings via acidic etching of thermally poled glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenskii, A. N.; Reduto, I. V.; Petrikov, V. D.; Lipovskii, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Relief diffraction gratings are formed via acidic chemical etching of a periodically poled soda-lime glass. The thermal poling under 1000 V DC is performed at 325 °C using a thermally stable glassy-carbon anodic electrode with periodic grooves, the depth of the grooves being of ∼650 nm. Poling-induced modification of the glass results in deepening the glass anodic surface in the regions under the ribs of the anodic electrode due to volume relaxation and in increasing chemical durability of these regions in acidic media comparatively to the virgin glass. Chemical etching of the poled glass in NH4F:8H2O solution allows additional to the thermal poling shaping of the glass surface via faster dissolution of unpoled/less poled glass regions. The morphology of the glass surface before and after the etching is characterized with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. About 30 min etching provides the formation of ∼0.9 μm in height relief diffraction gratings with the diffraction efficiency close to the theoretically achievable ∼30% for multi-order diffraction. In vivo measuring of the diffraction efficiency in the course of the etching allows precise fabrication of the gratings.

  3. Chlorine Substituted Acetic Acids and Salts. Effect of Salification on Chlorine-35 NQR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Serge; Gourdji, Michel; Guibé, Lucien; Péneau, Alain

    1996-06-01

    The NQR of a quadrupolar probe nucleus is often used to investigate the effect of substituent in molecules. The inductive effect, based on a partial charge migration along the molecular skeleton is the only one present in saturated aliphatics, the conjugative effect appearing in conjugated molecules, especially aromatics. As the stepwise charge migration mechanism, formerly used to explain the inductive effect, is now believed obsolete, we have wanted to reexamined the case of chlorine substituted acetic acids and salts. The data in literature was extended by observing reso-nances and determining NQR frequencies in several acids and salts. The present analysis of the salification of mono-, di-and tri-chloroacetic acids, which is equivalent to a deprotonation or the substitution of the acid hydrogen by a negative unit charge, shows that a model based on the polarization of the chlorine atom(s) by the carboxyle group is consistent with experimental results: the polarization energy appears to be proportional to the NQR frequency shifts; experimental data show a correlation between the NQR frequency shifts accompanying salification and the variations of the intrinsic acidity measured in the gas phase; this, in turn shows that there is a proportionality between the polarization energy and the variations in the acid free enthalpy of dissociation. From the comparison between fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, it also appears that an alternative mechanism, the polarization of the carboxyl group by the halogen, would be important only in the case of the fluoroacetic acid.

  4. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2011-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  5. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  6. Effect of domoic acid on metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Arias, B; Arufe, M; Alfonso, M; Duran, R

    1995-04-01

    Domoic acid (Dom) is a neurotoxic secondary amino acid that interacts with the glutamate receptors, producing neurological problems. In the present work, we study the effects of Dom on the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in discrete rat brain regions. The effects of Dom on the brain metabolism of serotonin are also discussed in this paper. Dom stimulates the rat brain serotoninergic system, increasing differentially the synthesis and the catabolism of 5-HT and the elimination of 5-HIAA.

  7. Effects of Increased Free Fatty Acid Availability on Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage in Men

    PubMed Central

    Mundi, Manpreet S.; Koutsari, Chistina

    2014-01-01

    Context: A portion of free fatty acids (FFA) released from adipose tissue lipolysis are re-stored in adipocytes via direct uptake. Rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage are much greater in women than men, but women also have greater systemic FFA flux and more body fat. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that experimental increases in FFA in men would equalize the rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage in men and women. Design: We used a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA in men to levels seen in post-absorptive women. Direct FFA storage (μmol·kg fat−1·min−1) rates in abdominal and femoral fat was assessed using stable isotope tracer infusions to measure FFA disappearance rates and an iv FFA radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Setting: These studies were performed in a Clinical Research Center. Participants: Data from 13 non-obese women was compared with that from eight obese and eight non-obese men. Intervention: The men received a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the rates of direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Results: The three groups were similar in age and FFA flux by design; obese men had similar body fat percentage as non-obese women. Despite matching for FFA concentrations and flux, FFA storage per kg abdominal (P < .01) and femoral (P < .001) fat was less in both lean and obese men than in non-obese women. Abdominal FFA storage rates were correlated with proteins/enzymes in the FFA uptake/triglyceride synthesis pathway in men. Conclusion: The lesser rates of direct FFA adipose tissue in men compared with women cannot be explained by reduced FFA availability. PMID:25192251

  8. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  9. Characterizing Corrosion Effects of Weak Organic Acids Using a Modified Bono Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuqin; Turbini, Laura J.; Ramjattan, Deepchand; Christian, Bev; Pritzker, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To meet environmental requirements and achieve benefits of cost-effective manufacturing, no-clean fluxes (NCFs) or low-solids fluxes have become popular in present electronic manufacturing processes. Weak organic acids (WOAs) as the activation ingredients in NCFs play an important role, especially in the current lead-free and halogen-free soldering technology era. However, no standard or uniform method exists to characterize the corrosion effects of WOAs on actual metallic circuits of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Hence, the development of an effective quantitative test method for evaluating the corrosion effects of WOAs on the PWB's metallic circuits is imperative. In this paper, the modified Bono test, which was developed to quantitatively examine the corrosion properties of flux residues, is used to characterize the corrosion effects of five WOAs (i.e., abietic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and malic acid) on PWB metallic circuits. Experiments were performed under three temperature/humidity conditions (85°C/85% RH, 60°C/93% RH, and 40°C/93% RH) using two WOA solution concentrations. The different corrosion effects among the various WOAs were best reflected in the testing results at 40°C and 60°C. Optical microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the corroded copper tracks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization was performed to determine the dendrite composition.

  10. Effect of growing area on tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid composition of Pistacia lentiscus edible oil.

    PubMed

    Mezni, F; Khouja, M L; Gregoire, S; Martine, L; Khaldi, A; Berdeaux, O

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we aim to study, for the first time, the effect of the growing area on tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid content of Pistacia lentiscus fixed oil. Fruits were harvested from eight different sites located in the north and the centre of Tunisia. Tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid content of the fixed oils were determined. The highest carotenoid content was exhibited by Feija oil (10.57 mg/kg of oil). Oueslatia and Tabarka oils displayed the highest α-tocopherol content (96.79 and 92.79 mg/kg of oil, respectively). Three major fatty acids were determined: oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. Oleic acid was the main fatty acid presenting more than 50% of the total fatty acid content. Kebouche oil presented the highest oleic acid content (55.66%). All these results highlight the richness of carotenoids, tocopherols and unsaturated fatty acids in P. lentiscus seed oil and underscore the nutritional value of this natural product.

  11. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Temple, Patrick J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ozone and acid-mist exposures on the leaf chemistry of Jeffrey pine and giant sequoia seedlings grown in filtered-air greenhouses were investigated. Acid-mist treatments (pH 4.1, 3.4, 2.7, or 2.0) were administered for 3 h, and ozone exposures (0, 0.10, and 0.20 microliter/liter), which followed acid-mist treatments, for 4 h, each for three days a week for six to nine weeks. It was found that seedlings were more susceptible to acid-mist and acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone. Acid mist treatment resulted in higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur (both present in acid mist) as well as Na. Leaves of giant sequoia exhibited increased K and decreased Mn, while Jeffrey pine showed increases in Fe and Mn. In sequoia leaves, concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Ba decreased. Acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in both conifer species. Extensive changes induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of changes in spectral reflectance of conifer seedlings observed after three weeks of fumigation.

  12. Modulatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids on the binding of glucocorticoids to rat liver glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Vallette, G; Vanet, A; Sumida, C; Nunez, E A

    1991-09-01

    Binding of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone to the rat liver cytosol glucocorticoid receptor was inhibited by physiological concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids as a function of increasing dose, degree of unsaturation, and chain length of the fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most potent inhibitors. Scatchard analysis and Line-weaver-Burk plots of the binding data revealed that both the association constants and number of binding sites decreased and that polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibition was of a mixed non-competitive type. The dissociation rate constant of [3H]dexamethasone from glucocorticoid receptors was increased by up to 10 times in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid, whereas a competitive inhibitor like the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 38486 had no effect. Moreover, sucrose density gradient analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid inhibited the binding of [3H] dexamethasone to both the 8.8S and 4S forms. The results strongly suggest that unsaturated fatty acids are interacting at a site on the receptor different from the hormone binding site and the heat shock protein and that by binding to a second site unsaturated fatty acids greatly change the conformation of the hormone binding site to reduce its affinity for the hormone, either partially or completely depending on the concentration and the class of the fatty acid.

  13. [Effect of additives on the amination of 2-oxoglutaric acid by gamma-radiation].

    PubMed

    Ema, K; Hikichi, T; Shinagawa, M

    1977-07-01

    The effect of added substances was studied on the yield of glutamic acid produced by gamma-ray irradiation of 2-oxoglutaric acid and ammonia in aqueous solution. The contents of amino acids in the irradiated solutions were determined with amino acids analyzer. Sodium nitrate, allyl alcohol or sodium formate was used as an added substance. The yield of glutamic acid significantly decreased by the addition of nitrate, and it was little affected by the addition of allyl alcohol. In the presence of formate the yield increased from G = 0.4 (2-oxoglutaric acid 0.05M and ammonium hydroxide 2M) to G = 1.1. As a result, it was found that hydrated electron contributes on the formation of glutamic acid, but hydroxyl radical does not. The yield showed a maximum at ca. 0.1 M ammonium hydroxide concentration. These facts indicate that NH2 radical does not contribute to the formation of glutamic acid. As a reaction mechanism, it can be explained that 2-oxoglutaric acid which had been reduced by hydrated electron reacts with ammonia.

  14. Transport and metabolic effects of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, K W; Roon, R J

    1982-11-24

    alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid is actively transported into yeast cells by the general amino acid transport system. The system exhibits a Km for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid of 270 microM, a Vmax of 24 nmol/min per mg cells (dry weight), and a pH optimum of 4.1-4.3. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid is also transported by a minor system(s) with a Vmax of 1.7 nmol/min per mg cells. Transport occurs against a concentration gradient with the concentration ratio reaching over 1000:1 (in/out). The alpha-aminoisobutyric acid is not significantly metabolized or incorporated into protein after an 18 h incubation. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid inhibits cell growth when a poor nitrogen source such as proline is provided but not with good nitrogen sources such as NH+4. During nitrogen starvation alpha-aminoisobutyric acid strongly inhibits the synthesis of the nitrogen catabolite repression sensitive enzyme, asparaginase II. Studies with a mutant yeast strain (GDH-CR) suggest that alpha-aminoisobutyric acid inhibition of asparaginase II synthesis occurs because alpha-aminoisobutyric acid is an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis in nitrogen starved cells.

  15. The Effect of Freezing on Thylakoid Membranes in the Presence of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Santarius, Kurt A.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of salts of organic acids on washed and non-washed chloroplast membranes during freezing was investigated. Thylakoids were isolated from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.) and, prior to freezing, salts of various organic acids or inorganic salts or both were added. Freezing occurred for 3 to 4 hours at −25 C. After thawing membrane integrity was investigated by measuring the activity of cyclic photophosphorylation. At very low NaCl levels (1 to 3 mm, washed thylakoids) salts of organic acids either could not prevent membrane inactivation in the course of freezing (succinate) or were effective only at relatively high concentrations (0.1 m or more of acetate, pyruvate, malate, tartrate, citrate). If NaCl was present at higher concentrations (e.g., 0.1 m) some organic acids, e.g. succinate, malate, tartrate, and citrate, were able to protect frost-sensitive thylakoids at surprisingly low concentrations (10 to 20 mm). Other inorganic salts such as KCl, MgCl2, NaNO3 could also induce protection by organic acids which otherwise were ineffective or poorly effective. For effective protection, a more or less constant ratio between inorganic salt and organic acid or between two or more organic acids had to be maintained. Departure to either side from the optimal ratio led to progressive inactivation. The unspecificity of the protective effect of organic acids suggests that these compounds protect colligatively. There are also indications that, in addition, more specific interaction with the membranes contributes to protection. At temperatures above the freezing point, the presence of salts of organic acids decreased the rate of membrane inactivation by high electrolyte concentrations. PMID:16657754

  16. Effect of fatty acids on the permeability barrier of model and biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Arouri, Ahmad; Lauritsen, Kira E; Nielsen, Henriette L; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2016-10-01

    Because of the amphipathicity and conical molecular shape of fatty acids, they can efficiently incorporate into lipid membranes and disturb membrane integrity, chain packing, and lateral pressure profile. These phenomena affect both model membranes as well as biological membranes. We investigated the feasibility of exploiting fatty acids as permeability enhancers in drug delivery systems for enhancing drug release from liposomal carriers and drug uptake by target cells. Saturated fatty acids, with acyl chain length from C8 to C20, were tested using model drug delivery liposomes of 1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line as a model cell. A calcein release assay demonstrated reduction in the membrane permeability barrier of the DPPC liposomes, proportionally to the length of the fatty acid. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments revealed that C12 to C20 fatty acids can stabilize DPPC liposomal bilayers and induce the formation of large structures, probably due to liposome aggregation and bilayer morphological changes. On the other hand, the short fatty acids C8 and C10 tend to destabilize the bilayers and only moderately cause the formation of large structures. The effect of fatty acids on DPPC liposomes was not completely transferrable to the MCF-7 cell line. Using cytotoxicity assays, the cells were found to be relatively insensitive to the fatty acids at apoptotic sub-millimolar concentrations. Increasing the fatty acid concentration to few millimolar substantially reduced the viability of the cells, most likely via the induction of necrosis and cell lysis. A bioluminescence living-cell-based luciferase assay showed that saturated fatty acids in sub-cytotoxic concentrations cannot reduce the permeability barrier of cell membranes. Our results confirm that the membrane perturbing effect of fatty acids on model membranes cannot simply be carried over to biological

  17. Effect of sinapic acid against dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Su; Kim, Kung Wook; Chung, Hae Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Sinapic acid is a member of the phenylpropanoid family and is abundant in cereals, nuts, oil seeds, and berries. It exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of sinapic acid on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury in rats. Sinapic acid remarkably prevented DMN-induced loss of body weight. This was accompanied by a significant increase in levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and liver malondialdehyde content. Furthermore, sinapic acid reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, which correlated with a reduction in the expression of type I collagen mRNA and histological analysis of collagen in liver tissue. Additionally, the expression of hepatic fibrosis-related factors such as α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), were reduced in rats treated with sinapic acid. Sinapic acid exhibited strong scavenging activity. In conclusion, we find that sinapic acid exhibits hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced liver injury, most likely due to its antioxidant activities of scavenging radicals, its capacity to suppress TGF-β1 and its ability to attenuate activation of hepatic stellate cells. This suggests that sinapic acid is a potentially useful agent for the protection against liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  18. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  19. Assessing physio-macromolecular effects of lactic acid on Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells during microaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kuanyshev, Nurzhan; Ami, Diletta; Signori, Lorenzo; Porro, Danilo; Morrissey, John P; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-08-01

    The ability of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to grow at low pH and in the presence of considerable amounts of weak organic acids, at lethal condition for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, increased the interest in the biotechnological potential of the yeast. To understand the mechanism of tolerance and growth effect of weak acids on Z. bailii, we evaluated the physiological and macromolecular changes of the yeast exposed to sub lethal concentrations of lactic acid. Lactic acid represents one of the important commodity chemical which can be produced by microbial fermentation. We assessed physiological effect of lactic acid by bioreactor fermentation using synthetic media at low pH in the presence of lactic acid. Samples collected from bioreactors were stained with propidium iodide (PI) which revealed that, despite lactic acid negatively influence the growth rate, the number of PI positive cells is similar to that of the control. Moreover, we have performed Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) microspectroscopy analysis on intact cells of the same samples. This technique has been never applied before to study Z. bailii under this condition. The analyses revealed lactic acid induced macromolecular changes in the overall cellular protein secondary structures, and alterations of cell wall and membrane physico-chemical properties.

  20. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  1. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Mitigating Salinity Stress in Creeping Bentgrass

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L−1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense. PMID:25551443

  2. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    PubMed Central

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC in vitro and in vivo. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, dexamethasone, meclofenamic acid, flufenamic acid and mefenamic acid were tested in UCC HeLa, VIPA, INBL and SiHa cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was evaluated in vitro. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid presented with slight to moderate toxicity (10–40% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM) in certain cell lines, while meclofenamic acid exhibited significant cytotoxicity in all essayed cell lines (50–90% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM). The meclofenamic acid was tested in murine models (immunodeficient and immunocompetent) of UCC, which manifested a significant reduction in tumor growth and increased mouse survival. It was demonstrated that of the evaluated anti-inflammatory drugs, meclofenamic acid was the most cytotoxic, with a significant antitumor effect in murine models. Subsequent studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical utility of this drug. PMID:26622892

  3. Antiangiogenic effects of p-coumaric acid in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Chul-Ho; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Kil-Jung; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2013-03-01

    p-Coumaric acid, a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid, has been known to possess antioxidant and anticancer activities. Despite its potential contribution to chemopreventive effects, the mechanism by which p-coumaric acid exerts its antiangiogenic actions remains elusive. In this study, we revealed that p-coumaric acid inhibited the sprouting of endothelial cells in rat aortic rings and inhibited the tube formation and migration of endothelial cells. We observed that p-coumaric acid could downregulate mRNA expression levels of the key angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Also, we demonstrated that p-coumaric acid inhibited both the AKT and ERK signaling pathways, which are known to be crucial for angiogenesis. Using a mouse model, we also showed that p-coumaric acid effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo by lowering hemoglobin contents. Collectively, these findings indicate that p-coumaric acid possesses potent anticancer properties due to the inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo.

  4. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. PMID:25255382

  5. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats.

  6. Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effects of dietary protein source.

    PubMed

    Mente, Eleni; Coutteau, Peter; Houlihan, Dominic; Davidson, Ian; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    The effect of dietary protein on protein synthesis and growth of juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated using three different diets with equivalent protein content. Protein synthesis was investigated by a flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Survival, specific growth and protein synthesis rates were higher, and protein degradation was lower, in shrimps fed a fish/squid/shrimp meal diet, or a 50% laboratory diet/50% soybean meal variant diet, than in those fed a casein-based diet. The efficiency of retention of synthesized protein as growth was 94% for shrimps fed the fish meal diet, suggesting a very low protein turnover rate; by contrast, the retention of synthesized protein was only 80% for shrimps fed the casein diet. The amino acid profile of the casein diet was poorly correlated with that of the shrimps. 4 h after a single meal the protein synthesis rates increased following an increase in RNA activity. A model was developed for amino acid flux, suggesting that high growth rates involve a reduction in the turnover of proteins, while amino acid loss appears to be high.

  7. Effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems and their rehabilitation strategies in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zong-wei; Miao, Hong; Zhang, Fu-zhu; Huang, Yi-zong

    2002-04-01

    South China has become the third largest region associated with acid deposition following Europe and North America, the area subject to damage by acid deposition increased from 1.75 million km2 in 1985 to 2.8 million km2 in 1993. Acid deposition has caused serious damage to ecosystem. Combined pollution of acid rain and SO2 showed the obvious multiple effects on crops. Vegetable was more sensitive to acid deposition than foodstuff crops. Annual economic loss of crops due to acid deposition damage in eleven provinces of south China was 4.26 billion RMB Yuan. Acid deposition caused serious damage to forest. Annual economic loss of wood volume was about 1.8 billion RMB Yuan and forest ecological benefit loss 16.2 billion in eleven provinces of south China. Acid deposition in south China was typical "sulfuric acid type". According to the thoughts of sustainable development, some strategies were brought forward as follows: (1) enhancing environmental management, specifying acid-controlling region, controlling and abating the total emission amount of SO2; (2) selecting practical energy technologies of clean coal, for example, cleansing and selecting coal, sulfur-fixed-type industrial briqutting, abating sulfur from waste gas and so on; (3) developing other energy sources to replace coal, including water electricity, atomic energy and the new energy such as solar energy, wind energy and so on; (4) in acid deposition region of south China, selecting acid-resistant type of crop and tree to decrease agricultural losses, planting more green fertilizer crops, using organic fertilizers and liming, in order to improve buffer capacities of soil.

  8. Acid fluids from Copahue Volcano, Argentina, and their environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.

    2010-12-01

    The acid hydrothermal system of Copahue volcano (province of Neuquen, Argentina) consists of a crater lake, acid hot springs (both with pH values of <1 to 2) and a severely acidified fluvial-lake system, with the voluminous Lake Caviahue (0.5 km3; pH 2.2 - 3). Annual measurements of river water fluxes and water compositions and vertical lake water profiles provide a 12 year record of geochemical evolution of the system. Copahue erupted in 2000, and the hydrothermal dissolved element fluxes peaked at that time. Since 2001, the K and Al fluxes have decreased notably as a result of alunite saturation within the hydrothermal system, whereas over the last few years redissolution of that alunite has led to increases in K and Al discharges. The fluxes of Mg and Fe have remained high over time, while the overall system has become more dilute since 2000. Once the distal downstream system reached pH values of 2.9-3.2, the mineral Schwertmannite started to precipitate through a bacterially mediated pathway. The precipitation front gradually moved upstream with ongoing dilution, and reached the exit of Lake Caviahue in 2009. The lake bottom waters were already saturated with the mineral at that time, and if this trend continues, the currently clear blue lake may turn into a bright yellow-brown mass of Schwertmannite over the next few years. Schwertmannite is common in acid mine drainage fluids but has not often been described from volcanic environments. It strongly adsorbs oxyanions (or structurally incorporates them) and the precipitates contain up to 6000 ppm P, 1100 ppm V and 1000 ppm As. The Schwertmannite appears to convert to goethite-like minerals over time, although the exact stoichiometry has been difficult to constrain (variable mixtures of FeOOH and Fe8O8(OH)6SO4 nH2O). The oxyanions appear to remain in the mineral mix during aging. If Lake Caviahue becomes a focus of Schwertmannite deposition, the precipitates will scavenge As, P and V from the watercolumn and

  9. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids.

  10. Effects of C18 Fatty Acids on Intracellular Ca(2+) Mobilization and Histamine Release in RBL-2H3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Chul; Kim, Min Gyu; Jo, Young Soo; Song, Ho Sun; Eom, Tae In; Sim, Sang Soo

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanisms of C18 fatty acids (stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) on mast cells, we measured the effect of C18 fatty acids on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and histamine release in RBL-2H3 mast cells. Stearic acid rapidly increased initial peak of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, whereas linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid gradually increased this mobilization. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), stearic acid (100 µM) did not cause any increase of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Both linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid increased intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, but the increase was smaller than that in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+). These results suggest that C18 fatty acid-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization is mainly dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Verapamil dose-dependently inhibited stearic acid-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, but did not affect both linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. These data suggest that the underlying mechanism of stearic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization may differ. Linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid significantly increased histamine release. Linoleic acid (C18:2: ω-6)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and histamine release were more prominent than α-linolenic acid (C18:3: ω-3). These data support the view that the intake of more α-linolenic acid than linoleic acid is useful in preventing inflammation.

  11. Effects of C18 Fatty Acids on Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization and Histamine Release in RBL-2H3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Chul; Kim, Min Gyu; Jo, Young Soo; Song, Ho Sun; Eom, Tae In

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanisms of C18 fatty acids (stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) on mast cells, we measured the effect of C18 fatty acids on intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and histamine release in RBL-2H3 mast cells. Stearic acid rapidly increased initial peak of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, whereas linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid gradually increased this mobilization. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, stearic acid (100 µM) did not cause any increase of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Both linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid increased intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, but the increase was smaller than that in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. These results suggest that C18 fatty acid-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is mainly dependent on extracellular Ca2+ influx. Verapamil dose-dependently inhibited stearic acid-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, but did not affect both linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. These data suggest that the underlying mechanism of stearic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid on intracellular Ca2+ mobilization may differ. Linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid significantly increased histamine release. Linoleic acid (C18:2: ω-6)-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and histamine release were more prominent than α-linolenic acid (C18:3: ω-3). These data support the view that the intake of more α-linolenic acid than linoleic acid is useful in preventing inflammation. PMID:24976764

  12. Effect of niflumic acid on noradrenaline-induced contractions of the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Criddle, D N; de Moura, R S; Greenwood, I A; Large, W A

    1996-06-01

    1. The effects of niflumic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-activated chloride channels, were compared with the actions of the calcium channel antagonist nifedipine on noradrenaline-evoked contractions in isolated preparations of the rat aorta. 2. The cumulative concentration-effect curve to noradrenaline (NA) was depressed by both nifedipine and niflumic acid in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. The degree of inhibition of the maximal contractile response to NA (1 microM) produced by 10 microM niflumic acid (38%) was similar to the effect of 1 microM nifedipine (39%). 3. Contractions to brief applications (30 s) of 1 microM NA were inhibited by 55% and 62% respectively by 10 microM niflumic acid and 1 microM nifedipine. 4. In the presence of 0.1 microM nifedipine, niflumic acid (10 microM) produced no further inhibition of the NA-evoked contractions. Thus, the actions of niflumic acid and nifedipine were not additive. 5. In Ca-free conditions the transient contraction induced by 1 microM NA was not inhibited by niflumic acid (10 microM) and therefore this agent does not reduce the amount of calcium released from the intracellular store or reduce the sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to calcium. 6. Niflumic acid 10 microM did not inhibit the contractions produced by KCl (up to 120 mM) which were totally blocked by nifedipine. Contractions induced by 25 mM KCl were completely inhibited by 1 microM levcromakalim but were unaffected by niflumic acid. 7. It was concluded that niflumic acid produces selective inhibition of a component of NA-evoked contraction which is probably mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels. These data are consistent with a model in which NA stimulates a calcium-activated chloride conductance which leads to the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce contraction.

  13. [Protective effect of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the development of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, C M; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C; Mesa, M D; Gil, A

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. In this article, the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease are reviewed, with special emphasis on the modifications of the lipoprotein profile and the mechanism by which fatty acids may affect the immune response on the development of the atherosclerotic lesion. Atherosclerosis occurs fundamentally in three stages: dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, fatty streak and fibrous cap formation. Each of the three stages is regulated by the action of vasoactive molecules, growth factors and cytokines, mediators of the immune response. Dietary lipid quality can affect the lipoprotein metabolism, altering their concentrations in the blood, permitting a greater or lesser recruitment of them in the artery wall. The replacement of dietary saturated fat by mono- or polyunsaturated fats significantly lowers the plasma-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Likewise, an enriched monounsaturated fatty acid diet prevents LDL oxidative modifications more than an enriched polyunsaturated diet, and the oxidation of LDL in patients with peripheral vascular disease mediated by n-3 fatty acids can be reduced by the simultaneous consumption of olive oil. However, strong controversy surrounds the effect of the different unsaturated fatty acids. The type of dietary fat can directly or indirectly influence some of the mediating factors of the immune response; n-3 fatty acids have powerful antiinflammatory properties. Dietary fatty acids strongly determine the susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation, which also has an impact on the activation of molecules of adhesion and other inflammatory factors. Moreover, several works have demonstrated a direct effect of fatty acids on the genetic expression of many of those factors. Finally, certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability

  14. Protective effects of dietary glycine and glutamic acid toward the toxic effects of oxidized mustard oil in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Saleem Ur

    2017-01-25

    The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil. Oxidized, un-oxidized mustard oils, glycine and glutamic acid were given to rabbits alone or in combination. The biochemical responses were studied in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology. It has been observed that biochemical and haematological parameters were adversely affected by the oxidized oil, while supplementation of both amino acids was beneficial in normalizing these parameters. Both amino acids alone have no significant effects, however, oxidized oil affected the liver by enhancing fat accumulation, causing hepatitis, reactive Kupffer cells and necrosis. The co-administration of oxidized oils with glycine or glutamic acid revealed significant recovery of the liver structure and function. In conclusion, glycine or glutamic acid is beneficial and protective against food toxicity and can be considered as an ameliorative food supplement.

  15. Effect of Citric Acid and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid on the Surface Morphology of Young and Old Root Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Scelza, Miriam Zaccaro; de Noronha, Fernando; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; Maurício, Marcos; Gallito, Marco Antonio; Scelza, Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of 10% citric acid and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) irrigating solutions on the surface morphology of young and old root dentin by determining the number and diameter of dentinal tubules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: Fifty healthy human teeth collected from young (≤30 years) and old (≥60 years) individuals (n=25) were first prepared with a Largo bur #2 to produce smear layer on the root canal surface. Subsequently, the crowns and the root middle and apical thirds were sectioned and removed, and the cervical thirds were sectioned vertically in the buccal-lingual direction into two equal halves. The obtained samples were then immersed in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min and randomly separated into two treatment groups for each age group. In each age group, ten samples were selected as controls and did not receive any type of treatment. The rest of the specimens were then rinsed, dried and treated for 4 min with 10% citric acid or 17% EDTA. The samples were then assessed with SEM regarding the number and diameter of dentinal tubules. All data were assessed using Student’s t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Regardless of the type of treatment, no significant differences were observed in the number of open tubules between the young and old root dentin (P>0.05). Nonetheless, the diameter of the tubules in the old root dentin was larger when 17% EDTA was used (P<0.05). Both, young and old root dentin did not differ with the 10% citric acid treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that 17% EDTA treatment induced a significant demineralization in old root dentin. PMID:27471529

  16. Effects of Abscisic Acid and of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient on Water Movement through Excised Sunflower Roots.

    PubMed

    Glinka, Z

    1977-05-01

    The effect of abscisic acid on the exudation rate from decapitated roots of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated in the presence and absence of an imposed hydrostatic pressure gradient. The magnitude of the abscisic acid effect was constant even when suctions up to 60 cm Hg were applied to the cut stumps.When roots were bathed in a THO-labeled nutrient solution, the course of the appearance of radioactivity in the exudate, expressed as a function of exudate volume, was not affected by abscisic acid treatment but was strongly speeded up by applying suction.The implications of those findings with regard to the water pathway through the root and the location of the abscisic acid effect are discussed.

  17. Effect of organic acids found in cottonseed hull hydrolysate on the xylitol fermentation by Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wu, Dapeng; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-08-01

    Five organic acids (acetic, ferulic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, formic and levulinic acids) typically associated in the hemicellulose hydrolysate were selected to study their effects on the xylitol fermentation. The effects of individual and combined additions were independently evaluated on the following parameters: inhibitory concentration; initial cell concentration; pH value; and membrane integrity. The results showed that the toxicities of organic acids were related to their hydrophobility and significantly affected by the fermentative pH value. In addition, it was revealed that the paired combinations of organic acids did not impose synergetic inhibition. Moreover, it was found that the fermentation inhibition could be alleviated with the simple manipulations by increasing the initial cell concentration, raising the initial pH value and minimizing furfural levels by evaporation during the concentration of hydrolysates. The proposed strategies for minimizing the negative effects could be adopted to improve the xylitol fermentation in the industrial applications.

  18. Effect of abscissic acid on tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M D; Ghosh, A; Verma, V S; Dattagupta, M

    1983-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) did not affect the infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in vitro. The same dilutions of ABA when applied on the leaves of Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn. at different intervals before inoculation affected development of local lesions variably at different dilutions. The inhibition of local lesion formation was reduced at other intervals leading to stimulation at thirty minutes and six hours intervals. Post-inoculation treatments with 2 mg/l of ABA gave stimulation of local lesion formation, though other dilutions gave inhibition. Viral concentration was stimulated in the tomato seedlings root dipped in 0.2 mg/l of ABA for 6 hours and inoculated 24 hours after transplantation. Incorporation of different concentrations of ABA into tissue culture medium reduced the growth of the TMV infected tobacco callus tissue and stimulated the infectivity of the tissue grown over it assayed after three weeks.

  19. Profibrinolytic Effect of the Epigenetic Modifier Valproic Acid in Man

    PubMed Central

    Saluveer, Ott; Larsson, Pia; Ridderstråle, Wilhelm; Hrafnkelsdóttir, Thórdís J.; Jern, Sverker; Bergh, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of the study was to test if pharmacological intervention by valproic acid (VPA) treatment can modulate the fibrinolytic system in man, by means of increased acute release capacity of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as an altered t-PA/Plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) balance. Recent data from in vitro research demonstrate that the fibrinolytic system is epigenetically regulated mainly by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. HDAC inhibitors, including VPA markedly upregulate t-PA gene expression in vitro. Methods and Results The trial had a cross-over design where healthy men (n = 10), were treated with VPA (Ergenyl Retard) 500 mg depot tablets twice daily for 2 weeks. Capacity for stimulated t-PA release was assessed in the perfused-forearm model using intra-brachial Substance P infusion and venous occlusion plethysmography. Each subject was investigated twice, untreated and after VPA treatment, with 5 weeks wash-out in-between. VPA treatment resulted in considerably decreased levels of circulating PAI-1 antigen from 22.2 (4.6) to 10.8 (2.1) ng/ml (p<0.05). It slightly decreased the levels of circulating venous t-PA antigen (p<0.05), and the t-PA:PAI-1 antigen ratio increased (p<0.01). Substance P infusion resulted in an increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) on both occasions (p<0.0001 for both). The acute t-PA release in response to Substance P was not affected by VPA (p = ns). Conclusion Valproic acid treatment lowers plasma PAI-1 antigen levels and changes the fibrinolytic balance measured as t-PA/PAI-1 ratio in a profibrinolytic direction. This may in part explain the reduction in incidence of myocardial infarctions by VPA treatment observed in recent pharmacoepidemiological studies. Trial Registration The EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-011723-31 PMID:25295869

  20. Boswellic acids: A leukotriene inhibitor also effective through topical application in inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Khajuria, A; Taneja, S C; Johri, R K; Singh, J; Qazi, G N

    2008-06-01

    Boswellic acids (BA), a natural mixture isolated from oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata comprised of four major pentacyclic triterpene acids: beta-boswellic acid (the most abundant), 3-acteyl-beta-boswellic acid, 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, and 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, is reported to be effective as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-asthmatic and in Chron's disease. It inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in the body, specifically leukotrienes via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, the key enzyme of leukotriene synthesis, is the scientifically proved mechanism for its anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic activity. All previous work on BA for its biological activity has been done through the systemic application but no pre-clinical data reported for its anti-inflammatory activity by topical application. We here by report anti-inflammatory activity of BA through this route by applying different acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., arachidonic acid and croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rats paw edema and adjuvant-induced developing arthritis in rats. The results of the study revealed that the effect observed through this route is in accordance to the study conducted with the systemic route, thus establishing that BA when used through topical application is as effective as through the systemic route.

  1. Effects of Tannic Acid on the Ischemic Brain Tissue of Rats.

    PubMed

    Sen, Halil Murat; Ozkan, Adile; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarık; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Silan, Coskun; Cosar, Murat; Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isın

    2015-08-01

    Many studies of brain ischemia have shown the role played by massive ischemia-induced production of reactive oxygen species, the main mechanism of neuronal death. However, currently, there is no treatment choice to prevent cell death triggered by reactive oxygen species. In our study, we researched the effects of tannic acid, an antioxidant, on the ischemic tissue of rats with induced middle cerebral artery occlusion. The animals were divided into three groups of eight animals. The sham group were only administered 10 % ethanol intraperitoneally, the second group had middle cerebral artery occlusion induced and were given 10 % ethanol intraperitoneally, while the third group had middle cerebral artery occlusion with 10 mg/kg dose tannic acid dissolved in 10 % ethanol administered within half an hour intraperitoneally. The rats were sacrificed 24 h later, and brain tissue was examined biochemically and histopathologically. Biochemical evaluation of brain tissue found that comparing the ischemic group with no treatment with the tannic acid-treated ischemia group; the superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were higher, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were lower, and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) was higher in the tannic acid-treated group. Histopathological examination showed that the histopathological results of the tannic acid group were better than the group not given tannic acid. Biochemical and histopathological results showed that tannic acid administration had an antioxidant effect on the negative effects of ischemia in brain tissue.

  2. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  3. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  4. Effects of various acids and salts on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3145.

    PubMed

    Uraih, N; Chipley, J R

    1976-01-01

    The effects of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, malonic acid, and sodium malonate on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus were investigated in synthetic media. Sodium chloride at concentrations equivalent to or greater than 12 g/100 ml inhibited growth and aflatoxin production, while at 8 g or less/100 ml, growth and aflatoxin production were stimulated. At 2 g or less/100 ml, sodium acetate also stimulated growth and aflatoxin production, but reduction occurred with 4 g or more/100 ml. Malonic acid at 10, 20, 40, and 50 mM reduced growth and aflatoxin production (over 50%) while sodium malonate at similar concentrations but different pH values had the opposite effect. Benzoic acid (pH 3.9) and sodium benzoate (pH 5.0) at 0.4 g/100 ml completely inhibited growth and aflatoxin production. Examination of the effect of initial pH indicated that the extent of inhibitory action of malonic acid and sodium acetate was a function of initial pH. The inhibitory action of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate appeared to be a function of undissociated benzoic acid molecules. Aflatoxin reduction was usually accompanied by an unidentified orange pigment, while aflatoxin stimulation was accompanied by unidentified blue and green fluorescent spots but with lower Rf values that aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 standards.

  5. Protective effect of boric acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Keles, Hikmet; Erdogan, Metin; Hazman, Omer; Kucukkurt, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    The protective effect of boric acid against liver damage was evaluated by its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male albino mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with boric acid (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) or silymarin daily for 7 days and received 0.2% CCl(4) in olive oil (10 mL/kg, i.p.) on day 7. Results showed that administration of boric acid significantly reduced the elevation in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and the level of malondialdehyde in the liver that were induced by CCl(4) in mice. Boric acid treatment significantly increased glutathione content, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver. Boric acid treatment improved the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 and maintained activation of nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cell gene expression, with no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the livers of mice. Histopathologically, clear decreases in the severity of CCl(4)-induced lesions were observed, particularly at high boric acid concentrations. Results suggest that boric acid exhibits potent hepatoprotective effects on CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice, likely the result of both the increase in antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  6. Effects of advanced oxidation pretreatment on residual aluminum control in high humic acid water purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Li, Hua; Ding, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xiaochang

    2011-01-01

    Due to the formation of disinfection by-products and high concentrations of Al residue in drinking water purification, humic substances are a major component of organic matter in natural waters and have therefore received a great deal of attention in recent years. We investigated the effects of advanced oxidation pretreatment methods usually applied for removing dissolved organic matters on residual Al control. Results showed that the presence of humic acid increased residual Al concentration notably. With 15 mg/L of humic acid in raw water, the concentrations of soluble aluminum and total aluminum in the treated water were close to the quantity of Al addition. After increasing coagulant dosage from 12 to 120 mg/L, the total-Al in the treated water was controlled to below 0.2 mg/L. Purification systems with ozonation, chlorination, or potassium permanganate oxidation pretreatment units had little effects on residual Al control; while UV radiation decreased Al concentration notably. Combined with ozonation, the effects of UV radiation were enhanced. Optimal dosages were 0.5 mg O3/mg C and 3 hr for raw water with 15 mg/L of humic acid. Under UV light radiation, the combined forces or bonds that existed among humic acid molecules were destroyed; adsorption sites increased positively with radiation time, which promoted adsorption of humic acid onto polymeric aluminum and Al(OH)3(s). This work provides a new solution for humic acid coagulation and residual Al control for raw water with humic acid purification.

  7. In vitro synergistic cytoreductive effects of zoledronic acid and radiation on breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ural, A Ugur; Avcu, Ferit; Candir, Muhammed; Guden, Metin; Ozcan, M Ali

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Bisphosphonates are mostly used in the treatment of bone metastases. They have been shown to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents. It is not known, however, whether similar synergistic effects exist with radiation on breast cancer cells. Methods Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with up to 100 μM zoledronic acid, were irradiated with up to 800 cGy or were exposed to combinations of both treatments to determine the antiproliferative effects of zoledronic acid and radiation. Results Zoledronic acid and radiation caused a dose-dependent and time-dependent decrease in cell viability (approximate 50% growth inhibition values were 48 μM and 20 μM for 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, for zoledronic acid and 500 cGy for radiation). A synergistic cytotoxic effect of the combination of zoledronic acid and radiation was confirmed by isobologram analysis. Conclusion These data constitute the first in vitro evidence for synergistic effects between zoledronic acid and radiation. This combination therapy might thus be expected to be more effective than either treatment alone in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma. PMID:16925824

  8. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  9. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  10. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  11. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hamkens, Arne; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The present study intended to investigate minimal erosive effects of different acids on enamel during short time incubation via determination of calcium and phosphate dissolution. Bovine enamel specimens were eroded for 1-5 min with eight different acids of pH 2, 2.3 and 3 (citric (CA), maleic (MA), lactic (LA), tartaric (TA), phosphoric (PA), oxalic (OA), acetic (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) release were determined photometrically using arsenazo III (calcium) and malachite green (phosphate) as substrates. Each subgroup contained eight enamel specimens. Amount of titratable acid was determined for all acidic solutions. MA, LA, TA, AA and HCl caused linear release of Ca and P, PA of Ca, CA of P. For CA, MA, LA, TA, AA, PA and HCl mineral loss was shown to be pH-dependent. Ca dissolution varied between 28.6+/-4.4 (LA, pH 2) and 2.4+/-0.7 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3), P dissolution ranged between 17.2+/-2.6 (LA, pH 2) and 1.4+/-0.4 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3). LA was one of the most erosive acids. AA was very erosive at pH 3. HCl and MA were shown to have the lowest erosive effects. There was only a weak correlation (r=0.28) between P and Ca release and the amount of titratable acid. The method of the present study allows investigation of minimal erosive effects via direct determination of P and Ca dissolution. During short time exposition at constant pH level, erosive effects mainly depend on pH and type of acid but not on amount of titratable acid.

  12. Effects of three kinds of organic acids on phosphorus recovery by magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystallization from synthetic swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonghui; Dai, Yunrong; Hu, Qiong; Yu, Xiaohua; Qian, Feng

    2014-04-01

    P recovery from swine wastewater has become a great concern as a result of the high demand for P resources and its potential eutrophication effects on water ecosystems. The method of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystallization was used to recover P from simulated swine wastewater, and the effects of three organic acids (citric acid, succinic acid and acetic acid) on P removal efficiency and rate at different pH values were investigated. The results indicated that the P removal efficiency was worst affected by citric acid in the optimal pH range of 9.0-10.5, followed by succinic acid and acetic acid, and the influencing extent of organic acids decreased with the increasing pH value. Due to the complexation between organic acid and Mg(2+)/NH4(+), all of three organic acids could inhibit the P removal rate at the beginning of the reaction, which showed positive correlation between the inhibition effects and the concentration of organic acids. The high concentration of citric acid could completely suppress the MAP crystallization reaction. Moreover, citric acid and succinic acid brought obvious effects on the morphology of the crystallized products. The experimental results also demonstrated that MAP crystals could be obtained in the presence of different kinds and concentrations of organic acids.

  13. Effect of ursolic acid from epicuticular waxes of Jacaranda decurrens on Schizaphis graminum.

    PubMed

    Varanda, E M; Zúñiga, G E; Salatino, A; Roque, N F; Corcuera, L J

    1992-06-01

    Ursolic acid from Jacaranda decurrens showed toxicity and feeding deterrency towards the greenbug Schizaphis graminum. Biological activity was determined by analyzing ursolic acid effects on the survival, reproductive index, and population growth rate of the greenbug. Survival and reproductive index decreased in direct proportion to ursolic acid content in the diet. The population growth rate decreased markedly when the aphids were fed on barley leaves sprayed with ursolic acid dissolved in DMSO, in comparison to leaves sprayed only with DMSO. The feeding behavior of the greenbug was also affected by ursolic acid. Ingestion time on diet with 0.1 mM was reduced about 30% in relation to the ingestion time on control diet.

  14. Effect of hyaluronic acid on postoperative intraperitoneal adhesion formation in the rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Urman, B.; Gomel, V.; Jetha, N. )

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid solution in preventing intraperitoneal (IP) adhesions. The study design was prospective, randomized and blinded and involved 83 rats. Measured serosal injury was inflicted using a CO2 laser on the right uterine horn of the rat. Animals randomized to groups 1 and 2 received either 0.4% hyaluronic acid or its diluent phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally before and after the injury. In groups 3 and 4, the same solutions were used only after the injury. Postoperative adhesions were assessed at second-look laparotomy. Histologic assessment of the fresh laser injury was carried out on uteri pretreated with hyaluronic acid, PBS, or nothing. Pretreatment with hyaluronic acid was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative adhesions and a significantly decreased crater depth. Hyaluronic acid appears to reduce postoperative IP adhesion formation by coating the serosal surfaces and decreasing the extent of initial tissue injury.

  15. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  16. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 4: The effects on Canada`s forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, P.

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the state of acid rain assessment related to Canadian forests as it has progressed since the last assessment carried out in 1990. The assessment also highlights key policy issues and the uncertainties associated with addressing them. Sections of the report cover the following: Acid rain and current forest decline in coastal birch, sugar maple, and high elevation forests; the effects of acid rain on tree physiology and soil chemistry; results of forest health monitoring in national, North American, Ontario, and Quebec networks; the critical loads or levels of acid deposition, with reference to case studies; and international involvement in acid rain research and abatement. Finally, research and information needs are identified.

  17. High dose eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester: effects on lipids and neutrophil leukotriene production in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, A B; Filipowicz, B L; Edwards, T J; Hawkey, C J

    1990-01-01

    1. A 93% pure ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid was investigated for tolerability and biochemical effects on neutrophil leukotriene synthesis and plasma lipoproteins when given in high dose. Six healthy volunteers received 6 g eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester daily for 6 weeks, followed by a 4 week wash-out and then 18 g daily for 6 weeks. 2. There was inhibition of neutrophil leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis, with no significant differences between low and high dose. 3. There was a dose dependent increase in leukotriene B5 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid acid synthesis. 4. Plasma triglycerides were reduced maximally on 6 g daily, with no greater suppression at 18 g daily. 5. Plasma cholesterol was only suppressed significantly at 18 g daily. 6. The 6 g daily dose was well tolerated but the 18 g daily dose produced diarrhoea and steatorrhoea. PMID:2169832

  18. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo.

  19. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  20. Effect of temperature on the acid-base properties of the alumina surface: microcalorimetry and acid-base titration experiments.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Pierre; Marmier, Nicolas; Hurel, Charlotte; Morel-Desrosiers, Nicole

    2006-06-15

    Sorption reactions on natural or synthetic materials that can attenuate the migration of pollutants in the geosphere could be affected by temperature variations. Nevertheless, most of the theoretical models describing sorption reactions are at 25 degrees C. To check these models at different temperatures, experimental data such as the enthalpies of sorption are thus required. Highly sensitive microcalorimeters can now be used to determine the heat effects accompanying the sorption of radionuclides on oxide-water interfaces, but enthalpies of sorption cannot be extracted from microcalorimetric data without a clear knowledge of the thermodynamics of protonation and deprotonation of the oxide surface. However, the values reported in the literature show large discrepancies and one must conclude that, amazingly, this fundamental problem of proton binding is not yet resolved. We have thus undertaken to measure by titration microcalorimetry the heat effects accompanying proton exchange at the alumina-water interface at 25 degrees C. Based on (i) the surface sites speciation provided by a surface complexation model (built from acid-base titrations at 25 degrees C) and (ii) results of the microcalorimetric experiments, calculations have been made to extract the enthalpic variations associated respectively to first and second deprotonation of the alumina surface. Values obtained are deltaH1 = 80+/-10 kJ mol(-1) and deltaH2 = 5+/-3 kJ mol(-1). In a second step, these enthalpy values were used to calculate the alumina surface acidity constants at 50 degrees C via the van't Hoff equation. Then a theoretical titration curve at 50 degrees C was calculated and compared to the experimental alumina surface titration curve. Good agreement between the predicted acid-base titration curve and the experimental one was observed.

  1. Effect of ruminal infusion of glucose, volatile fatty acids and hydrochloric acid on mineral metabolism in sheep.

    PubMed

    Giduck, S A; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S

    1988-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of alterations in ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations on utilization of Mg and other minerals. In Exp. 1, two metabolism trials were conducted with 12 ruminally cannulated crossbred wethers fed 800 g/d of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata, L.) hay. After each feeding, wethers were ruminally infused with 500 ml (4.2 ml/min) or either 1) deionized water, 2) 40% (w/v) glucose solution, 3) .26 M propionic and .17 M butyric acid solution or 4) .35 M HCl. The pH of the VFA solution was adjusted to 6.8 with 10N NaOH. In Exp. 2, a metabolism trial was conducted with 12 ruminally cannulated crossbred wethers fed 600 g of orchard-grass hay and infused with a buffered VFA solution prepared as in Exp. 1 or with an unbuffered solution. In both experiments each trial consisted of a 5-d adaption period followed by four 5-d collections of feed, feces and urine. Compared with the glucose treatment, infusion of the buffered VFA solution produced similar acetic and propionic and higher (P less than .05) butyric acid concentrations (Exp. 1). The HCl solution produced changes in ruminal and pH values similar to those of the glucose infusion. In Exp. 1, apparent absorption of Mg was increased over twofold by the glucose infusion (P less than .05), but the other infusions had no effect. Apparent absorption of P was decreased (P less than .05) by HCl infusion, and K absorption was decreased by HCl and glucose infusions. In Exp. 2, infusion of the unbuffered VFA solution decreased apparent Mg absorption by 15.7%, compared with infusion of the buffered solution. These experiments suggest that the increased Mg absorption observed with carbohydrate supplementation is not due to alterations in ruminal pH or VFA levels.

  2. Effect of chain length on binding of fatty acids to Pluronics in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    James-Smith, Monica A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Cheung, Sally; Moudgil, Brij M; Shah, Dinesh O

    2008-03-15

    We investigated the effect of fatty acid chain length on the binding capacity of drug and fatty acid to Pluronic F127-based microemulsions. This was accomplished by using turbidity experiments. Pluronic-based oil-in-water microemulsions of various compositions were synthesized and titrated to turbidity with concentrated Amitriptyline, an antidepressant drug. Sodium salts of C(8), C(10), or C(12) fatty acid were used in preparation of the microemulsion and the corresponding binding capacities were observed. It has been previously determined that, for microemulsions prepared with sodium caprylate (C(8) fatty acid soap), a maximum of 11 fatty acid molecules bind to the microemulsion per 1 molecule of Pluronic F127 and a maximum of 12 molecules of Amitriptyline bind per molecule of F127. We have found that with increasing the chain length of the fatty acid salt component of the microemulsion, the binding capacity of both the fatty acid and the Amitriptyline to the microemulsion decreases. For sodium salts of C(8), C(10) and C(12) fatty acids, respectively, a maximum of approximately 11, 8.4 and 8.3 molecules of fatty acid molecules bind to 1 Pluronic F127 molecule. We propose that this is due to the decreasing number of free monomers with increasing chain length. As chain length increases, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) decreases, thus leading to fewer monomers. Pluronics are symmetric tri-block copolymers consisting of propylene oxide (PO) and ethylene oxide (EO). The polypropylene oxide block, PPO is sandwiched between two polyethylene oxide (PEO) blocks. The PEO blocks are hydrophilic while PPO is hydrophobic portion in the Pluronic molecule. Due to this structure, we propose that the fatty acid molecules that are in monomeric form most effectively diffuse between the PEO "tails" and bind to the hydrophobic PPO groups.

  3. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem

    2009-05-01

    This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.

  4. Effect of Nalidixic Acid and Hydroxyurea on Division Ability of Escherichia coli fil+ and lon− Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, George J.; Deering, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    Short periods of incubation in medium containing nalidixic acid or hydroxyurea, followed by a return to normal growth conditions, induced filament formation in Escherichia coli B (fil+) and AB1899NM (lon−) but not in B/r (fil−) and AB1157 (lon+). These drugs reversibly stopped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis with little or no effect on ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis or mass increase. The initial imbalance caused by incubation in these drugs was the same for B and B/r as was macromolecular synthesis following a return to normal growth conditions. DNA degradation caused by nalidixic acid was measured and found to be the same for B and B/r. Hydroxyurea caused no DNA degradation in these two strains. Survival curves as determined under various conditions by colony formation suggested that the property of filament formation was responsible for the extrasensitivity of fil+ and lon− strains to either nalidixic acid or hydroxyurea. E. coli B was more sensitive to either drug than was B/r or Bs-1. Pantoyl lactone or liquid holding treatment aided division and colony formation of nalidixic acid-treated B but had no effect on B/r. Likewise, the filament-former AB1899NM was more sensitive to nalidixic acid than was the non-filament-former AB1157. The sensitivity of B/r and Bs-1 to nalidixic acid was nearly the same except at longer times in nalidixic acid, when Bs-1 appeared more resistant. Even though nalidixic acid, hydroxyurea, and ultraviolet light may produce quite different molecular alterations in E. coli, they all cause a metabolic imbalance resulting in a lowered ratio of DNA to RNA and protein. We propose that it is this imbalance per se rather than any specific primary chemical or photochemical alterations which leads to filament formation by some genetically susceptible bacterial strains such as lon− and fil+. PMID:4867744

  5. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, linoleic acid, phytanic acid and the combination of various fatty acids on proliferation and cytokine expression of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Renner, Lydia; Kersten, Susanne; Duevel, Anna; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-07-12

    Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, phytanic acid (PA), linoleic acid (LA) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture (containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid) on the proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro using alamar blue (AB) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in response to cis-9,trans-11 and LA. The IC50 values did not differ between the investigated FA, but there were differences within the proliferation in the response of these FA in a concentration range between 20 and 148 µM (e.g., increased proliferation after treatment with lower concentrations of LA). No differences occurred when different FA combinations were tested. ConA stimulation increased the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 decreased. In general, neither the baseline expression nor the ConA-stimulated mRNA expression of cytokines and PPAR-γ were affected by the FA. In conclusion, all FA inhibit the proliferation of PBMC dose dependently without significantly altering the induced cytokine spectrum of activated bovine PBMC.

  6. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  7. Effect of citric acid on the acidification of artificial pepsin solution for metacercariae isolation from fish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Ki Hwan; Ko, Seong-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2013-11-15

    Artificial digestive solution based on pepsin is essential for collecting metacercariae from fish. To promote the enzymatic reactivity of pepsin, the pH of the solution has to be adjusted to pH 1.0-2.0. Hydrochloride (HCl) is usually used for this purpose, but the use of HCl raises safety concerns. The aim of this work was to address the usefulness of citric acid as an alternative for HCl for the acidification of pepsin solution, and to examine its potential to damage metacercariae during in vitro digestion as compared with HCl. Changes in pH after adding 1-9% of citric acid (m/v) to pepsin solution were compared to a 1% HCl (v/v) addition. Digestion of fish muscle was evaluated by measuring released protein concentrations by spectrophotometry. In addition, survival rates of metacercariae in pepsin solution were determined at different citric acid concentrations and were compared that of with 1% HCl. The present study shows that addition of citric acid reduced the pH of pepsin solutions to the required level. Addition of more than 5% of citric acid resulted in the effective digestion of fish muscle over 3h in vitro, and 5% citric acid was less lethal to metacercariae than 1% HCl in pepsin solution. Pepsin solution containing 5% citric acid had digestive capacity superior to pepsin solution containing 1% HCl after 3h incubation with released protein concentrations of 12.0 ng/ml for 5% citric acid and 9.6 ng/ml for 1% HCl. Accordingly, the present study suggests that the addition of 5% citric acid to pepsin solution is a good alternative to 1% HCl in infection studies because citric acid is a stable at room temperature and has a good safety profile. In addition, we suggest that the use of citric acid enables the preparation of commercial digestive solutions for the detection of microorganisms in fish and other vertebrate muscle tissue.

  8. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients.

  10. [Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid].

    PubMed

    Obertreis, B; Giller, K; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-01-01

    Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for halfmaximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 microns/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 micrograms/ml for IDS 23 and 38 micrograms/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapie of rheumatoid diseases.

  11. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Three Fatty Acids from Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Zheng; Zheng, Yu-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA), 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA), and sebacic acid (SEA) are the three major fatty acids in royal jelly (RJ). Previous studies have revealed several pharmacological activities of 10-H2DA and 10-HDAA, although the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms by which SEA acts are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of these RJ fatty acids in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and SEA had potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the release of the major inflammatory-mediators, nitric oxide, and interleukin-10, and only SEA decreased TNF-α production. Several key inflammatory genes have also been modulated by these RJ fatty acids, with 10-H2DA showing distinct modulating effects as compared to the other two FAs. Furthermore, we found that these three FAs regulated several proteins involved in MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings provide additional references for using RJ against inflammatory diseases. PMID:27847405

  12. Protective effects of sinapic acid on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, Ponnian

    2012-11-01

    In the pathology of myocardial infarction, lysosomal lipid peroxidation and resulting enzyme release play an important role. We evaluated the protective effects of sinapic acid on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with sinapic acid (12 mg/kg body weight) orally daily for 10 days and isoproterenol (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected twice at an interval of 24 h (9th and 10th day). Then, lysosomal lipid peroxidation, lysosomal enzymes in serum, heart homogenate, lysosomal fraction and myocardial infarct size were measured. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats showed a significant increase in serum creatine kinase-MB and lysosomal lipid peroxidation. The activities of β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsin-B and D were significantly increased in serum, heart and the activities of β-glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were significantly decreased in lysosomal fraction of myocardial infarcted rats. Pre-and-co-treatment with sinapic acid normalized all the biochemical parameters and reduced myocardial infarct size in myocardial infarcted rats. In vitro studies confirmed the free radical scavenging effects of sinapic acid. The possible mechanisms for the observed effects are attributed to sinapic acid's free radical scavenging and membrane stabilizing properties. Thus, sinapic acid has protective effects on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.

  13. The protective effect of hydrophilic bile acids on bile acid hepatotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K

    1995-09-01

    Taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) (or taurocholate, TC) excessively i.v. infused in rats causes an acute cholestasis accompanied by an excessive excretion of various proteins (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, albumin, etc.) into the bile. This cholestasis was initially found to be effectively prevented by a simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC). Later this property was found to be shared by glycoursodeoxycholate (GUDC) and tauro (and glyco) alpha and beta-muricholate (MC) all known to be relatively hydrophilic. The extent of the preventative effect appears to be comparable for taurine and glycine conjugates of all three bile salts (UDC, alpha-MC and beta-MC). An albumin leakage into the bile enhanced by TCDC infusion appears to be mainly from albumin in the serum, since i.v. injected 125I-human serum albumin excretion into the bile paralled the rat albumin excretion. Despite very drastic biochemical abnormalities induced by TCDC infusion, morphological correlates in the liver are scarce both from light and electron microscopic examinations, the only correlate with biochemical parameters being a sporadic necrosis of hepatocytes, especially in the periportal areas. Although there is not sufficient morphological evidence, it appears that TCDC infusion causes a direct communication between serum and bile leading to a rapid leakage of large molecules such as albumin and even gamma-globulin. Conjugates of hydrophilic bile salts such as UDC, alpha-MC and beta-MC efficiently prevent such bile abnormalities but their hydrophilicity is not the sole determinant of this property since a more hydrophilic bile salt such as taurodehydrocholate does not possess this property. The underlying mechanism(s) for this protective property remains uncertain.

  14. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not accounting for surface

  15. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125 mol/L, respectively.

  16. [Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf photosynthate, growth, and yield of wheat].

    PubMed

    Mai, Bo-Rui; Zheng, You-Fei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Xia; Li, Lu; Zhong, Yan-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    With winter wheat variety Yamgmai 12 as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the stress of simulated acid rain on its growth and development. The results showed that simulated acid rain had considerable effect on wheat growth and yield. When the pH of acid rain was < or = 3.5, the growth of leaf area as well as the mass of fresh leaf per unit area declined greatly, and the yield was significantly lower than CK. When pH was < or = 2.5, the plant height was obviously lowered, and the visible injury on leaf surface was observed. Under acid rain stress, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid, especially chlorophyll a, decreased obviously. Acid rain also suppressed the synthesis of soluble sugar and reduced sugar, and the suppression was stronger at pH < or = 3.5, and became much stronger with increasing acidity. The total free amino acid and soluble protein contents in leaves decreased with increasing acidity, and were significantly lower than CK when the pH was < or = 3.5 and < or = 4.5, respectively.

  17. Effect of zinc on the transformation of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-02-15

    Suspected carcinogen haloacetic acids (HAAs), as a major class of disinfection byproducts, are widespread in drinking water. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of zinc, a metal component of galvanized pipe in water distribution systems, on the fate of the HAAs. Results showed that zinc could induce sequential dehalogenation of HAAs. All brominated acetic acids were transformed to acetate ultimately, and chloroacetic acid (MCAA) was the final product for the dehalogenation of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA). The concentrations of the parent compounds as a function of time were fitted pseudo-first-order kinetic model with R(2)>0.904. Brominated acetic acids were more activated than chlorinated acetic acids in the reaction with zinc and the activity of HAAs decreased with the number of substituents reduced. While flowing through galvanized pipe, brominated and chlorinated acetic acids except MCAA would decrease to 1% of their initial concentrations in 2.11-6.34h, and the rates would not be affected obviously by the hydrodynamic or duct conditions. The health risk due to TCAA, DCAA in drinking water tends to be magnified, and that due to TBAA, DBAA tends to be first increased and then decreased, also that due to MBAA tends to be decreased.

  18. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-05

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As.

  19. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment.

  20. Toxic Effects of Domoic Acid in the Seabream Sparus aurata

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Isabel; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Afonso, António; Rivera, Socorro; Azevedo, Joana; Monteiro, Rogério; Cervantes, Rosa; Gago-Martinez, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Neurotoxicity induced in fish by domoic acid (DA) was assessed with respect to occurrence of neurotoxic signs, lethality, and histopathology by light microscopy. Sparus aurata were exposed to a single dose of DA by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0, 0.45, 0.9, and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Mortality (66.67 ± 16.67%) was only observed in dose of 9.0 mg kg−1 bw. Signs of neurological toxicity were detected for the doses of 0.9 and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Furthermore, the mean concentrations (±SD) of DA detected by HPLC-UV in extracts of brain after exposure to 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw were 0.61 ± 0.01, 0.96 ± 0.00, and 0.36 ± 0.01 mg DA kg−1 tissue at 1, 2, and 4 hours. The lack of major permanent brain damage in S. aurata, and reversibility of neurotoxic signs, suggest that lower susceptibility to DA or neuronal recovery occurs in affected individuals. PMID:21116416

  1. Remineralizing agents: effects on acid-softened enamel.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, H Bp; Maeda, F A; Silva, B R; Miranda, W G; Cardoso, P Ec

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether remineralizing toothpastes can protect acid-softened enamel against further erosive episodes. Fifty enamel slabs of bovine teeth with preformed erosion-like lesions were randomly assigned to 1 control and 4 experimental groups (n = 10): group 1, nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) dentifrice; group 2, arginine and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dentifrice; group 3, potassium nitrate (KNO3) and high-fluoride (F) availability dentifrice; group 4, ordinary fluoridated dentifrice (OFD); and group 5, control (deionized water). Initial hardness measurements were taken after the different treatments were applied. Statistically significant mineral gains of 8.0% and 10.0% were exhibited in groups 1 and 4, respectively. Groups 2 and 3 showed mineral gains of 4.5% and 2.1%, respectively; these were not statistically significant. Group 5 showed mineral loss (-11.8%). A 1-way analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in the mean microhardness values among groups. However, there are indications that the nanoHAp and OFD toothpastes may decrease erosive lesions after treatment, while the arginine + CaCO3 and KNO3 + F pastes may prevent the progression of erosive lesions.

  2. Effects of retinoic acid upon pregastrulation mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.B.; Generoso, W.M.; Polifka, J.E.; Rutledge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The zygote and subsequent preimplantation stages of early mammalian development are susceptible to certain chemical perturbations that cause abnormal development of the conceptus. In certain cases, disruption in patterns of gene expression could be a primary event leading to abnormal development. To investigate this hypothesis, we treated pregnant mice with trans-retinoic acid (RA), a known modulator of gene expression. Treatments were administered at various times during pregastrulation stages and the presumed onset of gastrulation. RA induced a novel set of malformations, such as supernumerary and ectopic limbs and duplication of portions of the lower body, but only when administered during the period 4.5 to 5.5 days postmating. Other malformations were induced by RA treatments at later stages of development. The limb and lower-body duplications suggest that exongenous RA may influence not only the pattern for the hindlimbs, but that for the entire lower-body. If, indeed, the conceptus were affected in the late blastocyst and proamniotic-embryo stages, the possibility arises that aspects of pattern formation of limbs and lower body actually occur prior to gastrulation.

  3. The Effect of Citric Acid on the Oxidation of Organic Contaminants by Fenton's Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Y.; Javandel, I.; Lee, G.

    2003-12-01

    Combined with acids and iron catalysts, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as Fenton's reagent is proven to be effective in oxidizing halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Fenton's reagent, traditionally used for waste water treatment technique, has been applied to the remediation of contaminated soil systems and numerous investigators have found intrinsic iron salts are effective source of iron catalyst for the reaction. Citric acid, which is naturally occurring nutrients to microorganisms and less destructive to soil chemical properties, is selected for an acidifying agent to create acidic soil condition. However, citric acid has been considered as a reaction inhibitant because it sequesters ferric iron from Fenton's catalytic cycle by forming strong chelates with iron. This paper presents the feasibility of using citric acid as an acidifying agent of soil matrix for the Fenton-like oxidation. Series of batch tests were performed to test disappearance of VOCs in various aqueous systems with two acidifying agents (citric acid or sulfuric acid) and three iron sources (iron sulfate, water soluble soil iron, or soil matrix). Batch results show that soluble iron is essential for near complete disappearance of VOCs and that citric acid performs similarly to sulfuric acid at low H2O2 dosage (< 1 wt%). The test soil provided water-soluble soil iron but also contained scavengers of the oxidizing agents, resulting in limited removals of VOCs. Column tests confirmed the results of the batch tests, suggesting citric acid is also as effective as sulfuric acid in providing acidic environment for the Fenton-like oxidation. The batch experiments also reveal that higher doses of H2O2 lower the degree of VOC removals in citric acid systems. Potential explanations for this declining include that excessive presence of H2O2 expedites the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron, which then forms a strong complex with citrate, leading to the sequestration of the iron from the Fenton

  4. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  5. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of phosphoric acid solution compared to other root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    PRADO, Maíra; da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; DUQUE, Thais Mageste; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; de ALMEIDA, José Flávio Affonso; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid has been suggested as an irrigant due to its effectiveness in removing the smear layer. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of a 37% phosphoric acid solution to other irrigants commonly used in endodontics. Material and Methods : The substances 37% phosphoric acid, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 2% chlorhexidine (solution and gel), and 5.25% NaOCl were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces meyeri, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella nigrescens according to the agar diffusion method. The cytotoxicity of the irrigants was determined by using the MTT assay. Results : Phosphoric acid presented higher antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested irrigants. With regard to the cell viability, this solution showed results similar to those with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution), whereas 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid showed higher cell viability compared to other irrigants. Conclusion : Phosphoric acid demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution). PMID:26018307

  6. Effects of natural phenolic acids on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Zych, Maria; Burczyk, Jan; Trzeciak, Hanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2009-12-01

    Recent reports indicate the possibility of antiresorptive and/or bone formation increasing activity of natural phenolic acids, commonly present in plants which are normally consumed in the diet. The effects of 4 natural phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic, P-coumaric or chlorogenic, 10 mg/kg P. O. daily for 4 weeks) on the skeletal system of ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) rats were investigated. Bone mass, mineral and calcium content, macrometric and histomorphometric parameters, and mechanical properties were examined. Phenolic acids differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with osteoporotic changes induced by the ovariectomy. Caffeic acid decreased bone mass, whereas P-coumaric acid increased the bone mass/body mass ratio and bone mineral mass/body mass ratio in the long bones, in comparison with the ovariectomized control rats. The phenolic acids improved some bone histomorphometric parameters, impaired by estrogen deficiency. However, they did not increase the ratio of bone mineral mass to bone mass, decreased by estrogen deficiency, and did not significantly affect bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, different natural phenolic acids exert differential effects on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, both favourable and deleterious.

  7. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Catalá, Angel

    2013-01-01

    I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others. PMID:24490074

  8. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  9. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  10. The antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, Merve; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2016-07-27

    Phenolic compounds not only contribute to the sensory qualities of fruits and vegetables but also exhibit several health protective properties. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid are commonly used plant phenolics in folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in V79 cells were investigated. The genotoxic potentials of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid were evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and alkaline COMET assays in human lymphocytes and in V79 cells. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid (10, 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 μM) were found to have antioxidant activities at the studied concentrations. IC50 values of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid in V79 cells were found to be 275.48 μM, 2503.712 μM, and 224.85 μM, respectively. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid, at the all concentrations, have not exerted genotoxic effects and galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid revealed a reduction in the frequency of MN and DNA damage induced by H2O2.

  11. The Mediterranean diet: effects on proteins that mediate fatty acid metabolism in the colon.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora

    2011-12-01

    A Mediterranean diet appears to have health benefits in many domains of human health, mediated perhaps by its anti-inflammatory effects. Metabolism of fatty acids and subsequent eicosanoid production is a key mechanism by which a Mediterranean diet can exert anti-inflammatory effects. Both dietary fatty acids and fatty acid metabolism determine fatty acid availability for cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-dependent production of eicosanoids, namely prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In dietary intervention studies and in observational studies of the Mediterranean diet, blood levels of fatty acids do reflect dietary intakes but are attenuated. Small differences in fatty acid levels, however, appear to be important, especially when exposures occur over long periods of time. This review summarizes how fat intakes from a Greek-style Mediterranean diet can be expected to affect fatty acid metabolizing proteins, with an emphasis on the metabolic pathways that lead to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. The proteins involved in these pathways are ripe for investigation using proteomic approaches and may be targets for colon cancer prevention.

  12. Effect of NAD on PARP-mediated insulin sensitivity in oleic acid treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Xi, Chao; Zhang, Tie-Mei

    2015-07-01

    High serum free fatty acids levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this lipid toxicity are unclear. To investigate whether PARP1 activation and NAD depletion are involved in the impairment of insulin sensitivity associated with lipotoxicity, HepG2 cells were cultured with 500 μM oleic acid for 48 h. Oleic acid-treated cells exhibited increased ROS generation, lipid accumulation and PARP1 activation. Treatment with the PARP1 inhibitor PJ34 and transfection with PARP1 small interfering RNA both prevented the oleic acid-induced impairment of the insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PJ34 reversed the oleic acid-induced decrease in intracellular NAD concentration, while exogenous NAD protected cells against oleic acid-induced insulin insensitivity. Combined NAD and PJ34 administration did not enhance the effects obtained by treatment with either NAD or PJ34 alone. Interestingly, when cells were treated with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527, the protective effects of PJ34 and NAD treatment were diminished. Taken together, these data suggest that NAD depletion by PARP1 activation is essential for the modulation of insulin sensitivity in oleic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

  13. Effects of the biologically produced polymer alginic acid on macroscopic and microscopic calcite dissolution rates.

    PubMed

    Perry, Thomas D; Duckworth, Owen W; McNamara, Christopher J; Martin, Scot T; Mitchell, Ralph

    2004-06-01

    Dissolution of carbonate minerals has significant environmental effects. Microorganisms affect carbonate dissolution rates by producing extracellular metabolites, including complex polysaccharides such as alginic acid. Using a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)/flowthrough reactor apparatus, we investigated the effects of alginic acid on calcite dissolution. Macroscopic dissolution rates, derived from the aqueous metal ion concentrations, are 10(-5.5) mol m(-2) s(-1) for 5 < pH < 12 in the absence of alginic acid compared to 10(-4.8) mol m(-2) s(-1) in its presence. The AFM images demonstrate that alginic acid preferentially attacks the obtuse steps of dissolution pits on the calcite surface. In pure water, the obtuse and acute steps retreat at similar rates, and the pits are nearly isotropic except under highly acidic conditions. In alginic acid, the acute step retreat rate is nearly unchanged in comparison to water, whereas the obtuse step retreat rate increases with decreasing pH values. As a result, the pits remain rhombohedral but propagate faster in the obtuse direction. To explain these observations, we propose that alginic acid preferentially forms dissolution active surface complexes with calcium atoms on the obtuse step, which results in anisotropic ligand-promoted dissolution.

  14. Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Antagonism of Toxic Effects of Cyanide by Alpha-Keto Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-31

    into this system in the absence of CN. Thi pgak area of each c-keto acid was measured . Then various molar ratios of a-keto acid:CN were injected into...the HPLC system and the peak area of the c-keto acid measured . The peak areas of the c-keto acid without CN and with CN were compared. Any reduction...there ws me statistical difference botew the measured e181 f Aeq fte predneed In the animals treated with C/-U acid and OWNm tre"te WitC ad s46. It Is of

  15. [Effects of acid rain stress on Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Min; Yu, Shu-Quan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Mei-Hu

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth in different seasons under simulated acid rain stress (heavy, pH = 2. 5; moderate, pH = 4.0; and control, pH = 5.6). In the same treatments, the leaf relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), actual PSII photochemical quantum yield (phi(PS II)), plant height, and stem diameter in different seasons were all in the order of October > July > April > January. In the same seasons, all the parameters were in the order of heavy acid rain > moderate acid rain > control. The interactions between different acid rain stress and seasons showed significant effects on the SPAD, F(v)/F(m), plant height, and stem diameter, but lesser effects on phi(PS II), qp and qN.

  16. The Effect of Fulvic Acid on the Leaching of a Weathered Rare-Earth Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xian-ping; Feng, Bo; Wang, Peng-cheng; Zhou, He-peng; Chen, Xiao-ming

    2015-12-01

    The effect of fulvic acid on the leaching of a weathered crust elution-deposited rare-earth ore, using ammonium sulfate as lixiviant, has been investigated. The results show that fulvic acid can enhance the leaching process effectively. With the addition of fulvic acid to the lixiviant at a concentration of 0.1 wt pct, the leaching extraction of rare-earth elements increased by 8.38 pct and the ammonium sulfate concentration decreased by 25 wt pct. Fulvic acid promotes the leaching process. It also reacts with rare-earth ions, forms soluble complexes, reduces the activity of the leached rare-earth ions, and increases the concentration difference of ion diffusion. These results highlight a new approach for making the leaching process of low-grade weathered crust elution-deposited rare-earth ore more efficient and also for lowering the lixiviant consumption.

  17. Enhancement effect of ethanol on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengchen; Wang, Wei; Yue, Long; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of ethanol concentration gradients along with varied cultivation times on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp. were studied. The maximum increment of algal density, lipid productivity, lipid content and fatty acid content were 6.61, 11.75, 1.34 and 3.14 times higher than the control group under 12h photoperiod. Algal light deprivation inhibited ethanol positive effects on algal growth and lipid biomass. The cumulative quantity of C16:0 and C18:0 decreased correspondingly with the increase of ethanol concentrations and cultivation times. Besides, unsaturated fatty acids appeared early in algal cells and increased 57.02% in maximum. However, only 2.27% (14)C was transferred from ethanol to fatty acids. The results indicated that adding proper amount of ethanol in algal culture medium was beneficial to biodiesel feedstock production and biodiesel properties.

  18. Effect of peracetic acid reprocessing on the transport characteristics of polysulfone hemodialyzers.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Susanne H; Zydney, Andrew L

    2005-02-01

    Peracetic acid is used extensively for reprocessing hemodialyzers, despite several indications that reprocessing alters the dialyzer transport characteristics. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative data for the effects of peracetic acid reprocessing on the clearance and sieving coefficients of urea, vitamin B12, and polydisperse dextrans using Fresenius F80A polysulfone dialyzers. Reprocessing restored the urea and vitamin B12 clearance to close to their original values. However, the reprocessed dialyzers had substantially lower clearance of the larger molecular weight dextrans, which was attributed to reductions in the effective pore size caused by residual plasma proteins within the membrane. Storage in peracetic acid provided some additional removal of residual proteins, although the clearance and sieving coefficients of the larger dextrans remained well below their original values. Peracetic acid caused no degradation of the membrane polymer, in sharp contrast to results obtained with bleach reprocessing.

  19. A field test of the effect of acidic rain on ion balance in a woodland salamander

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, M.P.; Wyman, R.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Earlier laboratory studies demonstrated that red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, are susceptible to osmotic disruption by low pH substrates. In natural systems, however, acidic input from precipitation may be mediated by soils before it impacts salamanders. We tested the effect of acidic rain on sodium balance in salamanders by confining individuals in enclosure in two forest types (hemlock, beech) for 34 d. Enclosures received artificial rain of either pH 3 or 5 every 3-4 d. Soils inside enclosures in the hemlock forest were more acidic than those in the beech forest at the outset. At termination, [H[sup +

  20. Effect of adipic dihydrazide modification on the performance of collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Yumei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2010-02-01

    Collagen and hydrazide-functionalized hyaluronic acid derivatives were hybridized by gelating and genipin crosslinking to form composite hydrogel. The study contributed to the understanding of the effects of adipic dihydrazide modification on the physicochemical and biological properties of the collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold. The investigation included morphology observation, mechanical measurement, swelling evaluation, and collagenase degradation. The results revealed that the stability of composites was increased through adipic dihydrazide modification and genipin crosslinking. The improved biocompatibility and retention of hyaluronic acid made the composite material more favorable to chondrocytes growing, suggesting the prepared scaffold might be high potential for chondrogenesis.

  1. Effect of amino acid immobilization on the impedance of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Minh-Hai; Han, Jinwoo; Min, Byeong June; Lee, ChangWoo; Jang, Sei-Heon; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2015-05-01

    A single residue, dipeptide, or tripeptide of alanine or histidine is covalently attached to graphene oxide (GO), and the effect of the amino acid immobilization on the impedance of GO is investigated using the impedance spectroscopy. The histidine of a tripeptide exhibits the lowest resistance compared to the single or dipeptide histidine in the KCl electrolyte, and the single alanine residue shows the lowest resistance in an acidic electrolyte compared to the dipeptide or tripeptide alanine. The peculiar behavior of the impedance could be explained by different net charges of the amino acids, chain length, and π-π stacking interaction.

  2. Evaluation of structure effects on the pharmacological behavior of radioiodinated phenylpentadecanoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.; Kartje, M.; Vyska, K.

    1986-01-01

    For studying the pharmacokinetic behaviour of fatty acids with different chemical structures four STI-labelled compounds, i.e., the ortho and para STI-isomers of 15-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) and 3-methyl-15-phenylpentadecanoic acid were prepared and the organ distribution determined in mice. The results show a significant decrease of the maximal heart uptake for the two ortho compounds. Further, the hypothesis of a blocked metabolism as an effect of the US -methylation could not be confirmed. Both US -methylated compounds show a biexponential elimination behavior from the heart. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. The effect of acids on fluorescence of coumarin-6 in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mina, M. V.; Puzyk, I. P.; Puzyk, M. V.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of acids (HCl, HClO4, HNO3, and CH3COOH) on the fluorescence of coumarin-6 in organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, butanol-1, and ethanol) is studied. The regions of acid (HCl, HClO4, HNO3) concentrations that lead to a change in the fluorescence spectra are determined for each of the solvents. It is shown that, for all the solvents studied, acetic acid with a concentration within the region 10-1-10-6 M causes no significant changes in the fluorescence spectrum of coumarin-6. A mechanism of the coumarin-6 protonation is proposed.

  4. Antiulcerogenic Effect of Gallic Acid in Rats and its Effect on Oxidant and Antioxidant Parameters in Stomach Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sen, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Umamaheswari, M.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Subhadradevi, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the antiulcerogenic effect of gallic acid against aspirin plus pyrolus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were treated with gallic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg) and famotidine (20 mg/kg) for 1 week, followed by induction of gastric ulcer using the aspirin plus pyrolus ligation model. At the end of 4 h after ligation, the rats were sacrificed and ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH and other biochemical parameter of gastric juice were evaluated. Stomachs of rats were evaluated biochemically to determine oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Pretreatment with gallic acid significantly decreased ulcer index, gastric juice volume, free and total acidity, total protein, DNA content and increased pH and carbohydrates concentration. Gallic acid at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg exerted 69.7 and 78.9% ulcer inhibition, respectively. The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidise, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased while reduction in myeloperoxidase and lipid peroxidation were observed in the stomach tissues of the drug treated rats. The histopathological studies further confirmed the antiulcer activity of gallic acid. We conclude that the gallic acid possesses antiulcer effect and that these occur by a mechanism that involves attenuation of offensive factors, improvement of mucosal defensive with activation of antioxidant parameters and inhibition of some toxic oxidant parameters. PMID:24019562

  5. Antimicrobial effects of weak acids on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiying J; Breidt, Frederick; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M; Osborne, Jason A

    2011-06-01

    Outbreaks of disease due to vegetative bacterial pathogens associated with acid foods (such as apple cider) have raised concerns about acidified vegetables and related products that have a similar pH (3.2 to 4.0). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related strains of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) have been identified as the most acid resistant vegetative pathogens in these products. Previous research has shown that the lack of dissolved oxygen in many hermetically sealed acid or acidified food products can enhance survival of EHEC compared with their survival under aerobic conditions. We compared the antimicrobial effects of several food acids (acetic, malic, lactic, fumaric, benzoic, and sorbic acids and sulfite) on a cocktail of EHEC strains under conditions representative of non-heat-processed acidified vegetables in hermetically sealed jars, holding the pH (3.2) and ionic strength (0.342) constant under anaerobic conditions. The overall antimicrobial effectiveness of weak acids used in this study was ranked, from most effective to least effective: sulfite > benzoic acid > sorbic acid > fumaric acid > L- and D-lactic acid > acetic acid > malic acid. These rankings were based on the estimated protonated concentrations required to achieve a 5-log reduction in EHEC after 24 h of incubation at 30°C. This study provides information that can be used to formulate safer acid and acidified food products and provides insights about the mode of action of weak acids against EHEC.

  6. Effects of fluoride treatment on phosphoric acid-etching in primary teeth: an AFM observation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Rhee, Yeri; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride application on 37% phosphoric acid-etching by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in primary tooth samples based on a clinical protocol used in a pediatric dental hospital. Enamel samples were prepared from 36 exfoliated and non-carious primary teeth. Primary tooth samples were randomly assigned to one of the four groups based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. Group 1 received no fluoride application, Group 2 was pre-treated with fluoride and then received acid-etching 2 weeks later. One week separated the fluoride treatment and the acid-etching in Group 3, while Group 4 received acid-etching immediately after the fluoride treatment. The vestibular enamel surfaces of each primary tooth sample were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. On the enamel surfaces of the primary teeth after APF pre-treatment, debris were observed although the teeth were smoother than they were prior to APF. As a result, it was concluded that APF treatment is responsible for decreased primary tooth surface roughness. The enamel surfaces etched for 20s showed that acid-etching was effective not only in removing scratches and debris, but also for evaluating enamel rod characteristics. Primary tooth enamel surfaces after etching showed minute structures caused by the decreased hydroxyapatite nanoparticle space, compared to those before etching. Also, acid-etching showed significantly increased roughness effects (p<0.0001, n=9). Finally, as more time elapsed after APF pre-treatment, the roughness was decreased to a lesser degree (p=0.005, n=9). We suggest that primary teeth etching 2 weeks after APF pre-treatment used clinically in pediatric hospitals may be effective to obtain properly etched enamel surfaces.

  7. Effects of chromic-acid concentration on the structure and properties of chromium coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Solodkova, L.N.; Solov'eva, Z.A.; Monev, M.; Nikolova, S.; Rashkov, S.; Dobrev, Ts.

    1987-10-01

    In the interest of decreasing the amount of chromium and other electrolytic effluents that enter the waste stream during chromium electrodeposition processes, and of optimizing plating speeds at reduced chromic acid concentrations, the authors seek to establish the effects of decreasing the chromic acid concentration in the electrolyte on the microstructure, microhardness, internal stress behavior, and tendency toward hydridation of chromium coatings obtained from various electrolyte compositions. Plating kinetics and lattice parameters were also investigated.

  8. The ulcerogenic effect of bile and bile acid in rats during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisener, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of oxen bile and individual bile acids or their sodium salts on the gastric mucosa of rats was investigated in combination with immobilization stress. A statistically significant higher frequency of ulcers was only determined in the application of 10% oxen bile. Dosages on 10% sodium glycocholic acid demonstrated strong toxic damage with atonic dilation of the stomach and extensive mucosal bleeding.

  9. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid--an alternative to common local antiseptics?

    PubMed

    Ryssel, H; Kloeters, O; Germann, G; Schäfer, Th; Wiedemann, G; Oehlbauer, M

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid has been commonly used in medicine for more than 6000 years for the disinfection of wounds and especially as an antiseptic agent in the treatment and prophylaxis of the plague. The main goal of this study was to prove the suitability of acetic acid, in low concentration of 3%, as a local antiseptic agent, especially for use in salvage procedures in problematic infections caused by organisms such as Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study was designed to compare the in vitro antimicrobial effect of acetic acid with those of common local antiseptics such as povidone-iodine 11% (Betaisodona), polyhexanide 0.04% (Lavasept), mafenide 5% and chlohexidine gluconate 1.5% cetrimide 15% (Hibicet). Former studies suggest the bactericidal effect of acetic acid, but these data are very heterogeneous; therefore, a standardised in vitro study was conducted. To cover the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A and B. The tests showed excellent bactericidal effect of acetic acid, particularly with problematic Gram-negative bacteria such as P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The microbiological spectrum of acetic acid is wide, even when tested at a low concentration of 3%. In comparison to our currently used antiseptic solutions, it showed similar - in some bacteria, even better - bactericidal properties. An evaluation of the clinical value of topical application of acetic acid is currently underway. It can be concluded that acetic acid in a concentration of 3% has excellent bactericidal effect and, therefore, seems to be suitable as a local antiseptic agent, but further clinical studies are necessary.

  10. The Effects of Acidic and Hypoxic Conditions on the Estuarine ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The interactive and combined effects