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Sample records for acid bacteria strain

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility of different lactic acid bacteria strains.

    PubMed

    Karapetkov, N; Georgieva, R; Rumyan, N; Karaivanova, E

    2011-12-01

    Five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains belonging to species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for their susceptibility to 27 antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of each antimicrobial were determined using a microdilution test. Among the strains a high susceptibility was detected for most of the cell-wall synthesis inhibitors (penicillins, cefoxitin and vancomycin) and resistance toward inhibitors of DNA synthesis (trimethoprim/sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones). Generally, the Lactobacillus strains were inhibited by antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline at breakpoint levels lower or equal to the levels defined by the European Food Safety Authority. Despite the very similar profile of S. thermophilus LC201 to lactobacilli, the detection of resistance toward erythromycin necessitates the performance of additional tests in order to prove the absence of transferable resistance genes.

  2. Comparison of D-gluconic acid production in selected strains of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sainz, F; Navarro, D; Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A

    2016-04-01

    The oxidative metabolism of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) can be exploited for the production of several compounds, including D-gluconic acid. The production of D-gluconic acid in fermented beverages could be useful for the development of new products without glucose. In the present study, we analyzed nineteen strains belonging to eight different species of AAB to select those that could produce D-gluconic acid from D-glucose without consuming D-fructose. We tested their performance in three different media and analyzed the changes in the levels of D-glucose, D-fructose, D-gluconic acid and the derived gluconates. D-Glucose and D-fructose consumption and D-gluconic acid production were heavily dependent on the strain and the media. The most suitable strains for our purpose were Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443 and Gluconobacter oxydans Po5. The strawberry isolate Acetobacter malorum (CECT 7749) also produced D-gluconic acid; however, it further oxidized D-gluconic acid to keto-D-gluconates.

  3. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth.

  4. Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

    2014-10-01

    Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. PMID:24888497

  5. [Study on cooperating degradation of cypermethrin and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by two bacteria strains].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Sun, Ji-Quan; Li, Xiao-Hui; Li, Shun-Peng; Chen, Yi

    2007-10-01

    The microbial cooperated reaction is one of the most important forms of microbial degradation of organic pollutants. Although there were many research reports of cooperating degradation, less report on the microbial cooperated of pyrethroid degradation to be found. We have isolated one degrading-bacteria strain named CDT3 for degradation of cypermethrin, which can degraded the cypermethrin into 3-PBA and DCVA. At the same time, we also isolated another degrading-bacteria strain named as PBM11, which could get multiplication on 3-PBA as its C source and energy source. The cooperative degradation process of cypermethrin and 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) using the two degrading-bacteria strain CDT3 and PBM11 was investigated. An obvious inhibition to the cypermethrin degrading-bacterium strain CDT3 (Rhodococcus sp.) by its metabolic mediate 3-PBA was found; meanwhile there is no effect on the growth of 3-PBA degrading-bacterium strain PBM11 (Pesudomonas sp.) when the concentration of cypermethrin was lower than 200 mg/L. The degradation rate of cypermethrin by both strain CDT3 and PBM11 was higher than that by CDT3 alone. The biomass of PBM11 increased along with the degradation of cypermethrin and 3-PBA, but that of CDT3 not. There was no the accumulation of 3-PBA when the simultaneous addition of strain CDT3 and PBM11, however, an obvious one within 24h if inoculation of strain PBM11 was later 24h after inoculation of strain CDT3, Subsequently the 3-PBA was degraded rapidly by strain PBM11. The strains CDT3 and PBM11 showed some characteristics of co-metabolism, however it is not actual degradation form of co-metabolism. For examples, although the degrading sub product of cypermethrin by CDT3 could be utilized, the multiplication of PBM11 could not enhance the multiplication of CDT3, implied there is no obvious relationship between the two strains. Also, to add PBM11 could eliminate the inhibition of 3-PBA to CDT3. Thus, the cooperating degradation of strains CDT3

  6. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth. PMID:20832673

  7. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate.

  8. Microcultures of lactic acid bacteria: characterization and selection of strains, optimization of nutrients and gallic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-López, Oswaldo; Loera, Octavio; Parada, José Luis; Castillo-Morales, Alberto; Martínez-Ramírez, Cándida; Augur, Christopher; Gaime-Perraud, Isabelle; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Eighteen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from coffee pulp silages were characterized according to both growth and gallic acid (GA) consumption. Prussian blue method was adapted to 96-well microplates to quantify GA in LAB microcultures. Normalized data of growth and GA consumption were used to characterize strains into four phenotypes. A number of 5 LAB strains showed more than 60% of tolerance to GA at 2 g/l; whereas at 10 g/l GA growth inhibition was detected to a different extent depending on each strain, although GA consumption was observed in seven studied strains (>60%). Lactobacillus plantarum L-08 was selected for further studies based on its capacity to degrade GA at 10 g/l (97%). MRS broth and GA concentrations were varied to study the effect on growth of LAB. Cell density and growth rate were optimized by response surface methodology and kinetic analysis. Maximum growth was attained after 7.5 h of cultivation, with a dilution factor of 1-1/2 and a GA concentration between 0.625 and 2.5 g/l. Results indicated that the main factor affecting LAB growth was GA concentration. The main contribution of this study was to propose a novel adaptation of a methodology to characterize and select LAB strains with detoxifying potential of simple phenolics based on GA consumption and tolerance. In addition, the methodology presented in this study integrated the well-known RSM with an experimental design based on successive dilutions.

  9. Prevalent lactic acid bacteria in cider cellars and efficiency of Oenococcus oeni strains.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ainoa; Coton, Monika; Coton, Emmanuel; Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an important step in cider production in order to allowing for improvement of microbiological stability and organoleptic characteristics of cider. Induction of this fermentation by using starter cultures enables a better control over this bioprocess, but although it is a common practice in winemaking, starters specifically focussed for cider MLF are not yet commercially available. Proper starter cultures need to present the ability to degrade l-malic acid conferring pleasing sensory characteristics while avoiding toxicological risks. In this work, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were first isolated from MLF industrial cider samples, obtained in a cellar in the main cider-producing region of Spain, Asturias. Isolates, identified by molecular tools, belonged to the Lactobacillus brevis and Oenococcus oeni species. After a phylogenetic analysis, representative strains of both identified species were evaluated in order to determine their fermentation capacity, showing O. oeni the best behaviour in this cider fermentation, as previously demonstrated for wine in the literature. Consequently, and with the aim to test the influence at strain level, selection of O. oeni isolates as starters for cider fermentation has been undergone. In order to check the influence of geography over biodiversity, O. oeni strains from six different industrial cellars representing the distinct producing areas in the region (located in a ratio of 30 km) were analyzed by using a specific RAPD method. In this way, isolates were typed in five distinct groups, mainly corresponding to each producing area. All strains isolated from the same cellar showed the same RAPD profile revealing the significance of geographical origin in the indigenous cider LAB. Molecular tools were applied to reject those isolates exhibiting presence of genes related to organoleptic spoilage (exopolysaccharides and acrolein production) or food safety (biogenic amine production), as key selection

  10. Effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages.

    PubMed

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J; Wiszniewska, A

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 2 Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The study also considered water activity (a(w)) and pH of the products investigated. The results obtained are demonstrated in 5 diagrams. It was found that among 15 strains of Lactobacillus aureus investigated only one strain, Lactobacillus helveticus T 78, showed antagonistic effect on studied strains of Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. Five other strains of Lactobacillus spp. displayed the antagonistic effect in vitro only. The temperature and incubation time of sausages, but also the type of sausage stuffing were found to have a distinct or slight influence, respectively, on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria. However, this phenomenon was affected by neither a(w) nor pH.

  11. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  12. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  13. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  14. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  15. The art of strain improvement of industrial lactic acid bacteria without the use of recombinant DNA technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The food industry is constantly striving to develop new products to fulfil the ever changing demands of consumers and the strict requirements of regulatory agencies. For foods based on microbial fermentation, this pushes the boundaries of microbial performance and requires the constant development of new starter cultures with novel properties. Since the use of ingredients in the food industry is tightly regulated and under close scrutiny by consumers, the use of recombinant DNA technology to improve microbial performance is currently not an option. As a result, the focus for improving strains for microbial fermentation is on classical strain improvement methods. Here we review the use of these techniques to improve the functionality of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for application in industrial-scale food production. Methods will be described for improving the bacteriophage resistance of specific strains, improving their texture forming ability, increasing their tolerance to stress and modulating both the amount and identity of acids produced during fermentation. In addition, approaches to eliminating undesirable properties will be described. Techniques include random mutagenesis, directed evolution and dominant selection schemes. PMID:25186244

  16. Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96 degrees C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10(4) rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm(2) on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

  17. Succession of selected strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and other acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    The application of a selected Acetobacter pasteurianus strain for traditional balsamic vinegar production was assessed. Genomic DNA was extracted from biofilms after enrichment cultures on GYC medium (10% glucose, 1.0% yeast extract, 2.0% calcium carbonate) and used for PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus/PCR sequencing. Results suggested that double-culture fermentation is suitable for traditional balsamic vinegar acetification.

  18. Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, L; Degeest, B

    1999-04-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides are biothickeners that can be added to a wide variety of food products, where they serve as viscosifying, stabilizing, emulsifying or gelling agents. Numerous exopolysaccharides with different composition, size and structure are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria. The heteropolysaccharides from both mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria have received renewed interest recently. Structural analysis combined with rheological studies revealed that there is considerable variation among the different exopolysaccharides; some of them exhibit remarkable thickening and shear-thinning properties and display high intrinsic viscosities. Hence, several slime-producing lactic acid bacterium strains and their biopolymers have interesting functional and technological properties, which may be exploited towards different products, in particular, natural fermented milks. However, information on the biosynthesis, molecular organization and fermentation conditions is rather scarce, and the kinetics of exopolysaccharide formation are poorly described. Moreover, the production of exopolysaccharides is low and often unstable, and their downstream processing is difficult. This review particularly deals with microbiological, biochemical and technological aspects of heteropolysaccharides from, and their production by, lactic acid bacteria. The chemical composition and structure, the biosynthesis, genetics and molecular organization, the nutritional and physiological aspects, the process technology, and both food additive and in situ applications (in particular in yogurt) of heterotype exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are described. Where appropriate, suggestions are made for strain improvement, enhanced productivities and advanced modification and production processes (involving enzyme and/or fermentation technology) that may contribute to the economic soundness of applications with this promising group of biomolecules.

  19. Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production.

  20. Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Handan; Hutkins, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were screened of their ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on MRS agar. Of 28 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria examined, 12 of 16 Lactobacillus strains and 7 of 8 Bifidobacterium strains fermented FOS. Only strains that gave a positive reaction by the agar method reached high cell densities in broth containing FOS. PMID:10831458

  1. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ljungh, Asa; Wadström, Torkel

    2006-09-01

    A number of Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium sp, Saccharomyces boulardii, and some other microbes have been proposed as and are used as probiotic strains, i.e. live microorganisms as food supplement in order to benefit health. The health claims range from rather vague as regulation of bowel activity and increasing of well-being to more specific, such as exerting antagonistic effect on the gastroenteric pathogens Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and rotavirus, neutralising food mutagens produced in colon, shifting the immune response towards a Th2 response, and thereby alleviating allergic reactions, and lowering serum cholesterol (Tannock, 2002). Unfortunately, most publications are case reports, uncontrolled studies in humans, or reports of animal or in vitro studies. Whether or not the probiotic strains employed shall be of human origin is a matter of debate but this is not a matter of concern, as long as the strains can be shown to survive the transport in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to colonise the human large intestine. This includes survival in the stressful environment of the stomach - acidic pH and bile - with induction of new genes encoding a number of stress proteins. Since the availability of antioxidants decreases rostrally in the GI tract production of antioxidants by colonic bacteria provides a beneficial effect in scavenging free radicals. LAB strains commonly produce antimicrobial substance(s) with activity against the homologous strain, but LAB strains also often produce microbicidal substances with effect against gastric and intestinal pathogens and other microbes, or compete for cell surface and mucin binding sites. This could be the mechanism behind reports that some probiotic strains inhibit or decrease translocation of bacteria from the gut to the liver. A protective effect against cancer development can be ascribed to binding of mutagens by intestinal bacteria, reduction of the enzymes beta

  2. Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Pei; Hsieh, You-Miin; Zhang, Zi-yi; Wu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chun-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24 h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48 h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25538960

  3. The relative efficacy of different strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria in the reduction of populations of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in the livers and spleens of mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Liang, Hsin-Wen; Yu, Bi; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Hwang, Chin-Fa; Chen, Ming-Hui; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2011-10-01

    Multispecies probiotics have been reported to be more effective than monostrain probiotics in health promoting for the host. In this study, 12 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were selected based on the level of induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Their adherence to Caco-2 cells and inhibitory effects on Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 cells were compared. Strains with different probiotic properties were then combined and BALB/c mice were fed with LAB strains for 63 days; then the mice were challenged with Salmonella on day 64. For Salmonella-unchallenged mice that received a multistrain combination of LAB strains that have greater TNF-α production in macrophages, greater adherence and inhibit Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 cells to a greater extent, their peritoneal macrophages had greater phagocytic activity. For Salmonella-challenged mice, a significant reduction of Salmonella cells in the livers and spleens of the mice was observed 8 days post challenge. The addition of 12% skim milk powder together with LAB strain combinations significantly enhanced the reduction of Salmonella cells in the mice livers and spleens. In conclusion, we have shown that LAB strain combinations with particular probiotic properties when fed to mice can inhibit Salmonella invasion of the liver and spleen.

  4. Genome sequences of the high-acetic acid-resistant bacteria Gluconacetobacter europaeus LMG 18890T and G. europaeus LMG 18494 (reference strains), G. europaeus 5P3, and Gluconacetobacter oboediens 174Bp2 (isolated from vinegar).

    PubMed

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Falquet, Laurent; Calderon-Copete, Sandra P; Descombes, Patrick; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

    2011-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Gluconacetobacter are usually involved in the industrial production of vinegars with high acetic acid concentrations. We describe here the genome sequence of three Gluconacetobacter europaeus strains, a very common bacterial species from industrial fermentors, as well as of a Gluconacetobacter oboediens strain.

  5. Interesting starter culture strains for controlled cocoa bean fermentation revealed by simulated cocoa pulp fermentations of cocoa-specific lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

  6. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Quilodrán-Vega, Sandra Rayén; Villena, Julio; Valdebenito, José; Salas, María José; Parra, Cristian; Ruiz, Alvaro; Kitazawa, Haruki; García, Apolinaria

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The search of probiotics in human milk is a recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. To our knowledge, no reports regarding the potential probiotic effect of bacteria from swine milk have been published. In this work, we isolated several lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and evaluated them for them potential as probiotics. Among the isolated strains, Lactobacillus curvatus TUCO-5E showed antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens. TUCO-5E was able to reduce the growth of enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains as well as pathogenic salmonella. In vitro exclusion and displacement assays in intestinal epithelial cells showed a remarkable antagonistic effect for L. curvatus TUCO-5E against Salmonella sp. strain TUCO-I7 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 13096. Moreover, by using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we were able to demonstrate that preventative administration of L. curvatus TUCO-5E for 5 consecutive days was capable of decreasing the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver and spleen of treated mice, compared with the controls, and prevented dissemination of the pathogen to the blood stream. Therefore, we have demonstrated here that swine milk is an interesting source of beneficial bacteria. In addition, the results of this work suggest that L. curvatus TUCO-5E is a good candidate to study in vivo the protective effect of probiotics against intestinal infection and damage induced by Salmonella infection in the porcine host. PMID:27149540

  7. Nutritional Properties and Antinutritional Factors of Corn Paste (Kutukutu) Fermented by Different Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Tchikoua; Ngouné Léopold, Tatsadjieu; Carl Moses Funtong, Mbofung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reduce antinutritional factors and to improve the nutritional properties of Kutukutu during fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). For that, Kutukutu (700 g) was prepared in the laboratory and inoculated with pure cultures of LAB (109 CFU/mL). Then, preparation was incubated for 120 h. Every 24 h, Kutukutu were collected, dried at 45°C for 24 h, and analyzed. The results showed that Lactobacillus brevis G25 increased reducing sugars content to 80.7% in Kutukutu after 96 h of fermentation. Lactobacillus fermentum N33 reduced the starch content to 73.2%, while Lactobacillus brevis G11, L. brevis G25, and Lactobacillus cellobiosus M41 rather increased the protein content to 18.9%. The bioavailability of Mg and Fe increased, respectively, to 50.5% and 70.6% in the Kutukutu fermented with L. brevis G25. L. plantarum A6 reduced the tannin content to 98.8% and L. buchneri M11 reduced the phytate content to 95.5%. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that, for a best reduction of antinutrients factors and improvement of protein content and minerals, Kutukutu must be fermented by L. brevis G25 and L. fermentum N33, respectively. These starter cultures could be used to ameliorate nutritional proprieties of Kutukutu during the fermentation. PMID:26904660

  8. Acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria of acidic mine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wichlacz, P.L.; Unz, R.F.

    1981-05-01

    Obligately acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated both from enrichment cultures developed with acidic mine water and from natural mine drainage. The bacteria were grouped by the ability to utilize a number of organic acids as sole carbon sources. None of the strains were capable of chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic reduced iron and sulfur compounds. All bacteria were rod shaped, gram negative, nonencapsulated, motile, capable of growth at pH 2.6 but not at pH 6.0, catalase and oxidase positive, strictly aerobic, and capable of growth on citric acid. The bacteria were cultivatable on solid nutrient media only if agarose was employed as the hardening agent. Bacterial densities in natural mine waters ranged from approximately 20 to 250 cells per ml, depending upon source and culture medium.

  9. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  10. Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1996-10-01

    Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate, the growth of lactic acid bacteria produces a new food product. In raw meats and fish that are chill stored under vacuum or in an environment with elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the lactic acid bacteria become the dominant population and preserve the meat with a "hidden' fermentation. The same applies to processed meats provided that the lactic acid bacteria survive the heat treatment or they are inoculated onto the product after heat treatment. This paper reviews the current status and potential for controlled biopreservation of foods. PMID:8879414

  11. Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1996-10-01

    Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate, the growth of lactic acid bacteria produces a new food product. In raw meats and fish that are chill stored under vacuum or in an environment with elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the lactic acid bacteria become the dominant population and preserve the meat with a "hidden' fermentation. The same applies to processed meats provided that the lactic acid bacteria survive the heat treatment or they are inoculated onto the product after heat treatment. This paper reviews the current status and potential for controlled biopreservation of foods.

  12. Effect of inoculation on strawberry fermentation and acetification processes using native strains of yeast and acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, C; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Mateo, E

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the microbiota involved in the traditional vinegar elaboration of strawberry fruit during a spontaneous and inoculated process. In the spontaneous processes, low biodiversity was detected in both alcoholic fermentation (AF) and acetification. Nevertheless, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Acetobacter malorum were selected and tested as starter cultures in the inoculation study. The inoculated processes with these strains were compared with another spontaneous process, yielding a significant reduction in time for AF with a total imposition of the S. cerevisiae strain. The resulting strawberry wine was acetified in different containers (glass and wood) yielding an initial imposition of the A. malorum inoculated strain, although displacement by Gluconacetobacter species was observed in the wood barrels. PMID:23498182

  13. Effect of milk fermentation by kefir grains and selected single strains of lactic acid bacteria on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed

    Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C

    2016-01-18

    Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation.

  14. Mesophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Diversity Encountered in Brazilian Farms Producing Milk with Particular Interest in Lactococcus lactis Strains.

    PubMed

    Luiz, L M P; Chuat, V; Madec, M N; Araújo, E A; de Carvalho, A F; Valence, F

    2016-10-01

    The milk produced in regions with different traditions in Brazil is used for artisanal product production, which is characterized by different sensorial characteristics. This study aimed to identify the bacterial ecosystem of farms located in a traditional dairy region in the state of Minas Gerais and to characterize Lactococcus lactis strains, the species of interest in this study, using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) protocol and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. Samples were collected from raw milk and dairy environment from six farms. A total of 50 isolates were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing and species-specific PCR. Five genera were identified: Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus, from ten different species. MLST (with six housekeeping genes) and PFGE (with SmaI endonuclease) were used for the characterization of 20 isolates of Lactococcus lactis from a dairy collection in this study. Both methods revealed a high clonal diversity of strains with a higher discriminatory level for PFGE (15 pulsotypes), compared to MLST (12 ST). This study contributes to the preservation of the Brazilian dairy heritage and provides insights into a part of the LAB population found in raw milk and dairy environment.

  15. Mesophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Diversity Encountered in Brazilian Farms Producing Milk with Particular Interest in Lactococcus lactis Strains.

    PubMed

    Luiz, L M P; Chuat, V; Madec, M N; Araújo, E A; de Carvalho, A F; Valence, F

    2016-10-01

    The milk produced in regions with different traditions in Brazil is used for artisanal product production, which is characterized by different sensorial characteristics. This study aimed to identify the bacterial ecosystem of farms located in a traditional dairy region in the state of Minas Gerais and to characterize Lactococcus lactis strains, the species of interest in this study, using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) protocol and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. Samples were collected from raw milk and dairy environment from six farms. A total of 50 isolates were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing and species-specific PCR. Five genera were identified: Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus, from ten different species. MLST (with six housekeeping genes) and PFGE (with SmaI endonuclease) were used for the characterization of 20 isolates of Lactococcus lactis from a dairy collection in this study. Both methods revealed a high clonal diversity of strains with a higher discriminatory level for PFGE (15 pulsotypes), compared to MLST (12 ST). This study contributes to the preservation of the Brazilian dairy heritage and provides insights into a part of the LAB population found in raw milk and dairy environment. PMID:27356514

  16. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, K; Araki, K; Okazaki, N; Watanabe, K; Ishikawa, C; Inoue, A; Numao, N; Kondo, K

    1988-01-01

    About 5,000 strains of marine microorganisms were screened for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing ability, which was detected in 88 of them. All of the latter were found to be obligate aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, short rod-shaped bacteria. One strain, designated as SCRC-8132, showed a doubling time of 30 min at 25 degrees C and produced 20 mg/liter (4 mg/g dry cells) when cultured in a P-Y-M-Glucose medium for 18 h. The EPA to total fatty acids ratio was 24%. The strain produced 26 mg EPA/liter (15 mg/g dry cells) when cultured at 4 degrees C for 5 days, the EPA ratio being increased to 40%. PMID:2834356

  17. Safety of industrial lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Adams, M R

    1999-02-19

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous in fermented and non-fermented foods and are common components of the human commensal microflora. This long history of human exposure and consumption has led to the reasonable conclusion that they are generally safe. Recent attention has also focused on their possible role as probiotic bacteria, promoting beneficial health effects. There have, however, been a number of reports of human infections caused by LAB and these are reviewed. In most cases, the source of the infection was the commensal LAB flora rather than ingested bacteria and the patient had some underlying disease or predisposing condition. Even as opportunistic pathogens, the LAB, with the notable exception of the enterococci, are much less successful than a number of other members of the commensal microflora. The use of new strains for probiotic use is likely to require more detailed evidence for their safety, particularly if the strains have been genetically modified or have been derived from animals. Procedures that have been proposed for assessing the safety of new strains are described.

  18. Precision genome engineering in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Innovative new genome engineering technologies for manipulating chromosomes have appeared in the last decade. One of these technologies, recombination mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) allows for precision DNA engineering of chromosomes and plasmids in Escherichia coli. Single-stranded DNA recombineering (SSDR) allows for the generation of subtle mutations without the need for selection and without leaving behind any foreign DNA. In this review we discuss the application of SSDR technology in lactic acid bacteria, with an emphasis on key factors that were critical to move this technology from E. coli into Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis. We also provide a blueprint for how to proceed if one is attempting to establish SSDR technology in a lactic acid bacterium. The emergence of CRISPR-Cas technology in genome engineering and its potential application to enhancing SSDR in lactic acid bacteria is discussed. The ability to perform precision genome engineering in medically and industrially important lactic acid bacteria will allow for the genetic improvement of strains without compromising safety. PMID:25185700

  19. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

  20. Lactic acid bacteria production from whey.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Parada, María Elena; Nájera-Martínez, Minerva; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2006-09-01

    The main purpose of this work was to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to be used for biomass production using a whey-based medium supplemented with an ammonium salt and with very low levels of yeast extract (0.25 g/L). Five strains of LAB were isolated from naturally soured milk after enrichment in whey-based medium. One bacterial isolate, designated MNM2, exhibited a remarkable capability to utilize whey lactose and give a high biomass yield on lactose. This strain was identified as Lactobacillus casei by its 16S rDNA sequence. A kinetic study of cell growth, lactose consumption, and titratable acidity production of this bacterial strain was performed in a bioreactor. The biomass yield on lactose, the percentage of lactose consumption, and the maximum increase in cell mass obtained in the bioreactor were 0.165 g of biomass/g of lactose, 100%, and 2.0 g/L, respectively, which were 1.44, 1.11, and 2.35 times higher than those found in flask cultures. The results suggest that it is possible to produce LAB biomass from a whey-based medium supplemented with minimal amounts of yeast extract.

  1. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml−1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  2. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. High efficiency recombineering in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to efficiently generate targeted point mutations in the chromosome without the need for antibiotics, or other means of selection, is a powerful strategy for genome engineering. Although oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering (ssDNA recombineering) has been utilized in Escherichia coli for over a decade, the successful adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported. Here we describe the development and application of ssDNA recombineering in lactic acid bacteria. Mutations were incorporated in the chromosome of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis without selection at frequencies ranging between 0.4% and 19%. Whole genome sequence analysis showed that ssDNA recombineering is specific and not hypermutagenic. To highlight the utility of ssDNA recombineering we reduced the intrinsic vancomymycin resistance of L. reuteri >100-fold. By creating a single amino acid change in the d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzyme we reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin from >256 to 1.5 µg/ml, well below the clinically relevant minimum inhibitory concentration. Recombineering thus allows high efficiency mutagenesis in lactobacilli and lactococci, and may be used to further enhance beneficial properties and safety of strains used in medicine and industry. We expect that this work will serve as a blueprint for the adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:22328729

  4. Effects of humic acids on the growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, V. V.; Yakushev, A. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Byzov, B. A.; Demin, V. V.

    2010-03-01

    The influence of humic acids of different origins on the growth of bacterial cultures of different taxa isolated from the soil and the digestive tracts of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa)—habitats with contrasting conditions—was studied. More than half of the soil and intestinal isolates from the 170 tested strains grew on the humic acid of brown coal as the only carbon source. The specific growth rate of the bacteria isolated from the intestines of the earthworms was higher than that of the soil bacteria. The use of humic acids by intestinal bacteria confirms the possibility of symbiotic digestion by earthworms with the participation of bacterial symbionts. Humic acids at a concentration of 0.1 g/l stimulated the growth of the soil and intestinal bacteria strains (66 strains out of 161) on Czapek’s medium with glucose (1 g/l), probably, acting as a regulator of the cell metabolism. On the medium with the humic acid, the intestinal bacteria grew faster than the soil isolates did. The most active growth of the intestinal isolates was observed by Paenibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Delftia acidovorans, Microbacterium terregens, and Aeromonas sp.; among the soil ones were the representatives of the Pseudomonas genus. A response of the bacteria to the influence of humic acids was shown at the strain level using the example of Pseudomonas representatives. The Flexom humin preparation stimulated the growth of the hydrocarbon-oxidizing Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. This effect can be used for creating a new compound with the elevated activity of bacteria that are destroyers of oil and oil products.

  5. Phosphatidic Acid Synthesis in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane phospholipid synthesis is a vital facet of bacterial physiology. Although the spectrum of phospholipid headgroup structures produced by bacteria is large, the key precursor to all of these molecules is phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Glycerol-3-phosphate derived from the glycolysis via glycerol-phosphate synthase is the universal source for the glycerol backbone of PtdOH. There are two distinct families of enzymes responsible for the acylation of the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate. The PlsB acyltransferase was discovered in Escherichia coli, and homologs are present in many eukaryotes. This protein family primarily uses acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) endproducts of fatty acid synthesis as acyl donors, but may also use acyl-CoA derived from exogenous fatty acids. The second protein family, PlsY, is more widely distributed in bacteria and utilizes the unique acyl donor, acyl-phosphate, which is produced from acyl-ACP by the enzyme PlsX. The acylation of the 2-position is carried out by members of the PlsC protein family. All PlsCs use acyl-ACP as the acyl donor, although the PlsCs of the γ-proteobacteria also may use acyl-CoA. Phospholipid headgroups are precursors in the biosynthesis of other membrane-associated molecules and the diacylglycerol product of these reactions is converted to PtdOH by one of two distinct families of lipid kinases. The central importance of the de novo and recycling pathways to PtdOH in cell physiology suggest these enzymes are suitable targets for the development of antibacterial therapeutics in Gram-positive pathogens. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:22981714

  6. Towards lactic acid bacteria-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Bosco, Francesca; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Bayer, Edward A; Pessione, Enrica

    2014-11-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in industrial applications mainly as starters for food fermentation or as biocontrol agents or as probiotics. However, LAB possess several characteristics that render them among the most promising candidates for use in future biorefineries in converting plant-derived biomass-either from dedicated crops or from municipal/industrial solid wastes-into biofuels and high value-added products. Lactic acid, their main fermentation product, is an attractive building block extensively used by the chemical industry, owing to the potential for production of polylactides as biodegradable and biocompatible plastic alternative to polymers derived from petrochemicals. LA is but one of many high-value compounds which can be produced by LAB fermentation, which also include biofuels such as ethanol and butanol, biodegradable plastic polymers, exopolysaccharides, antimicrobial agents, health-promoting substances and nutraceuticals. Furthermore, several LAB strains have ascertained probiotic properties, and their biomass can be considered a high-value product. The present contribution aims to provide an extensive overview of the main industrial applications of LAB and future perspectives concerning their utilization in biorefineries. Strategies will be described in detail for developing LAB strains with broader substrate metabolic capacity for fermentation of cheaper biomass.

  7. Towards lactic acid bacteria-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Bosco, Francesca; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Bayer, Edward A; Pessione, Enrica

    2014-11-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in industrial applications mainly as starters for food fermentation or as biocontrol agents or as probiotics. However, LAB possess several characteristics that render them among the most promising candidates for use in future biorefineries in converting plant-derived biomass-either from dedicated crops or from municipal/industrial solid wastes-into biofuels and high value-added products. Lactic acid, their main fermentation product, is an attractive building block extensively used by the chemical industry, owing to the potential for production of polylactides as biodegradable and biocompatible plastic alternative to polymers derived from petrochemicals. LA is but one of many high-value compounds which can be produced by LAB fermentation, which also include biofuels such as ethanol and butanol, biodegradable plastic polymers, exopolysaccharides, antimicrobial agents, health-promoting substances and nutraceuticals. Furthermore, several LAB strains have ascertained probiotic properties, and their biomass can be considered a high-value product. The present contribution aims to provide an extensive overview of the main industrial applications of LAB and future perspectives concerning their utilization in biorefineries. Strategies will be described in detail for developing LAB strains with broader substrate metabolic capacity for fermentation of cheaper biomass. PMID:25087936

  8. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance.

  9. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. PMID:25485864

  10. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of their health and nutritional requirements, and in this context, vitamins produced in situ by microbes may suit their needs and expectations. B groups vitamins are essential components of cellular metabolism and among them riboflavin is one of the vital vitamins required by bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Here, we focus on the importance of microbial production of riboflavin over chemical synthesis. In addition, genetic abilities for riboflavin biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria are discussed. Genetically modified strains by employing genetic engineering and chemical analogues have been developed to enhance riboflavin production. The present review attempts to collect the currently available information on riboflavin production by microbes in general, while placing greater emphasis on food grade lactic acid bacteria and human gut commensals. For designing riboflavin-enriched functional foods, proper selection and exploitation of riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria is essential. Moreover, eliminating the in situ vitamin fortification step will decrease the cost of food production.

  11. Metabolomic study of Chilean biomining bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain Wenelen and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain Licanantay.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Patricio; Gálvez, Sebastián; Ohtsuka, Norimasa; Budinich, Marko; Cortés, María Paz; Serpell, Cristián; Nakahigashi, Kenji; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Martínez, Servet; Maass, Alejandro; Parada, Pilar

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we present the first metabolic profiles for two bioleaching bacteria using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. The bacteria, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain Wenelen (DSM 16786) and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain Licanantay (DSM 17318), were sampled at different growth phases and on different substrates: the former was grown with iron and sulfur, and the latter with sulfur and chalcopyrite. Metabolic profiles were scored from planktonic and sessile states. Spermidine was detected in intra- and extracellular samples for both strains, suggesting it has an important role in biofilm formation in the presence of solid substrate. The canonical pathway for spermidine synthesis seems absent as its upstream precursor, putrescine, was not present in samples. Glutathione, a catalytic activator of elemental sulfur, was identified as one of the most abundant metabolites in the intracellular space in A. thiooxidans strain Licanantay, confirming its participation in the sulfur oxidation pathway. Amino acid profiles varied according to the growth conditions and bioleaching species. Glutamic and aspartic acid were highly abundant in intra- and extracellular extracts. Both are constituents of the extracellular matrix, and have a probable role in cell detoxification. This novel metabolomic information validates previous knowledge from in silico metabolic reconstructions based on genomic sequences, and reveals important biomining functions such as biofilm formation, energy management and stress responses. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0443-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  12. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  13. Inhibition of citrus fungal pathogens by using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gerez, C L; Carbajo, M S; Rollán, G; Torres Leal, G; Font de Valdez, G

    2010-08-01

    The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on pathogenic fungi was evaluated and the metabolites involved in the antifungal effect were characterized. Penicillium digitatum (INTA 1 to INTA 7) and Geotrichum citri-aurantii (INTA 8) isolated from decayed lemon from commercial packinghouses were treated with imazalil and guazatine to obtain strains resistant to these fungicides. The most resistant strains (4 fungal strains) were selected for evaluating the antifungal activity of 33 LAB strains, among which only 8 strains gave positive results. The antifungal activity of these LAB strains was related to the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and phenyllactic acid (PLA). A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the organic acids produced by the LAB cultures. The antifungal activity of lactic acid was directly related to its concentration; however, acetic acid and PLA showed a peak of activity at 52.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively, with inhibition rates similar to those obtained with Serenade((R)) (3.0 ppm) imazalil (50 ppm) and guazatine (50 ppm). Beyond the peak of activity, a reduction in effectiveness of both acetic acid and PLA was observed. Comparing the inhibition rate of the organic acids, PLA was about 66- and 600-fold more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid, respectively. This study presents evidences on the antifungal effect of selected LAB strains and their end products. Studies are currently being undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing postharvest diseases on citrus fruits. PMID:20722936

  14. Characterization of four plasmids harboured in a Lactobacillus brevis strain encoding a novel bacteriocin, brevicin 925A, and construction of a shuttle vector for lactic acid bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takaomi; Noda, Masafumi; Kashiwabara, Fumi; Jeon, Hyung Joon; Shirakawa, Ayano; Yabu, Hironori; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2009-05-01

    In this study we isolated over 250 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) candidates from fruit, flowers, vegetables and a fermented food to generate an LAB library. One strain, designated 925A, isolated from kimchi (a traditional Korean fermented dish made from Chinese cabbage) produced a novel type of bacteriocin, brevicin 925A, which is effective against certain LAB, including strains of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Listeria. Strain 925A, identified as Lactobacillus brevis, harboured at least four plasmids and we determined the entire nucleotide sequence of each one. The four plasmids were designated pLB925A01-04, and have molecular sizes of 1815, 3524, 8881 and 65 037 bp, respectively. We obtained bacteriocin non-producing derivatives by treatment of strain 925A with novobiocin. All of these derivatives, which were susceptible to their own antibacterial product, lost the largest plasmid, pLB925A04, suggesting that the genes for bacteriocin biosynthesis (breB and breC) and immunity (breE) are located on pLB925A04. The partial amino acid sequence of purified brevicin 925A and sequence analysis of pLB925A04 showed that breB is the structural gene for brevicin 925A. We constructed a shuttle vector (pLES003, 6134 bp) that can replicate in both Escherichia coli and LAB such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Enterococcus hirae. To determine the function of gene breE, which displays no significant similarity to any other sequences in the blast search database, the gene was inserted into pLES003. A pLB925A04-cured derivative transformed with pLES003 carrying breE acquired immunity to brevicin 925A, suggesting that breE encodes an immunity protein.

  15. Lactobionic and cellobionic acid production profiles of the resting cells of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was produced by acetic acid bacteria to oxidize lactose. Gluconobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp. showed higher lactose-oxidizing activities than Acetobacter spp. Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC3285 produced the highest amount of lactobionic acid per cell, among the strains tested. This bacterium assimilated neither lactose nor lactobionic acid. At high lactose concentration (30%), resting cells of the bacterium showed sufficient oxidizing activity for efficient production of lactobionic acid. These properties may contribute to industrial production of lactobionic acid by the bacterium. The bacterium showed higher oxidizing activity on cellobiose than that on lactose and produced cellobionic acid. PMID:25965080

  16. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  17. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health.

  18. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  19. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  20. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A; Linares, Daniel M; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kok, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the "stressome" of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  1. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A; Linares, Daniel M; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kok, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the "stressome" of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance.

  2. Growth and effect of staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria on unsaturated free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Talon, R; Walter, D; Montel, M C

    2000-01-01

    The growth and the effects of four species of staphylococci and six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genus Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus on unsaturated free fatty acids were studied. The strains were grown in complex medium supplemented either with oleic, linoleic or linolenic acids. Growth was followed and oxidation of the substrates measured by TBARS. The strains of Staphylococcus xylosus 873, 16, Staphylococcus warneri 863 and Staphylococcus saprophyticus grew well on all the substrates. Whereas, the growth of the two strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus 831 was inhibited in the media with linolenic acid. The addition of manganese to this media allowed good growth of these strains. All the LAB did not grow well in the media with linoleic acid, but their growth was favoured by addition of manganese to the media. Under our conditions, only linoleic and linolenic acids were oxidised. All the strains had no prooxidant activity. All the staphylococci limited oxidation of linoleic acid and had a small effect on linolenic acid. LAB did not limit oxidation of linoleic acid. With manganese in the media: the oxidation of the sterile controls was delayed for 2 days and then increased; strains of S. carnosus and S. xylosus inhibited oxidation of linolenic acid; and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus limited oxidation of linoleic acid. The two Carnobacterium, whatever the conditions, had no antioxidant properties.

  3. Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria (LAB).

    PubMed

    Naidu, A S; Bidlack, W R; Clemens, R A

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their probio-active cellular substances exert many beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract. LAB prevent adherence, establishment, and replication of several enteric mucosal pathogens through several antimicrobial mechanisms. LAB also release various enzymes into the intestinal lumen and exert potential synergistic effects on digestion and alleviate symptoms of intestinal malabsoption. Consumption of LAB fermented dairy products with LAB may elicit antitumor effects. These effects are attributed to the inhibition of mutagenic activity; decrease in several enzymes implicated in the generation of carcinogens, mutagens, or tumor-promoting agents; suppression of tumors; and the epidemiology correlating dietary regimes and cancer. Specific cellular components in LAB strains seem to induce strong adjuvant effects including modulation of cell-mediated immune responses, activation of reticuloendothelial system, augmentation of cytokine pathways and regulation of interleukins, and tumor necrosis factors. Oral administration of LAB is well tolerated and proven to be safe in 143 human clinical trials and no adverse effects were reported in any of the total 7,526 subjects studied during 1961-1998. In an effort to decrease the reliance on synthetic antimicrobials and control the emerging immunocompromised host population, the time has come to carefully explore the prophylactic and therapeutic applications of probiotic LAB.

  4. Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Trias, Rosalia; Bañeras, Lluís; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and Botrytis cinerea. The antagonistic activity of 496 LAB strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except P. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. The 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibition of P. expansum infection in wounds of Golden Delicious apples. Four strains (TC97, AC318, TM319, and FF441) reduced the fungal rot diameter of the apples by 20%; only Weissella cibaria strain TM128 decreased infection levels by 50%. Cell-free supernatants of selected antagonistic bacteria were studied to determine the nature of the antimicrobial compounds produced. Organic acids were the preferred mediators of inhibition but hydrogen peroxide was also detected when strains BC48, TM128, PM141 and FF441 were tested against E. carotovora. While previous reports of antifungal activity by LAB are scarce, our results support the potential of LAB as biocontrol agents against postharvest rot.

  5. Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Trias, Rosalia; Bañeras, Lluís; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and Botrytis cinerea. The antagonistic activity of 496 LAB strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except P. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. The 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibition of P. expansum infection in wounds of Golden Delicious apples. Four strains (TC97, AC318, TM319, and FF441) reduced the fungal rot diameter of the apples by 20%; only Weissella cibaria strain TM128 decreased infection levels by 50%. Cell-free supernatants of selected antagonistic bacteria were studied to determine the nature of the antimicrobial compounds produced. Organic acids were the preferred mediators of inhibition but hydrogen peroxide was also detected when strains BC48, TM128, PM141 and FF441 were tested against E. carotovora. While previous reports of antifungal activity by LAB are scarce, our results support the potential of LAB as biocontrol agents against postharvest rot. PMID:19204894

  6. Intestinal microflora in rats: isolation and characterization of strictly anaerobic bacteria requiring long-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Morotomi, M; Kawai, Y; Mutai, M

    1976-01-01

    Three strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria, isolated from the cecal contents of rats, have strict requirements for long-chain fatty acids. The effect of exogenous fatty acids on the growth and fatty acid composition of the bacteria was examined. Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid into octadecenoic acid was observed. These observations suggest that long-chain fatty acids in the intestine are factors in controlling the localization and the population levels of indigenous bacteria in vivo in rats. PMID:1267446

  7. Isolation and characterization of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria from fructose-rich niches.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Dicks, Leon M T

    2009-12-01

    Fourteen strains of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fructose-rich niches, flowers, and fruits. Phylogenetic analysis and BLAST analysis of 16S rDNA sequences identified six strains as Lactobacillus kunkeei, four as Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, and one as Fructobacillus fructosus. The remaining three strains grouped within the Lactobacillus buchneri phylogenetic subcluster, but shared low sequence similarities to other known Lactobacillus spp. The fructophilic strains fermented only a few carbohydrates and fermented D-fructose faster than D-glucose. Based on the growth characteristics, the 14 isolates were divided into two groups. Strains in the first group containing L. kunkeei, F. fructosus, and F. pseudoficulneus grew well on D-fructose and on D-glucose with pyruvate or oxygen as external electron acceptors, but poorly on D-glucose without the electron acceptors. Strains in this group were classified as "obligately" fructophilic lactic acid bacteria. The second group contained three unidentified strains of Lactobacillus that grew well on D-fructose and on D-glucose with the electron acceptors. These strains grew on D-glucose without the electron acceptors, but at a delayed rate. Strains in this group were classified as facultatively fructophilic lactic acid bacteria. All fructophilic isolates were heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, but "obligately" fructophilic lactic acid bacteria mainly produced lactic acid and acetic acid and very little ethanol from D-glucose. Facultatively fructophilic strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol, but at a ratio different from that recorded for heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. These unique characteristics may have been obtained through adaptation to the habitat. PMID:19733991

  8. Who will win the race in childrens' oral cavities? Streptococcus mutans or beneficial lactic acid bacteria?

    PubMed

    Güngör, Ö E; Kırzıoğlu, Z; Dinçer, E; Kıvanç, M

    2013-09-01

    Adhesion to oral soft and hard tissue is crucial for bacterial colonisation in the mouth. The aim of this work was to select strains of oral lactic acid bacteria that could be used as probiotics for oral health. To this end, the adhesive properties of some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Seventeen lactic acid bacteria including two Streptococcus mutans strains were isolated from the oral cavity of healthy children, while other strains were isolated from fermented meat products. The bacterial strains were applied to teeth surfaces covered with saliva or without saliva. A significant diversity in adhesion capacity to teeth surfaces among the lactic acid bacteria was observed. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from the oral cavity adhered the best to teeth surfaces covered with saliva, whereas lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented meat samples adhered the best to tooth surface without saliva. All strains of lactic acid bacteria were able to reduce the number of S. mutans cells, in particular on saliva-coated tooth surface. Therefore, they might have potential as probiotics for the oral cavity.

  9. Trans unsaturated fatty acids in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Keweloh, H; Heipieper, H J

    1996-02-01

    The occurrence of trans unsaturated fatty acids as by-products of fatty acid transformations carried out by the obligate anaerobic ruminal microflora has been well known for a long time. In recent years, fatty acids with trans configurations also have been detected in the membrane lipids of various aerobic bacteria. Besides several psychrophilic organisms, bacteria-degrading pollutants, such as Pseudomonas putida, are able to synthesize these compounds de novo. In contrast to the trans fatty acids formed by rumen bacteria, the membrane constituents of aerobic bacteria are synthesized by a direct isomerization of the complementary cis configuration of the double bond without a shift of the position. This system of isomerization is located in the cytoplasmic membrane. The conversion of cis unsaturated fatty acids to trans changes the membrane fluidity in response to environmental stimuli, particularly where growth is inhibited due to the presence of high concentrations of toxic substances. Under these conditions, lipid synthesis also stops so that the cells are not able to modify their membrane fluidity by any other mechanism.

  10. Use of an acidophilic yeast strain to enable the growth of leaching bacteria on solid media.

    PubMed

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Yi; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a Candida digboiensis strain was isolated from a heap leaching plant in Zambia and used in double-layer agar plate to efficiently isolate and purify leaching bacteria. Unlike Acidiphilium sp., the yeast strain was tetrathionate tolerant and could metabolize a great range of organic compounds including organic acids. These properties allowed the yeast strain to enable and fasten the growth of iron and sulfur oxidizers on double-layer agar plate. The isolates were identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans FOX1, Leptospirillun ferriphilum BN, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZMB. These three leaching bacteria were inhibited by organic acids such as acetic and propionic acids; however, their activities were enhanced by Candida digboiensis NB under dissolved organic matter stress.

  11. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    PubMed

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese.

  12. Purification of bacterial genomic DNA in less than 20 min using chelex-100 microwave: examples from strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Escogido, Lourdes; Balam-Chi, Mario; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Valdés, Jesús; Kameyama, Luis; Martínez-Pérez, Francisco

    2010-11-01

    We established a Chelex 100-Microwave method for the purification of bacterial genomic DNA (gDNA) in less than 20 min with high yield and good quality, useful for multiple purposes. It combines Chelex 100, proteinase K, RNase A and heating in a microwave oven. The resulting gDNA was used directly to identify bacterial species of the Order Lactobacillales by means of PCR amplification of their 16S rDNA gene, isolated from sediments on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. This method produced gDNA free of phenolic and protein residual contaminants from 100 of these isolated bacteria. 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing showed Pediococcus acidilactici to prevail in inland lagoons, and Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sp., and Lactobacillus fermentum to be most abundant in the soils of livestock farms. The combination of Chelex 100, enzymes and microwave heating used in the Chelex 100-Microwave method produced large amounts of highly pure gDNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, in less than 20 min.

  13. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  14. Intracellular pH of acid-tolerant ruminal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B

    1991-01-01

    Acid-tolerant ruminal bacteria (Bacteroides ruminicola B1(4), Selenomonas ruminantium HD4, Streptococcus bovis JB1, Megasphaera elsdenii B159, and strain F) allowed their intracellular pH to decline as a function of extracellular pH and did not generate a large pH gradient across the cell membrane until the extracellular pH was low (less than 5.2). This decline in intracellular pH prevented an accumulation of volatile fatty acid anions inside the cells. PMID:1781695

  15. Applications for biotechnology: present and future improvements in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    McKay, L L; Baldwin, K A

    1990-09-01

    The lactic acid bacteria are involved in the manufacture of fermented foods from raw agricultural materials such as milk, meat, vegetables, and cereals. These fermented foods are a significant part of the food processing industry and are often prepared using selected strains that have the ability to produce desired products or changes efficiently. The application of genetic engineering technology to improve existing strains or develop novel strains for these fermentations is an active research area world-wide. As knowledge about the genetics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria accumulates, it becomes possible to genetically construct strains with characteristics shaped for specific purposes. Examples of present and future applications of biotechnology to lactic acid bacteria to improve product quality are described. Studies of the basic biology of these bacteria are being actively conducted and must be continued, in order for the food fermentation industry to reap the benefits of biotechnology.

  16. Inhibition of food-borne bacterial pathogens by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat.

    PubMed Central

    Lewus, C B; Kaiser, A; Montville, T J

    1991-01-01

    Ten strains of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from retail cuts of meat. These 10 strains along with 11 other bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were tested for inhibitory activity against psychotrophic pathogens, including four strains of Listeria monocytogenes, two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibition due to acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lytic bacteriophage were excluded. The proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory substance was confirmed by demonstration of its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes. Eight of the meat isolates had inhibitory activity against all four L. monocytogenes strains. Bacteriocin activity against L. monocytogenes was found in all of the strains obtained from other sources. Activity against A. hydrophila and S. aureus was also common. Images PMID:1908209

  17. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of their health and nutritional requirements, and in this context, vitamins produced in situ by microbes may suit their needs and expectations. B groups vitamins are essential components of cellular metabolism and among them riboflavin is one of the vital vitamins required by bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Here, we focus on the importance of microbial production of riboflavin over chemical synthesis. In addition, genetic abilities for riboflavin biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria are discussed. Genetically modified strains by employing genetic engineering and chemical analogues have been developed to enhance riboflavin production. The present review attempts to collect the currently available information on riboflavin production by microbes in general, while placing greater emphasis on food grade lactic acid bacteria and human gut commensals. For designing riboflavin‐enriched functional foods, proper selection and exploitation of riboflavin‐producing lactic acid bacteria is essential. Moreover, eliminating the in situ vitamin fortification step will decrease the cost of food production. PMID:26686515

  19. Demonstrating Effectiveness of Antibiotics Against Known Bacteria Strains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Lois M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)

  20. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  1. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese yogurts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, N; Zhang, J X; Fan, M T; Wang, J; Guo, G; Wei, X Y

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of 43 strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from Chinese yogurts made in different geographical areas, to 11 antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin G, roxithromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamycin). The 43 isolates (18 Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 25 Streptococcus thermophilus) were identified at species level and were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Thirty-five genotypically different strains were detected and their antimicrobial resistance to 11 antibiotics was determined using the agar dilution method. Widespread resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, tetracyclines, lincomycin, streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamycin was found among the 35 strains tested. All of the Strep. thermophilus strains tested were susceptible to penicillin G and roxithromycin, whereas 23.5 and 64.7% of Lb. bulgaricus strains, respectively, were resistant. All of the Strep. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus strains were found to be resistant to kanamycin. The presence of the corresponding resistance genes in the resistant isolates was investigated through PCR, with the following genes detected: tet(M) in 1 Lb. bulgaricus and 2 Strep. thermophilus isolates, ant(6) in 2 Lb. bulgaricus and 2 Strep. thermophilus isolates, and aph(3')-IIIa in 5 Lb. bulgaricus and 2 Strep. thermophilus isolates. The main threat associated with these bacteria is that they may transfer resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria, which has been a major cause of concern to human and animal health. To our knowledge, the aph(3')-IIIa and ant(6) genes were found in Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus for the first time. Further investigations are required to analyze whether the genes identified in Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus isolates might be horizontally transferred to other species.

  2. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery.

  3. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria detoxify N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Kuberski, Sławomir; Libudzisz, Zdzisława

    2014-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) due to many environmental sources, as well as endogenous formation. The main nitrosamine found in food products and also synthesised in vivo by intestinal microbiota is N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). It can cause cancer of the stomach, kidney and colon. The effect of four probiotic Lactobacillus strains on NDMA was studied under different culture conditions (24 h in MRS, 168 h in modified MRS N, and 168 h in phosphate buffer). HPLC and GC-TEA methods were used for NDMA determination in supernatants. The influence of lactic acid bacteria on NDMA genotoxicity was investigated by means of the comet assay. Additionally, the effect of NDMA (2-100 µg ml⁻¹) on the growth and survival of the probiotic strains was studied. The results indicate that the bacteria decreased NDMA concentration by up to 50%, depending on the culture conditions, time of incubation, NDMA concentration, pH and bacterial strain. Lb. brevis 0945 lowered the concentration and genotoxicity of NDMA most effectively by up to 50%. This could be due to either adsorption or metabolism. The growth and survival of the bacteria was not affected by any of the tested NDMA concentrations. PMID:25010287

  4. Phenotypic and technological diversity of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci isolated from traditionally fermented sausages in southern Greece.

    PubMed

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Kolovos, George; Tsikouras, Ioannis; Metaxopoulos, Ioannis

    2007-05-01

    The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of spontaneously fermented sausages made by two medium-sized enterprises (MSE) located in southern Greece have been studied. A total of 300 lactic acid bacteria and 300 staphylococcal strains have been isolated and identified by their physiological characteristics. Lactobacillus plantarum strains were found to dominate the lactic acid bacteria microbiota in most of the cases with L. sakei strains prevailing in some of them and L. rhamnosus strains occasionally accompanying the dominant lactic acid bacteria microbiota. On the other hand, S. saprophyticus strains were found to dominate the staphylococcal microbiota in all spontaneously fermented sausages with of S. simulans, S. xylosus, S. gallinarum and S. cohnii cohnii strains being sporadically present. Following the identification, an evaluation of their technological properties, namely proteolytic and lipolytic capacities as well as production of biogenic amines and antimicrobial compounds, took place. None of the lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci was found to possess lipolytic activity whereas a total of 6 lactic acid bacteria and 51 staphylococci strains were found to be able to hydrolyse either the sarcoplasic, myofibrillar or both protein fractions. Furthermore, only one L. sakei strain and 185 staphylococci strains were found to possess decarboxylase activity against lysine, tyrosine, ornithine or histidine. Finally none of the staphylococcal microbiota and 3 lactic acid bacteria strains were found to be able to produce antimicrobial compounds of proteinaceous nature against Listeria monocytogenes.

  5. [Methanotrophic bacteria of acid sphagnum bogs].

    PubMed

    Dedysh, S N

    2002-01-01

    Acid sphagnum bogs cover a considerable part of the territory of Russia and are an important natural source of biogenic methane, which is formed in their anaerobic layers. A considerable portion of this methane is consumed in the aerobic part of the bog profile by acidophilic methanotrophic bacteria, which comprise the methane filter of sphagnum bogs and decrease CH4 emission to the atmosphere. For a long time, these bacteria escaped isolation, which became possible only after the elucidation of the optimal conditions of their functioning in situ: pH 4.5 to 5.5; temperature, from 15 to 20 degrees C; and low salt concentration in the solution. Reproduction of these conditions and rejection of earlier used media with a high content of biogenic elements allowed methanotrophic bacteria of two new genera and species--Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila--to be isolated from the peat of sphagnum bogs of the northern part of European Russia and West Siberia. These bacteria are well adapted to the conditions in cold, acid, oligotrophic sphagnum bogs. They grow in a pH range of 4.2-7.5 with an optimum at 5.0-5.5, prefer moderate temperatures (15-25 degrees C) and media with a low content of mineral salts (200-500 mg/l), and are capable of active nitrogen fixation. Design of fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the detection of Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila and their application to the analysis of sphagnum peat samples showed that these bacteria represent dominant populations of methanotrophs with a density of 10(5)-10(6) cells/g peat. In addition to Methylocella and Methylocapsa populations, one more abundant population of methanotrophs was revealed (10(6) cells/g peat), which were phylogenetically close to the genus Methylocystis. PMID:12526194

  6. Decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids by lactic acid bacteria isolated during malt whisky fermentation.

    PubMed

    van Beek, S; Priest, F G

    2000-12-01

    Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxylated p-coumaric acid and/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, although the relative activities on the two substrates varied between strains. The addition of p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid to cultures of L. pentosus in MRS broth induced hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA within 5 min, and the gene was also induced by the indigenous components of malt wort. In a simulated distillery fermentation, a mixed culture of L. crispatus and L. pentosus in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decarboxylated added p-coumaric acid more rapidly than the yeast alone but had little activity on added ferulic acid. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the induction of hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA under these conditions. However, in fermentations with no additional hydroxycinnamic acid, the bacteria lowered the final concentration of 4-vinylphenol in the fermented wort compared to the level seen in a pure-yeast fermentation. It seems likely that the combined activities of bacteria and yeast decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and then reduce 4-vinylphenol to 4-ethylphenol more effectively than either microorganism alone in pure cultures. Although we have shown that lactobacilli participate in the metabolism of phenolic compounds during malt whisky fermentations, the net result is a reduction in the concentrations of 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol prior to distillation.

  7. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii. The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. PMID:27795248

  8. Functional fermented whey-based beverage using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2010-06-30

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is employed as functional food ingredient because of its nutritional value and emulsifying properties. However, the major whey protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main cause of milk allergy. The aim of this study was to formulate a fermented whey beverage using selected lactic acid bacteria and WPC35 (WPC containing 35% of proteins) to obtain a fermented product with low lactose and BLG contents and high essential amino acid concentration. Cell viability, lactose consumption, lactic acid production, proteolytic activity, amino acid release and BLG degradation by the selected strains Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804, as single or mixed (SLaB) cultures were evaluated in WPC35 (10%, w/v) incubated at 37 degrees C for 24h. Then, the fermented WPC35 was mixed with peach juice and calcium lactate (2%, w/v) and stored at 10 degrees C for 28 days. During fermentation, single cultures grew 1.7-3.1 log CFU/ml and produced 25.1-95.0 mmol/l of lactic acid as consequence of lactose consumption (14.0-41.8 mmol/l) after 12h fermentation. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 was the most proteolytic strain (626 microg/ml Leu) and released the branched-chain essential amino acids Leu (16 microg/ml), Ile (27 microg/ml) and Val (43 microg/ml). All strains were able to degrade BLG in a range of 41-85% after 12h incubation. The starter culture SLaB grew 3.0 log CFU/ml, showed marked pH reduction, produced 122.0 mmol/l of lactic acid, displayed high proteolytic activity (484 microg/ml Leu) releasing Leu (13 microg/ml), Ile (18 microg/ml) and Val (35 microg/ml), and hydrolyzed 92% of BLG. The addition of calcium lactate to WPC35 maintained the drink pH stable during shelf life; no contamination was detected during this period. After 28 days, a decrease in cell viability of all strains was observed being more pronounced for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

  9. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  10. Immunomodulation of monocytes by probiotic and selected lactic Acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hanne; Drømtorp, Signe Marie; Axelsson, Lars; Grimmer, Stine

    2015-03-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, are recognized as common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and have received considerable attention in the last decades due to their postulated health-promoting effects. LAB and probiotic bacteria can modulate the host immune response. However, much is unknown about the mediators and mechanisms responsible for their immunological effect. Here, we present a study using cytokine secretion from the monocytic cell line THP-1 and NF-κB activation in the monocytic cell line U937-3xkB-LUC to elucidate immune stimulating abilities of LAB in vitro. In this study, we investigate both commercially available and potential probiotic LAB strains, and the role of putative surface proteins of L. reuteri using mutants. L. reuteri strains induced the highest cytokine secretion and the highest NF-κB activation, whereas L. plantarum strains and L. rhamnosus GG were low inducers/activators. One of the putative L. reuteri surface proteins, Hmpref0536_10802, appeared to be of importance for the stimulation of THP-1 cells and the activation of NF-κB in U937-3xkB-LUC cells. Live and UV-inactivated preparations resulted in different responses for two of the strains investigated. Our results add to the complexity in the interaction between LAB and human cells and suggest the possible involvement of secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators of LAB. It is likely that it is the sum of bacterial surface proteins and bacterial metabolites and/or secreted proteins that induce cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells and activate NF-κB in U937-3xkB-LUC cells in this study. PMID:25331988

  11. Immunomodulation of monocytes by probiotic and selected lactic Acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hanne; Drømtorp, Signe Marie; Axelsson, Lars; Grimmer, Stine

    2015-03-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, are recognized as common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and have received considerable attention in the last decades due to their postulated health-promoting effects. LAB and probiotic bacteria can modulate the host immune response. However, much is unknown about the mediators and mechanisms responsible for their immunological effect. Here, we present a study using cytokine secretion from the monocytic cell line THP-1 and NF-κB activation in the monocytic cell line U937-3xkB-LUC to elucidate immune stimulating abilities of LAB in vitro. In this study, we investigate both commercially available and potential probiotic LAB strains, and the role of putative surface proteins of L. reuteri using mutants. L. reuteri strains induced the highest cytokine secretion and the highest NF-κB activation, whereas L. plantarum strains and L. rhamnosus GG were low inducers/activators. One of the putative L. reuteri surface proteins, Hmpref0536_10802, appeared to be of importance for the stimulation of THP-1 cells and the activation of NF-κB in U937-3xkB-LUC cells. Live and UV-inactivated preparations resulted in different responses for two of the strains investigated. Our results add to the complexity in the interaction between LAB and human cells and suggest the possible involvement of secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators of LAB. It is likely that it is the sum of bacterial surface proteins and bacterial metabolites and/or secreted proteins that induce cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells and activate NF-κB in U937-3xkB-LUC cells in this study.

  12. Modelling strategies for the industrial exploitation of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Teusink, Bas; Smid, Eddy J

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long tradition of use in the food industry, and the number and diversity of their applications has increased considerably over the years. Traditionally, process optimization for these applications involved both strain selection and trial and error. More recently, metabolic engineering has emerged as a discipline that focuses on the rational improvement of industrially useful strains. In the post-genomic era, metabolic engineering increasingly benefits from systems biology, an approach that combines mathematical modelling techniques with functional-genomics data to build models for biological interpretation and--ultimately--prediction. In this review, the industrial applications of LAB are mapped onto available global, genome-scale metabolic modelling techniques to evaluate the extent to which functional genomics and systems biology can live up to their industrial promise.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria as adjuvants for sublingual allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Moussu, Helene; Horiot, Stéphane; Samson, Sandrine; Lombardi, Vincent; Mascarell, Laurent; van de Moer, Ariane; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Moingeon, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    We compared immunomodulatory properties of 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria as well as their capacity to enhance sublingual immunotherapy efficacy in a murine asthma model. Two types of bacterial strains were identified, including: (i) potent inducers of IL-12p70 and IL-10 in dendritic cells, supporting IFN-gamma and IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells such as Lactobacillus helveticus; (ii) pure Th1 inducers such as L. casei. Sublingual administration in ovalbumin-sensitized mice of L. helveticus, but not L. casei, reduced airways hyperresponsiveness, bronchial inflammation and proliferation of specific T cells in cervical lymph nodes. Thus, probiotics acting as a Th1/possibly Treg, but not Th1 adjuvant, potentiate tolerance induction via the sublingual route.

  14. [Lactic acid bacteria and health: are probiotics safe for human?].

    PubMed

    Kubiszewska, Izabela; Januszewska, Milena; Rybka, Joanna; Gackowska, Lidia

    2014-11-17

    The effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on human health has been examined for many years. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed the beneficial activity of some exogenous lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of rotaviral infection, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics support the action of the intestinal microflora and exhibit a favorable modulatory effect on the host's immune system. However, it should be remembered that relatively harmless lactobacilli can occasionally induce opportunistic infections. Due to reaching almost 20x10(12) probiotic doses per year which contain live cultures of bacteria, it is essential to monitor the safety aspect of their administration. In recent years, infections caused by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium made up 0.05% to 0.4% of cases of endocarditis and bacteremia. In most cases, the infections were caused by endogenous microflora of the host or bacterial strains colonizing the host's oral cavity. According to a review of cases of infections caused by bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus from 2005 (collected by J.P. Cannot'a), 1.7% of infections have been linked directly with intensive dairy probiotic consumption by patients. Additionally, due to the lack of a precise description of most individuals' eating habits, the possible effect of probiotics on infection development definitively should not be ruled out. The present paper describes cases of diseases caused by lactic acid bacteria, a potential mechanism for the adverse action of bacteria, and the possible hazard connected with probiotic supplementation for seriously ill and hospitalized patients.

  15. Exopolysaccharides from sourdough lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Galle, Sandra; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-01-01

    The use of sourdough improves the quality and increases the shelf life of bread. The positive effects are associated with metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation, including organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), and enzymes. EPS formed during sourdough fermentation by glycansucrase activity from sucrose influence the viscoelastic properties of the dough and beneficially affect the texture and shelf life (in particular, starch retrogradation) of bread. Accordingly, EPS have the potential to replace hydrocolloids currently used as bread improvers and meet so the consumer demands for a reduced use of food additives. In this review, the current knowledge about the functional aspects of EPS formation by sourdough LAB especially in baking applications is summarized.

  16. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  17. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  18. Isolation of two Pseudomonas strains producing pseudomonic acid A.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Eva; Fekete, Agnes; Lintelmann, Jutta; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philipe; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-02-01

    Two novel Pseudomonas strains were isolated from groundwater sediment samples. The strains showed resistance against the antibiotics tetracycline, cephalothin, nisin, vancomycin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, lincomycin, and penicillin and grew at temperatures between 15 and 37 degrees C and pH values from 4 to 10 with a maximum at pH 7 to 10. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences and the substrate spectrum of the isolates revealed that the two strains belonged to the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The supernatants of both strains had an antibiotic effect against Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative strain. The effective substance was produced under standard cultivation conditions without special inducer molecules or special medium composition. The antibiotically active compound was identified as pseudomonic acid A by off-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). The measurement on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, UV-vis detection) confirmed the determination of pseudomonic acid A which was produced by both strains at 1.7-3.5mg/l. Our findings indicate that the ability to produce the antibiotic pseudomonic acid A (Mupirocin) is more spread among the pseudomonads then anticipated from the only producer known so far. PMID:19070447

  19. Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria. [Vibrio harveyi

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with (/sup 14/C) acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree (/sup 14/C)fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with (/sup 14/C)acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition.

  20. Potential of lactic acid bacteria in aflatoxin risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Sara H; Joutsjoki, Vesa; Korhonen, Hannu J

    2015-08-17

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous mycotoxins contaminating food and feed. Consumption of contaminated food and feed can cause a severe health risk to humans and animals. A novel biological method could reduce the health risks of aflatoxins through inhibiting mold growth and binding aflatoxins. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in fermented food production. LAB are known to inhibit mold growth and, to some extent, to bind aflatoxins in different matrices. Reduced mold growth and aflatoxin production may be caused by competition for nutrients between bacterial cells and fungi. Most likely, binding of aflatoxins depends on environmental conditions and is strain-specific. Killed bacteria cells possess consistently better binding abilities for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) than viable cells. Lactobacilli especially are relatively well studied and provide noticeable possibilities in binding of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in food. It seems that binding is reversible and that bound aflatoxins are released later on (Haskard et al., 2001; Peltonen et al., 2001). This literature review suggests that novel biological methods, such as lactic acid bacteria, show potential in mitigating toxic effects of aflatoxins in food and feed.

  1. Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Skin Health.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Chang Y; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-10-25

    Human skin is the first defense barrier against the external environment, especially microbial pathogens and physical stimulation. Many studies on skin health with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been published for many years, including prevention of skin disease and improvement of skin conditions. LAB, a major group of gram-positive bacteria, are known to be beneficial to human health by acting as probiotics. Recent studies have shown that LAB and their extracts have beneficial effects on maintenance and improvement of skin health. Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii inhibits the development of atopic disease. In addition, LAB and LAB extracts are known to have beneficial effects on intestinal diseases, with Lactobacillus plantarum having been shown to attenuate IL-10 deficient colitis. In addition to intestinal health, L. plantarum also has beneficial effects on skin. pLTA, which is lipoteichoic acid isolated from L. plantarum, has anti-photoaging effects on human skin cells by regulating the expression matrix meralloprotionase-1 (MMP-1) expression. While several studies have proposed a relationship between diseases of the skin and small intestines, there are currently no published reviews of the effects of LAB for skin health through regulation of intestinal conditions and the immune system. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the effects of LAB on skin health and its potential applications in beauty foods. PMID:26287529

  2. Survival and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of surface and subsurface bacteria in natural sediment microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Wilch, E.; O`Connor, K.

    1997-04-01

    Although starvation survival has been characterized for many bacteria, few subsurface bacteria have been tested, and few if any have been tested in natural subsurface porous media. We hypothesized that subsurface bacteria may be uniquely adapted for long-term survival in situ. We further hypothesized that subsurface conditions (sediment type and moisture content) would influence microbial survival. We compared starvation survival capabilities of surface and subsurface strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and a novel Arthrobacter sp. in microcosms composed of natural sediments. Bacteria were incubated for up to 64 weeks under saturated and unsaturated conditions in sterilized microcosms containing either a silty sand paleosol (buried soil) or a sandy silt nonpaleosol sediment. Direct counts, plate counts, and cell sizes were measured. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were quantified to determine temporal patterns of PLFA stress signatures and differences in PLFAs among strains and treatments. The Arthrobacter strains survived better than the P. fluorescens strains; however, differences in survival between surface and subsurface strains of each genus were not significant. Bacteria survived better in the paleosol than in the nonpaleosol and survived better under saturated conditions than under unsaturated conditions. Cell volumes of all strains decreased; however, sediment type and moisture did not influence rates of miniaturization. Both P.fluorescens strains showed PLFA stress signatures typical for gram-negative bacteria: increased ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, increased ratios of trans- to cis-monoenoic fatty acids, and increased ratios of cyclopropyl to monoenoic precursor fatty acids. The Arthrobacter strains showed few changes in PLFAs. Environmental conditions strongly influenced PLFA profiles. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. PMID:27052717

  4. In vitro testing of commercial and potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hanne; Grimmer, Stine; Naterstad, Kristine; Axelsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of selected commercial and potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria using common in vitro screening assays such as transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines and effect on epithelial barrier function. The selected bacteria include strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Viable counts after simulated gastric transit tolerance showed that L. reuteri strains and P. pentosaceus tolerate gastric juice well, with no reduction of viability, whereas L. pentosus, L. farciminis and L. sakei strains lost viability over 180min. All strains tested tolerate the simulated small intestinal juice well. The bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cells revealed major species and strain differences. Overall, L. plantarum MF1298 and three L. reuteri strains had a significant higher adhesion capacity compared to the other strains tested. All strains, both living and UV-inactivated, had little effect on the epithelial barrier function. However, living L. reuteri strains revealed a tendency to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) from 6 to 24h. This work demonstrates the diversity of 18 potential probiotic bacteria, with major species and strain specific effects in the in vitro screening assays applied. Overall, L. reuteri strains reveal some interesting characteristics compared to the other strains investigated.

  5. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  6. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane.

  7. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  8. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis. PMID:26398285

  9. Antibiosis of some lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus toward Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Raccach, M; McGrath, R; Daftarian, H

    1989-08-01

    Eleven strains of lactic acid bacteria were tested by the 'spot' on the 'lawn' method for their antagonistic activity against four strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Four out of the five strains of lactic acid bacteria most antagonistic toward the pathogen were those cultures known to produce bacteriocins. Four other strains of lactic acid bacteria were not antagonistic against Listeria by this method. Seventeen inhibition zones of the pathogen were obtained at 25 degrees C as compared to 10 at 32 degrees C. Lactobacillus acidophilus strains NU-A and 88, growing in the presence of L. monocytogenes in milk prevented the latter from attaining populations it would have in pure culture (P less than 0.01). 10(1.4)-10(3.5) lower numbers were noted. L. acidophilus in most cases exhibited a bacteriostatic effect toward the pathogen except for strain 88 which appeared to have a bactericidal effect (P less than 0.01) against Listeria strain OH. The lactobacilli reduced the pH of the milk to 4.7 over a 24 h period, showing that acid played a role in the observed antibiosis.

  10. Animal rennets as sources of dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2014-04-01

    The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions. PMID:24441167

  11. Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings.

    PubMed

    Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Shirazi, Jafir Hussain; Khan, Ikram Ullah

    2011-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that produce lactic acid as their major fermented product. Most of them are normal flora of human being and animals and produce myriad beneficial effects for human beings include, alleviation of lactose intolerance, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, stimulation of immune system, antiallergic effects, antifungal actions, preservation of food, and prevention of colon cancer. This review highlights the potential species of Lactic acid bacteria responsible for producing these effects. It has been concluded that lactic acid bacteria are highly beneficial microorganisms for human beings and are present abundantly in dairy products so their use should be promoted for good human health.

  12. Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings.

    PubMed

    Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Shirazi, Jafir Hussain; Khan, Ikram Ullah

    2011-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that produce lactic acid as their major fermented product. Most of them are normal flora of human being and animals and produce myriad beneficial effects for human beings include, alleviation of lactose intolerance, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, stimulation of immune system, antiallergic effects, antifungal actions, preservation of food, and prevention of colon cancer. This review highlights the potential species of Lactic acid bacteria responsible for producing these effects. It has been concluded that lactic acid bacteria are highly beneficial microorganisms for human beings and are present abundantly in dairy products so their use should be promoted for good human health. PMID:21162695

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus CECT 9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443, Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Grape Must

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus strain CECT9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT8443, acetic acid bacteria isolated from grape must. Gluconobacter species are well known for their ability to oxidize sugar alcohols into the corresponding acids. Our objective was to select strains to oxidize effectively d-glucose. PMID:27365351

  14. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons.

  15. Hydroxycinnamic Acids Used as External Acceptors of Electrons: an Energetic Advantage for Strictly Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD+/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD+/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. PMID:25261518

  16. Released products of pathogenic bacteria stimulate biofilm formation by Escherichia coli K-12 strains.

    PubMed

    Vacheva, Anna; Ivanova, Radka; Paunova-Krasteva, Tsvetelina; Stoitsova, Stoyanka

    2012-06-01

    It has recently been shown that pathogens with a limited capacity for sessile growth (like some Escherichia coli O157 strains) can benefit from the presence of other bacteria and form mixed biofilms with companion strains. This study addresses the question whether pathogens may influence attached growth of E. coli non-pathogenic strains via secreted factors. We compared the biofilm-modulating effects of sterile stationary-phase culture media of a biofilm non-producing strain of E. coli O157:H, a laboratory biofilm-producing E. coli K-12 strain and a biofilm-forming strain of the pathogen Yersina enterocolitica O:3. Sessile growth was monitored as biomass (crystal violet assay), exopolysaccharide (ELLA) and morphology (scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy). With two of the E. coli K-12 strains stimulation of biofilm formation by all supernatants was achieved, but only the pathogens' secreted products induced biomass increase in some 'biofilm-deficient' K-12 strains. Lectin-peroxidase labeling indicated changes in colanic acid and poly-N-acetylglucosamine amounts in extracellular matrices. The contribution of indole, protein and polysaccharide to the biofilm-modulating activities of the supernatants was compared. Indole, in concentrations equal to those established in the supernatants, suppressed sessile growth in one K-12 strain. Proteinase K significantly reduced the stimulatory effects of all supernatants, indicating a prominent role of protein/peptide factor(s) in biofilm promotion. The amount of released polysaccharides (rPS) in the supernatants was quantitated then comparable quantities of isolated rPS were applied during biofilm growth. The three rPS had notable strain-specific effects with regard to both the strain-source of the rPS and the E. coli K-12 target strain.

  17. Bactericidal activities of GM flax seedcake extract on pathogenic bacteria clinical strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is a worldwide problem. Each year several million people across the world acquire infections with bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, which is costly in terms of human health. New antibiotics are extremely needed to overcome the current resistance problem. Results Transgenic flax plants overproducing compounds from phenylpropanoid pathway accumulate phenolic derivatives of potential antioxidative, and thus, antimicrobial activity. Alkali hydrolyzed seedcake extract containing coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and lignan in high quantities was used as an assayed against pathogenic bacteria (commonly used model organisms and clinical strains). It was shown that the extract components had antibacterial activity, which might be useful as a prophylactic against bacterial infection. Bacteria topoisomerase II (gyrase) inhibition and genomic DNA disintegration are suggested to be the main reason for rendering antibacterial action. Conclusions The data obtained strongly suggest that the seedcake extract preparation is a suitable candidate for antimicrobial action with a broad spectrum and partial selectivity. Such preparation can be applied in cases where there is a risk of multibacterial infection and excellent answer on global increase in multidrug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25073883

  18. Tannic acid degradation by Klebsiella strains isolated from goat feces

    PubMed Central

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Tabatabaee, Nooroldin; Khalkhali, Hossein; Amini, Imane

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pistachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD). Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed. Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization. Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds. PMID:27092220

  19. Effects of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Growth of Rumen Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maczulak, A. E.; Dehority, B. A.; Palmquist, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of low concentrations of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and vaccenic) on the growth of seven species (13 strains) of rumen bacteria were investigated. Except for Bacteroides ruminicola and several strains of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, bacterial growth was not greatly affected by either palmitic or stearic acids. In contrast, growth of Selenomonas ruminantium, B. ruminicola, and one strain of B. fibrisolvens was stimulated by oleic acid, whereas the cellulolytic species were markedly inhibited by this acid. Vaccenic acid (trans Δ11 18:1) had far less inhibitory effect on the cellulolytic species than oleic acid (cis Δ9 18:1). Inclusion of powdered cellulose in the medium appeared to reverse both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of added fatty acids. However, there was little carry-over effect observed when cells were transferred from a medium with fatty acids to one without. Considerable variation in response to added fatty acids was noted among five strains of B. fibrisolvens. In general, exogenous long-chain fatty acids appear to have little, if any, energy-sparing effect on the growth of rumen bacteria. PMID:16345887

  20. Lactic acid bacteria as oral delivery systems for biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Berlec, A; Ravnikar, M; Strukelj, B

    2012-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have become increasingly studied over the last two decades as potential delivery systems for various biological molecules to the gastrointestinal tract. This article presents an overview of characteristics of LAB as delivery systems and of the applications which have already been developed. The majority of LAB strains are able to survive the intestinal passage and some are also able to persist and colonize the intestine. Several strains were in fact described as members of the human commensal flora. They can interact with their host and are able to deliver large molecular weight biomolecules across the epithelium via M-cells or dendritic cells. The most widely applied LAB species has been Lactococcus lactis; however species from genus Lactobacillus are gaining popularity and the first examples from genus Bifidobacterium are starting to emerge. Bacteria are mostly applied live and enable continuous delivery of the biomolecules. However, killed bacteria (e.g. gram-positive enhancer matrix), with bound biomolecules or as adjuvants, are also being developed. The techniques for genetic modification of LAB are well known. This review focuses on the delivery of recombinant proteins and DNA, which can cause either local or systemic effects. We divide recombinant proteins into antigens and therapeutic proteins. Delivery of antigens for the purpose of vaccination represents the most abundant application with numerous successful demonstrations of the efficacy on the animal model. Therapeutic proteins have mostly been developed for the treatment of the inflammatory bowel disease, by the delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokines, or downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Delivery of allergens for the modulation of allergic disorders represents the second most popular application of therapeutic proteins. The delivery of DNA by LAB was demonstrated and offers exciting opportunities, especially as a vaccine. New discoveries may eventually lead to the

  1. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Françoise, Leroi

    2010-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish flesh has long been disregarded because the high post-mortem pH, the low percentage of sugars, the high content of low molecular weight nitrogenous molecules and the low temperature of temperate waters favor the rapid growth of pH-sensitive psychrotolerant marine Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium. In seafood packed in both vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging commonly CO(2) enriched, the growth of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria group (predominantly pseudomonads) is effectively inhibited and the number reached by LAB during storage is higher than that achieved in air but always several log units lower than the trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) reducing and CO(2)-resistant organisms (Shewanella putrefaciens and Photobacterium phosphoreum). Accordingly, LAB are not of much concern in seafood neither aerobically stored nor VP and MAP. However, they may acquire great relevance in lightly preserved fish products (LPFP), including those VP or MAP. Fresh fish presents a very high water activity (aw) value (0.99). However, aw is reduced to about 0.96 when salt (typically 6% WP) is added to the product. As a result, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria are inhibited, which allows the growth of other organisms more resistant to reduced aw, i.e. LAB, and then they may acquire a central role in the microbial events occurring in the product. Changes in consumers' habits have led to an increase of convenient LPFP with a relative long shelf-life (at least 3 weeks) which, on the other hand, may constitute a serious problem from a safety perspective since Listeria monocytogenes and sometimes Clostridium botulinum (mainly type E) may able to grow. In any case the LAB function in marine products is complex, depending on species, strains, interaction with other bacteria and the food matrix. They may have no particular effect or they may be responsible for spoilage and, in certain cases, they may even exert

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of antimicrobial lactic acid bacteria from farmed seabass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Bourouni, Ouissal Chahad; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Mraouna, Radhia; Abedellatif, Boudabous; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

    2012-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the prevention or reduction of fish diseases is receiving increasing attention. In the present study, 47 LAB strains were isolated from farmed seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) and were phenotypically and phylogenetically analysed by 16S rDNA and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Their antimicrobial effect was tested in vitro against a wide variety of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Most of the strains isolated were enterococci belonging to the following species: Enterococcus faecium (59%), Enterococcus faecalis (21%), Enterococcus sanguinicola (4 strains), Enterococcus mundtii (1 strain), Enterococcus pseudoavium (1 strain), and Lactococcus lactis (1 strain). An Aerococcus viridans strain was also isolated. The survey of their antimicrobial susceptibility showed that all isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and exhibited resistance to between 4 and 10 other antibiotics relevant for therapy in human and animal medicine. Different patterns of resistance were noted for skin and intestines isolates. More than 69% (32 strains) of the isolates inhibited the growth of the majority of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria tested, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum, and Carnobacterium sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bioactive enterococcal species isolated from seabass that could potentially inhibit the undesirable bacteria found in food systems.

  3. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of probiotic lactic acid bacteria for potential use in animal production.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Yaneisy; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Boucourt, Ramón; Balcázar, José L; Nicoli, Jacques R; Moreira-Silva, João; Rodríguez, Zoraya; Fuertes, Héctor; Nuñez, Odalys; Albelo, Nereyda; Halaihel, Nabil

    2016-10-01

    In livestock production, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics. For such use, these bacteria must be correctly identified and characterized to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, LAB were isolated from broiler excreta, where a fermentation process was used. Nine among sixteen isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular (sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) methods as Lactobacillus crispatus (n=1), Lactobacillus pentosus (n=1), Weissella cibaria (n=1), Pediococcus pentosaceus (n=2) and Enterococcus hirae (n=4). Subsequently, these bacteria were characterized for their growth capabilities, lactic acid production, acidic pH and bile salts tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, antimicrobial susceptibility and antagonistic activity. Lactobacillus pentosus strain LB-31, which showed the best characteristics, was selected for further analysis. This strain was administered to broilers and showed the ability of modulating the immune response and producing beneficial effects on morpho-physiological, productive and health indicators of the animals.

  4. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Sequence Homologies of Some Budding and Prosthecate Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard L.; Hirsch, Peter

    1972-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of a number of budding and prosthecate bacteria was determined by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) homology experiments of the direct binding type. Strains of Hyphomicrobium sp. isolated from aquatic habitats were found to have relatedness values ranging from 9 to 70% with strain “EA-617,” a subculture of the Hyphomicrobium isolated by Mevius from river water. Strains obtained from soil enrichments had lower values with EA-617, ranging from 3 to 5%. Very little or no homology was detected between the amino acid-utilizing strain Hyphomicrobium neptunium and other Hyphomicrobium strains, although significant homology was observed with the two Hyphomonas strains examined. No homology could be detected between prosthecate bacteria of the genera Rhodomicrobium, Prosthecomicrobium, Ancalomicrobium, or Caulobacter, and Hyphomicrobium strain EA-617 or H. neptunium LE-670. The grouping of Hyphomicrobium strains by their relatedness values agrees well with a grouping according to the base composition of their DNA species. It is concluded that bacteria possessing cellular extensions represent a widely diverse group of organisms. PMID:5018022

  5. Technological and safety properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Spanish dry-cured sausages.

    PubMed

    Landeta, G; Curiel, J A; Carrascosa, A V; Muñoz, R; de las Rivas, B

    2013-10-01

    Technological and safety-related properties were analyzed in lactic acid bacteria isolated from Spanish dry-cured sausages in order to select them as starter cultures. In relation to technological properties, all the strains showed significative nitrate reductase activity; Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and 52% of the Enterococcus faecium strains showed lipolytic activity and only Lactobacillus sakei strains (43%) were able to form biofilms. Related to safety aspects, E. faecium strains were the most resistant to antibiotics, whereas, L. sakei strains were the most sensitive. In relation to virulence factors, in the E. faecium strains analyzed, only the presence of efaA gene was detected. The analysis of biogenic amine production showed that most E. faecium strains and L. sakei Al-142 produced tyramine. In conclusion, L. paracasei Al-128 and L. sakei Al-143 strains possess the best properties to be selected as adequate and safe meat starter cultures.

  6. Hydrolytic breakdown of lactoferricin by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Somkuti, George A

    2010-02-01

    Lactoferricin is a 25-amino acid antimicrobial peptide fragment that is liberated by pepsin digestion of lactoferrin present in bovine milk. Along with its antibacterial properties, lactoferricin has also been reported to have immunostimulatory, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic effects. These attributes provide lactoferricin and other natural bioactive peptides with the potential to be functional food ingredients that can be used by the food industry in a variety of applications. At present, commercial uses of these types of compounds are limited by the scarcity of information on their ability to survive food processing environments. We have monitored the degradation of lactoferricin during its incubation with two types of lactic acid bacteria used in the yogurt-making industry, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, with the aim of assessing the stability of this milk protein-derived peptide under simulated yogurt-making conditions. Analysis of the hydrolysis products isolated from these experiments indicates degradation of this peptide near neutral pH by lactic acid bacteria-associated peptidases, the extent of which was influenced by the bacterial strain used. However, the data also showed that compared to other milk-derived bioactive peptides that undergo complete degradation under these conditions, the 25-amino acid lactoferricin is apparently more resistant, with approximately 50% of the starting material remaining after 4 h of incubation. These findings imply that lactoferricin, as a natural milk protein-derived peptide, has potential applications in the commercial production of yogurt-like fermented dairy products as a multi-functional food ingredient.

  7. Glycerol metabolism and bitterness producing lactic acid bacteria in cidermaking.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, G; Ibarburu, I; Berregi, I; Claisse, O; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Irastorza, A; Dueñas, M T

    2008-02-10

    Several lactic acid bacteria were isolated from bitter tasting ciders in which glycerol was partially removed. The degradation of glycerol via glycerol dehydratase pathway was found in 22 out of 67 isolates. The confirmation of glycerol degradation by this pathway was twofold: showing their glycerol dehydratase activity and detecting the presence of the corresponding gene by a PCR method. 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDL) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) were the metabolic end-products of glycerol utilization, and the accumulation of the acrolein precursor 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) was also detected in most of them. The strain identification by PCR-DGGE rpoB showed that Lactobacillus collinoides was the predominant species and only 2 belonged to Lactobacillus diolivorans. Environmental conditions conducting to 3-HPA accumulation in cidermaking were studied by varying the fructose concentration, pH and incubation temperature in L. collinoides 17. This strain failed to grow with glycerol as sole carbon source and the addition of fructose enhanced both growth and glycerol degradation. Regarding end-products of glycerol metabolism, 1,3-PDL was always the main end-product in all environmental conditions assayed, the only exception being the culture with 5.55 mM fructose, where equimolar amounts of 1,3-PDL and 3-HP were found. The 3-HPA was transitorily accumulated in the culture medium under almost all culture conditions, the degradation rate being notably slower at 15 degrees C. However, no disappearance of 3-HPA was found at pH 3.6, a usual value in cider making. After sugar exhaustion, L. collinoides 17 oxidated lactic acid and/or mannitol to obtain energy and these oxidations were accompanied by the removal of the toxic 3-HPA increasing the 1,3-PDL, 3-HP and acetic acid contents. PMID:18180066

  8. Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine.

    PubMed

    Lonvaud-Funel, A

    1999-01-01

    The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic acid bacteria species can be identified. They belong to the Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Oenococcus genera. Throughout alcoholic fermentation, a natural selection occurs and finally the dominant species is O. oeni, due to interactions between yeasts and bacteria and between bacteria themselves. After bacterial growth, when the population is over 10(6) CFU/ml, malolactic transformation is the obvious change in wine composition. However, many other substrates can be metabolized. Some like remaining sugars and citric acid are always assimilated by lactic acid bacteria, thus providing them with energy and carbon. Other substrates such as some amino acids may be used following pathways restricted to strains carrying the adequate enzymes. Some strains can also produce exopolysaccharides. All these transformations greatly influence the sensory and hygienic quality of wine. Malic acid transformation is encouraged because it induces deacidification. Diacetyl produced from citric acid is also helpful to some extent. Sensory analyses show that many other reactions change the aromas and make malolactic fermentation beneficial, but they are as yet unknown. On the contrary, an excess of acetic acid, the synthesis of glucane, biogenic amines and precursors of ethylcarbamate are undesirable. Fortunately, lactic acid bacteria normally multiply in dry wines; moreover some of these activities are not widespread. Moreover, the most striking trait of wine lactic acid bacteria is their capacity to adapt to a hostile environment. The mechanisms for this are not yet completely elucidated

  9. Antagonistic Characteristics Against Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria Isolated from Feces of Healthy Thai Infants

    PubMed Central

    Uraipan, Supansa; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food-borne pathogens are among the most significant problems in maintaining the health of people. Many probiotics have been widely reported to alleviate and protect against gastrointestinal infections through antibacterial secretion. However, the majority of them cannot always play antagonistic roles under gut conditions. Probiotic bacteria of human origin must possess other protective mechanisms to survive, out-compete intestinal flora and to successfully establish in their new host at a significant level. Objectives: Probiotic characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria isolated from the feces of Thai infants were primarily investigated in terms of gastric acid and bile resistances, antibacterial activity and mucin adhesion ability. Antagonistic interaction through secretion of antibacterial compounds and competitive exclusion against food-borne pathogens were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Culturable LAB and bifidobacteria were isolated from feces of Thai infants. Their ability to withstand gastric acid and bile were then evaluated. Acid and bile salt tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria were identified. They were then further assessed according to their antagonistic interactions through antibacterial secretion, mucin adhesion and competitive mucin adhesion against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Results: Gastric acid and bile tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria isolated from healthy infant feces were identified and selected according to their antagonistic interaction against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic probiotics included four strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of L. casei, five strains of L. plantarum, two strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and three strains of B. bifidum. All strains of the selected LAB inhibited all pathogenic bacteria tested through antibacterial secretion, while bifidobacteria showed high level of competitive exclusion against the pathogenic

  10. Effect of fermented broth from lactic acid bacteria on pathogenic bacteria proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, S; Martínez-Blanco, H; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Ferrero, M A

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect that 5 fermented broths of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have on the viability or proliferation and adhesion of 7 potentially pathogenic microorganisms was tested. The fermented broth from Lactococcus lactis C660 had a growth inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli K92 that reached of 31%, 19% to Pseudomonas fluorescens, and 76% to Staphylococcus epidermidis. The growth of Staph. epidermidis was negatively affected to 90% by Lc. lactis 11454 broth, whereas the growth of P. fluorescens (25%) and both species of Staphylococcus (35% to Staphylococcus aureus and 76% to Staph. epidermidis) were inhibited when they were incubated in the presence of Lactobacillus casei 393 broth. Finally, the fermented broth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed an inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli K92, Listeria innocua, and Staph. epidermidis reached values of 12, 28, and 76%, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most affected strain because the effect was detected from the early stages of growth and it was completely abolished. The results of bacterial adhesion revealed that broths from Lc. lactis strains, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lb. rhamnosus caused a loss of E. coli K92 adhesion. Bacillus cereus showed a decreased of adhesion in the presence of the broths of Lc. lactis strains and Lb. paracasei. Listeria innocua adhesion inhibition was observed in the presence of Lb. paracasei broth, and the greatest inhibitory effect was registered when this pathogenic bacterium was incubated in presence of Lc. lactis 11454 broth. With respect to the 2 Pseudomonas, we observed a slight adhesion inhibition showed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus broth against Pseudomonas putida. These results confirm that the effect caused by the different LAB assayed is also broth- and species-specific and reveal that the broth from LAB tested can be used as functional bioactive compounds to regulate the adhesion and biofilm synthesis and ultimately lead to preventing food and

  11. Effect of fermented broth from lactic acid bacteria on pathogenic bacteria proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, S; Martínez-Blanco, H; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Ferrero, M A

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect that 5 fermented broths of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have on the viability or proliferation and adhesion of 7 potentially pathogenic microorganisms was tested. The fermented broth from Lactococcus lactis C660 had a growth inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli K92 that reached of 31%, 19% to Pseudomonas fluorescens, and 76% to Staphylococcus epidermidis. The growth of Staph. epidermidis was negatively affected to 90% by Lc. lactis 11454 broth, whereas the growth of P. fluorescens (25%) and both species of Staphylococcus (35% to Staphylococcus aureus and 76% to Staph. epidermidis) were inhibited when they were incubated in the presence of Lactobacillus casei 393 broth. Finally, the fermented broth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed an inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli K92, Listeria innocua, and Staph. epidermidis reached values of 12, 28, and 76%, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most affected strain because the effect was detected from the early stages of growth and it was completely abolished. The results of bacterial adhesion revealed that broths from Lc. lactis strains, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lb. rhamnosus caused a loss of E. coli K92 adhesion. Bacillus cereus showed a decreased of adhesion in the presence of the broths of Lc. lactis strains and Lb. paracasei. Listeria innocua adhesion inhibition was observed in the presence of Lb. paracasei broth, and the greatest inhibitory effect was registered when this pathogenic bacterium was incubated in presence of Lc. lactis 11454 broth. With respect to the 2 Pseudomonas, we observed a slight adhesion inhibition showed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus broth against Pseudomonas putida. These results confirm that the effect caused by the different LAB assayed is also broth- and species-specific and reveal that the broth from LAB tested can be used as functional bioactive compounds to regulate the adhesion and biofilm synthesis and ultimately lead to preventing food and

  12. Screening lactic acid bacteria with high yielding-acid capacity from pickled tea for their potential uses of inoculating to ferment tea products.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ping; Huang, Youyi; Yang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Bowei; Quan, Xiaoxia

    2015-10-01

    For there were very short of excellent strains inoculated to ferment tea products, the lactic acid bacteria from pickled tea were isolated, characterized and identified, and the acid production capacity of part better strains was determined. There are only 22 strains isolated from pickled tea, and 2 of them were yeast, and 8 strains selected from the other 20 strains all were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. A1, L2 and L5 of L. plantarum with a high acid production capacity were screened out and could obviously shorten the fermentation time of pickled tea by the verification, which suggests that they have a potential use of inoculating to ferment tea products. It was the first report on screening lactic acid bacteria with high yielding-acid capacity from pickled tea, which will bring benefits to fermenting tea products by artificial inoculation. PMID:26396422

  13. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Šalomskienė, Joana; Abraitienė, Asta; Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Mačionienė, Irena; Repečkienė, Jūratė

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation.

  14. [Activated Sludge Bacteria Transforming Cyanopyridines and Amides of Pyridinecarboxylic Acids].

    PubMed

    Demakov, V A; Vasil'ev, D M; Maksimova, Yu G; Pavlova, Yu A; Ovechkina, G V; Maksimov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity of bacteria from the activated sludge of Perm biological waste treatment facilities capable of transformation of cyanopyridines and amides of pyridinecarboxylic acids was investigated. Enrichment cultures in mineral media with 3-cyanopyridine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source were used to obtain 32 clones of gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria exhibiting moderate growth on solid and liquid media with 3- and 4-cyanopyridine. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that the clones with homology of at least 99% belonged to the genera Acinetobacte, Alcaligenes, Delftia, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthobacter. PCR analysis showed that 13 out of 32 isolates contained the sequences (-1070 bp) homologous to the nitrilase genes reported previously in Alcaligenes faecalis JM3 (GenBank, D13419.1). Nine clones were capable of nitrile and amide transformation in minimal salt medium. Acinetobacter sp. 11 h and Alcaligenes sp. osv transformed 3-cyanopyridine to nicotinamide, while most of the clones possessed amidase activity (0.5 to 46.3 mmol/(g h) for acetamide and 0.1 to 5.6 mmol/(g h) for nicotinamide). Nicotinamide utilization by strain A. faecalis 2 was shown to result in excretion of a secondary metabolite, which was identified as dodecyl acrylate at 91% probability. PMID:26263697

  15. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  16. The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Adel; Mirnejad, Reza; Yahaghi, Emad; Behnod, Vahid; Mirhosseini, Ali; Amani, Sajad; Sattari, Sara; Darian, Ebrahim Khodaverdi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine lactic acid bacteria's capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4% and 34.7% of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1. PMID:23998015

  17. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  18. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  19. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  20. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    PubMed

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  1. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives

    PubMed Central

    Rokop, Z. P.; Horton, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific “core” members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of “noncore” and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  2. Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana▿

    PubMed Central

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and

  3. Interactions between amino-acid-degrading bacteria and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, M.; Matsuo, T.

    1982-10-01

    The degradation of amino acids in anaerobic digestion was examined in terms of the interactions between amino-acid-degrading bacteria and methanogenic bacteria. Certain amino acids were degraded oxidatively by dehydrogenation, with methanogenic bacteria acting as H/sub 2/ acceptors. The inhibition of methanogenesis by chloroform also inhibited the degradation of these amino acids and/or caused variations in the composition of volatile acids produced from them. The presence of glycine reduced the inhibitory effect caused by chloroform, probably because glycine acted as an H/sub 2/ acceptor in place of methanogenic bacteria. This fact suggested that the coupled oxidation-reduction reactions between two amino acids - one acting as the H/sub 2/ donor and the other acting as the H/sub 2/ acceptor - may occur in the anaerobic digestion of proteins or amino-acid mixtures. The conversion of some proteins to volatile acids was not affected when methanogensis was inhibited by chloroform. This suggested that the component amino acids of proteins may be degraded by the coupled oxidation-reduction reactions and that the degradation of proteins may not be dependent on the activity of methanogenic bacteria as H/sub 2/ acceptors.

  4. Stimulation of bacteriocin production by dialyzed culture media from different lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, J A; González, M P; Murado, M A

    2005-04-01

    The cross-effects of dialyzed postincubates (with a cut-off at 1000 Da) on the biomass and bacteriocin production of six strains of lactic acid bacteria were studied, and a predominance of stimulating responses was found, the characteristics of which suggested merely nutritional effects or the presence of precursor fragments of the bacteriocins. Additionally, cluster analysis of the detected responses provides an approach to define groups of highly compatible (potential consortia) or doubtfully compatible strains of lactic acid bacteria. Such a definition, which does not claim taxonomic value, has practical interest, however, in cases (e.g., silage production) in which it is convenient to use mixed inocula including strains able to establish positive interactions.

  5. Screening of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria based on gastrointestinal properties and perfluorooctanoate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Fan; Xu, Qi; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Wang, Gang; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of lactic acid bacteria capable of binding or degrading food-borne carcinogens may reduce human exposure to these deleterious compounds. In this study, 25 Lactobacillus strains isolated from human, plant, or dairy environments were investigated for their potential probiotic capacity against perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) toxicity. The PFOA binding, tolerance ability, and acid and bile salt tolerance were investigated and assessed by principal component analysis. Additionally, the effect of different pH levels and binding times was assessed. These strains exhibited different degrees of PFOA binding; the strain with the highest PFOA binding capability was Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM738, which bound to 49.40 ± 1.5 % of available PFOA. This strain also exhibited relatively good cellular antioxidative properties, acid and bile salt tolerance, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. This study suggests that L. plantarum CCFM738 could be used as a potential probiotic in food applications against PFOA toxicity. PMID:27094185

  6. Enumeration of probiotic strains: Review of culture-dependent and alternative techniques to quantify viable bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davis, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Standard culture techniques are commonly used to quantify probiotic strains, but cell culture only measures replicating cells. In response to the stresses of processing and formulation, some fraction of the live probiotic microbes may enter a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in which they are dormant but metabolically active. These microbes are capable of replicating once acclimated to a more hospitable host environment. An operating definition of live probiotic bacteria that includes this range of metabolic states is needed for reliable enumeration. Alternative methods, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), nucleic acid amplification techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR), reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR), propidium monoazide-PCR, and cell sorting techniques such as flow cytometry (FC)/fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) offer the potential to enumerate both culturable and VBNC bacteria. Modern cell sorting techniques have the power to determine probiotic strain abundance and metabolic activity with rapid throughput. Techniques such as visual imaging, cell culture, and cell sorting, could be used in combination to quantify the proportion of viable microbes in various metabolic states. Consensus on an operational definition of viability and systematic efforts to validate these alternative techniques ultimately will strengthen the accuracy and reliability of probiotic strain enumeration.

  7. Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

  8. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: production, purification, and food applications.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in relation to process factors have been studied in detail through mathematical modeling and positive predictive microbiology. Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in sourdough (to increase competitiveness), in fermented sausage (anti-listerial effect), and in cheese (anti-listerial and anti-clostridial effects), have been studied during in vitro laboratory fermentations as well as on pilot-scale level. The highly promising results of these studies underline the important role that functional, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains may play in the food industry as starter cultures, co-cultures, or bioprotective cultures, to improve food quality and safety. In addition, antimicrobial production by probiotic LAB might play a role during in vivo interactions occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract, hence contributing to gut health.

  9. DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies using traditional biochemical methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four lactic acid bacteria species, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were the primary microorganisms in...

  10. Fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides of the strains of different species of Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Frolov, A F; Ruban, N M; Vasyurenko, Z P

    1989-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides of the strains of Y. enterocolitica, Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii and Y. ruckeri studied during cultivation on meat-peptone agar is characterized by the predominance of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic and dodecanoic acids. Closely related to the mentioned bacteria is the strain of Y. kristensenii which is distinguished only by its higher level of hexadecanoic acid. The strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and the vaccine strain of Y. pestis have a uniform fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides with predominance of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid. Their relatively low level of dodecanoic acid conditions the characteristic fatty acid spectrum of lipopolysaccharides which differs from that of the above mentioned group of Yersinia. The peculiarities of the fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides of both groups of Yersinia are preserved during growth on meat-peptone broth, but the increase in the level of hexadecanoic acid balances the differences between Y. kristensenii, the other Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria and Y. ruckeri. The obtained results confirm close relationship of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis, and also of Y. enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria, showing propinquity of Y. ruckeri to the latter.

  11. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria - the fledgling cuckoos of the gut?

    PubMed

    Berstad, Arnold; Raa, Jan; Midtvedt, Tore; Valeur, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to look at bacteria from our human egocentric point of view and label them as either 'good' or 'bad'. However, a microbial society has its own system of government - 'microcracy' - and its own rules of play. Lactic acid bacteria are often referred to as representatives of the good ones, and there is little doubt that those belonging to the normal intestinal flora are beneficial for human health. But we should stop thinking of lactic acid bacteria as always being 'friendly' - they may instead behave like fledgling cuckoos. PMID:27235098

  12. Population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria during traditional wine vinegar production.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Carlos; Mateo, Estibaliz; González, Angel; Jara, Carla; Guillamón, José Manuel; Poblet, Montse; Torija, Ma Jesús; Mas, Albert

    2010-03-31

    The population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria in traditional vinegar production was determined in two independent vinegar plants at both the species and strain level. The effect of barrels made of four different woods upon the population dynamics was also determined. Acetic acid bacteria were isolated on solid media and the species were identified by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA genes and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while strains were typed by ERIC-PCR and (GTG)(5)-rep-PCR. The most widely isolated species was Acetobacter pasteurianus, which accounted for 100% of all the isolates during most of the acetification. Gluconacetobacter europaeus only appeared at any notable level at the end of the process in oak barrels from one vinegar plant. The various A. pasteurianus strains showed a clear succession as the concentration of acetic acid increased. In both vinegar plants the relative dominance of different strains was modified as the concentrations of acetic acid increased, and strain diversity tended to reduce at the end of the process.

  13. [Comparative genomics and evolutionary analysis of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Kai, Xia; Xinle, Liang; Yudong, Li

    2015-12-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a widespread adaptive immunity system that exists in most archaea and many bacteria against foreign DNA, such as phages, viruses and plasmids. In general, CRISPR system consists of direct repeat, leader, spacer and CRISPR-associated sequences. Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role in industrial fermentation of vinegar and bioelectrochemistry. To investigate the polymorphism and evolution pattern of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria, bioinformatic analyses were performed on 48 species from three main genera (Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter) with whole genome sequences available from the NCBI database. The results showed that the CRISPR system existed in 32 species of the 48 strains studied. Most of the CRISPR-Cas system in AAB belonged to type I CRISPR-Cas system (subtype E and C), but type II CRISPR-Cas system which contain cas9 gene was only found in the genus Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The repeat sequences of some CRISPR were highly conserved among species from different genera, and the leader sequences of some CRISPR possessed conservative motif, which was associated with regulated promoters. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of cas1 demonstrated that they were suitable for classification of species. The conservation of cas1 genes was associated with that of repeat sequences among different strains, suggesting they were subjected to similar functional constraints. Moreover, the number of spacer was positively correlated with the number of prophages and insertion sequences, indicating the acetic acid bacteria were continually invaded by new foreign DNA. The comparative analysis of CRISR loci in acetic acid bacteria provided the basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of different acetic acid tolerance and genome stability in acetic acid bacteria.

  14. [Comparative genomics and evolutionary analysis of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Kai, Xia; Xinle, Liang; Yudong, Li

    2015-12-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a widespread adaptive immunity system that exists in most archaea and many bacteria against foreign DNA, such as phages, viruses and plasmids. In general, CRISPR system consists of direct repeat, leader, spacer and CRISPR-associated sequences. Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role in industrial fermentation of vinegar and bioelectrochemistry. To investigate the polymorphism and evolution pattern of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria, bioinformatic analyses were performed on 48 species from three main genera (Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter) with whole genome sequences available from the NCBI database. The results showed that the CRISPR system existed in 32 species of the 48 strains studied. Most of the CRISPR-Cas system in AAB belonged to type I CRISPR-Cas system (subtype E and C), but type II CRISPR-Cas system which contain cas9 gene was only found in the genus Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The repeat sequences of some CRISPR were highly conserved among species from different genera, and the leader sequences of some CRISPR possessed conservative motif, which was associated with regulated promoters. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of cas1 demonstrated that they were suitable for classification of species. The conservation of cas1 genes was associated with that of repeat sequences among different strains, suggesting they were subjected to similar functional constraints. Moreover, the number of spacer was positively correlated with the number of prophages and insertion sequences, indicating the acetic acid bacteria were continually invaded by new foreign DNA. The comparative analysis of CRISR loci in acetic acid bacteria provided the basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of different acetic acid tolerance and genome stability in acetic acid bacteria. PMID:26704949

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw goat milk and effect of farming practices on the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tormo, Hélène; Ali Haimoud Lekhal, Djamila; Roques, C

    2015-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis, play a decisive role in the cheese making process and more particularly in lactic cheeses which are primarily produced on goat dairy farms. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the main lactic acid bacteria found in raw goats' milk from three different regions in France and evaluate if certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of lactic acid bacteria in the various milk samples. Identification at genus or species level was carried out using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including repetitive element REP-PCR, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution of the main bacterial species in the milk samples varied depending on farms and their characteristics. Out of the 146 strains identified, L. lactis was the dominant species (60% of strains), followed by Enterococcus (38%) of which Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Within the species L. lactis, L. lactis subsp lactis was detected more frequently than L. lactis subsp cremoris (74% vs. 26%). The predominance of L. lactis subsp cremoris was linked to geographical area studied. It appears that the animals' environment plays a role in the balance between the dominance of L. lactis and enterococci in raw goats' milk. The separation between the milking parlor and the goat shed (vs no separation) and only straw in the bedding (vs straw and hay) seems to promote L. lactis in the milk (vs enterococci).

  16. Phylogeny of bacteria isolated from Rhabditis sp. (Nematoda) and identification of novel entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens strains.

    PubMed

    Tambong, James T

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-five bacterial strains isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes were characterized to the genus level by 16S rRNA phylogeny and BLAST analyses. Bacteria strains isolated could be affiliated with seven genera. Microbacterium-like isolates phylogenetically affiliated with M. oxydans while those of Serratia were highly similar to S. marcescens. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus isolates matched those of both B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanesis. One isolate each matched Pseudomonas mosselii, Rheinheimera aquimaris, Achromobacter marplatensis, or Staphylococcus hominis. Serratia isolates were examined further for their pathogenicity to Galleria mellonella larvae. All the Serratia isolates exhibited potent pathogenicity toward G. mellonella larvae and possessed a metalloprotease gene encoding for a novel serralysin-like protein. The nucleotide sequence of the metalloprotease gene had 60 synonymous and 8 nonsynonymous substitutions when compared to the closest genBank entry, S. marcescens E-15, with an insertion of a new aspartic acid residue. Tajima's test for equality of evolutionary rate was significant between the metalloprotease gene sequence of S. marcescens strain DOAB 216-82 (this study) and strain E-15. This new insecticidal metalloprotease gene and/or its product could have applications in agricultural biotechnology.

  17. Evaluation of marine bacteriocinogenic enterococci strains with inhibitory activity against fish-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghomrassi, Hamdi; ben Braiek, Olfa; Choiset, Yvan; Haertlé, Thomas; Hani, Khaled; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Ghrairi, Taoufik

    2016-02-11

    Use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics may provide an alternative to the use of antibiotics in aquaculture. LAB strains isolated from wild fish viscera and skin were evaluated for bacteriocin production and safety aspects (lack of antibiotic resistance, production of virulence factors). 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presence of Enterococcus faecium (13 isolates) and Lactococcus lactis (3 isolates) from fish samples. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses of the 13 enterococci isolates showed that they were all clustered, with greater than 95% similarity. However, RAPD analysis revealed significant molecular diversity between enterococci strains. Six enterococci strains were chosen and evaluated for their antibacterial activities. These strains produced a bacteriocin-like substance and exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria isolated from diseased fish, including Streptococcus parauberis, Vagococcus spp., and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, and in particular against the Gram-negative bacteria Flavobacterium frigidarium, Vibrio pectenicida, V. penaeicida, and Photobacterium damselae. The inhibition activity towards bacterial indicator strains was at a maximum when bacteria were grown at 37°C. However, bacteriocin production was observed at 15°C after 12 h of incubation. Only structural genes of enterocins A and B were detected by PCR in the 6 enterococci strains, suggesting the production of these enterocins. In addition, these strains did not harbor any virulence factors or any significant antibiotic resistance, and they tolerated bile. Our results suggest that enterococci are an important part of the bacterial flora of fish and that some strains have the potential to be used as probiotics.

  18. Evaluation of marine bacteriocinogenic enterococci strains with inhibitory activity against fish-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghomrassi, Hamdi; ben Braiek, Olfa; Choiset, Yvan; Haertlé, Thomas; Hani, Khaled; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Ghrairi, Taoufik

    2016-02-11

    Use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics may provide an alternative to the use of antibiotics in aquaculture. LAB strains isolated from wild fish viscera and skin were evaluated for bacteriocin production and safety aspects (lack of antibiotic resistance, production of virulence factors). 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presence of Enterococcus faecium (13 isolates) and Lactococcus lactis (3 isolates) from fish samples. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses of the 13 enterococci isolates showed that they were all clustered, with greater than 95% similarity. However, RAPD analysis revealed significant molecular diversity between enterococci strains. Six enterococci strains were chosen and evaluated for their antibacterial activities. These strains produced a bacteriocin-like substance and exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria isolated from diseased fish, including Streptococcus parauberis, Vagococcus spp., and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, and in particular against the Gram-negative bacteria Flavobacterium frigidarium, Vibrio pectenicida, V. penaeicida, and Photobacterium damselae. The inhibition activity towards bacterial indicator strains was at a maximum when bacteria were grown at 37°C. However, bacteriocin production was observed at 15°C after 12 h of incubation. Only structural genes of enterocins A and B were detected by PCR in the 6 enterococci strains, suggesting the production of these enterocins. In addition, these strains did not harbor any virulence factors or any significant antibiotic resistance, and they tolerated bile. Our results suggest that enterococci are an important part of the bacterial flora of fish and that some strains have the potential to be used as probiotics. PMID:26865233

  19. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional fermented dairy products in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, W H; Menghe, B L G; Jiri, M T; Wang, H M; Liu, W J; Bao, Q H; Lu, Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, F; Xu, H Y; Sun, T S; Zhang, H P

    2011-07-01

    Spontaneous milk fermentation has a long history in Mongolia, and beneficial microorganisms have been handed down from one generation to the next for use in fermented dairy products. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities in fermented yak, mare, goat, and cow milk products by analyzing 189 samples collected from 13 different regions in Mongolia. The LAB counts in these samples varied from 3.41 to 9.03 log cfu/mL. Fermented yak and mare milks had almost identical mean numbers of LAB, which were significantly higher than those in fermented goat milk but slightly lower than those in fermented cow milk. In total, 668 isolates were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. Each isolate was considered to be presumptive LAB based on gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and was identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. All isolates from Mongolian dairy products were accurately identified as Enterococcus faecalis (1 strain), Enterococcus durans (3 strains), Lactobacillus brevis (3 strains), Lactobacillus buchneri (2 strains), Lactobacillus casei (16 strains), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (142 strains), Lactobacillus diolivorans (17 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (42 strains), Lactobacillus helveticus (183 strains), Lactobacillus kefiri (6 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum (7 strains), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (7 strains), Leuconostoc lactis (22 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (21 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (195 strains), and Weissella cibaria (1 strain). The predominant LAB were Strep. thermophilus and Lb. helveticus, which were isolated from all sampling sites. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Mongolia have complex compositions of LAB species. Such diversity of

  20. Antimicrobial potential of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Avonts, L; De Vuyst, L

    2001-01-01

    Antibacterial activity is an important characteristic of probiotics. A possible way to achieve this antibacterial activity is through the production of bacteriocins. This study shows that the commercial probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 and Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029 produce bacteriocins. The nature of the antimicrobial compound could be derived from its behaviour: a narrow inhibitory spectrum (only active against closely related strains), loss of activity when treated with proteinases, and rather small molecular masses (around 6000 Da or less). Further, three bacteriocins produced by Lb. johnsonii LA1, Lb. casei YIT 9029 and Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 showed inhibitory activity against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. However, a fourth bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 was not able to inhibit H. pylori. This indicates that some bacteriocins produced by specific probiotic strains can fulfil a role in the inhibition of this common pathogen.

  1. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  2. Screening of Immune-Active Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, E-Nam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cell wall extract on the proliferation and cytokine production of immune cells to select suitable probiotics for space food. Ten strains of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. paracasei, L. casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. delbruekii, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Pedicoccus pentosaceus) were sub-cultured and further cultured for 3 d to reach 7-10 Log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL prior to cell wall extractions. All LAB cell wall extracts failed to inhibit the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes or mesenteric lymphocytes. Most LAB cell wall extracts except those of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii induced the proliferation of both immune cells at tested concentrations. In addition, the production of TH1 cytokine (IFN-γ) rather than that of TH2 cytokine (IL-4) was enhanced by LAB cell wall extracts. Of ten LAB extracts, four (from L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and S. thermophiles) promoted both cell proliferating and TH1 cytokine production. These results suggested that these LAB could be used as probiotics to maintain immunity and homeostasis for astronauts in extreme space environment and for general people in normal life. PMID:26761877

  3. Screening of Immune-Active Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hwang, E-Nam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Mi-Jung; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cell wall extract on the proliferation and cytokine production of immune cells to select suitable probiotics for space food. Ten strains of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. paracasei, L. casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. delbruekii, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Pedicoccus pentosaceus) were sub-cultured and further cultured for 3 d to reach 7-10 Log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL prior to cell wall extractions. All LAB cell wall extracts failed to inhibit the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes or mesenteric lymphocytes. Most LAB cell wall extracts except those of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii induced the proliferation of both immune cells at tested concentrations. In addition, the production of TH1 cytokine (IFN-γ) rather than that of TH2 cytokine (IL-4) was enhanced by LAB cell wall extracts. Of ten LAB extracts, four (from L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and S. thermophiles) promoted both cell proliferating and TH1 cytokine production. These results suggested that these LAB could be used as probiotics to maintain immunity and homeostasis for astronauts in extreme space environment and for general people in normal life. PMID:26761877

  4. Lactic acid bacteria in dried vegetables and spices.

    PubMed

    Säde, Elina; Lassila, Elisa; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Spices and dried vegetable seasonings are potential sources of bacterial contamination for foods. However, little is known about lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spices and dried vegetables, even though certain LAB may cause food spoilage. In this study, we enumerated LAB in 104 spices and dried vegetables products aimed for the food manufacturing industry. The products were obtained from a spice wholesaler operating in Finland, and were sampled during a one-year period. We picked isolates (n = 343) for species identification based on numerical analysis of their ribotyping patterns and comparing them with the corresponding patterns of LAB type strains. We found LAB at levels >2 log CFU/g in 68 (65%) of the samples, with the highest counts detected from dried onion products and garlic powder with counts ranging from 4.24 to 6.64 log CFU/g. The LAB identified were predominantly Weissella spp. (61%) and Pediococcus spp. (15%) with Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Weissella paramesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus being the species identified. Other species identified belonged to the genera of Enterococcus spp. (8%), Leuconostoc spp. (6%) and Lactobacillus spp. (2%). Among the LAB identified, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and W. confusa have been associated with food spoilage. Our findings suggest that spices and dried vegetables are potential sources of LAB contamination in the food industry.

  5. Lactic acid bacteria in dried vegetables and spices.

    PubMed

    Säde, Elina; Lassila, Elisa; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Spices and dried vegetable seasonings are potential sources of bacterial contamination for foods. However, little is known about lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spices and dried vegetables, even though certain LAB may cause food spoilage. In this study, we enumerated LAB in 104 spices and dried vegetables products aimed for the food manufacturing industry. The products were obtained from a spice wholesaler operating in Finland, and were sampled during a one-year period. We picked isolates (n = 343) for species identification based on numerical analysis of their ribotyping patterns and comparing them with the corresponding patterns of LAB type strains. We found LAB at levels >2 log CFU/g in 68 (65%) of the samples, with the highest counts detected from dried onion products and garlic powder with counts ranging from 4.24 to 6.64 log CFU/g. The LAB identified were predominantly Weissella spp. (61%) and Pediococcus spp. (15%) with Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Weissella paramesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus being the species identified. Other species identified belonged to the genera of Enterococcus spp. (8%), Leuconostoc spp. (6%) and Lactobacillus spp. (2%). Among the LAB identified, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and W. confusa have been associated with food spoilage. Our findings suggest that spices and dried vegetables are potential sources of LAB contamination in the food industry. PMID:26678137

  6. Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

  7. Biodiversity and identification of sourdough lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Vancanneyt, Marc

    2007-04-01

    This review deals with recent developments on the biodiversity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the recent description of new sourdough LAB species. One of the outcomes of biodiversity studies of particular sourdough ecosystems throughout Europe is the description of new taxa of LAB. During the last 3 years, several new LAB species have been isolated from traditional sourdoughs: Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus zymae, Lactobacillus acidifarinae, Lactobacillus hammesii, and Lactobacillus nantensis. Some of these species have been described on one single isolate only. Isolation of novel taxa mainly depends on the cultivation approach used, i.e. (selective) incubation media and conditions. The distribution of the taxa of LAB is highly variable from one sourdough ecosystem to another. Therefore, it is difficult to define correlations between population composition and both the type of sourdough or the geographic location. Identification of isolated strains needs a polyphasic approach, including a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods, the latter often based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and encompassing 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. A main obstacle in current identification approaches of LAB strains is the lack of a robust and exchangeable identification system for all LAB species. Recent studies based on complete genomes have provided the basis for establishing sets of genes useful for multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA). Monitoring the population dynamics of sourdough ecosystems can be performed by both culture-dependent (plating and incubation) and culture-independent (e.g. PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) methods. Although highly valuable for community fingerprinting, culture-independent methods do not always yield precise quantitative information.

  8. Barriers to application of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Verrips, C T; van den Berg, D J

    1996-10-01

    To increase the acceptability of food products containing genetically modified microorganisms it is necessary to provide in an early stage to the consumers that the product is safe and that the product provide a clear benefit to the consumer. To comply with the first requirement a systematic approach to analyze the probability that genetically modified lactic acid bacteria will transform other inhabitants of the gastro- intestinal (G/I) tract or that these lactic acid bacteria will pick up genetic information of these inhabitants has been proposed and worked out to some degree. From this analysis it is clear that reliable data are still missing to carry out complete risk assessment. However, on the basis of present knowledge, lactic acid bacteria containing conjugative plasmids should be avoided. Various studies show that consumers in developed countries will accept these products when they offer to them health or taste benefits or a better keepability. For the developing countries the biggest challenge for scientists is most likely to make indigenous fermented food products with strongly improved microbiological stability due to broad spectra bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, these lactic acid bacteria may contribute to health.

  9. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  10. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  11. Acid phosphatase/phosphotransferases from enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Y; Utagawa, T; Yamada, H; Asano, Y

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the enzymatic phosphorylation of nucleosides and found that Morganella morganii phoC acid phosphatase exhibits regioselective pyrophosphate (PP(i))-nucleoside phosphotransferase activity. In this study, we isolated genes encoding an acid phosphatase with regioselective phosphotransferase activity (AP/PTase) from Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia blattae and Klebsiella planticola, and compared the primary structures and enzymatic characteristics of these enzymes with those of AP/PTase (PhoC acid phosphatase) from M. morganii. The enzymes were highly homologous in primary structure with M. morganii AP/PTase, and are classified as class A1 acid phosphatases. The synthesis of inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) by E. coli overproducing each acid phosphatase was investigated. The P. stuartii enzyme, which is most closely related to the M. morganii enzyme, exhibited high 5'-IMP productivity, similar to the M. morganii enzyme. The 5'-IMP productivities of the E. aerogenes, E. blattae and K. planticola enzymes were inferior to those of the former two enzymes. This result underlines the importance of lower K(m) values for efficient nucleotide production. As these enzymes exhibited a very high degree of homology at the amino acid sequence level, it is likely that local sequence differences in the binding pocket are responsible for the differences in the nucleoside-PP(i) phosphotransferase reaction.

  12. Zebrafish gut colonization by mCherry-labelled lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Russo, Pasquale; Iturria, Iñaki; Mohedano, Maria Luz; Caggianiello, Graziano; Rainieri, Sandra; Fiocco, Daniela; Angel Pardo, Miguel; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A critical feature of probiotic microorganisms is their ability to colonize the intestine of the host. Although the microbial potential to adhere to the human gut lumen has been investigated in in vitro models, there is still much to discover about their in vivo behaviour. Zebrafish is a vertebrate model that is being widely used to investigate various biological processes shared with humans. In this work, we report on the use of the zebrafish model to investigate the in vivo colonization ability of previously characterized probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum Lp90, L. plantarum B2 and Lactobacillus fermentum PBCC11.5 were fluorescently tagged by transfer of the pRCR12 plasmid, which encodes the mCherry protein and which was constructed in this work. The recombinant bacteria were used to infect germ-free zebrafish larvae. After removal of bacteria, the colonization ability of the strains was monitored until 3 days post-infection by using a fluorescence stereomicroscope. The results indicated differential adhesion capabilities among the strains. Interestingly, a displacement of bacteria from the medium to the posterior intestinal tract was observed as a function of time that suggested a transient colonization by probiotics. Based on fluorescence observation, L. plantarum strains exhibited a more robust adhesion capability. In conclusion, the use of pRCR12 plasmid for labelling Lactobacillus strains provides a powerful and very efficient tool to monitor the in vivo colonization in zebrafish larvae and to investigate the adhesion ability of probiotic microorganisms.

  13. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited β-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes

  14. In Vitro Properties of Potential Probiotic Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria Originating from Traditional Pickles.

    PubMed

    Tokatlı, Mehmet; Gülgör, Gökşen; Bağder Elmacı, Simel; Arslankoz İşleyen, Nurdan; Özçelik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The suitable properties of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (preselected among 153 strains on the basis of their potential technological properties) isolated from traditional Çubuk pickles were examined in vitro. For this purpose, these strains (21 Lactobacillus plantarum, 11 Pediococcus ethanolidurans, and 7 Lactobacillus brevis) were tested for the ability to survive at pH 2.5, resistance to bile salts, viability in the presence of pepsin-pancreatin, ability to deconjugate bile salts, cholesterol assimilation, and surface hydrophobicity properties. Most of the properties tested could be assumed to be strain-dependent. However, L. plantarum and L. brevis species were found to possess desirable probiotic properties to a greater extent compared to P. ethanolidurans. In contrast to P. ethanolidurans strains, the tested L. plantarum and L. brevis strains exhibited bile salt tolerance, albeit to different extent. All tested strains showed less resistance to intestinal conditions than gastric juice environment. Based on the survival under gastrointestinal conditions, 22 of the 39 strains were selected for further characterization. The eight strains having the highest cholesterol assimilation and surface hydrophobicity ratios could be taken as promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo studies, because of the strongest variations found among the tested strains with regard to these properties. PMID:26101771

  15. Identification and functional traits of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Ciauscolo salami produced in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Federici, Sara; Ciarrocchi, Floriana; Campana, Raffaella; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Blasi, Giuliana; Baffone, Wally

    2014-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Ciauscolo salami produced in Marche Region of Central Italy, and LAB strains belonging to our laboratory collection were examined for their capability to survive at low pH and bile, to adhere to Caco-2 cells, and for antibiotic resistance. LAB from Ciauscolo were identified by ARDRA and RAPD-PCR. Our study showed that all LAB strains had good adaptation to gastric juice and moderate tolerance to bile. The adhesiveness was variable among strains but significantly lower in LAB from food. Antibiotic resistance was broadly spread among food strains, with level of resistance exceeding 15% for all the antibiotics tested. The resistance determinants erm(B) and tet(M) were found in nine strains of food origin (21.4%) while tet(L) in one strain of our collection (5%). Our work suggests that fermented foods are valuable sources of bacterial strains with functional traits of intestinal lactobacilli. These bacteria may be further studied for their use in probiotic applications.

  16. Acetic Acid bacteria: physiology and carbon sources oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called "oxidative fermentations", especially in vinegar production. In the last decades physiology of AAB have been widely studied because of their role in food production, where they act as beneficial or spoiling organisms, and in biotechnological industry, where their oxidation machinery is exploited to produce a number of compounds such as l-ascorbic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid and cellulose. The present review aims to provide an overview of AAB physiology focusing carbon sources oxidation and main products of their metabolism.

  17. Identification of TLR2/TLR6 signalling lactic acid bacteria for supporting immune regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chengcheng; Zhang, Qiuxiang; de Haan, Bart J.; Zhang, Hao; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Although many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) influence the consumer’s immune status it is not completely understood how this is established. Bacteria-host interactions between bacterial cell-wall components and toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested to play an essential role. Here we investigated the interaction between LABs with reported health effects and TLRs. By using cell-lines expressing single or combination of TLRs, we show that LABs can signal via TLR-dependent and independent pathways. The strains only stimulated and did not inhibit TLRs. We found that several strains such as L. plantarum CCFM634, L. plantarum CCFM734, L. fermentum CCFM381, L. acidophilus CCFM137, and S. thermophilus CCFM218 stimulated TLR2/TLR6. TLR2/TLR6 is essential in immune regulatory processes and of interest for prevention of diseases. Specificity of the TLR2/TLR6 stimulation was confirmed with blocking antibodies. Immunomodulatory properties of LABs were also studied by assessing IL-10 and IL-6 secretion patterns in bacteria-stimulated THP1-derived macrophages, which confirmed species and strain specific effects of the LABs. With this study we provide novel insight in LAB specific host-microbe interactions. Our data demonstrates that interactions between pattern recognition receptors such as TLRs is species and strain specific and underpins the importance of selecting specific strains for promoting specific health effects. PMID:27708357

  18. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu Chen; Chang, Chen Kai; Chan, Shu Chang; Shieh, Jiunn Shiuh; Chiu, Chih Kwang; Duh, Pin-Der

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro. Methods The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1% oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines. Conclusions These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines. PMID:25183271

  19. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition. PMID:15865343

  20. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria and their controversial role in fresh meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Devlieghere, Frank; Villani, Francesco; Björkroth, Johanna; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group that has been widely associated with fresh meat and cooked meat products. They represent a controversial cohort of microbial species that either contribute to spoilage through generation of offensive metabolites and the subsequent organoleptic downgrading of meat or serve as bioprotective agents with strains of certain species causing unperceivable or no alterations. Therefore, significant distinction among biotypes is substantiated by studies determining spoilage potential as a strain-specific trait corroborating the need to revisit the concept of spoilage. PMID:25972087

  2. Lactic acid bacteria and their controversial role in fresh meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Devlieghere, Frank; Villani, Francesco; Björkroth, Johanna; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group that has been widely associated with fresh meat and cooked meat products. They represent a controversial cohort of microbial species that either contribute to spoilage through generation of offensive metabolites and the subsequent organoleptic downgrading of meat or serve as bioprotective agents with strains of certain species causing unperceivable or no alterations. Therefore, significant distinction among biotypes is substantiated by studies determining spoilage potential as a strain-specific trait corroborating the need to revisit the concept of spoilage.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Methanesulfonic Acid-Degrading Bacteria from the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A. S.; Owens, N.; Murrell, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Two methylotrophic bacterial strains, TR3 and PSCH4, capable of growth on methanesulfonic acid as the sole carbon source were isolated from the marine environment. Methanesulfonic acid metabolism in these strains was initiated by an inducible NADH-dependent monooxygenase, which cleaved methanesulfonic acid into formaldehyde and sulfite. The presence of hydroxypyruvate reductase and the absence of ribulose monophosphate-dependent hexulose monophosphate synthase indicated the presence of the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation. Cell suspensions of bacteria grown on methanesulfonic acid completely oxidized methanesulfonic acid to carbon dioxide and sulfite with a methanesulfonic acid/oxygen stoichiometry of 1.0:2.0. Oxygen electrode-substrate studies indicated the dissimilation of formaldehyde to formate and carbon dioxide for energy generation. Carbon dioxide was not fixed by ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. It was shown that methanol is not an intermediate in methanesulfonic acid metabolism, although these strains grew on methanol and other one-carbon compounds, as well as a variety of heterotrophic carbon sources. These two novel marine facultative methylotrophs have the ability to mineralize methanesulfonic acid and may play a role in the cycling of global organic sulfur. PMID:16535055

  4. Typing of Histoplasma capsulatum strains by fatty acid profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Zarnowski, Robert; Miyazaki, Makoto; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Ntambi, James M; Woods, Jon P

    2007-06-01

    The performance of fatty acid profiling for strain differentiation of Histoplasma capsulatum was assessed. Total fatty acids were isolated from the yeast-phase cells of seven stock and two previously unreported clinical strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum, as well as from one unreported clinical strain and one stock strain of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, and one strain of each of three other dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii. Different colony morphology and pigmentation types of the H. capsulatum strains were also included. The most frequently occurring fatty acids were oleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids. There were variations in the relative percentage fatty acid contents of H. capsulatum strains that could be used for strain identification and discrimination. Differentiation between H. capsulatum strains was achieved by the comparison of detected fatty acids accompanied by principal component analysis using calculated Varimax-rotated principal component loadings. Statistical analysis yielded three major principal components that explained over 94 % of total variance in the data. All the strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum RFLP classes II and III were grouped into two distinct clusters: the heterogenic RFLP class I formed a large, but also well-defined group, whereas the outgroup strains of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, B. dermatitidis, P. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were shifted away. These data suggest that fatty acid profiling can be used in H. capsulatum strain classification and epidemiological studies that require strain differentiation at the intraspecies level. PMID:17510264

  5. Production of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains of human origin, and metabolic activity of the producing bacteria in milk.

    PubMed

    Salazar, N; Prieto, A; Leal, J A; Mayo, B; Bada-Gancedo, J C; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G; Ruas-Madiedo, P

    2009-09-01

    This work reports on the physicochemical characterization of 21 exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, as well as the growth and metabolic activity of the EPS-producing strains in milk. The strains belong to the species Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The molar mass distribution of EPS fractions showed 2 peaks of different sizes, which is a feature shared with some EPS from bacteria of food origin. In general, we detected an association between the EPS size distribution and the EPS-producing species, although because of the low numbers of human bacterial EPS tested, we could not conclusively establish a correlation. The main monosaccharide components of the EPS under study were glucose, galactose, and rhamnose, which are the same as those found in food polymers; however, the rhamnose and glucose ratios was generally higher than the galactose ratio in our human bacterial EPS. All EPS-producing strains were able to grow and acidify milk; most lactobacilli produced lactic acid as the main metabolite. The lactic acid-to-acetic acid ratio in bifidobacteria was 0.7, close to the theoretical ratio, indicating that the EPS-producing strains did not produce an excessive amount of acetic acid, which could adversely affect the sensory properties of fermented milks. With respect to their viscosity-intensifying ability, L. plantarum H2 and L. rhamnosus E41 and E43R were able to increase the viscosity of stirred, fermented milks to a similar extent as the EPS-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strain used as a positive control. Therefore, these human EPS-producing bacteria could be used as adjuncts in mixed cultures for the formulation of functional foods if probiotic characteristics could be demonstrated. This is the first article reporting the

  6. Antioxidative effects of lactic acid bacteria on the colonic mucosa of iron-overloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masahiko; Ohishi, Kenji; Yoshida, Yasuto; Yokoi, Wakae; Sawada, Haruji

    2003-07-16

    The antioxidative effects of lactic acid bacteria on lipid peroxidation in the colonic mucosa were investigated. Among 49 strains of lactic acid bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus YIT 2001 showed the highest inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation in liposomes induced by ferrous iron. Feeding a diet containing 0.4% St. thermophilus YIT 2001 (2 x 10(8) colony-forming units per mouse per day) for 2 weeks caused a significant decrease of lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) in the colonic mucosa of iron-overloaded mice (0.07% Fe in the diet). The mucosal lipid peroxide level did not correlate with the soluble iron concentration of the cecal contents. Therefore, it is suggested that the antioxidative effect of St. thermophilus YIT 2001 in the colonic mucosa was not due to the removal of ferrous iron from the reaction system of lipid peroxidation. PMID:12848525

  7. Exploring new strains of dye-decolorizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing-Long; Ng, I-Son; Wang, Yanni; Zheng, Xuesong; Chen, Wen-Ming; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan; Liu, Shi-Qi; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2012-04-01

    This study unveiled a new strategy to explore new indigenous strains with excellent decolorization capabilities from freshwaters and seawaters. Two new bacterial decolorizers DX2b and SH7b, which have the capability to decolorize textile dyes, were isolated from Cross-Strait Taiwan and China. According to PCR-augmented 16S rRNA gene analyses for strain identification, >99% of nucleotide sequences in isolated strains were identical to type strains Rahnella aquatilis, Acinetobacter guillouiae, Microvirgula aerodenitrificans, and Pseudomonas sp. Time-series inspection upon azoreductase activity assay and generation of decolorized intermediates all confirmed in parallel with reductive decolorization of new decolorizers DX2b and SH7b. The result also showed that bacterial decolorization of these new strains was mainly catalyzed via the enzymatic expression of azoreductase and riboflavin reductase, and biosorption seemed not to play a crucial role color removal (approximately <10%).

  8. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-17

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263+-0.02 g cellulose L{sup -1} for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  9. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-01

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  10. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  11. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product.

  12. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Willem M

    2011-08-30

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  13. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  14. Effects of lactic acid bacteria contamination on lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slower fermentation rates, mixed sugar compositions, and lower sugar concentrations may make lignocellulosic fermentations more susceptible to contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is a common and costly problem to the corn-based fuel ethanol industry. To examine the effects of LAB con...

  15. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Willem M

    2011-08-30

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications.

  16. Novel Simplified and Rapid Method for Screening and Isolation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Producing Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tilay, Ashwini; Annapure, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a potential biotechnological approach for production of valuable nutraceuticals. Reliable method for screening of number of strains within short period of time is great need. Here, we report a novel simplified method for screening and isolation of PUFA-producing bacteria by direct visualization using the H2O2-plate assay. The oxidative stability of PUFAs in growing bacteria towards added H2O2 is a distinguishing characteristic between the PUFAs producers (no zone of inhibition) and non-PUFAs producers (zone of inhibition) by direct visualization. The confirmation of assay results was performed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by selected marine bacteria to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). To date, this assay is the most effective, inexpensive, and specific method for bacteria producing PUFAs and shows drastically reduction in the number of samples thus saves the time, effort, and cost of screening and isolating strains of bacterial PUFAs producers. PMID:22934188

  17. Genome analysis of lactic acid bacteria in food fermentations and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nga, Been Hen

    2005-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are an important group of microorganisms, several of which are used in fermented food processes. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-invasive and non-colonising gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, the genome sequence of which has been established. A great deal is known about the genetics, vectors, gene expression systems and protein secretion apparatus of this bacterium. Recently, recombinant strains of L. lactis have been developed that might provide in vivo delivery of cytokines and specific antigens across mucosal surfaces to the immune system of animals.

  18. Thermotolerant bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from thai local fermented foods and their bacteriocin productivity.

    PubMed

    Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Arbsuwan, Nida; Apiraksakorn, Jirawan; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Kishida, Masao

    2011-03-01

    Twenty-one samples of Thai local fermented foods were screened for thermotolerant bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. From 529 isolates of lactic acid bacteria, 121 isolates were able to inhibit the growth of certain bacterial strains. Of these 121 isolates, only 11 produced antibacterial agents that were capable of inhibiting the growth of multiple bacterial strains in a liquid medium. One strain (KKU 170) of these 11 isolates produced an antibacterial agent that could strongly inhibit the growth of selected strains of gram-positive bacteria including Listeria sp. The antibacterial agent produced by the strain KKU 170 was identified as a bacteriocin since it was inactivated by proteinase K treatment. The strain KKU 170 was identified as Pediococcus acidilactici by both biochemical tests and molecular biological techniques. Optimal production of bacteriocin by the strain KKU 170 was found in culture medium containing 0.2% glucose, at an initial culture pH of 6.5, and temperature of 45 ºC. The maximum bacteriocin activity (1600 AU ml(-1)) was reached at the late exponential phase of growth and displayed primary metabolite production. The partially purified bacteriocin of the strain KKU 170 was tolerant to heat treatment at 121 ºC for 30 min.

  19. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on silage fermentation of fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinsong; Tan, Haisheng; Cai, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, chemical composition, and silage fermentation of fruit residues were studied. Eighty-two strains of LAB were isolated from fruit residues such as banana leaf and stem, pineapple peel, and papaya peel. All strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, and they were divided into 7 groups (A-G) according to morphological and biochemical characters. Strains in groups A to F were rods, and group G was cocci. Group F produced gas from glucose; other groups did not. Groups A to C and F formed dl-lactic acid, whereas groups D, E, and G formed l-lactic acid. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, groups A to G strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (54.9% of the total isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3.6%), Lactobacillus nagelii (8.5%), Lactobacillus perolens (4.9%), Lactobacillus casei (11.0%), Lactobacillus fermentum (9.8%), and Enterococcus gallinarum (7.3%), respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei are the most frequently isolated from fruit residues as a dominant species, and they could grow at a lower pH conditions and produce more lactic acid than other isolates. Pineapple and papaya peels contained higher crude protein (11.5-13.8%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (16.8-22.4%), but lower acid detergent fiber contents (21.2 to 26.4%) than banana stems and leaves (8.2% crude protein, 42.8% acid detergent fiber, and 5.1% water-soluble carbohydrate). Compared with banana stem and leaf silages, the pineapple and papaya peel silages were well preserved with a lower pH and higher lactate content. The study suggests that the fruit residues contain excellent LAB species and abundant feed nutrients, and that they can be preserved as silage to be potential food resources for livestock. PMID:27108171

  20. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on silage fermentation of fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinsong; Tan, Haisheng; Cai, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, chemical composition, and silage fermentation of fruit residues were studied. Eighty-two strains of LAB were isolated from fruit residues such as banana leaf and stem, pineapple peel, and papaya peel. All strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, and they were divided into 7 groups (A-G) according to morphological and biochemical characters. Strains in groups A to F were rods, and group G was cocci. Group F produced gas from glucose; other groups did not. Groups A to C and F formed dl-lactic acid, whereas groups D, E, and G formed l-lactic acid. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, groups A to G strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (54.9% of the total isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3.6%), Lactobacillus nagelii (8.5%), Lactobacillus perolens (4.9%), Lactobacillus casei (11.0%), Lactobacillus fermentum (9.8%), and Enterococcus gallinarum (7.3%), respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei are the most frequently isolated from fruit residues as a dominant species, and they could grow at a lower pH conditions and produce more lactic acid than other isolates. Pineapple and papaya peels contained higher crude protein (11.5-13.8%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (16.8-22.4%), but lower acid detergent fiber contents (21.2 to 26.4%) than banana stems and leaves (8.2% crude protein, 42.8% acid detergent fiber, and 5.1% water-soluble carbohydrate). Compared with banana stem and leaf silages, the pineapple and papaya peel silages were well preserved with a lower pH and higher lactate content. The study suggests that the fruit residues contain excellent LAB species and abundant feed nutrients, and that they can be preserved as silage to be potential food resources for livestock.

  1. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of probiotic lactic acid bacteria for potential use in animal production.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Yaneisy; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Boucourt, Ramón; Balcázar, José L; Nicoli, Jacques R; Moreira-Silva, João; Rodríguez, Zoraya; Fuertes, Héctor; Nuñez, Odalys; Albelo, Nereyda; Halaihel, Nabil

    2016-10-01

    In livestock production, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics. For such use, these bacteria must be correctly identified and characterized to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, LAB were isolated from broiler excreta, where a fermentation process was used. Nine among sixteen isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular (sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) methods as Lactobacillus crispatus (n=1), Lactobacillus pentosus (n=1), Weissella cibaria (n=1), Pediococcus pentosaceus (n=2) and Enterococcus hirae (n=4). Subsequently, these bacteria were characterized for their growth capabilities, lactic acid production, acidic pH and bile salts tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, antimicrobial susceptibility and antagonistic activity. Lactobacillus pentosus strain LB-31, which showed the best characteristics, was selected for further analysis. This strain was administered to broilers and showed the ability of modulating the immune response and producing beneficial effects on morpho-physiological, productive and health indicators of the animals. PMID:27663381

  2. Relation between chemotaxis and consumption of amino acids in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yiling; M. Pollard, Abiola; Höfler, Carolin; Poschet, Gernot; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chemotaxis enables bacteria to navigate chemical gradients in their environment, accumulating toward high concentrations of attractants and avoiding high concentrations of repellents. Although finding nutrients is likely to be an important function of bacterial chemotaxis, not all characterized attractants are nutrients. Moreover, even for potential nutrients, the exact relation between the metabolic value of chemicals and their efficiency as chemoattractants has not been systematically explored. Here we compare the chemotactic response of amino acids with their use by bacteria for two well‐established models of chemotactic behavior, E scherichia coli and B acillus subtilis. We demonstrate that in E . coli chemotaxis toward amino acids indeed strongly correlates with their utilization. However, no such correlation is observed for B . subtilis, suggesting that in this case, the amino acids are not followed because of their nutritional value but rather as environmental cues. PMID:25807888

  3. BASE COMPOSITION OF THE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Nicole; Senez, Jacques C.; Le Gall, Jean; Sebald, Madeleine

    1963-01-01

    Sigal, Nicole (Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne du CNRS, Marseille, France), Jacques C. Senez, Jean Le Gall, and Madeleine Sebald. Base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85:1315–1318. 1963—The deoxyribonucleic acid constitution of several strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been analytically determined. The results of these studies show that this group of microorganisms includes at least four subgroups characterized by significantly different values of the adenine plus thymine to guanine plus cytosine ratio. The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c3 and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. One includes the fresh-water, nonhalophilic strains with base ratio from 0.54 to 0.59, and the other includes the halophilic or halotolerant strains with base ratio from 0.74 to 0.77. The sporulated, peritrichous strains without cytochrome and desulfoviridin (“nigrificans” and “orientis”) are distinct from the above two types and differ from each other, having base ratios of 1.20 and 1.43, respectively. PMID:14047223

  4. Honeybees and beehives are rich sources for fructophilic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Salminen, Seppo

    2013-09-01

    Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a specific group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) characterized and described only recently. They prefer fructose as growth substrate and inhabit only fructose-rich niches. Honeybees are high-fructose-consuming insects and important pollinators in nature, but reported to be decreasing in the wild. In the present study, we analyzed FLAB microbiota in honeybees, larvae, fresh honey and bee pollen. A total of 66 strains of LAB were isolated from samples using a selective isolation technique for FLAB. Surprisingly, all strains showed fructophilic characteristics. The 66 strains and ten FLAB strains isolated from flowers in a separate study were genotypically separated into six groups, four of which being identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei and two as Fructobacillus fructosus. One of the L. kunkeei isolates showed antibacterial activity against Melissococcus plutonius, a causative pathogen of European foulbrood, this protection being attributable to production of an antibacterial peptide or protein. Culture-independent analysis suggested that bee products and larvae contained simple Lactobacillus-group microbiota, dominated by L. kunkeei, although adult bees carried a more complex microbiota. The findings clearly demonstrate that honeybees and their products are rich sources of FLAB, and FLAB are potential candidates for future bee probiotics.

  5. To pre-challenge lactic acid bacteria with simulated gastrointestinal conditions is a suitable approach to studying potential probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Hsin-Yi; King, V An-Erl; Chi, Li-Ling; Tsen, Jen-Horng

    2014-12-01

    The potential probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) after treatment with gastrointestinal (GI) conditions were investigated. Some LAB strains that survived simulated GI treatment retained their adhesiveness and antagonism against the pathogen. Therefore pre-challenging LAB with simulated GI conditions is a suitable way for potential probiotic studies. PMID:25281473

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Substance P and Neuropeptide Y against laboratory strains of bacteria and oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christopher J; Burnell, Kindra K; Brogden, Kim A

    2006-08-01

    Infection and inflammation of mucosal tissue may induce the production of neuropeptides, specifically Substance P and Neuropeptide Y. Since these neuropeptides are similar to antimicrobial peptides in their amino acid composition, amphipathic design, cationic charge, and size, we wanted to determine if they had antimicrobial activity against a panel of common bacteria and oral microorganisms using the radial diffusion assay. Neuropeptide Y and Substance P had antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC 20.6+/-5.5 microg/ml SEM and 71.5+/-15 SEM microg/ml, respectively), but did not have activity against laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (MIC>500 microg/ml) nor oral strains of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (MIC>500 microg/ml). While Substance P and Neuropeptide Y did not have direct antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested, they still may stimulate local epithelial cells to produce other innate immune factors like defensins and cathelicidins. However, this remains to be determined.

  7. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese using protective lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Coelho, M C; Silva, C C G; Ribeiro, S C; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Rosa, H J D

    2014-11-17

    In the past years, there has been a particular focus on the application of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria in foods. The aim of this study was to select LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, previously isolated from a traditional Azorean artisanal cheese (Pico cheese), in order to identify those with the greatest potential in reducing Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese. Eight bacteriocin producer strains identified as Lactococcus lactis (1) and Enterococcus faecalis (7) were tested. In general, the bacteriocin-producing strains presented a moderate growth in fresh cheese at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C), increasing one log count in three days. They exhibited slow acidification capacity, despite the increased production of lactic acid displayed by some strains after 24h. Bacteriocin activity was only detected in the whey of fresh cheese inoculated with two Enterococcus strains, but all cheeses made with bacteriocin-producing strains inhibited L. monocytogenes growth in the agar diffusion bioassay. No significant differences were found in overall sensory evaluation made by a non-trained panel of 50-52 tasters using the isolates as adjunct culture in fresh cheese, with the exception of one Enterococcus strain. To test the effect of in situ bacteriocin production against L. monocytogenes, fresh cheese was made from pasteurized cows' milk inoculated with bacteriocin-producing LAB and artificially contaminated with approximately 10(6) CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes. The numbers of L. monocytogenes were monitored during storage of fresh cheese at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) for up to 15 days. All strains controlled the growth of L. monocytogenes, although some Enterococcus were more effective in reducing the pathogen counts. After 7 days, this reduction was of approximately 4 log units compared to the positive control. In comparison, an increase of 4 log CFU/mL in pathogen numbers was

  8. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese using protective lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Coelho, M C; Silva, C C G; Ribeiro, S C; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Rosa, H J D

    2014-11-17

    In the past years, there has been a particular focus on the application of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria in foods. The aim of this study was to select LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, previously isolated from a traditional Azorean artisanal cheese (Pico cheese), in order to identify those with the greatest potential in reducing Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese. Eight bacteriocin producer strains identified as Lactococcus lactis (1) and Enterococcus faecalis (7) were tested. In general, the bacteriocin-producing strains presented a moderate growth in fresh cheese at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C), increasing one log count in three days. They exhibited slow acidification capacity, despite the increased production of lactic acid displayed by some strains after 24h. Bacteriocin activity was only detected in the whey of fresh cheese inoculated with two Enterococcus strains, but all cheeses made with bacteriocin-producing strains inhibited L. monocytogenes growth in the agar diffusion bioassay. No significant differences were found in overall sensory evaluation made by a non-trained panel of 50-52 tasters using the isolates as adjunct culture in fresh cheese, with the exception of one Enterococcus strain. To test the effect of in situ bacteriocin production against L. monocytogenes, fresh cheese was made from pasteurized cows' milk inoculated with bacteriocin-producing LAB and artificially contaminated with approximately 10(6) CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes. The numbers of L. monocytogenes were monitored during storage of fresh cheese at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) for up to 15 days. All strains controlled the growth of L. monocytogenes, although some Enterococcus were more effective in reducing the pathogen counts. After 7 days, this reduction was of approximately 4 log units compared to the positive control. In comparison, an increase of 4 log CFU/mL in pathogen numbers was

  9. Isolation, characterisation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from bushera: a Ugandan traditional fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Muyanja, C M B K; Narvhus, J A; Treimo, J; Langsrud, T

    2003-02-15

    One hundred and thirteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were selected from 351 isolates from 15 samples of traditionally fermented household bushera from Uganda and also from laboratory-prepared bushera. Isolates were phenotypically characterised by their ability to ferment 49 carbohydrates using API 50 CHL kits and additional biochemical tests. Coliforms, yeasts and LAB were enumerated in bushera. The pH, volatile organic compounds and organic acids were also determined. The LAB counts in household bushera varied between 7.1 and 9.4 log cfu ml(-1). The coliform counts varied between < 1 and 5.2 log cfu ml(-1). The pH of bushera ranged from 3.7 to 4.5. Ethanol (max, 0.27%) was the major volatile organic compound while lactic acid (max, 0.52%) was identified as the dominant organic acid in household bushera. The initial numbers of LAB and coliforms in laboratory-fermented bushera were similar; however, the LAB numbers increased faster during the first 24 h. LAB counts increased from 5.5 to 9.0 log cfu ml(-1) during the laboratory fermentation. Coliform counts increased from 5.9 to 7.8 log cfu ml(-1) at 24 h, but after 48 h, counts were less 4 log cfu ml(-1). Yeasts increased from 4.3 to 7.7 log cfu ml(-1) at 48 h, but thereafter decreased slightly. The pH declined from 7.0 to around 4.0. Lactic acid and ethanol increased from zero to 0.75% and 0.20%, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from household bushera belonged to Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus genera. Tentatively, Lactobacillus isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. fermentum, L. brevis and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii. Streptococcus thermophilus strains were also identified in household bushera. LAB isolated from bushera produced in the laboratory belonged to five genera (Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Weissella and Enterococcus. Eight isolates were able to produce acid from starch and were identified as Lactococcus

  10. Influence of wine-like conditions on arginine utilization by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Rozès, Nicolas; Bordons, Albert

    2011-12-01

    Wine can contain trace amounts of ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogen formed when ethanol reacts with carbamyl compounds such as citrulline. EC is produced from arginine by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), e.g., Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Although the amounts of EC in wine are usually negligible, over the last few years there has been a slight but steady increase, as climate change has increased temperatures and alcohol levels have become proportionately higher, both of which favor EC formation. In this study, resting cells of LAB were used to evaluate the effects of ethanol, glucose, malic acid, and low pH on the ability of non-oenococcal strains of these bacteria to degrade arginine and excrete citrulline. Malic acid was found to clearly inhibit arginine consumption in all strains. The relation between citrulline produced and arginine consumed was clearly higher in the presence of ethanol (10-12%) and at low pH (3.0), which is consistent with both the decreased amount of ornithine produced from arginine and the reduction in arginine degradation. In L. brevis and L. buchneri strains isolated from wine and beer, respectively, the synthesis of citrulline from arginine was highest. PMID:22569760

  11. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard.

  12. Characterization and in vitro probiotic evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from idli batter.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bharti K; Singhal, Rekha S; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2013-12-01

    An Indian traditional fermented food, idli batter, was used as a source for isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 15 LAB strains were isolated on the basis of their Gram nature and catalase activity. Of these, one lactobacilli strain and one lactococci strain which showed antimicrobial activity were identified using biochemical characterization, sugar utilization and molecular sequencing. The microbes, labeled as IB-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum) and IB-2 (Lactococcus lactis) were tested for their in vitro tolerance to bile salts, resistance to low pH values and acidifying activity. Both the strains showed good viability (IB1- 58.11%; IB2- 60.84%) when exposed to high bile salt concentration (2%) and acidic pH of ≤pH 3.0 (IB1- 88.13%; IB2- 89.85%). Lactic acid (IB1- 181.93 mM; IB2- 154.44 mM), biomass production (IB1- 0.65; IB2- 0.58 g/l) after 54 h as well as qualitative estimation of β-galactosidase and vitamin B12 production were also studied to check their suitability as an industrially important strain for production of important biomolecules.

  13. Characterization and in vitro probiotic evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from idli batter.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bharti K; Singhal, Rekha S; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2013-12-01

    An Indian traditional fermented food, idli batter, was used as a source for isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 15 LAB strains were isolated on the basis of their Gram nature and catalase activity. Of these, one lactobacilli strain and one lactococci strain which showed antimicrobial activity were identified using biochemical characterization, sugar utilization and molecular sequencing. The microbes, labeled as IB-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum) and IB-2 (Lactococcus lactis) were tested for their in vitro tolerance to bile salts, resistance to low pH values and acidifying activity. Both the strains showed good viability (IB1- 58.11%; IB2- 60.84%) when exposed to high bile salt concentration (2%) and acidic pH of ≤pH 3.0 (IB1- 88.13%; IB2- 89.85%). Lactic acid (IB1- 181.93 mM; IB2- 154.44 mM), biomass production (IB1- 0.65; IB2- 0.58 g/l) after 54 h as well as qualitative estimation of β-galactosidase and vitamin B12 production were also studied to check their suitability as an industrially important strain for production of important biomolecules. PMID:24426023

  14. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Leisner, Jørgen J.; Pot, Bruno; Christensen, Henrik; Rusul, Gulam; Olsen, John E.; Wee, Bee Wah; Muhamad, Kharidah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg−1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682. PMID:9925588

  15. Sodium-Dependent Azotobacter chroococcum Strains Are Aeroadaptive, Microaerophilic, Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Page, William J.; Jackson, Linda; Shivprasad, Shailaja

    1988-01-01

    Na+ -dependent strains of Azotobacter chroococcum were observed to have very low reactivities with the H2O2 spot test for catalase. The cell extract of the representative Na+ -dependent strain 184 contained a catalase specific activity that was 10-to 600-fold lower than those found in Na+ -independent strains of A. chroococcum. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities existed in all strains, although only certain Na+ -dependent strains contained a peroxidase reactive with p-phenylenediamine. The activities of catalase and peroxidase in the Na+ -dependent strain 184 were dependent on iron availability, which helped to explain the iron-dependent growth characteristic of this strain. The activities of these enzymes were not increased by subjecting the cells to increased aeration, nitrogen-fixing conditions, or paraquat. Strain 184 was found to be very sensitive to H2O2 or paraquat, even under iron-sufficient conditions, and was difficult to recover quantitatively on solid plating media. Strain 184 was more susceptible to H2O2 when grown under low-aeration, nitrogen-fixing conditions than when it was grown in the presence of NH4+. Low population densities of strain 184 grew in nitrogen-free medium under microaerophilic conditions, while more dense populations were able to fix nitrogen under aerobic conditions. Therefore, these bacteria appeared to be aeroadaptive, microaerophilic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. PMID:16347721

  16. Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

  17. Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is a complex assemblage of glycopolymers and proteins. It consists of a thick peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and that is decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. It plays a major role in bacterial physiology since it maintains cell shape and integrity during growth and division; in addition, it acts as the interface between the bacterium and its environment. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are traditionally and widely used to ferment food, and they are also the subject of more and more research because of their potential health-related benefits. It is now recognized that understanding the composition, structure, and properties of LAB cell walls is a crucial part of developing technological and health applications using these bacteria. In this review, we examine the different components of the Gram-positive cell wall: peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. We present recent findings regarding the structure and function of these complex compounds, results that have emerged thanks to the tandem development of structural analysis and whole genome sequencing. Although general structures and biosynthesis pathways are conserved among Gram-positive bacteria, studies have revealed that LAB cell walls demonstrate unique properties; these studies have yielded some notable, fundamental, and novel findings. Given the potential of this research to contribute to future applied strategies, in our discussion of the role played by cell wall components in LAB physiology, we pay special attention to the mechanisms controlling bacterial autolysis, bacterial sensitivity to bacteriophages and the mechanisms underlying interactions between probiotic bacteria and their hosts. PMID:25186919

  18. A study of tannic acid degradation by soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ilori, Matthew O; Adebusoye, Sunday A; Amund, Olukayode O; Oyetoran, Bodunde O

    2007-09-15

    A tannin-degrading strain of Bacillus sp. AB1 was isolated from a garden soil by enrichment. This organism was able to utilize 1% (w/v) tannic acid-a gallotannin at 30 degrees C and pH below 4.5 in a defined mineral medium where the acid was the sole source of carbon and energy under 96 h. Growth resulted in increase in OD concomitant with gradual decrease in pH of the culture medium. Analysis of the culture fluid by paper chromatography revealed glucose and gallic acid as major metabolites of tannic acid degradative pathway. Mineralization of tannic acid was informed when none of the metabolites was recovered after 96 h of incubation. The degradation potential of this isolate could be exploited for the production of tannase, improvement of livestock production and also detoxification of tannery effluents at extreme acidic conditions.

  19. Fatty acid and hydroxy acid adaptation in three gram-negative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in relation to carbon source.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mohamed; Metzger, Pierre; Largeau, Claude

    2005-12-01

    The lipids of three gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Marinobacter aquaeolei, and Pseudomonas oleovorans grown on mineral media supplemented with ammonium acetate or hydrocarbons, were isolated, purified, and their structures determined. Three pools of lipids were isolated according to a sequential procedure: unbound lipids extracted with organic solvents, comprising metabolic lipids and the main part of membrane lipids, OH--labile lipids (mainly ester-bound in the lipopolysaccharides, LPS) and H+-labile lipids (mainly amide-bound in the LPS). Unsaturated FA composition gave evidence for an aerobic desaturation pathway for the synthesis of these acids in A. calcoaceticus and M. aquaeolei, a nonclassic route in gram-negative bacteria. Surprisingly, both aerobic and anaerobic pathways are operating in the studied strain of P. oleovorans. The increase of the proportion of saturated FA observed for the strain of P. oleovorans grown on light hydrocarbons would increase the temperature transition of the lipids for maintaining the inner membrane fluidity. An opposite phenomenon occurs in A. calcoaceticus and M. aquaeolei grown on solid or highly viscous C19 hydrocarbons. The increases of FA < C18 when the bacteria were grown on n-nonadecane, or of iso-FA in cultures on isononadecane would decrease the transition temperature of the lipids, to maintain the fluidity of the inner membranes. Moreover, P. oleovorans grown on hydrocarbons greatly decreases the proportion of P-hydroxy acids of LPS, thus likely maintaining the physical properties of the outer membrane. By contrast, no dramatic change in hydroxy acid composition occurred in the other two bacteria. PMID:16477811

  20. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: extending the family.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Mu, Dongdong; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that produce lactic acid as the major product during the fermentation process. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria with great biotechnological potential in the food industry. They can produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceous antimicrobial molecules with a diverse genetic origin, posttranslationally modified or not, that can help the producer organism to outcompete other bacterial species. In this review, we focus on the various types of bacteriocins that can be found in LAB and the organization and regulation of the gene clusters responsible for their production and biosynthesis, and consider the food applications of the prototype bacteriocins from LAB. Furthermore, we propose a revised classification of bacteriocins that can accommodate the increasing number of classes reported over the last years.

  1. Modified alginate and chitosan for lactic acid bacteria immobilization.

    PubMed

    Le-Tien, Canh; Millette, Mathieu; Mateescu, Mircea-Alexandru; Lacroix, Monique

    2004-06-01

    Beads with enhanced-stability acid media, which were based on alginate and chitosan functionalized by succinylation (increasing the anionic charges able to retain protons) or by acylation (improving matrix hydrophobicity), were developed for immobilization of bacterial cells. Beads (3 mm diameter) formed by ionotropic gelation with CaCl(2) presented good mechanical characteristics. After 30 min incubation of viable free Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5), we noticed that the level of viable bacteria was undetectable. Bacterial immobilization in native-alginate-based beads generated a viable-cell count of 22-26%, whereas, when entrapped in succinylated alginate and chitosan beads, the percentage of viable cells was of 60 and 66%, respectively. Best viability (87%) was found for bacteria immobilized in N -palmitoylaminoethyl alginate, which affords a high protective effect, probably due to long alkyl pendants that improve the beads' hydrophobicity, limiting hydration in the acidic environment.

  2. Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Pepelassi, Eudoxie; Papaioannou, William; Georgalaki, Marina; Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2013-02-26

    In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17%) producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s) of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.

  3. Occurrence of Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes in Arginine Catabolism by Wine Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.; Pritchard, G. G.; Hardman, M. J.; Pilone, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    l-Arginine, an amino acid found in significant quantities in grape juice and wine, is known to be catabolized by some wine lactic acid bacteria. The correlation between the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and the ability to catabolize arginine was examined in this study. The activities of the three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes, arginine deiminase, ornithine transcarbamylase, and carbamate kinase, were measured in cell extracts of 35 strains of wine lactic acid bacteria. These enzymes were present in all heterofermentative lactobacilli and most leuconostocs but were absent in all the homofermentative lactobacilli and pediococci examined. There was a good correlation among arginine degradation, formation of ammonia and citrulline, and the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes. Urea was not detected during arginine degradation, suggesting that the catabolism of arginine did not proceed via the arginase-catalyzed reaction, as has been suggested in some earlier studies. Detection of ammonia with Nessler's reagent was shown to be a simple, rapid test to assess the ability of wine lactic acid bacteria to degrade arginine, although in media containing relatively high concentrations (>0.5%) of fructose, ammonia formation is inhibited. PMID:16534912

  4. Comparative Genomics of Syntrophic Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Nobu, Masaru K.; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    The syntrophic degradation of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) such as 2-methylbutyrate and isobutyrate is an essential step in the production of methane from proteins/amino acids in anaerobic ecosystems. While a few syntrophic BCFA-degrading bacteria have been isolated, their metabolic pathways in BCFA and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation as well as energy conservation systems remain unclear. In an attempt to identify these pathways, we herein performed comparative genomics of three syntrophic bacteria: 2-methylbutyrate-degrading “Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. methylbutyratica” strain JCM 14075T (=4J5T), isobutyrate-degrading Syntrophothermus lipocalidus strain TGB-C1T, and non-BCFA-metabolizing S. wolfei subsp. wolfei strain GöttingenT. We demonstrated that 4J5 and TGB-C1 both encode multiple genes/gene clusters involved in β-oxidation, as observed in the Göttingen genome, which has multiple copies of genes associated with butyrate degradation. The 4J5 genome possesses phylogenetically distinct β-oxidation genes, which may be involved in 2-methylbutyrate degradation. In addition, these Syntrophomonadaceae strains harbor various hydrogen/formate generation systems (i.e., electron-bifurcating hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, and membrane-bound hydrogenase) and energy-conserving electron transport systems, including electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ETF-linked iron-sulfur binding reductase, ETF dehydrogenase (FixABCX), and flavin oxidoreductase-heterodisulfide reductase (Flox-Hdr). Unexpectedly, the TGB-C1 genome encodes a nitrogenase complex, which may function as an alternative H2 generation mechanism. These results suggest that the BCFA-degrading syntrophic strains 4J5 and TGB-C1 possess specific β-oxidation-related enzymes for BCFA oxidation as well as appropriate energy conservation systems to perform thermodynamically unfavorable syntrophic metabolism. PMID:27431485

  5. Lipid composition in a strain of Bacillus subtilis, a producer of iturin A lipopeptides that are active against uropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Przemysław; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Siewiera, Paulina; Moryl, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna; Chojniak, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Urinary tract infections are a common disease in humans. Therefore, new methods are needed to destroy biofilms that are formed by uropathogens. Iturin A lipopeptides (LPs) C14 and C15 are potent biosurfactants synthetized by the Bacillus subtilis I'1a strain. The biological activity of extracted LPs was confirmed by examining extracts from I'1a cultures against uropathogenic bacteria that had been isolated from biofilms on urinary catheters. Compared with cultures of DSM 3257, which produce surfactin at a relatively low level, the extract obtained from strain I'1a exhibited a greater inhibitory effect against both planktonic and sessile forms of Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, cyclic LP biosurfactants may disturb the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes; therefore, we investigated the effects of synthetized LPs on fatty acids and phospholipids of B. subtilis. LPs and lipids were analyzed using GC-MS, LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF techniques. Compared with B. subtilis DSM 3257, membranes of the I'1a strain were characterized by an increased amount of anteiso fatty acids and a ten-fold higher ratio of phosphatidylglycerol (PG)-to-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Interestingly, in cultures of B. subtilis DSM 3257 supplemented with LP extracts of the I'1a strain, the PG-to-PE ratio was fourfold higher, and the amount of anteiso fatty acids was also increased. PMID:27550437

  6. Lipid composition in a strain of Bacillus subtilis, a producer of iturin A lipopeptides that are active against uropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Przemysław; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Siewiera, Paulina; Moryl, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna; Chojniak, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Urinary tract infections are a common disease in humans. Therefore, new methods are needed to destroy biofilms that are formed by uropathogens. Iturin A lipopeptides (LPs) C14 and C15 are potent biosurfactants synthetized by the Bacillus subtilis I'1a strain. The biological activity of extracted LPs was confirmed by examining extracts from I'1a cultures against uropathogenic bacteria that had been isolated from biofilms on urinary catheters. Compared with cultures of DSM 3257, which produce surfactin at a relatively low level, the extract obtained from strain I'1a exhibited a greater inhibitory effect against both planktonic and sessile forms of Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, cyclic LP biosurfactants may disturb the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes; therefore, we investigated the effects of synthetized LPs on fatty acids and phospholipids of B. subtilis. LPs and lipids were analyzed using GC-MS, LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF techniques. Compared with B. subtilis DSM 3257, membranes of the I'1a strain were characterized by an increased amount of anteiso fatty acids and a ten-fold higher ratio of phosphatidylglycerol (PG)-to-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Interestingly, in cultures of B. subtilis DSM 3257 supplemented with LP extracts of the I'1a strain, the PG-to-PE ratio was fourfold higher, and the amount of anteiso fatty acids was also increased.

  7. A new laboratory cultivation of Paramecium bursaria using non-pathogenic bacteria strains.

    PubMed

    Bator, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    In most studies dealing with the laboratory cultivation of paramecia (Paramecium bursaria), Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria are used to inoculate the medium. However, Klebsiella pneumoniae is a typical pathogen, and its use is always associated with a risk of infection. The aim of the present research was to examine non-pathogenic bacteria strains as components of the medium for Paramecium bursaria. The paramecia were incubated on lettuce infusions bacterized with different bacteria strains: Bacillus subtilis DSM 10, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Escherichia coli DSM 498, Micrococcus luteus DSM 348. A strain derived from the natural habitat of Paramecium bursaria was used as the control one. Experiments were conducted under constant light and in the dark. Paramecia cells were counted under a stereomicroscope on consecutive days of incubation. The obtained results show that the most intensive growth of Paramecium bursaria occurs in the presence of Escherichia coli DSM 498. The use of this strain as a component of the medium allows one to obtain a high number of ciliates regardless of the light conditions. It can be concluded that the Paramecium bursaria cultivation procedure can be modified by using the non-pathogenic bacteria strain Escherichia coli DSM 498 instead of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  8. Phytate degradation by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the wholemeal dough fermentation: a 31P NMR study.

    PubMed

    Reale, Anna; Mannina, Luisa; Tremonte, Patrizio; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Succi, Mariantonietta; Sorrentino, Elena; Coppola, Raffaele

    2004-10-01

    myo-Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is the main source of phosphorus in cereal grains, and therefore, in bakery products. Different microorganisms such as yeasts and lactic acid bacteria have phytase enzymes able to hydrolyze IP6 during the wholemeal breadmaking. In this paper, the phytase activity of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from southern Italian sourdoughs, is assayed using the (31)P NMR technique. The sourdough technology based on the use of lactic acid bacteria in the breadmaking is finally suggested.

  9. Identification and Antimicrobial Activity Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Corn Stover Silage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongxia; Ni, Kuikui; Pang, Huili; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Jin, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    A total of 59 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from corn stover silage. According to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and recA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification, these LAB isolates were identified as five species: Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus mundtii, Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively. Those strains were also screened for antimicrobial activity using a dual-culture agar plate assay. Based on excluding the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, two L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains ZZU 203 and 204, which strongly inhibited Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971T, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698T and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775T were selected for further research on sensitivity of the antimicrobial substance to heat, pH and protease. Cell-free culture supernatants of the two strains exhibited strong heat stability (60 min at 100°C), but the antimicrobial activity was eliminated after treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The antimicrobial substance remained active under acidic condition (pH 2.0 to 6.0), but became inactive under neutral and alkaline condition (pH 7.0 to 9.0). In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these two strains decreased remarkably after digestion by protease K. These results preliminarily suggest that the desirable antimicrobial activity of strains ZZU 203 and 204 is the result of the production of a bacteriocin-like substance, and these two strains with antimicrobial activity could be used as silage additives to inhibit proliferation of unwanted microorganism during ensiling and preserve nutrients of silage. The nature of the antimicrobial substances is being investigated in our laboratory. PMID:25924957

  10. Identification and antimicrobial activity detection of lactic Acid bacteria isolated from corn stover silage.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxia; Ni, Kuikui; Pang, Huili; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Jin, Qingsheng

    2015-05-01

    A total of 59 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from corn stover silage. According to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and recA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification, these LAB isolates were identified as five species: Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus mundtii, Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively. Those strains were also screened for antimicrobial activity using a dual-culture agar plate assay. Based on excluding the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, two L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains ZZU 203 and 204, which strongly inhibited Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971(T), Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698(T) and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775(T) were selected for further research on sensitivity of the antimicrobial substance to heat, pH and protease. Cell-free culture supernatants of the two strains exhibited strong heat stability (60 min at 100°C), but the antimicrobial activity was eliminated after treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The antimicrobial substance remained active under acidic condition (pH 2.0 to 6.0), but became inactive under neutral and alkaline condition (pH 7.0 to 9.0). In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these two strains decreased remarkably after digestion by protease K. These results preliminarily suggest that the desirable antimicrobial activity of strains ZZU 203 and 204 is the result of the production of a bacteriocin-like substance, and these two strains with antimicrobial activity could be used as silage additives to inhibit proliferation of unwanted microorganism during ensiling and preserve nutrients of silage. The nature of the antimicrobial substances is being investigated in our laboratory.

  11. Effect of grape polyphenols on lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria growth: resistance and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tabasco, Raquel; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Monagas, María; Bartolomé, Begoña; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

    2011-10-01

    Food polyphenols are able to selectively modify the growth of susceptible micro-organisms. This study describes the effect of a flavan-3-ol enriched grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth of several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria and the ability of the resistant strains to metabolize these compounds. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus vaginalis strains showed a remarkable sensitivity to the phenolic extracts assayed, including a GSE fraction consisting mainly in (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (GSE-M). On the other hand, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains reached maximal growth with the GSE fractions, including a rich-oligomeric (GSE-O) fraction. Within bifidobacteria, Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 showed the highest sensitivity to the phenolic extracts assayed, whereas Bifidobacterium breve 26M2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum HDD541 reached maximum growth in presence of GSE-O and GSE-M fractions. Metabolism of flavan-3-ols by LAB and bifidobacteria resistant strains was investigated in vitro. The results revealed that only L. plantarum IFPL935 was able to metabolize the polyphenols studied by means of galloyl-esterase, decarboxylase and benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities that led to the formation of gallic acid, pyrogallol and catechol, respectively. An unknown metabolite that does not exhibit a phenolic-acid-type structure was also detected, which suggests a new enzyme activity in L. plantarum IFPL935 able to degrade flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21839384

  12. Dual-coated lactic acid bacteria: an emerging innovative technology in the field of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Margolles, Abelardo

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are living micro-organisms that do not naturally have shelf life, and normally are weakly protected against the digestive action of the GI tract. A new dual coating technology has been developed in an effort to maximize survival, that is, to be able to reach the intestine alive and in sufficient numbers to confer the beneficial health effects on the host. Dual-coating of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is the result of fourth-generation coating technology for the protection of these bacteria at least 100-fold or greater than the uncoated LAB. This innovative technique involves a first pH-dependent protein layer that protects bacteria from gastric acid and bile salt, and a second polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from external factors, such as humidity, temperature and pressure, as well as the digestive action during the passage through the GI tract. Dual-coated probiotic formulation is applicable to different therapeutic areas, including irritable bowel syndrome, atopic dermatitis, acute diarrhea, chronic constipation, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. An updated review of the efficacy of doubly coated probiotic strains for improving bacterial survival in the intestinal tract and its consequent clinical benefits in humans is here presented. PMID:26780116

  13. The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Küley, Esmeray; Özogul, Fatih; Balikçi, Esra; Durmus, Mustafa; Ayas, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB) on biogenic amines (BA) formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream) IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN) and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05). The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM), dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L) and mackerel (100.84 mg/L) IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L) in sardine IDB. PMID:24294229

  14. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation.

  15. Phytic acid degrading lactic acid bacteria in tef-injera fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Maren M; Egli, Ines M; Aeberli, Isabelle; Hurrell, Richard F; Meile, Leo

    2014-11-01

    Ethiopian injera, a soft pancake, baked from fermented batter, is preferentially prepared from tef (Eragrostis tef) flour. The phytic acid (PA) content of tef is high and is only partly degraded during the fermentation step. PA chelates with iron and zinc in the human digestive tract and strongly inhibits their absorption. With the aim to formulate a starter culture that would substantially degrade PA during injera preparation, we assessed the potential of microorganisms isolated from Ethiopian household-tef fermentations to degrade PA. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were found to be among the dominating microorganisms. Seventy-six isolates from thirteen different tef fermentations were analyzed for phytase activity and thirteen different isolates of seven different species were detected to be positive in a phytase screening assay. In 20-mL model tef fermentations, out of these thirteen isolates, the use of Lactobacillus (L.) buchneri strain MF58 and Pediococcus pentosaceus strain MF35 resulted in lowest PA contents in the fermented tef of 41% and 42%, respectively of its initial content. In comparison 59% of PA remained when spontaneously fermented. Full scale tef fermentation (0.6L) and injera production using L. buchneri MF58 as culture additive decreased PA in cooked injera from 1.05 to 0.34±0.02 g/100 g, representing a degradation of 68% compared to 42% in injera from non-inoculated traditional fermentation. The visual appearance of the pancakes was similar. The final molar ratios of PA to iron of 4 and to zinc of 12 achieved with L. buchneri MF58 were decreased by ca. 50% compared to the traditional fermentation. In conclusion, selected LAB strains in tef fermentations can degrade PA, with L. buchneri MF58 displaying the highest PA degrading potential. The 68% PA degradation achieved by the application of L. buchneri MF58 would be expected to improve human zinc absorption from tef-injera, but further PA degradation is probably necessary if iron absorption has to

  16. Evidence of Two Functionally Distinct Ornithine Decarboxylation Systems in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low-molecular-weight organic bases whose presence in food can result in health problems. The biosynthesis of biogenic amines in fermented foods mostly proceeds through amino acid decarboxylation carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but not all systems leading to biogenic amine production by LAB have been thoroughly characterized. Here, putative ornithine decarboxylation pathways consisting of a putative ornithine decarboxylase and an amino acid transporter were identified in LAB by strain collection screening and database searches. The decarboxylases were produced in heterologous hosts and purified and characterized in vitro, whereas transporters were heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis and functionally characterized in vivo. Amino acid decarboxylation by whole cells of the original hosts was determined as well. We concluded that two distinct types of ornithine decarboxylation systems exist in LAB. One is composed of an ornithine decarboxylase coupled to an ornithine/putrescine transmembrane exchanger. Their combined activities results in the extracellular release of putrescine. This typical amino acid decarboxylation system is present in only a few LAB strains and may contribute to metabolic energy production and/or pH homeostasis. The second system is widespread among LAB. It is composed of a decarboxylase active on ornithine and l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) and a transporter that mediates unidirectional transport of ornithine into the cytoplasm. Diamines that result from this second system are retained within the cytosol. PMID:22247134

  17. Lactic acid bacteria activating innate immunity improve survival in bacterial infection model of silkworm.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Satoshi; Ono, Yasuo; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been thought to be helpful for human heath in the gut as probiotics. It recently was noted that activity of LAB stimulating immune systems is important. Innate immune systems are conserved in mammals and insects. Silkworm has innate immunity in response to microbes. Microbe-associated molecular pattern (ex. peptidoglycan and β-glucan) induces a muscle contraction of silkworm larva. In this study, we established an efficient method to isolate lactic acid bacteria derived from natural products. We selected a highly active LAB to activate the innate immunity in silkworm by using the silkworm muscle contraction assay, as well. The assay revealed that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 was highly active on the stimulation of the innate immunity in silkworm. L. lactis 11/19-B1 solely fermented milk with casamino acid and glucose. This strain would be a starter strain to make yogurt. Compared to commercially available yogurt LAB, L. lactis 11/19-B1 has higher activity on silkworm contraction. Silkworm normally ingested an artificial diet mixed with L. lactis 11/19-B1 or a yogurt fermented with L. lactis 11/19-B1. Interestingly, silkworms that ingested the LAB showed tolerance against the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These data suggest that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 would be expected to be useful for making yogurt and probiotics to activate innate immunity. PMID:26971556

  18. Affinity sensor using 3-aminophenylboronic acid for bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Wannapob, Rodtichoti; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Numnuam, Apon; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2010-10-15

    Boronic acid that can reversibly bind to diols was used to detect bacteria through its affinity binding reaction with diol-groups on bacterial cell walls. 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) was immobilized on a gold electrode via a self-assembled monolayer. The change in capacitance of the sensing surface caused by the binding between 3-APBA and bacteria in a flow system was detected by a potentiostatic step method. Under optimal conditions the linear range of 1.5×10(2)-1.5×10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the detection limit of 1.0×10(2) CFU ml(-1) was obtained. The sensing surface can be regenerated and reused up to 58 times. The method was used for the analysis of bacteria in several types of water, i.e., bottled, well, tap, reservoir and wastewater. Compared with the standard plate count method, the results were within one standard deviation of each other. The proposed method can save both time and cost of analysis. The electrode modified with 3-APBA would also be applicable to the detection of other cis-diol-containing analytes. The concept could be extended to other chemoselective ligands, offering less expensive and more robust affinity sensors for a wide range of compounds.

  19. Changes in oxidation-reduction potential during milk fermentation by wild lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Tamburini, Alberto; Brasca, Milena

    2016-08-01

    Oxidation-reduction potential (E h) is a fundamental physicochemical property of lactic acid bacteria that determines the microenvironment during the cheese manufacture and ripening. For this reason the E h is of growing interest in dairy research and the dairy industry. The objective of the study was to perform a comprehensive study on the reduction activity of wild lactic acid bacteria strains collected in different periods (from 1960 to 2012) from Italian dairy products. A total of 709 strains belonging to Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. faecalis and Streptococcus thermophilus species were studied for their reduction activity in milk. Kinetics of milk reduction were characterised by the minimum redox potential (E h7) and time of reaching E h7 (t min), the maximum difference between two measures (Δmax) and the time at which these maximum differences occurred (t*). Broad diversity in kinetic parameters was observed at both species and strain levels. E. faecalis and L. lactis resulted to be the most reducing species, while S. thermophilus was characterised by the lowest reducing power while the greatest heterogeneity was pointed out among E. durans and E. faecium strains. Considering the period of collection (1960-2012) we observed that the more recently isolated strains generally showed less reducing activity. This trend was particularly evident for the species E. durans, E. faecium and L. lactis while an opposite trend was observed in E. faecalis species. Data reported in this research provide new information for a deeper understanding of redox potential changes during milk fermentation due to bacterial growth. Gain knowledge of the redox potential of the LAB cultures could allow a better control and standardisation of cheesemaking process. PMID:27600976

  20. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product. PMID:26425801

  1. Filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, and Eikelboom type 021N strains.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T M; Unz, R F

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen strains of filamentous sulfur bacteria were isolated in axenic culture from activated sludge mixed liquor samples and sulfide-gradient enrichment cultures. Isolation procedures involved plating a concentrated inoculum of washed filaments onto media containing sulfide or thiosulfate. The isolates were identified as Thiothrix spp., Beggiatoa spp., and an organism of uncertain taxonomic status, designated type 021N. All bacteria were gram negative, reduced nitrate, and formed long, multicellular trichomes with internal reserves of sulfur, volutin, and sudanophilic material. Thiothrix spp. formed rosettes and gonidia, and four of six strains were ensheathed. Type 021N organisms utilized glucose, lacked a sheath, and differed from Thiothrix spp. in several aspects of cellular and cultural morphology. Beggiatoa spp. lacked catalase and oxidase, and filaments were motile. Biochemical and physiological characterization of the isolates revealed important distinguishing features between the three groups of bacteria. Strain differences were most evident among the Thiothrix cultures. A comparison of the filamentous sulfur bacteria with freshwater strains of Leucothrix was made also. Images PMID:4004221

  2. Development of Mucosal Vaccines Based on Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Innocentin, Silvia; Lefèvre, Francois; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Langella, Philippe

    Today, sufficient data are available to support the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), notably lactococci and lactobacilli, as delivery vehicles for the development of new mucosal vaccines. These non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria have been safely consumed by humans for centuries in fermented foods. They thus constitute an attractive alternative to the attenuated pathogens (most popular live vectors actually studied) which could recover their pathogenic potential and are thus not totally safe for use in humans. This chapter reviews the current research and advances in the use of LAB as live delivery vectors of proteins of interest for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines. The use of LAB as DNA vaccine vehicles to deliver DNA directly to antigen-presenting cells of the immune system is also discussed.

  3. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering. PMID:23649268

  4. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering.

  5. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp., and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species. PMID:24478767

  6. Control of tyramine and histamine accumulation by lactic acid bacteria using bacteriocin forming lactococci.

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Felis, Giovanna; Torriani, Sandra; Gardini, Fausto

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the competitive effects of three bacteriocin producing strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis against two aminobiogenic lactic acid bacteria, i.e. the tyramine producing strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 and the histamine producing strain Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60, inoculated at different initial concentrations (from 2 to 6 log cfu/ml). The results showed that the three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were able to produce bacteriocins: in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 and EG46 produced, respectively, nisin Z and lacticin 481, while for the strains CG27 the bacteriocin has not been yet identified, even if its peptidic nature has been demonstrated. The co-culture of E. faecalis EF37 in combination with lactococci significantly reduced the growth potential of this aminobiogenic strain, both in terms of growth rate and maximum cell concentration, depending on the initial inoculum level of E. faecalis. Tyramine accumulation was strongly reduced when E. faecalis EF37 was inoculated at 2 log cfu/ml and, to a lesser extent, at 3 log cfu/ml, as a result of a lower cell load of the aminobiogenic strain. All the lactococci were more efficient in inhibiting streptococci in comparison with E. faecalis EF37; in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 induced the death of S. thermophilus PRI60 and allowed the detection of histamine traces only at higher streptococci inoculum levels (5-6 log cfu/ml). The other two lactococcal strains did not show a lethal action against S. thermophilus PRI60, but were able to reduce its growth extent and histamine accumulation, even if L. lactis subsp. lactis EG46 was less effective when the initial streptococci concentration was 5 and 6 log cfu/ml. This preliminary study has clarified some aspects regarding the ratio between bacteriocinogenic strains and aminobiogenic strains with respect to the possibility to accumulate BA and has also showed that different bacteriocins can have

  7. Control of tyramine and histamine accumulation by lactic acid bacteria using bacteriocin forming lactococci.

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Felis, Giovanna; Torriani, Sandra; Gardini, Fausto

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the competitive effects of three bacteriocin producing strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis against two aminobiogenic lactic acid bacteria, i.e. the tyramine producing strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 and the histamine producing strain Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60, inoculated at different initial concentrations (from 2 to 6 log cfu/ml). The results showed that the three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were able to produce bacteriocins: in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 and EG46 produced, respectively, nisin Z and lacticin 481, while for the strains CG27 the bacteriocin has not been yet identified, even if its peptidic nature has been demonstrated. The co-culture of E. faecalis EF37 in combination with lactococci significantly reduced the growth potential of this aminobiogenic strain, both in terms of growth rate and maximum cell concentration, depending on the initial inoculum level of E. faecalis. Tyramine accumulation was strongly reduced when E. faecalis EF37 was inoculated at 2 log cfu/ml and, to a lesser extent, at 3 log cfu/ml, as a result of a lower cell load of the aminobiogenic strain. All the lactococci were more efficient in inhibiting streptococci in comparison with E. faecalis EF37; in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 induced the death of S. thermophilus PRI60 and allowed the detection of histamine traces only at higher streptococci inoculum levels (5-6 log cfu/ml). The other two lactococcal strains did not show a lethal action against S. thermophilus PRI60, but were able to reduce its growth extent and histamine accumulation, even if L. lactis subsp. lactis EG46 was less effective when the initial streptococci concentration was 5 and 6 log cfu/ml. This preliminary study has clarified some aspects regarding the ratio between bacteriocinogenic strains and aminobiogenic strains with respect to the possibility to accumulate BA and has also showed that different bacteriocins can have

  8. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  9. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation.

  10. Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications.

    PubMed

    Perez, Rodney H; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2014-08-29

    Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed. PMID:25186038

  11. Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed. PMID:25186038

  12. Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications.

    PubMed

    Perez, Rodney H; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2014-08-29

    Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed.

  13. Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria grown in supplemented carob syrup.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Moniz, Patrícia; Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, M Paula; Gírio, Francisco M

    2011-01-01

    Detailed kinetic and physiological characterisation of eight mannitol-producing lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc citreum ATCC 49370, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris ATCC19254, L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum ATCC 19255, L. ficulneum NRRL B-23447, L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, L. lactis ATCC 19256, Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL 3692 and Lb. reuteri DSM 20016, was performed using a carob-based culture medium, to evaluate their different metabolic capabilities. Cultures were thoroughly followed for 30 h to evaluate consumption of sugars, as well as production of biomass and metabolites. All strains produced mannitol at high yields (>0.70 g mannitol/g fructose) and volumetric productivities (>1.31 g/l h), and consumed fructose and glucose simultaneously, but fructose assimilation rate was always higher. The results obtained enable the studied strains to be divided mainly into two groups: one for which glucose assimilation rates were below 0.78 g/l h (strains ATCC 49370, ATCC 19256 and ATCC 19254) and the other for which they ranged between 1.41 and 1.89 g/l h (strains NRRL B-3692, NRRL B-2041, NRRL B-23447 and DSM 20016). These groups also exhibited different mannitol production rates and yields, being higher for the strains with faster glucose assimilation. Besides mannitol, all strains also produced lactic acid and acetic acid. The best performance was obtained for L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, with maximum volumetric productivity of 2.36 g/l h and the highest yield, stoichiometric conversion of fructose to mannitol.

  14. [Generation of nalidixic acid-resistant strains and signature-tagged mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Shang, Lin; Li, Wei; Li, Liangjun; Li, Lu; Zhang, Sihua; Li, Tingting; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Lei; Guo, Zhiwei; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2008-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a very important respiratory pathogen for swine and causes great economic losses in pig industry worldwide. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is an effective method to identify virulence genes in bacteria. In this study, we selected nalidixic acid-resistant strains of APP serotypes 1 and 3 by in vitro cultivation, and used as receipt strains for constructing transposon mutants by mating with E. coli CC 118 lambdapir or S17-1 lambdapir containing mini-Tn10 tag plasmids pLOF/TAG1-48, with or without the help of E. coli DH5alpha (pRK2073). We screened mutant strains by antibiotics selection, PCR and Southern blot identification. Our data revealed that nalidixic acid-resistance of APP strains could easily be induced in vitro and the resistance was due to the mutation in the DNA gyrase A subunit gene gyrA. In the mating experiments, the bi-parental mating was more effective and easier than tri-parental mating. Different APP strains showed a different mating and transposon efficiency in the bi-parental mating, with the strains of serotype 1 much higher than serotype 3 and the reference strain of serotype 3 higher than the field strains. These data were helpful for the construction of STM mutants and pickup of virulence genes of APP. PMID:18338580

  15. Specific strains of probiotic bacteria are efficient in removal of several different cyanobacterial toxins from solution.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Sonja M K; Salminen, Seppo J; Meriluoto, Jussi A O

    2008-08-01

    The ability of specific strains of probiotic bacteria to remove the pure cyanobacterial peptide toxins microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF, and a combination of microcystins from the cyanobacterial extracts Microcystis PCC 7820 and NIES 107, as well as the cyanobacterial cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin, from aqueous solutions was assessed. The probiotic bacterial strains studied were Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705, Bifidobacterium lactis strains 420 and Bb12 and Bifidobacterium longum 46, all previously shown to be effective in toxin removal. The maximum removal of microcystin-LR, 60.3%, was observed with L. rhamnosus GG, of microcystin-RR, 62.8%, and microcystin-LF, 77.4%, with L. rhamnosus LC-705, and of cylindrospermopsin, 31.6%, with B. longum 46 (toxin concentration 100mugL(-1), 37 degrees C, 24h). Several microcystins could be removed simultaneously as observed by removal of microcystins present in the cyanobacterial extracts. A combination of three probiotic strains enhanced their removal ability as compared to the removal properties of the individual strains. We conclude that specific strains of probiotic bacteria are effective in elimination of different cyanotoxins from solution. PMID:18639912

  16. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry. PMID:26799658

  17. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry. PMID:26799658

  18. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  19. Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

  20. Core fluxome and metafluxome of lactic acid bacteria under simulated cocoa pulp fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive (13)C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel (13)C studies with [(13)C6]glucose, [1,2-(13)C2]glucose, and [(13)C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity.

  1. Synthetic teichoic acid conjugate vaccine against nosocomial Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation.

  3. Proteomics as a tool for studying energy metabolism in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Alessandro; Lamberti, Cristina; Pessione, Enrica

    2010-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very ancient organisms that can't obtain metabolic energy by respiration without external heme supplementation. Since the gain in ATP from lactic fermentation is inadequate to support efficient growth, they developed alternative strategies for energy production. Three main energy generating routes are present in LAB: amino acid decarboxylation, malate decarboxylation and arginine deimination (ADI pathway). These routes, apart from supplying energy, also play a role in pH control. Lactic fermentation, which leads to lactic acid accumulation, causes a pH decrease that amino acid decarboxylations, originating basic amines, and the ADI pathway, giving rise to ammonia, may partially contrast. In the present mini-review, the reciprocal relationships among these metabolic pathways are considered, on the basis of proteomic results obtained from four different LAB strains, all of which possess the ADI pathway, but express different amino acid decarboxylases. The strains have been isolated and selected from different habitats and the role of some inducing molecules as well as of the growth phases is discussed. The overall results have revealed that LAB are complex biosystems able to set up a sophisticated metabolic regulation through a complex network of proteins that also include stress responses, as well as protease activation or inhibition. PMID:20505866

  4. Proteomics as a tool for studying energy metabolism in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Alessandro; Lamberti, Cristina; Pessione, Enrica

    2010-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very ancient organisms that can't obtain metabolic energy by respiration without external heme supplementation. Since the gain in ATP from lactic fermentation is inadequate to support efficient growth, they developed alternative strategies for energy production. Three main energy generating routes are present in LAB: amino acid decarboxylation, malate decarboxylation and arginine deimination (ADI pathway). These routes, apart from supplying energy, also play a role in pH control. Lactic fermentation, which leads to lactic acid accumulation, causes a pH decrease that amino acid decarboxylations, originating basic amines, and the ADI pathway, giving rise to ammonia, may partially contrast. In the present mini-review, the reciprocal relationships among these metabolic pathways are considered, on the basis of proteomic results obtained from four different LAB strains, all of which possess the ADI pathway, but express different amino acid decarboxylases. The strains have been isolated and selected from different habitats and the role of some inducing molecules as well as of the growth phases is discussed. The overall results have revealed that LAB are complex biosystems able to set up a sophisticated metabolic regulation through a complex network of proteins that also include stress responses, as well as protease activation or inhibition.

  5. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase enhances the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides lactic acid bacteria at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Goto, Seitaro; Kawamoto, Jun; Sato, Satoshi B; Iki, Takashi; Watanabe, Itaru; Kudo, Kazuyuki; Esaki, Nobuyoshi; Kurihara, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can cause deterioration of food quality even at low temperatures. In this study, we investigated the cold-adaptation mechanism of a novel food spoilage LAB, Leuconostoc mesenteroides NH04 (NH04). L. mesenteroides was isolated from several spoiled cooked meat products at a high frequency in our factories. NH04 grew rapidly at low temperatures within the shelf-life period and resulted in heavy financial losses. NH04 grew more rapidly than related strains such as Leuconostoc mesenteroides NBRC3832 (NBRC3832) at 10°C. Proteome analysis of NH04 demonstrated that this strain produces a homolog of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase--AhpC--the expression of which can be induced at low temperatures. The expression level of AhpC in NH04 was approximately 6-fold higher than that in NBRC3832, which was grown under the same conditions. Although AhpC is known to have an anti-oxidative role in various bacteria by catalyzing the reduction of alkyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide, the involvement of AhpC in cold adaptation of food spoilage bacteria was unclear. We introduced an expression plasmid containing ahpC into NBRC3832, which grows slower than NH04 at 10°C, and found that expression of AhpC enhanced growth. These results demonstrated that AhpC, which likely increases anti-oxidative capacity of LAB, plays an important role in their rapid growth at low temperatures.

  6. Characterization of some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Stancu, Mihaela-Marilena; Pelinescu, Diana; Zamfir, Medana

    2014-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different sources (dairy products, fruits, fresh and fermented vegetables, fermented cereals) were screened for antimicrobial activity against other bacteria, including potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria. Six strains have been shown to produce bacteriocins: Lactococcus lactis 19.3, Lactobacillus plantarum 26.1, Enterococcus durans 41.2, isolated from dairy products and Lactobacillus amylolyticus P40 and P50, and Lactobacillus oris P49, isolated from bors. Among the six bacteriocins, there were both heat stable, low molecular mass polypeptides, with a broad inhibitory spectrum, probably belonging to class II bacteriocins, and heat labile, high molecular mass proteins, with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum, most probably belonging to class III bacteriocins. A synergistic effect of some bacteriocins mixtures was observed. We can conclude that fermented foods are still important sources of new functional LAB. Among the six characterized bacteriocins, there might be some novel compounds with interesting features. Moreover, the bacteriocin-producing strains isolated in our study may find applications as protective cultures.

  7. Wall Teichoic Acids of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie; Santa Maria, John P.; Walker, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The peptidoglycan layers of many gram-positive bacteria are densely functionalized with anionic glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs). These polymers play crucial roles in cell shape determination, regulation of cell division, and other fundamental aspects of gram-positive bacterial physiology. Additionally, WTAs are important in pathogenesis and play key roles in antibiotic resistance. We provide an overview of WTA structure and biosynthesis, review recent studies on the biological roles of these polymers, and highlight remaining questions. We also discuss prospects for exploiting WTA biosynthesis as a target for new therapies to overcome resistant infections. PMID:24024634

  8. Lactic acid bacteria: the bugs of the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Konings, W N; Kok, J; Kuipers, O P; Poolman, B

    2000-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are widely used in the manufacturing of fermented food and are among the best-studied microorganisms. Detailed knowledge of a number of physiological traits has opened new potential applications for these organisms in the food industry, while other traits might be beneficial for human health. Important new developments have been made in the research of LABs in the areas of multidrug resistance, bacteriocins and quorum sensing, osmoregulation, proteolysis, autolysins and bacteriophages. Recently, progress has been made in the construction of food-grade genetically modified LABs.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1, Haloalkyl Phosphate Flame Retardant- and Plasticizer-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Katsumasa; Kasai, Daisuke; Fukuda, Masao; Takahashi, Shouji

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 are haloalkyl phosphate flame retardant- and plasticizer-degrading bacteria. We report here the draft genome sequences of these strains to provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying their degradation ability. PMID:27417843

  10. Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Young; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2006-08-01

    Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30 degrees C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions were monitored. L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. plantarum grew well on cabbage juice and reached nearly 10x10(8) CFU/mL after 48 h of fermentation at 30 degrees C. L. casei, however, produced a smaller amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid than L. delbrueckii or L. plantarum. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C, the viable cell counts of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii were still 4.1x10(7) and 4.5x10(5) mL(-1), respectively. L. casei did not survive the low pH and high acidity conditions in fermented cabbage juice and lost cell viability completely after 2 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C. Fermented cabbage juice could serve as a healthy beverage for vegetarians and lactose-allergic consumers.

  11. Evaluation of culture media for selective enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Süle, Judit; Kõrösi, Tímea; Hucker, Attila; Varga, László

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides-mupirocin lithium salt (TOS-MUP) and MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin (MRS-CC) agars, along with several other culture media, for selectively enumerating bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species commonly used to make fermented milks. Pure culture suspensions of a total of 13 dairy bacteria strains, belonging to eight species and five genera, were tested for growth capability under various incubation conditions. TOS-MUP agar was successfully used for the selective enumeration of both Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and B. breve M-16 V. MRS-CC agar showed relatively good selectivity for Lactobacillus acidophilus, however, it also promoted the growth of Lb. casei strains. For this reason, MRS-CC agar can only be used as a selective medium for the enumeration of Lb. acidophilus if Lb. casei is not present in a product at levels similar to or exceeding those of Lb. acidophilus. Unlike bifidobacteria and coccus-shaped LAB, all the lactobacilli strains involved in this work were found to grow well in MRS pH 5.4 agar incubated under anaerobiosis at 37 °C for 72 h. Therefore, this method proved to be particularly suitable for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus spp.

  12. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process. PMID:21092306

  13. Volatile sulphur compounds-forming abilities of lactic acid bacteria: C-S lyase activities.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Irene; Martínez-Bartolomé, Miguel A; Achemchem, Fouad; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen

    2011-08-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall aroma of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavours. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. Here, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from different ecological origins were screened for their abilities to produce VSCs from L-methionine. From the data presented, VSC-forming abilities were shown to be strain-specific and were correlated with the C-S lyase enzymatic activities determined using different approaches. High VSCs formation were detected for those strains that were also shown to possess high thiol-producing abilities (determined either by agar plate or spectrophotometry assays). Moreover, differences in C-S lyase activities were shown to correspond with the enzymatic potential of the strains as determined by in situ gel visualization. Therefore, the assessment of the C-S lyase enzymatic potential, by means of either of these techniques, could be used as a valuable approach for the selection of LAB strains with high VSC-producing abilities thus, representing an effective way to enhance cheese sulphur aroma compounds synthesis. In this regard, this study highlights the flavour forming potential of the Streptococcus thermophilus STY-31, that therefore could be used as a starter culture in cheese manufacture. Furthermore, although C-S lyases are involved in both biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, an association between methionine and cysteine auxotrophy of the selected strains and their VSCs-producing abilities could not be found.

  14. Genetic diversity and some aspects of antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Dornellas, Wesley Dos Santos; Perin, Luana Martins; Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, n = 57) were previously obtained from raw goat milk, identified as Lactococcus spp. (n = 24) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 33), and characterized as bacteriocinogenic. Fingerprinting by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated high genetic diversity, and 30 strains were selected and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against 46 target strains (LAB, spoilage, and foodborne pathogens). Six strains (Lactococcus lactis: GLc03 and GLc05; and Enterococcus durans: GEn09, GEn12, GEn14, and GEn17) were selected to characterize their bacteriocinogenic features, using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as the target. The six strains produced bacteriocins at higher titer when incubated in MRS at 37 °C up to 12 h, when compared to growth at 25 and 30 °C. The produced bacteriocins kept their antimicrobial activity after exposure to 100 °C for 2 h and 121 °C for 20 min; the antimicrobial activity was also observed after treatment at pH 2.0 to 10.0, except for GLc03. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced approximately two logs after treatment with cell-free supernatants from the selected strains. These data show that goat milk can contain a diverse microbiota able to inhibit L. monocytogenes, a common pathogen found in dairy products, and can be potentially employed in biopreservation of food produced under different processing conditions.

  15. Screening for glycosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria as a biotechnological tool in oenology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Martín, Raúl; Palop, María Llanos

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability from a number of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different sources to produce glycosidase enzymes. Representative isolates (225) from clusters obtained after genotyping, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis, of 1,464 isolates, were screened for β-D-glucosidase activity. Thirty-five of them were selected for subsequent analysis. These strains were able to hydrolyze α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-xylopyranoside and α-L-arabinofuranoside although β-D-glucosidase activity was the predominant activity for 22 of the selected strains. Only some of them did so with α-L-rhamnopyranoside. All of these were from wine samples and were identified as belonging to the Oenococcus oeni species using Amplification and Restriction Analysis of 16S-rRNA gene (16S-ARDRA). When the influence of pH, temperature and ethanol or sugars content on β-D-glucosidase activity was assayed, a strain-dependent response was observed. The β-D-glucosidase activity occurred in both whole and sonicated cells but not in the supernatants from cultures or obtained after cell sonication. Strains 10, 17, 21, and 23 retained the most β-D-glucosidase activity when they were assayed at the conditions of temperature, pH, ethanol and sugar content used in winemaking. These results suggest that these strains could be used as a source of glycosidase enzymes for use in winemaking.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from young calves--characterization and potential as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Natalia C; de Ruiz, Clara Silva; Otero, María Claudia; Sesma, Fernando; Nader-Macías, María Elena

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as probiotics in humans and animals to restore the ecological balance of different mucosa. They help in the physiological functions of newborn calves that are susceptible to a variety of syndromes. The criteria for the selection of strains for the design of probiotic products are not available. Based in the host-specificity of the indigenous microbiota, 96 LAB isolates from faeces and oral cavity of calves were obtained. The surface properties were screened showing a small number of highly hydrophobic or autoagglutinating isolates. Also, a group produced H(2)O(2) and were able to inhibit pathogens, and two strains were bacteriocin-producers. Some grew at very low pH and high bile concentrations. The strains sharing some of the specific properties evaluated were identified genetically, assayed their compatibility and exopolysaccharide production. The results allow going further in the establishment of criteria to select strains to be included in a multi-strain-probiotic-product to be further assayed in animals.

  17. Risk assessment of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria using the concept of substantial equivalence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Piard, Jean-Christophe; Sesma, Fernando; de Giori, Graciela Savoy

    2010-12-01

    The use of food-grade microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the most promising methods for delivering health promoting compounds. Since it is not always possible to obtain strains that have the ability to produce specific compounds naturally or that produce them in sufficient quantities to obtain physiological responses, genetic modifications can be performed to improve their output. The objective of this study was to evaluate if previously studied genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB), with proven in vivo beneficial effects, are just as safe as the progenitor strain from which they were derived. Mice received an elevated concentration of different GM-LAB or the native parental strain from which they were derived during a prolonged period of time, and different health parameters were evaluated. Similar growth rates, hematological values, and other physiological parameters were obtained in the animals that received the GM-LAB compared to those that were fed with the native strain. These results demonstrate that the GM-LAB used in this study are just as safe as the native strains from which they were derived and thus merit further studies to include them into the food chain.

  18. Probiotic potential of noni juice fermented with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Ng, Chang-Chai; Su, Hsuan; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2009-01-01

    The present study assesses the feasibility of noni as a raw substrate for the production of probiotic noni juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilluscasei and Lactobacillus plantarum) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacteriumlongum). Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, cell survival and antioxidant properties during fermentation were monitored. All tested strains grew well on noni juice, reaching nearly 10⁹ colony-forming units/ml after 48 h fermentation. L.casei produced less lactic acid than B.longum and L. plantarum. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4°C, B.longum and L. plantarum survived under low-pH conditions in fermented noni juice. In contrast, L.casei exhibited no cell viability after 3 weeks. Moreover, noni juice fermented with B.longum had a high antioxidant capacity that did not differ significantly (P <0.05) from that of lactic acid bacteria. Finally, we found that B.longum and L. plantarum are optimal probiotics for fermentation with noni juice.

  19. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  20. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25228086

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vesterlund, Satu; Karp, Matti; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2006-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that Staphylococcus aureus may colonize the intestinal tract, especially among hospitalized patients. As Staph. aureus has been found to be associated with certain gastrointestinal diseases, it has become important to study whether this bacterium can colonize the intestinal tract and if so, whether it is possible to prevent colonization. Adhesion is the first step in colonization; this study shows that Staph. aureus adheres to mucus from resected human intestinal tissue. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly commercial probiotics, were able to reduce adhesion and viability of adherent Staph. aureus. In displacement assays the amount of adherent Staph. aureus in human intestinal mucus was reduced 39-44% by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Moreover, adherent Lactobacillus reuteri, Lc. lactis and P. freudenreichii reduced viability of adherent Staph. aureus by 27-36%, depending on the strain, after 2 h incubation. This was probably due to the production of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide and possibly in the case of L. reuteri to the production of reuterin. This study shows for the first time that Staph. aureus can adhere to human intestinal mucus and adherent bacteria can be displaced and killed by certain LAB strains via in situ production of antimicrobial substances.

  3. Bee Venom (Apis Mellifera) an Effective Potential Alternative to Gentamicin for Specific Bacteria Strains

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mellitine, a major component of bee venom (BV, Apis mellifera), is more active against gram positive than gram negative bacteria. Moreover, BV has been reported to have multiple effects, including antibacterial, antivirus, and anti-inflammation effects, in various types of cells. In addition, wasp venom has been reported to have antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains of medical importance. Methods: This investigation was set up to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against six grams positive and gram negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Three concentrations of crude BV and standard antibiotic (gentamicin) disks as positive controls were tested by using the disc diffusion method. Results: BV was found to have a significant antibacterial effect against E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella typhyimurium in all three concentrations tested. However, BV had no noticeable effect on other tested bacteria for any of the three doses tested. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that BV inhibits the growth and survival of bacterial strains and that BV can be used as a complementary antimicrobial agent against pathogenic bacteria. BV lacked the effective proteins necessary for it to exhibit antibacterial activity for some specific strains while being very effective against other specific strains. Thus, one may conclude, that Apis mellifera venom may have a specific mechanism that allows it to have an antibacterial effect on certain susceptible bacteria, but that mechanism is not well understood. PMID:27695631

  4. Bee Venom (Apis Mellifera) an Effective Potential Alternative to Gentamicin for Specific Bacteria Strains

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mellitine, a major component of bee venom (BV, Apis mellifera), is more active against gram positive than gram negative bacteria. Moreover, BV has been reported to have multiple effects, including antibacterial, antivirus, and anti-inflammation effects, in various types of cells. In addition, wasp venom has been reported to have antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains of medical importance. Methods: This investigation was set up to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against six grams positive and gram negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Three concentrations of crude BV and standard antibiotic (gentamicin) disks as positive controls were tested by using the disc diffusion method. Results: BV was found to have a significant antibacterial effect against E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella typhyimurium in all three concentrations tested. However, BV had no noticeable effect on other tested bacteria for any of the three doses tested. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that BV inhibits the growth and survival of bacterial strains and that BV can be used as a complementary antimicrobial agent against pathogenic bacteria. BV lacked the effective proteins necessary for it to exhibit antibacterial activity for some specific strains while being very effective against other specific strains. Thus, one may conclude, that Apis mellifera venom may have a specific mechanism that allows it to have an antibacterial effect on certain susceptible bacteria, but that mechanism is not well understood.

  5. Lactic acid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars using lactic acid bacteria: overview and limits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-12-20

    Lactic acid is an industrially important product with a large and rapidly expanding market due to its attractive and valuable multi-function properties. The economics of lactic acid production by fermentation is dependent on many factors, of which the cost of the raw materials is very significant. It is very expensive when sugars, e.g., glucose, sucrose, starch, etc., are used as the feedstock for lactic acid production. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock for lactic acid production considering its great availability, sustainability, and low cost compared to refined sugars. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of lignocellulose for lactic acid production is still problematic. This review describes the "conventional" processes for producing lactic acid from lignocellulosic materials with lactic acid bacteria. These processes include: pretreatment of the biomass, enzyme hydrolysis to obtain fermentable sugars, fermentation technologies, and separation and purification of lactic acid. In addition, the difficulties associated with using this biomass for lactic acid production are especially introduced and several key properties that should be targeted for low-cost and advanced fermentation processes are pointed out. We also discuss the metabolism of lignocellulose-derived sugars by lactic acid bacteria.

  6. Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

  7. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on light emission by various strains of marine luminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Katsev, Andrey M; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Szpilewska, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    Light-emitting bacteria are the most abundant and widespread luminescent organisms. Most species of such bacteria live in marine environments. However, until recently, biological role of bacterial luminescence remained unknown. Recent studies indicated that light produced in bacterial cells may stimulate DNA repair. Therefore, it is not surprising that agents that cause DNA damage induce expression of lux genes. Moreover, it was proposed previously that bacterial luciferases may be involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Recently, this hypothesis was confirmed experimentally. Here we investigated effects of hydrogen peroxide on light emission by various strains of luminescent bacteria. We found that luminescence of strains with luciferase of fast kinetics of reaction decreased at considerably lower concentrations of H2O2 than that of strains with luciferase of the slow kinetics. The action (either direct or indirect) of luciferases as anti-oxidants seemed to be independent of activity of catalase, which was found to be different in various strains. Therefore, it seems that luciferases of the slow kinetics are more efficient in detoxification of reactive oxygen species than those of the fast kinetics.

  8. Characterization, Identification and Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Forage Paddy Rice Silage

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Dongxia; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest to develop forage rice as a new feed resource for livestock. This study was to characterize the natural population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and select potentially excellent strains for paddy rice silage preparation in China. One hundred and twenty-six strains were isolated and screened from paddy rice silage prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and ninety-nine of these isolates were considered to be LAB based on their Gram-positive and catalase-negative morphology and the production of most of their metabolic products as lactic acid. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The Group A to H strains were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (species ratio: 8.1%), L. casei (5.1%), Leuconostoc (Ln.) pseudomesenteroides (11.1%), Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus (24.2%), Enterococcus (E.) mundtii (12.1%), Lactococcus (Lc.) garvieae (15.2%), E. faecium (9.1%) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (15.2%) based on sequence analyses of their 16S rRNA and recA genes. P. pentosaceus was the most abundant member of the LAB population in the paddy rice silage. A selected strain, namely L. casei R 465, was found to be able to grow under low pH conditions and to improve the silage quality with low pH and a relatively high content of lactic acid. This study demonstrated that forage paddy rice silage contains abundant LAB species and its silage can be well preserved by inoculation with LAB, and that strain R 465 can be a potentially excellent inoculant for paddy rice silage. PMID:25803578

  9. Characterization, identification and application of lactic Acid bacteria isolated from forage paddy rice silage.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Dongxia; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest to develop forage rice as a new feed resource for livestock. This study was to characterize the natural population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and select potentially excellent strains for paddy rice silage preparation in China. One hundred and twenty-six strains were isolated and screened from paddy rice silage prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and ninety-nine of these isolates were considered to be LAB based on their Gram-positive and catalase-negative morphology and the production of most of their metabolic products as lactic acid. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The Group A to H strains were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (species ratio: 8.1%), L. casei (5.1%), Leuconostoc (Ln.) pseudomesenteroides (11.1%), Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus (24.2%), Enterococcus (E.) mundtii (12.1%), Lactococcus (Lc.) garvieae (15.2%), E. faecium (9.1%) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (15.2%) based on sequence analyses of their 16S rRNA and recA genes. P. pentosaceus was the most abundant member of the LAB population in the paddy rice silage. A selected strain, namely L. casei R 465, was found to be able to grow under low pH conditions and to improve the silage quality with low pH and a relatively high content of lactic acid. This study demonstrated that forage paddy rice silage contains abundant LAB species and its silage can be well preserved by inoculation with LAB, and that strain R 465 can be a potentially excellent inoculant for paddy rice silage. PMID:25803578

  10. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    PubMed

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Four obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella cibaria PON10030 and PON10032 and Leuconostoc citreum PON 10079 and PON10080) were tested as single strain starters, mono-species dual strain starters, and multiple strain starter for the preparation and propagation of sourdoughs for the production of a typical bread at industrial level. The kinetics of pH and TTA during the daily sourdough refreshments indicated a correct acidification process for all trials. The concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased consistently during fermentation. The resulting molar ratios between these two organic acids in the experimental trials were lower than those observed in the control trial. The microbiological investigation showed levels of approximately 10(9) CFU/mL in almost all sourdoughs and the comparison of the genetic polymorphisms of the dominating LAB with those of the pure cultures evidenced the persistence of the added strains over time. The resulting breads were evaluated for several quality parameters. The breads with the greatest height were obtained with the quadruple combination of leuconostocs and weissellas. The highest softness was registered for the breads obtained from fermentations performed by W. cibaria PON10032 alone and in combination. The different inocula influenced also the color, the void fraction, the cell density and the mean cell area of the breads. Different levels of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, furans and phenol were emitted by the breads. The sensory tests indicated the breads from the sourdoughs fermented with the seven LAB inocula as sweeter and less acidic than control breads and the breads from the trials with the highest complexity of LAB inoculums were those more appreciated by tasters. A multivariate approach found strong differences among the trials. In particular, control breads and the breads obtained with different starter LAB were quite distant and a more

  11. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    PubMed

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Four obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella cibaria PON10030 and PON10032 and Leuconostoc citreum PON 10079 and PON10080) were tested as single strain starters, mono-species dual strain starters, and multiple strain starter for the preparation and propagation of sourdoughs for the production of a typical bread at industrial level. The kinetics of pH and TTA during the daily sourdough refreshments indicated a correct acidification process for all trials. The concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased consistently during fermentation. The resulting molar ratios between these two organic acids in the experimental trials were lower than those observed in the control trial. The microbiological investigation showed levels of approximately 10(9) CFU/mL in almost all sourdoughs and the comparison of the genetic polymorphisms of the dominating LAB with those of the pure cultures evidenced the persistence of the added strains over time. The resulting breads were evaluated for several quality parameters. The breads with the greatest height were obtained with the quadruple combination of leuconostocs and weissellas. The highest softness was registered for the breads obtained from fermentations performed by W. cibaria PON10032 alone and in combination. The different inocula influenced also the color, the void fraction, the cell density and the mean cell area of the breads. Different levels of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, furans and phenol were emitted by the breads. The sensory tests indicated the breads from the sourdoughs fermented with the seven LAB inocula as sweeter and less acidic than control breads and the breads from the trials with the highest complexity of LAB inoculums were those more appreciated by tasters. A multivariate approach found strong differences among the trials. In particular, control breads and the breads obtained with different starter LAB were quite distant and a more

  12. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG)5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5) and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64 mg/L whereas some W. confusa

  13. Natural Lactic Acid Bacteria Population and Silage Fermentation of Whole-crop Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is a suitable crop to be ensiled for animal feed and China has the largest planting area of this crop in the world. During the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play the most important role in the fermentation. We investigated the natural population of LAB in whole-crop wheat (WCW) and examined the quality of whole-crop wheat silage (WCWS) with and without LAB inoculants. Two Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum strains, Zhengzhou University 1 (ZZU 1) selected from corn and forage and grass 1 (FG 1) from a commercial inoculant, were used as additives. The silages inoculated with LAB strains (ZZU 1 and FG 1) were better preserved than the control, with lower pH values (3.5 and 3.6, respectively) (p<0.05) and higher contents of lactic acid (37.5 and 34.0 g/kg of fresh matter (FM), respectively) (p<0.05) than the control. Sixty LAB strains were isolated from fresh material and WCWS without any LAB inoculation. These LAB strains were divided into the following four genera and six species based on their phenotypic, biochemical and phylogenetic characteristics: Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum. However, the prevalent LAB, which was predominantly heterofermentative (66.7%), consisted of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, and Lactobacillus buchneri. This study revealed that most of isolated LAB strains from control WCWS were heterofermentative and could not grow well at low pH condition; the selective inoculants of Lactobacillus strains, especially ZZU 1, could improve WCWS quality significantly. PMID:26104520

  14. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  15. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains. PMID:26691589

  16. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-22

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  17. Codominance of Lactobacillus plantarum and obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ventimiglia, Giusi; Alfonzo, Antonio; Galluzzo, Paola; Corona, Onofrio; Francesca, Nicola; Caracappa, Santo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen sourdoughs produced in western Sicily (southern Italy) were analysed by classical methods for their chemico-physical characteristics and the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were mostly in the range commonly reported for similar products produced in Italy, but the fermentation quotient (FQ) of the majority of samples was above 4.0, due to the low concentration of acetic acid estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specific counts of LAB showed levels higher than 10(8) CFU g(-1) for many samples. The colonies representing various morphologies were isolated and, after the differentiation based on phenotypic characteristics, divided into 10 groups. The most numerous group was composed of facultative heterofermentative isolates, indicating a relevance of this bacterial group during fermentation. The genetic analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCRs identified 33 strains as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus graminis. Due to the consistent presence of L. plantarum, it was concluded that this species codominates with obligate heterofermentative LAB in sourdough production in this geographical area. In order to evaluate the performances at the basis of their fitness, the 29 L. plantarum strains were investigated for several technological traits. Twelve cultures showed good acidifying abilities in vitro and L. plantarum PON100148 produced the highest concentrations of organic acids. Eleven strains were positive for extracellular protease activity. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) production and antifungal activity was scored positive for several strains, included L. plantarum PON100148 which was selected as starter for experimental sourdough production. The characteristics of the sourdoughs and the resulting breads indicated that the best productions were obtained in presence of L

  18. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  19. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  20. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  1. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  2. Biotransformations of Bile Acids with Bacteria from Cayambe Slaughterhouse (Ecuador): Synthesis of Bendigoles.

    PubMed

    Costa, Stefania; Maldonado Rodriguez, Maria Elena; Rugiero, Irene; De Bastiani, Morena; Medici, Alessandro; Tamburini, Elena; Pedrini, Paola

    2016-08-01

    The biotransformations of cholic acid (1a), deoxycholic acid (1b), and hyodeoxycholic acid (1c) to bendigoles and other metabolites with bacteria isolated from the rural slaughterhouse of Cayambe (Pichincha Province, Ecuador) were reported. The more active strains were characterized, and belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Various biotransformation products were obtained depending on bacteria and substrates. Cholic acid (1a) afforded the 3-oxo and 3-oxo-4-ene derivatives 2a and 3a (45% and 45%, resp.) with P. mendocina ECS10, 3,12-dioxo-4-ene derivative 4a (60%) with Rh. erythropolis ECS25, and 9,10-secosteroid 6 (15%) with Rh. erythropolis ECS12. Bendigole F (5a) was obtained in 20% with P. fragi ECS22. Deoxycholic acid (1b) gave 3-oxo derivative 2b with P. prosekii ECS1 and Rh. erythropolis ECS25 (20% and 61%, resp.), while 3-oxo-4-ene derivative 3b was obtained with P. prosekii ECS1 and P. mendocina ECS10 (22% and 95%, resp.). Moreover, P. fragi ECS9 afforded bendigole A (8b; 80%). Finally, P. mendocina ECS10 biotransformed hyodeoxycholic acid (1c) to 3-oxo derivative 2c (50%) and Rh. erythropolis ECS12 to 6α-hydroxy-3-oxo-23,24-dinor-5β-cholan-22-oic acid (9c, 66%). Bendigole G (5c; 13%) with P. prosekii ECS1 and bendigole H (8c) with P. prosekii ECS1 and Rh. erythropolis ECS12 (20% and 16%, resp.) were obtained. PMID:27358241

  3. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects

  4. Decolorization of molasses melanoidins and palm oil mill effluent phenolic compounds by fermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Limkhuansuwan, Vassanasak; Chaiprasert, Pawinee

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum SF5.6 is one of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has the highest ability of molasses melanoidin (MM) decolorization among the 2114 strains of LAB. The strains were isolated from spoilage, pickle fruit and vegetable, soil and sludge from the wastewater treatment system by using technical step of enrichment, primary screening and secondary screening. This LAB strain SF5.6 was identified by 16S rDNA analysis and carbohydrate fermentation (API 50 CH). The top five LAB strains having high MM decolorization (> 55%), namely TBSF5.8-1, TBSF2.1-1, TBSF2.1, FF4A and SF5.6 were selected to determine the optimal condition. It was found that the temperature at 30 degrees C under facultative conditions in GPY-MM medium (0.5% glucose, 0.1% peptone, 0.1% yeast extract, 0.1% sodium acetate, 0.05% MgSO4 and 0.005% MnCl2 in MM solution at pH 6) giving a high microbial growth and MM decolorization for all five strains. It was noticed that the decolorization of MM by LAB strains might be cell growth associated. L. plantarum SF5.6 grew rapidly within one day while the other strains took 2-3 days. This L. plantarum SF5.6 could rapidly decolorize MM to 60.91% without any lag phase, and it also had the ability to remove 34.00% phenolic compounds and 15.88% color from treated palm oil mill effluent.

  5. Rapid detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria by microcolony method.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shizuka; Iijima, Kazumaru; Suzuki, Koji; Motoyama, Yasuo; Ogata, Tomoo; Kitagawa, Yasushi

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated a microcolony method for the detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this approach, bacterial cells were trapped on a polycarbonate membrane filter and cultured on ABD medium, a medium that allows highly specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains. After short-time incubation, viable cells forming microcolonies were stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and counted with muFinder Inspection System. In our study, we first investigated the growth behavior of various beer-spoilage LAB by traditional culture method, and Lactobacillus lindneri and several L. paracollinoides strains were selected as slow growers on ABD medium. Then the detection speeds were evaluated by microcolony method, using these slowly growing strains. As a result, all of the slowly growing beer-spoilage LAB strains were detected within 3 days of incubation. The specificity of this method was found to be exceptionally high and even discriminated intra-species differences in beer-spoilage ability of LAB strains upon detection. These results indicate that our microcolony approach allows rapid and specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains with inexpensive CFDA staining. For further confirmation of species status of detected strains, subsequent treatment with species-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes was shown as effective for identifying the CFDA-detected microcolonies to the species level. In addition, no false-positive results arising from noise signals were recognized for CFDA staining and FISH methods. Taken together, the developed microcolony method was demonstrated as a rapid and highly specific countermeasure against beer-spoilage LAB, and compared favorably with the conventional culture methods. PMID:19619859

  6. Bacteria obtained from a sequencing batch reactor that are capable of growth on dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed

    Mohn, W W

    1995-06-01

    Eleven isolates capable of growth on the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DhA) were obtained from a sequencing batch reactor designed to treat a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates belonged to two groups, represented by strains DhA-33 and DhA-35, which were characterized. In the bioreactor, bacteria like DhA-35 were more abundant than those like DhA-33. The population in the bioreactor of organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(6) propagules per ml, based on a most-probable-number determination. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA partial sequences indicated that DhA-33 was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab = 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera (Sab = 0.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric and isopimaric acids. For DhA-33 and DhA-35 with DhA as the sole organic substrate, doubling times were 2.7 and 2.2 h, respectively, and growth yields were 0.30 and 0.25 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. Glucose as a cosubstrate stimulated growth of DhA-33 on DhA and stimulated DhA degradation by the culture. Pyruvate as a cosubstrate did not stimulate growth of DhA-35 on DhA and reduced the specific rate of DhA degradation of the culture. DhA induced DhA and abietic acid degradation activities in both strains, and these activities were heat labile. Cell suspensions of both strains consumed DhA at a rate of 6 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria and other gut bacteria in pigs by a macroarraying method.

    PubMed

    Thanantong, Narut; Edwards, Sandra; Sparagano, Olivier A E

    2006-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) consist of many genera, Gram-positive, and nonspore-forming micro-organisms; some members being used as probiotics while some others have negative effects on pig health. Bacterial species in the gastrointestinal tract can produce antibacterial substances, reduce serum cholesterol in their host, or can be responsible for growth reduction, diarrhea, and intestinal epithelial damage. It is therefore important for the pig industry to evaluate the impact of food and farm management on the presence of "good" or "bad" bacteria and the risk for consumers. This articles focuses on the molecular identification of gut microflora species following different diets given to pigs in UK and correlating the data on growth, health, and welfare. First of all, pig feces were individually collected from sows before and after farrowing and also from piglets before and after weaning over several months. Bacteria colonies were grown on MRS agar plates from feces and DNA was extracted (QIAamp DNA stool kit) and amplified using 16S rDNA (27f and 519r) primers. DNA sequencing and sequence alignment allowed us to identify species-specific zones, which were used as probes in a macroarray system also known as reverse line blot hybridization. Some probes were found to be species specific for the following species: Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. animalis, L. gallinarum, L. kitasanotis, L salivarius, Streptococcus alactolyticus, S. hyointestinalis, and Sarcina ventriculi. Actual studies are now focusing on the impact of diets of the microflora in different gut parts and at different stages of the animal's life.

  8. In vitro Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Nem Chua, a Traditional Vietnamese Fermented Pork

    PubMed Central

    Rumjuankiat, Kittaporn; Ngamyeesoon, Nualphan; Duy, Le Nguyen Doan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and In vitro characterize the properties of bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Vietnamese fermented pork (Nem chua). One hundred and fifty LAB were isolated from ten samples of Nem chua and screened for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin was carried out by spot on lawn method against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. One isolate, assigned as KL-1, produced bacteriocin and showed inhibitory activity against Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Enterococcus faecalis. To characterize the bacteriocin-producing strain, optimum temperature, incubation period for maximum bacteriocin production and identification of bacteriocin-producing strain were determined. It was found that the optimum cultivation temperature of the strain to produce the maximum bacteriocin activity (12,800 AU/mL) was obtained at 30℃. Meanwhile, bacteriocin production at 6,400 AU/mL was found when culturing the strain at 37℃ and 42℃. The isolate KL-1 was identified as L. plantarum. Antimicrobial activity of cell-free supernatant was completely inhibited by proteolytic enzyme of trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. Bacteriocin activity was stable at high temperature up to 100℃ for 10 min and at 4℃ storage for 2 d. However, the longer heating at 100℃ and 4℃ storage, its activity was reduced. PMID:26761868

  9. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Roseane B. P.; de L. Oliveira, Afonso; Glória, M. Beatriz A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm2 were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS) from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100°C for 10 min) and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0). These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products. PMID:24031232

  10. [Isolation and Identification of Petroleum Degradation Bacteria and Interspecific Interactions Among Four Bacillus Strains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-nan; Shi, Yan-yun; Zheng, Li-yan; Wang, Zhe; Cai, Zhang; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Six petroleum-degrading strains were isolated from oil-contaminated soil at Dagang oil field and oil sewage on Bohai offshore drilling platform in Tianjin using enrichment culture and isolation method. The physiological biochemical test together with 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that they belonged to Bacillus (S1, S2, S3, S4), Pseudomonas (W1) and Ochrobactrum (W2), respectively. The strain S3 had the maximum degradation rate of alkane (41.3%) and aromatic hydrocarbon (30.9%) among all isolated strains showing the better degradation efficiency by endogenous bacteria when compared to that by the exogenous bacteria. The four Bacillus strains were used to construct microbiome, thereafter subjected to petroleum degradation efficiency test and analyzed. The results showed that microbiome F3 consisting of S1 and S4 had the maximum degradation rates of alkane (50.5%) and aromatic hydrocarbon (54.0%), which were 69.9% and 156.1% higher than those by single bacterium, respectively. Furthermore, they were 22.1% and 74.6% respectively higher than those by the most optimal degradation bacterium S3. Microbiome F4 consisting of S2 and S3 had the minimum degradation rates of alkane (18.5%) and aromatic hydrocarbon (18.9%) which were 55.3% and 39.0% lower than the degradation rates of single bacterium, respectively. The results also demonstrated that there were both microbial synergy promotion and antagonism inhibition among bacteria of the same genus in the petroleum degradation period. Bacteria with close affinity in Bacillus genus displayed mainly promoted petroleum degradation effect.

  11. [Isolation and Identification of Petroleum Degradation Bacteria and Interspecific Interactions Among Four Bacillus Strains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-nan; Shi, Yan-yun; Zheng, Li-yan; Wang, Zhe; Cai, Zhang; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Six petroleum-degrading strains were isolated from oil-contaminated soil at Dagang oil field and oil sewage on Bohai offshore drilling platform in Tianjin using enrichment culture and isolation method. The physiological biochemical test together with 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that they belonged to Bacillus (S1, S2, S3, S4), Pseudomonas (W1) and Ochrobactrum (W2), respectively. The strain S3 had the maximum degradation rate of alkane (41.3%) and aromatic hydrocarbon (30.9%) among all isolated strains showing the better degradation efficiency by endogenous bacteria when compared to that by the exogenous bacteria. The four Bacillus strains were used to construct microbiome, thereafter subjected to petroleum degradation efficiency test and analyzed. The results showed that microbiome F3 consisting of S1 and S4 had the maximum degradation rates of alkane (50.5%) and aromatic hydrocarbon (54.0%), which were 69.9% and 156.1% higher than those by single bacterium, respectively. Furthermore, they were 22.1% and 74.6% respectively higher than those by the most optimal degradation bacterium S3. Microbiome F4 consisting of S2 and S3 had the minimum degradation rates of alkane (18.5%) and aromatic hydrocarbon (18.9%) which were 55.3% and 39.0% lower than the degradation rates of single bacterium, respectively. The results also demonstrated that there were both microbial synergy promotion and antagonism inhibition among bacteria of the same genus in the petroleum degradation period. Bacteria with close affinity in Bacillus genus displayed mainly promoted petroleum degradation effect. PMID:26387332

  12. Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

    The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

  13. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  14. Genetic and Technological Characterisation of Vineyard- and Winery-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nisiotou, Aspasia A.; Filippousi, Maria-Evangelia; Fragkoulis, Petros; Tassou, Chryssoula; Banilas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Vineyard- and winery-associated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from two major PDO regions in Greece, Peza and Nemea, were surveyed. LAB were isolated from grapes, fermenting musts, and winery tanks performing spontaneous malolactic fermentations (MLF). Higher population density and species richness were detected in Nemea than in Peza vineyards and on grapes than in fermenting musts. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus graminis were the most abundant LAB on grapes, while Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in fermenting musts from both regions. No particular structure of Lactobacillus plantarum populations according to the region of origin was observed, and strain distribution seems random. LAB species diversity in winery tanks differed significantly from that in vineyard samples, consisting principally of Oenococcus oeni. Different strains were analysed as per their enological characteristics and the ability to produce biogenic amines (BAs). Winery-associated species showed higher resistance to low pH, ethanol, SO2, and CuSO4 than vineyard-associated isolates. The frequency of BA-producing strains was relatively low but not negligible, considering that certain winery-associated Lactobacillus hilgardii strains were able to produce BAs. Present results show the necessity of controlling the MLF by selected starters in order to avoid BA accumulation in wine. PMID:25866789

  15. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Kántor, Attila; Kluz, Maciej; Puchalski, Czeslaw; Terentjeva, Margarita; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria strains have been shown to cause wine spoilage, including the generation of substances undesirable for the health of wine consumers. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of selected species of heterofermentative lactobacilli, specifically Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Lactobacillus plantarum in six different Slovak red wines following the fermentation process. In order to identify the dominant Lactobacillus strain using quantitative (real time) polymerized chain reaction (qPCR) method, pure lyophilized bacterial cultures from the Czech Collection of Microorganisms were used. Six different red wine samples following malolactic fermentation were obtained from selected wineries. After collection, the samples were subjected to a classic plate dilution method for enumeration of lactobacilli cells. Real-time PCR was performed after DNA extraction from pure bacterial strains and wine samples. We used SYBR® Green master mix reagents for measuring the fluorescence in qPCR. The number of lactobacilli ranged from 3.60 to 5.02 log CFU mL(-1). Specific lactobacilli strains were confirmed by qPCR in all wine samples. The number of lactobacilli ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU mL(-1). A melting curve with different melting temperatures (T(m)) of DNA amplicons was obtained after PCR for the comparison of T(m) of control and experimental portions, revealing that the most common species in wine samples was Lactobacillus plantarum with a T(m) of 84.64°C.

  16. Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria isolated from some pharmaceutical and dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Gamal Fadl M.; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Farag, Zeinab Shawky H.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 244 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from 180 dairy and pharmaceutical products that were collected from different areas in Minia governorate, Egypt. LAB were identified phenotypically on basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Lactobacillus isolates were further confirmed using PCR-based assay. By combination of phenotypic with molecular identification Lactobacillus spp. were found to be the dominant genus (138, 76.7%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (65, 36.1%) and Lactococcus spp. (27, 15%). Some contaminant organisms such as (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., mould and yeast) were isolated from the collected dairy samples but pharmaceutical products were free of such contaminants. Susceptibility of LAB isolates to antibiotics representing all major classes was tested by agar dilution method. Generally, LAB were highly susceptible to Beta-lactams except penicillin. Lactobacilli were resistant to vancomycin, however lactococci and streptococci proved to be very susceptible. Most strains were susceptible to tetracycline and showed a wide range of streptomycin MICs. The MICs of erythromycin and clindamycin for most of the LAB were within the normal range of susceptibility. Sixteen Lactobacillus, 8 Lactococcus and 8 Streptococcus isolates including all tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant strains were tested for the presence of tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant genes [tet(M) and/or erm(B)]. PCR assays shows that some resistant strains harbor tet(M) and/or erm(B) resistance genes. PMID:24948910

  17. Bioprotective potential of lactic acid bacteria in malting and brewing.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Susan; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2008-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are naturally associated with many foods or their raw ingredients and are popularly used in food fermentation to enhance the sensory, aromatic, and textural properties of food. These microorganisms are well recognized for their biopreservative properties, which are achieved through the production of antimicrobial compounds such as lactic acid, diacetyl, bacteriocins, and other metabolites. The antifungal activity of certain LAB is less well characterized, but organic acids, as yet uncharacterized proteinaceous compounds, and cyclic dipeptides can inhibit the growth of some fungi. A variety of microbes are carried on raw materials used in beer brewing, rendering the process susceptible to contamination and often resulting in spoilage or inferior quality of the finished product. The application of antimicrobial-producing LAB at various points in the malting and brewing process could help to negate this problem, providing an added hurdle for spoilage organisms to overcome and leading to the production of a higher quality beer. This review outlines the bioprotective potential of LAB and its application with specific reference to the brewing industry.

  18. Amino Acid and Vitamin Requirements of Several Bacteroides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Grace

    1966-01-01

    Nutritional studies were performed on nine Bacteroides strains, by use of the methodology and media of anaerobic rumen microbiology. Ristella perfoetens CCI required l-arginine hydrochloride, l-tryptophan, l-leucine, l-histidine hydrochloride, l-cysteine hydrochloride, dl-valine, dl-tyrosine, and the vitamin calcium-d-pantothenate, since scant turbidity developed in media without these nutrients. R. perfoetens was stimulated by glycine, dl-lysine hydrochloride, dl-isoleucine, l-proline, l-glutamic acid, dl-alanine, dl-phenylalanine, dl-methionine, and the vitamins nicotinamide and p-aminobenzoic acid, since maximal turbidity developed more slowly in media without these nutrients than in complete medium. Medium A-23, which was devised for R. perfoetens, contained salts, 0.0002% nicotinamide and calcium d-pantothenate, 0.00001% p-aminobenzoic acid, 0.044% l-tryptophan, 0.09% l-glutamic acid, and 0.1% of the other 13 amino acids listed above. Zuberella clostridiformis and seven strains of R. pseudoinsolita did not require vitamins, and showed no absolute requirement for any one amino acid. Various strains produced maximal turbidity more slowly in media deficient in l-proline, glycine, l-glutamic acid, dl-serine, l-histidine hydrochloride, dl-alanine, or l-cysteine hydrochloride, than in complete medium. These eight strains grew optimally in medium A-23 plus 0.1% dl-serine but without vitamins. PMID:16349673

  19. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Keita; Sugiyama, Makoto; Mukai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective.

  20. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Sugiyama, Makoto; Mukai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective. PMID:27681930

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria Convert Human Fibroblasts to Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kunimasa; Kawano, Rie; Ito, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a vast community of symbionts and commensals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form a group of related, low-GC-content, gram-positive bacteria that are considered to offer a number of probiotic benefits to general health. While the role of LAB in gastrointestinal microecology has been the subject of extensive study, little is known about how commensal prokaryotic organisms directly influence eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate the generation of multipotential cells from adult human dermal fibroblast cells by incorporating LAB. LAB-incorporated cell clusters are similar to embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells and can differentiate into endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal cells in vivo and in vitro. LAB-incorporated cell clusters express a set of genes associated with multipotency, and microarray analysis indicates a remarkable increase of NANOG, a multipotency marker, and a notable decrease in HOX gene expression in LAB-incorporated cells. During the cell culture, the LAB-incorporated cell clusters stop cell division and start to express early senescence markers without cell death. Thus, LAB-incorporated cell clusters have potentially wide-ranging implications for cell generation, reprogramming, and cell-based therapy. PMID:23300571

  2. Perspectives of engineering lactic acid bacteria for biotechnological polyol production.

    PubMed

    Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-04-01

    Polyols are sugar alcohols largely used as sweeteners and they are claimed to have several health-promoting effects (low-caloric, low-glycemic, low-insulinemic, anticariogenic, and prebiotic). While at present chemical synthesis is the only strategy able to assure the polyol market demand, the biotechnological production of polyols has been implemented in yeasts, fungi, and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of microorganisms particularly suited for polyol production as they display a fermentative metabolism associated with an important redox modulation and a limited biosynthetic capacity. In addition, LAB participate in food fermentation processes, where in situ production of polyols during fermentation may be useful in the development of novel functional foods. Here, we review the polyol production by LAB, focusing on metabolic engineering strategies aimed to redirect sugar fermentation pathways towards the synthesis of biotechnologically important sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Furthermore, possible approaches are presented for engineering new fermentation routes in LAB for production of arabitol, ribitol, and erythritol. PMID:20180114

  3. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Keita; Sugiyama, Makoto; Mukai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective. PMID:27681930

  4. Efficacy of Locally Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria Against Antibiotic-Resistant Uropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Asma; Ul-Haq, Ikram; Baig, Shahjhan; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Seratlic, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance represents a serious global health threat to public health, so infections such as pneumonia and urinary tract infection (UTI) are becoming harder to treat. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an action plan to restrain the problem of antibiotic resistance. One approach in UTI control could be the use of lactobacilli because these indigenous inhabitants in human intestine have been found to play an important role in protecting the host from various infections. Objectives: We sought to check the efficacy of locally isolated Lactobacillus species to eradicate antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria causing UTI. Materials and Methods: Lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiled fruits and vegetables and grown in MRS medium were screened against multi-drug-resistant Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus fecalis. Results: Fifty-four lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiled fruits and vegetables, of which 11 Gram-positive and catalase-negative Lactobacillus isolates were identified by carbohydrate assimilation profiles as Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. paracasei, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. helveticus, L. brevis, L. salivarius, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. animalis, and L. plantarum. The latter organism had the highest abundance of all the samples, so its isolates were also verified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated Lactobacilli were screened against multi-drug-resistant uropathogens, viz. C. albicans, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, E. fecalis, and E. coli. The growth inhibition zone (GIZ) was over 10 mm against all the uropathogenic test organisms, where L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains demonstrated remarkable inhibitory activities against E. coli and E. faecalis, with a GIZ up to 28 mm. The susceptibility test to 16 antibiotics showed multidrug resistance (3 to 5 antibiotics) among all the tested uropathogens. Conclusions: The obtained results

  5. Efficacy of microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria in Helicobater pylori eradication therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Maha A.; El-Sheekh, Mostafa M.; El-Adawi, Hala I.; El-Deeb, Nehal M.; Hussein, Mohamed Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotic delivery systems are widely used nutraceutical products for the supplementation of natural intestinal flora. These delivery systems vary greatly in the effectiveness to exert health benefits for a patient. This study focuses on providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions. Materials and Methods: Microencapsulation of the selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using chitosan and alginate was performed. Physical examination of the formulated LAB microcapsules was observed using phase contrast inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, the survival of microencapsulated and noncapsulated bacteria was cheeked in the simulated human gastric tract (GT). The potential antimicrobial activity of the most potent microencapsulated LAB strain was in vivo evaluated in rabbit models. Results: Microencapsulated L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, and L. bulgaricus DSMZ 20080 were loaded with 1.03 × 1010 CFU viable bacteria/g, 1.9 × 1010 CFU viable bacteria/g, and 5.5 × 109 CFU viable bacteria/g, respectively. The survival of microencapsulated cells was significantly higher than that of the free cells after exposure to simulated gastric juice (SGJ) at pH 2. Additionally, in simulated small intestine juice (SSJ), larger amounts of the selected LAB cells were found, whereas in simulated colon juice (SCJ), the released LAB reached the maximum counts. In vivo results pointed out that an 8-week supplementation with a triple therapy of a microencapsulated L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, and L. bulgaricus DSMZ 20080 might be able to reduce H. pylori. Conclusion: Microencapsulated probiotics could possibly compete with and downregulate H. pylori infection in humans. PMID:26929759

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium L50, a strain producing enterocins L50 (L50A and L50B), P and Q, against beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria in broth, wort (hopped and unhopped), and alcoholic and non-alcoholic lager beers.

    PubMed

    Basanta, Antonio; Sánchez, Jorge; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E; Cintas, Luis M

    2008-07-31

    Enterococcus faecium L50 produces enterocin L50 (L50A and L50B) (EntL50, EntL50A and EntL50B), enterocin P (EntP) and enterocin Q (EntQ) and displays a broad antimicrobial spectrum against the most relevant beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (i.e., Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), which is mainly due to the production of EntL50 (EntL50A and EntL50B). Bacteriocin assays using in vitro-synthesized EntL50 (EntL50A and EntL50B) showed that both individual peptides possess antimicrobial activity on their own, EntL50A being the most active, but when the two peptides were combined a synergistic effect was observed. The only virulence genes detected in E. faecium L50 were efaAfm (cell wall adhesin) and ccf (sex pheromone), and this strain was susceptible to most clinically relevant antibiotics. E. faecium L50 survived but did not grow nor showed antimicrobial activity in hopped and unhopped wort, and alcoholic (1 and 5% ethanol, v/v) and non-alcoholic (0% ethanol, v/v) commercial lager beers. However, when unhopped wort was supplemented with 50% (v/v) MRS broth, E. faecium L50 grew and exerted antimicrobial activity similarly as in MRS broth. The enterocins produced by this strain were bactericidal (5 log decrease) against P. damnosus and Lb. brevis in a dose- and substrate-dependent manner when challenged in MRS broth, wort (hopped and unhopped), and alcoholic (1 and 5% ethanol, v/v) and non-alcoholic (0% ethanol, v/v) lager beers at 32 degrees C, and no bacterial resistances were detected even after incubation for 6-15 days. The enterocins in wort and lager beer (5% ethanol, v/v) withstood the heat treatments commonly employed in the brewing industry during mashing, wort boiling, fermentation, and pasteurization, and retained most of their antimicrobial activity in lager beer (5% ethanol, v/v) after long-term storage at 8 and 25 degrees C.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium L50, a strain producing enterocins L50 (L50A and L50B), P and Q, against beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria in broth, wort (hopped and unhopped), and alcoholic and non-alcoholic lager beers.

    PubMed

    Basanta, Antonio; Sánchez, Jorge; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E; Cintas, Luis M

    2008-07-31

    Enterococcus faecium L50 produces enterocin L50 (L50A and L50B) (EntL50, EntL50A and EntL50B), enterocin P (EntP) and enterocin Q (EntQ) and displays a broad antimicrobial spectrum against the most relevant beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (i.e., Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), which is mainly due to the production of EntL50 (EntL50A and EntL50B). Bacteriocin assays using in vitro-synthesized EntL50 (EntL50A and EntL50B) showed that both individual peptides possess antimicrobial activity on their own, EntL50A being the most active, but when the two peptides were combined a synergistic effect was observed. The only virulence genes detected in E. faecium L50 were efaAfm (cell wall adhesin) and ccf (sex pheromone), and this strain was susceptible to most clinically relevant antibiotics. E. faecium L50 survived but did not grow nor showed antimicrobial activity in hopped and unhopped wort, and alcoholic (1 and 5% ethanol, v/v) and non-alcoholic (0% ethanol, v/v) commercial lager beers. However, when unhopped wort was supplemented with 50% (v/v) MRS broth, E. faecium L50 grew and exerted antimicrobial activity similarly as in MRS broth. The enterocins produced by this strain were bactericidal (5 log decrease) against P. damnosus and Lb. brevis in a dose- and substrate-dependent manner when challenged in MRS broth, wort (hopped and unhopped), and alcoholic (1 and 5% ethanol, v/v) and non-alcoholic (0% ethanol, v/v) lager beers at 32 degrees C, and no bacterial resistances were detected even after incubation for 6-15 days. The enterocins in wort and lager beer (5% ethanol, v/v) withstood the heat treatments commonly employed in the brewing industry during mashing, wort boiling, fermentation, and pasteurization, and retained most of their antimicrobial activity in lager beer (5% ethanol, v/v) after long-term storage at 8 and 25 degrees C. PMID:18544465

  8. Biodiversity and γ-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus.

  9. Antimicrobial peptides targeting Gram-negative pathogens, produced and delivered by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Volzing, Katherine; Borrero, Juan; Sadowsky, Michael J; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2013-11-15

    We present results of tests with recombinant Lactococcus lactis that produce and secrete heterologous antimicrobial peptides with activity against Gram-negative pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella . In an initial screening, the activities of numerous candidate antimicrobial peptides, made by solid state synthesis, were assessed against several indicator pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains. Peptides A3APO and Alyteserin were selected as top performers based on high antimicrobial activity against the pathogens tested and on significantly lower antimicrobial activity against L. lactis . Expression cassettes containing the signal peptide of the protein Usp45 fused to the codon-optimized sequence of mature A3APO and Alyteserin were cloned under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter PnisA and transformed into L. lactis IL1403. The resulting recombinant strains were induced to express and secrete both peptides. A3APO- and Alyteserin-containing supernatants from these recombinant L. lactis inhibited the growth of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella by up to 20-fold, while maintaining the host's viability. This system may serve as a model for the production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides by lactic acid bacteria to target Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria populations.

  10. Screening and characterization of ethanol-tolerant and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria from Chinese vinegar Pei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Bai, Ye; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important microorganisms in the vinegar industry. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. In this study, seven AAB that are tolerant to temperatures above 40 °C and ethanol concentrations above 10% (v/v) were isolated from Chinese vinegar Pei. All the isolated AAB belong to Acetobacter pasteurianus according to 16S rDNA analysis. Among all AAB, AAB4 produced the highest acid yield under high temperature and ethanol test conditions. At 4% ethanol and 30-40 °C temperatures, AAB4 maintained an alcohol-acid transform ratio of more than 90.5 %. High alcohol-acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9% at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. At 30 °C and different initial ethanol concentrations (4-10%), the acid yield by AAB4 increased gradually, although the alcohol-acid transform ratio decreased to some extent. However, 46.5, 8.7 and 0.9% ratios were retained at ethanol concentrations of 11, 12 and 13%, respectively. When compared with AS1.41 (an AAB widely used in China) using a 10 L fermentor, AAB4 produced 42.0 g/L acetic acid at 37 °C with 10% ethanol, whereas AS1.41 almost stopped producing acetic acid. In conclusion, these traits suggest that AAB4 is a valuable strain for vinegar production in SF.

  11. Screening and characterization of ethanol-tolerant and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria from Chinese vinegar Pei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Bai, Ye; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important microorganisms in the vinegar industry. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. In this study, seven AAB that are tolerant to temperatures above 40 °C and ethanol concentrations above 10% (v/v) were isolated from Chinese vinegar Pei. All the isolated AAB belong to Acetobacter pasteurianus according to 16S rDNA analysis. Among all AAB, AAB4 produced the highest acid yield under high temperature and ethanol test conditions. At 4% ethanol and 30-40 °C temperatures, AAB4 maintained an alcohol-acid transform ratio of more than 90.5 %. High alcohol-acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9% at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. At 30 °C and different initial ethanol concentrations (4-10%), the acid yield by AAB4 increased gradually, although the alcohol-acid transform ratio decreased to some extent. However, 46.5, 8.7 and 0.9% ratios were retained at ethanol concentrations of 11, 12 and 13%, respectively. When compared with AS1.41 (an AAB widely used in China) using a 10 L fermentor, AAB4 produced 42.0 g/L acetic acid at 37 °C with 10% ethanol, whereas AS1.41 almost stopped producing acetic acid. In conclusion, these traits suggest that AAB4 is a valuable strain for vinegar production in SF. PMID:26712629

  12. One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.

    1993-12-31

    The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron carrier analysis using Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, Anaeroblospirillum succiniciproducens, Methanosarcina barkeri, and a newly isolated tri-culture composed of a syntrophic butyrate degrader strain IB, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobacterium formicicum as model systems. To understand the regulation of hydrogen metabolism during butyrate production or acetate degradation, hydrogenase activity in B. methylotrophicum or M. barkeri is measured in relation to growth substrate and pH; hydrogenase is purified and characterized to investigate number of hydrogenases; their localization and functions; and, their sequences are determined. To understand the mechanism for catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation to succinate the PEP carboxykinase enzyme and gene of A. succiniciproducens are purified and characterized. Genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli containing the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase gene are examined for their ability to produce succinate in high yield. To understand the mechanism of fatty acid degradation by syntrophic acetogens during mixed culture methanogenesis formate and hydrogen production are characterized by radio tracer studies. It is intended that these studies provide strategies to improve anaerobic fermentations used for the production of organic acids or methane and, new basic understanding on catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation mechanisms and on the function of hydrogenase in anaerobic bacteria.

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  14. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  16. Application of lactic acid bacteria in removing heavy metals and aflatoxin B1 from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, I A; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantrium and Streptococcus thermophiles) and probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium angulatum) were tested for their ability in removing heavy metals (HM) including cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) as well as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from contaminated water. The biosorption parameters (pH, bacterial concentration, contact time and temperature) of removal using individual as well as mixed LAB and probiotic bacteria were studied. Removal of HM and AFB1 depended on the strain, wherein the process was strongly pH-dependent with high removal ability at a pH close to neutral. The increase in bacterial concentration enhanced the removal of Cd, Pb and As. Also, increasing of contact time and temperature increased the ability of LAB to remove HM. The effect of contact time on Cd removal was slightly different when freshly cultured cells were used. The removal of Cd, Pb and As decreased with the increase in the initial metal concentration. The most effective HM removers were Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium angulatum. The system was found to be adequate for concentrations of HM under investigation. At the end of the operation, the concentration of HM reached the level allowed by the World Health Organization regulations. PMID:27508367

  17. The impact of three strains of oral bacteria on the surface and mechanical properties of a dental resin material.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Karen S; Shih, Han; Gregory, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if three strains of bacteria could impact the mechanical or surface properties of a dental resin material. Resin material specimens were incubated at 37°C in sterile saline, tryptic soy broth supplemented with sucrose (TSBS), or TSBS inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, or Streptococcus sanguis. The specimens were subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after incubation. The flexural strength test was performed once a week for 6 weeks. Microhardness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on specimens at 1 and 6 weeks. Differences in the area under the carbonyl peak were statistically significant for the specimens incubated in the media inoculated with either S. mutans or S. gordonii. To determine why S. sanguis did not produce changes as the other bacteria did, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, methacrylic acid, and triethylene glycol were added to bacterial cultures at increasing concentrations. Both methacrylic acid and triethylene glycol reduced the number of colony-forming units of S. sanguis. Specimens incubated in TSBS, saline or in culture with S. sanguis demonstrated a decrease in peak stress in week 1 of the flexure strength test. SEM demonstrated that surface topology changed for those specimens incubated in culture with S. mutans or S. gordonii. The changes in surface topology demonstrated here could contribute to the secondary caries and changes in esthetic properties seen clinically with the use of resin materials in dental restorations.

  18. Regulatory role for L-arginine in the utilization of amino acids by pig small-intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhao-Lai; Li, Xi-Long; Xi, Peng-Bin; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Guoyao; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2012-07-01

    We recently reported that bacteria from the pig small intestine rapidly utilize and metabolize amino acids (AA). This study investigated the effect of L-arginine on the utilization of AA by pure bacterial strains (Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.) and mixed bacterial cultures derived from the pig small intestine. Bacteria were incubated at 37°C for 3 h in anaerobic AA media containing 0-5 mmol/L of arginine to determine the effect of arginine on the bacterial utilization of AA. Amino acids in the medium plus cell extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated concentration-dependent increases in the bacterial utilization of arginine and altered fluxes of arginine into ornithine and citrulline in the bacteria. Net glutamine utilization increased in pure bacterial strains with increased concentrations of arginine. With the addition of arginine, net utilization of threonine, glycine, phenylalanine and branched-chain AA increased (P<0.05) in Streptococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp., but decreased in E. coli. Net utilization of lysine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, glycine and alanine by jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria decreased (P<0.05) with the addition of arginine. Complete utilization of asparagine, aspartate and serine were observed in pig small-intestinal bacteria after 3 h of incubation. Overall, the addition of arginine affected the metabolism of the arginine-family of AA and the serine- and aspartate-family of AA in small-intestinal bacteria and reduced the utilization of most AA in ileal mixed bacteria. These novel findings indicate that arginine exerts its beneficial effects on swine nutrition partially by regulating AA utilization and metabolism in the small-intestinal microbiota.

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour congee in Inner Mongolia of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Du, Xiaohua; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Jiachao; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2011-01-01

    Sour congee is a popular food in the western regions of Inner Mongolia in China. It has a complex microbial population, which contributes to its unique flavor and functional properties. In this study, we chose 28 sour congee samples that were collected from different areas in Inner Mongolia for analysis of the microbial community of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by classical biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay of recA gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the tuf gene (encoding elongation factor Tu). The results revealed that all the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) paracasei (38 strains), L. fermentum (28 strains), L. plantarum (7 strains), L. brevis (4 strains), L. reuteri (2 strains), L. amylolyticus (1 strain), Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (3 strains), E. italicus (2 strains) or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (1 strain). The predominant LAB were L. casei and L. fermentum in sour congee samples. The diversity of LAB derived from sour congee could offer useful information for further research on sour congee, and the results demonstrated that the combination of tuf gene and RFLP patterns can be considered as a useful tool for differentiation of the L. casei group. PMID:21914968

  20. Modification of Fatty acids in membranes of bacteria: implication for an adaptive mechanism to the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baotong; Xia, Xinghui; Xia, Na; Zhang, Shangwei; Guo, Xuejun

    2014-04-01

    We explored whether bacteria could respond adaptively to the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by investigating the influence of CNTs on the viability, composition of fatty acids, and cytoplasmic membrane fluidity of bacteria in aqueous medium for 24 h exposure. The CNTs included long single-walled carbon nanotubes (L-SWCNTs), short single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWCNTs), short carboxyl single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWCNT-COOH), and aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (A-MWCNTs). The bacteria included three common model bacteria, Staphyloccocus aureus (Gram-positive), Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive), and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), and one polybrominated diphenyl ether degrading strain, Ochrobactrum sp. (Gram-negative). Generally, L-SWCNTs were the most toxic to bacteria, whereas S-SWCNT-COOH showed the mildest bacterial toxicity. Ochrobactrum sp. was more susceptible to the toxic effect of CNTs than E. coli. Compared to the control in the absence of CNTs, the viability of Ochrobactrum sp. decreased from 71.6-81.4% to 41.8-70.2%, and E. coli from 93.7-104.0% to 67.7-91.0% when CNT concentration increased from 10 to 50 mg L(-1). The cytoplasmic membrane fluidity of bacteria increased with CNT concentration, and a significant negative correlation existed between the bacterial viabilities and membrane fluidity for E. coli and Ochrobactrum sp. (p < 0.05), indicating that the increase in membrane fluidity induced by CNTs was an important factor causing the inactivation of bacteria. In the presence of CNTs, E. coli and Ochrobactrum sp. showed elevation in the level of saturated fatty acids accompanied with reduction in unsaturated fatty acids, compensating for the fluidizing effect of CNTs. This demonstrated that bacteria could modify their composition of fatty acids to adapt to the toxicity of CNTs. In contrast, S. aureus and B. subtilis exposed to CNTs increased the proportion of branched-chain fatty acids and decreased the level of straight

  1. New application of Bacillus strains for optically pure L-lactic acid production: general overview and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Pramod; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus are considered to be both, among the best studied and most commonly used bacteria as well as the most still unexplored and the most wide-applicable potent bacteria because novel Bacillus strains are continuously being isolated and used in various areas. Production of optically pure l-lactic acid (l-LA), a feedstock for bioplastic synthesis, from renewable resources has recently attracted attention as a valuable application of Bacillus strains. l-LA fermentation by other producers, including lactic acid bacteria and Rhizopus strains (fungi) has already been addressed in several reviews. However, despite the advantages of l-LA fermentation by Bacillus strains, including its high growth rate, utilization of various carbon sources, tolerance to high temperature, and growth in simple nutritional conditions, it has not been reviewed. This review article discusses new findings on LA-producing Bacillus strains and compares them to other producers. The future prospects for LA-producing Bacillus strains are also discussed. PMID:26565947

  2. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view.

  3. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Rosa, Juliana; Korenblum, Elisa; Franco-Cirigliano, Marcella Novaes; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Soares, Rosângela M. A.; Macrae, Andrew; Seldin, Lucy; Coelho, Rosalie R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with proteinase K and trypsin. The antimicrobial substances present in the concentrated supernatant from growth media were partially characterized by SDS-PAGE and extracellular polypeptides were seen. Bands in the size range of 12 to 14.4 kDa caused antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopy of D. alaskensis cells treated with the concentrated supernatant containing the antimicrobial substances revealed the formation of prominent bubbles, the spherical double-layered structures on the cell membrane, and the periplasmic space completely filled with electron-dense material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances by actinomycetes against bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes, and these findings may be of great relevance as an alternative source of biocides to those currently employed in the petroleum industry. PMID:23484107

  4. Streptomyces lunalinharesii strain 235 shows the potential to inhibit bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Rosa, Juliana; Korenblum, Elisa; Franco-Cirigliano, Marcella Novaes; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Soares, Rosângela M A; Macrae, Andrew; Seldin, Lucy; Coelho, Rosalie R R

    2013-01-01

    Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with proteinase K and trypsin. The antimicrobial substances present in the concentrated supernatant from growth media were partially characterized by SDS-PAGE and extracellular polypeptides were seen. Bands in the size range of 12 to 14.4 kDa caused antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopy of D. alaskensis cells treated with the concentrated supernatant containing the antimicrobial substances revealed the formation of prominent bubbles, the spherical double-layered structures on the cell membrane, and the periplasmic space completely filled with electron-dense material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances by actinomycetes against bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes, and these findings may be of great relevance as an alternative source of biocides to those currently employed in the petroleum industry.

  5. Isolation of Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix strains from iron bacteria communities in Tierra del Fuego wetlands.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bertram; Sánchez, Leandro A; Fretschner, Till; Kreps, Gastón; Ferrero, Marcela A; Siñeriz, Faustino; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Sheath-forming iron- and manganese-depositing bacteria belonging to the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group (SLG) are widespread in natural and artificial water systems. Known requirements for their growth include the presence of organic substrates and molecular oxygen. High concentrations of reduced iron or manganese, although not necessary for most species, make their growth a noticeable phenomenon. Such microbial communities have been studied mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we present descriptions of diverse ochre-depositing microbial communities in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, using a combined approach of microscopical examination, clone library construction and cultivation focused on SLG bacteria. To date, only few SLG type strains are available. The present work increases the number and diversity of cultivated SLG bacteria by obtaining isolates from biofilms and sediment samples of wetlands in Tierra del Fuego. Thirty isolates were selected based on morphological features such as sheath formation and iron/manganese deposition. Five operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were deduced. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that one OTU is identical to the Leptothrix mobilis Feox-1(T) -sequence while the four remaining OTUs show similarity values related to previously described type strains. Similarity values ranged from 96.5% to 98.8%, indicating possible new species and subspecies. PMID:25098830

  6. Isolation of Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix strains from iron bacteria communities in Tierra del Fuego wetlands.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bertram; Sánchez, Leandro A; Fretschner, Till; Kreps, Gastón; Ferrero, Marcela A; Siñeriz, Faustino; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Sheath-forming iron- and manganese-depositing bacteria belonging to the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group (SLG) are widespread in natural and artificial water systems. Known requirements for their growth include the presence of organic substrates and molecular oxygen. High concentrations of reduced iron or manganese, although not necessary for most species, make their growth a noticeable phenomenon. Such microbial communities have been studied mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we present descriptions of diverse ochre-depositing microbial communities in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, using a combined approach of microscopical examination, clone library construction and cultivation focused on SLG bacteria. To date, only few SLG type strains are available. The present work increases the number and diversity of cultivated SLG bacteria by obtaining isolates from biofilms and sediment samples of wetlands in Tierra del Fuego. Thirty isolates were selected based on morphological features such as sheath formation and iron/manganese deposition. Five operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were deduced. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that one OTU is identical to the Leptothrix mobilis Feox-1(T) -sequence while the four remaining OTUs show similarity values related to previously described type strains. Similarity values ranged from 96.5% to 98.8%, indicating possible new species and subspecies.

  7. In vitro assessment of functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from faecal microbiota of healthy dogs for potential use as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, B C; Jung, L R C; Sandes, S H C; Alvim, L B; Bomfim, M R Q; Nicoli, J R; Neumann, E; Nunes, A C

    2013-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified in the faeces of Chinese Crested and Yorkshire terrier pups and their probiotic features were investigated in vitro. Thirty seven isolates were identified as Lactobacillus or Enterococcus. Out of these isolates, 31 were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and belonged to the species Lactobacillus reuteri (16/37; 43.3%), Lactobacillus animalis (7/37; 18.9%), Lactobacillus acidophilus (3/37; 8.1%), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (2/37; 5.4%), Lactobacillus murinus (2/37; 5.4%), and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1/37; 2.7%), while six other LAB isolates were Enterococcus spp. (6/37; 16.2%). Strains were tested for resistance to gastric acidity (pH 2.5 for 3 h) and bile salts (0.3% ox gall), cell surface hydrophobicity by microbial adhesion to solvents, antagonism against pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes), production of hydrogen peroxide, and antibiotic susceptibility. Thirty four strains were highly resistant to acidic conditions with slight (18 strains) to moderate (16 strains) growth inhibition by bile salts. Seven isolates had highly hydrophobic cellular surfaces and 28 strains exhibited strong antagonism against the bacterial pathogens tested, although 8 isolates tested against Leptospira interrogans had no effect on pathogen growth. All isolates produced low rates of hydrogen peroxide. Based on these results, two Lactobacillus strains showed promising probiotic-related features and merit investigation as probiotics for dogs.

  8. Production of Antilisterial Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy-Based Media: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Gülhan; Nielsen, Barbara; Ionita, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened for bacteriocin production by the modified deferred antagonism and agar well diffusion methods. When the modified deferred antagonism method was employed, 82 LAB strains showed inhibitory action against Listeria monocytogenes v7 ½a, whereas 26 LAB strains expressed no inhibition. Only 12 LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity when the agar well diffusion method was used, 11 of which had been previously recognized as bacteriocin production positive (Bac(+)). Lactobacillus viridescens NRRL B-1951 was determined, for the first time, to produce an inhibitory compound with a proteinaceous nature. The inhibitory activity was observed in the presence of lipase, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin, but no inhibition zone could be detected in the presence of proteinase K, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory compound. The inhibitory compound was active against Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and Lact. plantarum NCDO 995. Bacteriocin production by the Bac(+) LAB strains was assessed in Lactobacillus MRS Broth as well as in dairy-based media such as nonfat milk, demineralized whey powder, and cheddar cheese whey supplemented with complex nutrient sources that are rich in nitrogen. Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and L. monocytogenes CWD 1002, CWD 1092, CWD 1157, CWD 1198, and v7 ½a were used as indicators. The inhibitory activities of the bacteriocins varied depending on the indicator strains and the growth media used. The LAB indicator strains were found to be more sensitive to inhibition by bacteriocins when compared to the listerial indicator strains. Among the listerial indicators, L. monocytogenes CWD 1002 and CWD 1198 were the most sensitive strains to the bacteriocins investigated in this study. Media composition had a significant influence on bacteriocin production and activity. When compared to demineralized whey powder medium and cheddar cheese whey medium supplemented with whey protein concentrate

  9. Production of Antilisterial Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy-Based Media: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Gülhan; Nielsen, Barbara; Ionita, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened for bacteriocin production by the modified deferred antagonism and agar well diffusion methods. When the modified deferred antagonism method was employed, 82 LAB strains showed inhibitory action against Listeria monocytogenes v7 ½a, whereas 26 LAB strains expressed no inhibition. Only 12 LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity when the agar well diffusion method was used, 11 of which had been previously recognized as bacteriocin production positive (Bac(+)). Lactobacillus viridescens NRRL B-1951 was determined, for the first time, to produce an inhibitory compound with a proteinaceous nature. The inhibitory activity was observed in the presence of lipase, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin, but no inhibition zone could be detected in the presence of proteinase K, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory compound. The inhibitory compound was active against Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and Lact. plantarum NCDO 995. Bacteriocin production by the Bac(+) LAB strains was assessed in Lactobacillus MRS Broth as well as in dairy-based media such as nonfat milk, demineralized whey powder, and cheddar cheese whey supplemented with complex nutrient sources that are rich in nitrogen. Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and L. monocytogenes CWD 1002, CWD 1092, CWD 1157, CWD 1198, and v7 ½a were used as indicators. The inhibitory activities of the bacteriocins varied depending on the indicator strains and the growth media used. The LAB indicator strains were found to be more sensitive to inhibition by bacteriocins when compared to the listerial indicator strains. Among the listerial indicators, L. monocytogenes CWD 1002 and CWD 1198 were the most sensitive strains to the bacteriocins investigated in this study. Media composition had a significant influence on bacteriocin production and activity. When compared to demineralized whey powder medium and cheddar cheese whey medium supplemented with whey protein concentrate

  10. Distribution of tannic acid degrading microorganisms in the soil and comparative study of tannase from two fungal strains.

    PubMed

    Mondal, K C; Samanta, S; Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative survey on microbial population including tannase producing organisms have been made from different soil samples. Most of the samples harbour negligible number of tannase producers in comparison to total microbial flora. Among the tannase producers, fungal members are more frequent than bacteria. Tannase production and tannic acid degradation have been studied in two newly isolated potent fungal strains. Both the strains produce maximum tannase at their stationary phases of growth. Enzymes produced by both the strains remain active within pH 3.5-6.0 and temperature 30-60 degrees C.

  11. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M.E.; Silva, J.; González, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances. PMID:24031582

  12. Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

    2015-02-01

    The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose.

  13. Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria in douchi from Yunnan Province, China*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-jian; Gong, Fu-ming; Li, Xiao-ran; Li, Hai-yan; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Feng, Yue; Nagano, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at isolating and identifying the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional Chinese salt-fermented soybean food, douchi, from Yunnan, China. The predominant LAB present were isolated and identified by conventional culture-dependent methods combined with molecular biological methods. Two hundred and sixty isolates were obtained from thirty kinds of traditional fermented douchi from six cities and counties in Yunnan, and those strains were divided into twelve groups by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and analysis, 56 representative strains were identified as belonging to 6 genera and 14 species: Lactobacillus (4 spp.), Weissella (3 spp.), Pediococcus (2 spp.), Staphylococcus (2 spp.), Enterococcus (1 sp.), and Bacillus (2 spp.). The results show that douchi contains a large natural population of LAB of diverse composition from which some strains could be selected as starters for functional fermented foods. This is the first study on the original douchi from Yunnan, and the results suggest that it may be a useful source for the isolation of LAB. This study has also laid a foundation for further research on developing functional douchi products. PMID:22467371

  14. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  15. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria from Muscovy duck as potential probiotics that alter adhesion factor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z L; Bai, D P; Xie, L N; Zhang, W N; Huang, X H; Huang, Y F

    2015-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Muscovy duck as a potential probiotic. Isolates were identified by targeted polymerase chain reaction and assessed in vitro for probiotic characteristics such as autoaggregation; surface-charge; hydrophobicity; tolerance to acidic pH, bile salts and protease; and expression of genes involved in Caco-2 cell adhesion. The LAB isolates exhibited strong resistance to high bile concentration and acidic pH, produced lactic acid, and bacteriostatic (P < 0.05) were identified as bacilli compared with LAB isolates of cocci. Additionally, the LAB isolates showed high sensitivity to penicillin and tetracycline antibiotics, while they were resistant to ofloxacin, Macrodantin, and cotrimoxazole. The level of F-actin mRNA increased in the groups treated with CM3, Salmonella enterica, and CM3 + S. enterica (P < 0.0001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05 ). The level of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) and E-cadherin (E-cad) mRNA expression was significantly lower in the treatment group (P < 0.05 for both) than in the control. The F-actin, CAM, and E-cad mRNA levels were significantly lower in the S. enterica and CM3 + S. enterica groups (P < 0.01) than in the CM3 group. Among these, RNA levels were higher in the CM3 + S. enterica than S. enterica group. These results indicate that the natural duck gut microflora is an excellent source for probiotic bacteria and can facilitate the establishment of criteria to select probiotic strains for the prevention of diarrhea.

  16. Acylation of SC4 dodecapeptide increases bactericidal potency against Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Nathan A; Haseman, Judith R; Tirrell, Matthew V; Mayo, Kevin H

    2004-01-01

    We have conjugated dodecyl and octadecyl fatty acids to the N-terminus of SC4, a potently bactericidal, helix-forming peptide 12-mer (KLFKRHLKWKII), and examined the bactericidal activities of the resultant SC4 'peptide-amphiphile' molecules. SC4 peptide-amphiphiles showed up to a 30-fold increase in bactericidal activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus anthracis), including S. aureus strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, but little or no increase in bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Fatty acid conjugation improved endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) neutralization by 3- to 6-fold. Although acylation somewhat increased lysis of human erythrocytes, it did not increase lysis of endothelial cells, and the haemolytic effects occurred at concentrations 10- to 100-fold higher than those required for bacterial cell lysis. For insight into the mechanism of action of SC4 peptide-amphiphiles, CD, NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy studies were performed in micelle and liposome models of eukaryotic and bacterial cell membranes. CD indicated that SC4 peptide-amphiphiles had the strongest helical tendencies in liposomes mimicking bacterial membranes, and strong membrane integration of the SC4 peptide-amphiphiles was observed using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy under these conditions; results that correlated with the increased bactericidal activities of SC4 peptide-amphiphiles. NMR structural analysis in micelles demonstrated that the two-thirds of the peptide closest to the fatty acid tail exhibited a helical conformation, with the positively-charged side of the amphipathic helix interacting more with the model membrane surface. These results indicate that conjugation of a fatty acid chain to the SC4 peptide enhances membrane interactions, stabilizes helical structure in the membrane-bound state and increases bactericidal potency. PMID:14609430

  17. In vitro activities of faropenem against 579 strains of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Hannah M; Molitoris, Denise; St John, Shahera; Vu, Ann; Read, Erik K; Finegold, Sydney M

    2002-11-01

    The activity of faropenem, a new oral penem, was tested against 579 strains of anaerobic bacteria by using the NCCLS-approved reference method. Drugs tested included amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, clindamycin, faropenem, imipenem, and metronidazole. Of the 176 strains of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates tested, two isolates had faropenem MICs of 64 micro g/ml and imipenem MICs of >32 micro g/ml. Faropenem had an MIC of 16 micro g/ml for an additional isolate of B. fragilis; this strain was sensitive to imipenem (MIC of 1 micro g/ml). Both faropenem and imipenem had MICs of < or=4 micro g/ml for all isolates of Bacteroides capillosus (10 isolates), Bacteroides splanchnicus (13 isolates), Bacteroides ureolyticus (11 isolates), Bilophila wadsworthia (11 isolates), Porphyromonas species (42 isolates), Prevotella species (78 isolates), Campylobacter species (25 isolates), Sutterella wadsworthensis (11 isolates), Fusobacterium nucleatum (19 isolates), Fusobacterium mortiferum/varium (20 isolates), and other Fusobacterium species (9 isolates). Faropenem and imipenem had MICs of 16 to 32 micro g/ml for two strains of Clostridium difficile; the MICs for all other strains of Clostridium tested (69 isolates) were < or =4 micro g/ml. Faropenem had MICs of 8 and 16 micro g/ml, respectively, for two strains of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (MICs of imipenem were 2 micro g/ml). MICs were < or =4 micro g/ml for all other strains of gram-positive anaerobic cocci (53 isolates) and non-spore-forming gram-positive rods (28 isolates). Other results were as expected and reported in previous studies. No metronidazole resistance was seen in gram-negative anaerobes other than S. wadsworthensis (18% resistant); 63% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods were resistant. Some degree of clindamycin resistance was seen in most of the groups tested. PMID:12384389

  18. In Vitro Activities of Faropenem against 579 Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Molitoris, Denise; St. John, Shahera; Vu, Ann; Read, Erik K.; Finegold, Sydney M.

    2002-01-01

    The activity of faropenem, a new oral penem, was tested against 579 strains of anaerobic bacteria by using the NCCLS-approved reference method. Drugs tested included amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, clindamycin, faropenem, imipenem, and metronidazole. Of the 176 strains of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates tested, two isolates had faropenem MICs of 64 μg/ml and imipenem MICs of >32 μg/ml. Faropenem had an MIC of 16 μg/ml for an additional isolate of B. fragilis; this strain was sensitive to imipenem (MIC of 1 μg/ml). Both faropenem and imipenem had MICs of ≤4 μg/ml for all isolates of Bacteroides capillosus (10 isolates), Bacteroides splanchnicus (13 isolates), Bacteroides ureolyticus (11 isolates), Bilophila wadsworthia (11 isolates), Porphyromonas species (42 isolates), Prevotella species (78 isolates), Campylobacter species (25 isolates), Sutterella wadsworthensis (11 isolates), Fusobacterium nucleatum (19 isolates), Fusobacterium mortiferum/varium (20 isolates), and other Fusobacterium species (9 isolates). Faropenem and imipenem had MICs of 16 to 32 μg/ml for two strains of Clostridium difficile; the MICs for all other strains of Clostridium tested (69 isolates) were ≤4 μg/ml. Faropenem had MICs of 8 and 16 μg/ml, respectively, for two strains of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (MICs of imipenem were 2 μg/ml). MICs were ≤4 μg/ml for all other strains of gram-positive anaerobic cocci (53 isolates) and non-spore-forming gram-positive rods (28 isolates). Other results were as expected and reported in previous studies. No metronidazole resistance was seen in gram-negative anaerobes other than S. wadsworthensis (18% resistant); 63% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods were resistant. Some degree of clindamycin resistance was seen in most of the groups tested. PMID:12384389

  19. Use of sulfate reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.J.

    1995-10-01

    The environmental impacts caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) were first recorded in 1556 by Georgius Agricola. In the United States 10,000 miles of streams and 29,000 surface acres of impoundments are estimated to be seriously affected by AMD. Abandoned surface mines are estimated to contribute about 15% of the drainage, while active mines (40%) and shaft and drift mines (45%) contribute the remainder. AMD results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), come in contact with oxygen and water. Acid generation occurs when metal sulfide minerals are oxidized according to the Initiator Reaction: FeS{sub 2}(pyrite) + 3 1/2O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {yields} Fe{sup 2+} + 2SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} + 2H{sup +}. This reaction is one of many that results in increased metal mobility and increased acidity (lowered pH) of the mine water. The oxidation of ferrous sulfate is accelerated by bacterial action of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, a naturally occurring bacterium that at pH 3.5 or less, can rapidly accelerate the conversion of dissolved Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous iron) to Fe{sup 3+} (ferric iron), and can act as an oxidant for the oxidation of pyrite. Ferric ions, as well as other metal ions, and the sulfuric acid have a deleterious influence on the biota of streams receiving AMD. The Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine, located in the Elliston Mining District of Powell County, Montana, was selected as the Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) technology demonstration site. The mine is situated on a patented claim on Deerlodge National Forest Land about 11 miles south of Elliston, Montana. This abandoned mining operation consists of a 250-foot shaft, four horizontal workings, and some stopping. The shaft is flooded with AMD to the 74-foot level and is discharging about 3 gallons per minute (gpm) at a pH of 3.0 from the adit associated with this level.

  20. A marine sponge associated strain of Bacillus subtilis and other marine bacteria can produce anticholinesterase compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors or anticholinesterases reduce the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. The inhibitors have a significant pharmacological role in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s etc. Although plants have been a significant source of these compounds, there are very few sporadic reports of microorganisms producing such inhibitors. Anticholinesterase activity in bacterial associates of marine soft corals and sponges were not previously reported. Results We screened 887 marine bacteria for the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, in a microplate based assay, and found that 140 (15.8%) of them inhibit the electric eel enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. Majority of the active isolates were bacterial associates of soft corals followed by sediment isolates while most of the potent inhibitors belonged to the bacterial associates of marine sponges. Maximum inhibition (54%) was exhibited by a bacterial strain M18SP4P (ii), isolated from the marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. Based on phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis - revealing yet another activity in a strain of the model organism that is considered to be a cell factory. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract of this culture, showed the presence of two major components having this activity, when compared to Galanthamine, the positive control. Conclusion From the results of our study, we conclude that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are quite prevalent in marine bacteria, particularly the bacterial associates of marine invertebrates. Several potential AChE inhibitors in marine bacteria are waiting to be discovered to provide easily manipulable natural sources for the mass production of these therapeutic compounds. PMID:24528673

  1. Dietary hyperoxaluria is not reduced by treatment with lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperoxaluria either based on increased intestinal absorption of oxalate (enteric), or high oxalate intake (dietary), is a major risk factor of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Oxalate-degrading bacteria might have beneficial effects on urinary oxalate excretion resulting from decreased intestinal oxalate concentration and absorption. Methods Twenty healthy subjects were studied initially while consuming a diet normal in oxalate. Study participants were then placed on a controlled oxalate-rich diet for a period of 6 weeks. Starting with week 2 of the oxalate-rich diet, participants received 2.6 g/day of a lactic acid bacteria preparation for 5 weeks. Finally, subjects were examined 4 weeks after treatment while consuming again a normal-oxalate diet. Participants provided weekly 24-hour urine specimens. Analyses of blood samples were performed before and at the end of treatment. Results Urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly from 0.354 ± 0.097 at baseline to 0.542 ± 0.163 mmol/24 h under the oxalate-rich diet and remained elevated until the end of treatment, as did relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Plasma oxalate concentration was significantly higher after 5 weeks of treatment compared to baseline. Four weeks after treatment, urinary oxalate excretion and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate fell to reach initial values. Conclusions Persistent dietary hyperoxaluria and increased plasma oxalate concentration can already be induced in healthy subjects without disorders of oxalate metabolism. The study preparation neither reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor plasma oxalate concentration. The preparation may be altered to select for lactic acid bacteria strains with the highest oxalate-degrading activity. PMID:24330782

  2. Bacteria recovered from whole-carcass rinsates of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  3. Functional properties of novel protective lactic acid bacteria and application in raw chicken meat against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Psyrras, Dimitris; Cremonese, Silvia; Fischer, Jana; Cantor, Mette D; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2009-04-15

    In this study 635 lactic acid bacteria of food origin were evaluated for their potential application as protective cultures in foods. A stepwise selection method was used to obtain the most appropriate strains for application as protective cultures in chicken meat. Specifically, all strains were examined for antimicrobial activity against various Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Strains exhibiting anti-bacterial activity were subsequently examined for survival in simulated food processing and gastrointestinal tract conditions, such as high temperatures, low pH, starvation and the presence of NaCl and bile salts. Selected strains where then examined for basic safety properties such as antibiotic resistance and haemolytic potential, while their antimicrobial activity was further investigated by PCR screening for possession of known bacteriocin genes. Two chosen strains were then applied on raw chicken meat to evaluate their protective ability against two common food pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis, but also to identify potential spoilage effects by the application of the protective cultures on the food matrix. Antimicrobial activity in vitro was evident against Gram positive indicators, mainly Listeria and Brochothrix spp., while no antibacterial activity was obtained against any of the Gram negative bacteria tested. The antimicrobial activity was of a proteinaceous nature while strains with anti-listerial activity were found to possess one or more bacteriocin genes, mainly enterocins. Strains generally exhibited sensitivity to pH 2.0, but good survival at 45 degrees C, in the presence of bile salts and NaCl as well as during starvation, while variable survival rates were obtained at 55 degrees C. None of the strains was found to be haemolytic while variable antibiotic resistance profiles were obtained. Finally, when the selected strains Enterococcus faecium PCD71 and Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC179 were

  4. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    PubMed

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  5. Enterotoxigenic intestinal bacteria in tropical sprue. IV. Effect of linoleic acid on growth interrelationships of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Mickelson, M J; Klipstein, F A

    1975-01-01

    The factors responsible for colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic coliform bacteria in Puerto Ricans with tropical sprue are unknown, but epidemiological observations have suggested that they may be related to an increased dietary intake of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid, which is known to exert an inhibitory effect on the growth of gram-positive organisms that normally comprise the flora of the small intestine. We have examined, by using a glucose-limited continuous-culture system, what effect this fatty acid exerts on the growth relationships of enteric gram-positive and coliform bacteria. In this system, colonization by an invading strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was prevented by the presence of an established culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus, principally by virtue of a lowered pH of the medium that was incompatible with Klebsiella growth. However, when the population density of L. acidophilus was reduced by the presence of a sufficient concentration of linoleic acid, the invading K. pneumoniae successfully colonized the system and, once established, suppressed the growth of L. acidophilus. These observations indicate that, under the conditions of our chemostat, gram-positive enteric bacteria suppress coliform growth and that this effect is reversible by the presence of linoleic acid. It remains to be established, however, what pertinence these in vitro observations have to conditions within the intestinal tract of persons living in the tropics. PMID:811564

  6. Enterotoxigenic intestinal bacteria in tropical sprue. IV. Effect of linoleic acid on growth interrelationships of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, M J; Klipstein, F A

    1975-11-01

    The factors responsible for colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic coliform bacteria in Puerto Ricans with tropical sprue are unknown, but epidemiological observations have suggested that they may be related to an increased dietary intake of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid, which is known to exert an inhibitory effect on the growth of gram-positive organisms that normally comprise the flora of the small intestine. We have examined, by using a glucose-limited continuous-culture system, what effect this fatty acid exerts on the growth relationships of enteric gram-positive and coliform bacteria. In this system, colonization by an invading strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was prevented by the presence of an established culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus, principally by virtue of a lowered pH of the medium that was incompatible with Klebsiella growth. However, when the population density of L. acidophilus was reduced by the presence of a sufficient concentration of linoleic acid, the invading K. pneumoniae successfully colonized the system and, once established, suppressed the growth of L. acidophilus. These observations indicate that, under the conditions of our chemostat, gram-positive enteric bacteria suppress coliform growth and that this effect is reversible by the presence of linoleic acid. It remains to be established, however, what pertinence these in vitro observations have to conditions within the intestinal tract of persons living in the tropics. PMID:811564

  7. Microbicidal activity of tripotassium phosphate and fatty acids toward spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur; Ingram, Kimberly D

    2005-07-01

    The ability of solutions of tripotassium phosphate (TPP) and fatty acids (lauric and myristic acids) to reduce populations of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms associated with processed poultry was examined. In vitro studies were conducted with cultures of bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and yeasts (Candida ernobii and Yarrowia lipolytica). Cultures of the bacteria and yeasts were suspended in solutions of TPP or mixtures of TPP with lauric or myristic acid and mixed for 5 min. Viable numbers (log CFU per milliliter) in the suspensions were enumerated on microbiological agar. Results indicated that TPP solutions are highly bactericidal toward gram-negative bacteria and that mixtures of TPP and fatty acids are highly microbicidal toward gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts. The microbicidal activity of mixtures of TPP and fatty acids toward the native bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler carcasses was also examined. Skin samples were washed in mixtures of TPP and fatty acid, and the populations of total aerobic bacteria, campylobacters, enterococci, E. coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, staphylococci, and yeasts in the skin rinsates were enumerated on the appropriate microbiological media. Results indicated that washing the skin in mixtures of TPP and fatty acids produced significant reductions in the number of aerobic bacteria, campylobacters, E. coli, pseudomonads, and yeasts recovered from skin rinsates, but there was no significant reduction in the populations of enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, or staphylococci. These findings indicate that mixtures of TPP and fatty acids possess microbicidal activity against several microorganisms associated with processed poultry and that these solutions could be useful as microbicides to reduce the populations of some bacteria and yeasts associated with some poultry

  8. A gene network engineering platform for lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wentao; Kapuganti, Venkata S; Lu, Ting

    2016-02-29

    Recent developments in synthetic biology have positioned lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for applications. To achieve the full potential of LAB, one fundamental prerequisite is the capacity for rapid engineering of complex gene networks, such as natural biosynthetic pathways and multicomponent synthetic circuits, into which cellular functions are encoded. Here, we present a synthetic biology platform for rapid construction and optimization of large-scale gene networks in LAB. The platform involves a copy-controlled shuttle for hosting target networks and two associated strategies that enable efficient genetic editing and phenotypic validation. By using a nisin biosynthesis pathway and its variants as examples, we demonstrated multiplex, continuous editing of small DNA parts, such as ribosome-binding sites, as well as efficient manipulation of large building blocks such as genes and operons. To showcase the platform, we applied it to expand the phenotypic diversity of the nisin pathway by quickly generating a library of 63 pathway variants. We further demonstrated its utility by altering the regulatory topology of the nisin pathway for constitutive bacteriocin biosynthesis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid and advanced engineering of gene networks in LAB, fostering their applications in biomedicine and other areas. PMID:26503255

  9. Isolation and characterisation of lactic acid bacteria from donkey milk.

    PubMed

    Soto Del Rio, Maria de Los Dolores; Andrighetto, Christian; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Lombardi, Angiolella; Civera, Tiziana; Bottero, Maria Teresa

    2016-08-01

    During the last years the interest in donkey milk has increased significantly mainly because of its compelling functional elements. Even if the composition and nutritional properties of donkey milk are known, its microbiota is less studied. This Research Communication aimed to provide a comprehensive characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria in raw donkey milk. RAPD-PCR assay combined with 16S rDNA sequencing analysis were used to describe the microbial diversity of several donkey farms in the North West part of Italy. The more frequently detected species were: Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Less abundant genera were Leuconostoc, Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was also isolated. The bacterial and biotype distribution notably diverged among the farms. Several of the found species, not previously detected in donkey milk, could have an important probiotic activity and biotechnological potential. This study represents an important insight to the ample diversity of the microorganisms present in the highly selective ecosystem of raw donkey milk. PMID:27600975

  10. A gene network engineering platform for lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wentao; Kapuganti, Venkata S.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in synthetic biology have positioned lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for applications. To achieve the full potential of LAB, one fundamental prerequisite is the capacity for rapid engineering of complex gene networks, such as natural biosynthetic pathways and multicomponent synthetic circuits, into which cellular functions are encoded. Here, we present a synthetic biology platform for rapid construction and optimization of large-scale gene networks in LAB. The platform involves a copy-controlled shuttle for hosting target networks and two associated strategies that enable efficient genetic editing and phenotypic validation. By using a nisin biosynthesis pathway and its variants as examples, we demonstrated multiplex, continuous editing of small DNA parts, such as ribosome-binding sites, as well as efficient manipulation of large building blocks such as genes and operons. To showcase the platform, we applied it to expand the phenotypic diversity of the nisin pathway by quickly generating a library of 63 pathway variants. We further demonstrated its utility by altering the regulatory topology of the nisin pathway for constitutive bacteriocin biosynthesis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid and advanced engineering of gene networks in LAB, fostering their applications in biomedicine and other areas. PMID:26503255

  11. Acetic acid bacteria isolated from grapes of South Australian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Bartowsky, E J

    2014-05-16

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) diversity from healthy, mould-infected and rot-affected grapes collected from three vineyards of Adelaide Hills (South Australia) was analyzed by molecular typing and identification methods. Nine different AAB species were identified from the 624 isolates recovered: Four species from Gluconobacter genus, two from Asaia and one from Acetobacter were identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer. However, the identification of other isolates that were assigned as Asaia sp. and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis required more analysis for a correct species classification. The species of Gluconobacter cerinus was the main one identified; while one genotype of Asaia siamensis presented the highest number of isolates. The number of colonies recovered and genotypes identified was strongly affected by the infection status of the grapes; the rot-affected with the highest number. However, the species diversity was similar in all the cases. High AAB diversity was detected with a specific genotype distribution for each vineyard.

  12. Dielectrophoresis-Based Discrimination of Bacteria at the Strain Level Based on Their Surface Properties

    PubMed Central

    Braff, William A.; Willner, Dana; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rabaey, Korneel; Buie, Cullen R.

    2013-01-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis can be used to manipulate biological particles, but has thus far found limited practical applications due to low sensitivity. We present linear sweep three-dimensional insulator-based dielectrophoresis as a considerably more sensitive approach for strain-level discrimination bacteria. In this work, linear sweep three-dimensional insulator-based dielectrophoresis was performed on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 along with six isogenic mutants as well as Streptococcus mitis SF100 and PS344. Strain-level discrimination was achieved between these clinically important pathogens with applied electric fields below 10 V/mm. This low voltage, high sensitivity technique has potential applications in clinical diagnostics as well as microbial physiology research. PMID:24146923

  13. The role of anaerobic bacteria in the neutralization of acid mine drainage. [Desulfovibrio

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to the acidic water column, the sediments underlying Lake Anna, which receives acid mine drainage, are circumneutral and contain 1-4 meq alkalinity/L. Indirect fluorescent antibody counts of a methanogen (strain CA) and a sulfate reducer (Desulfovibrio strain SM) demonstrated that these organisms were present in the sediments at numbers of approximately 10{sup 6} bacteria/mL sediment. Anaerobic heterotrophs in the sediments underlying the acidified arm of the lake outnumbered anaerobic heterotrophs in a non-acidified arm of the lake. A major storm event resulted in the deposition of 11 cm of oxidized, acidic new sediment material over the older circumneutral sediments. The Eh in the new sediments decreased by 200 mV within one week after the storm event. The pH and alkalinity increased even in the 1-cm layer by two weeks after the storm and products of sulfate reduction (acid volatile sulfide) increased at three weeks after the storm. This suggests that biological processes other than sulfate reduction were responsible for the initial buffering of these sediments. Laboratory experiments using the sulfate reducer and two anaerobes (also isolated from the sediments) suggested that alkalinity production during sulfate reduction decreases with decreasing carbon concentration. Generation of alkalinity was found not to be a simple function of sulfate reduction or of iron reduction. The generation of alkalinity was found to be a function of the carbon source, and concentration, organisms present, and mineral phase formed. Iron reduction rates in the sediments of Contrary Creek ranged from 4.9-27.8 mM/m{sup 2}-sediment-day. Alkalinity was produced in the floc layer in the absence of sulfate reduction. Iron reduction could be responsible for the mineralization of 15-90% of the carbon input to this system.

  14. Listeria ivanovii ATCC 19119 strain behaviour is modulated by iron and acid stress.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Catia; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Conte, Maria Pia; Seganti, Lucilla; Iosi, Francesca; Superti, Fabiana

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the rarity of human listeriosis due to Listeria ivanovii reflects not only host tropism factors but also the rare occurrence of this species in the environment, compared with Listeria monocytogenes. In the present study we evaluate the effects on the reference strain L. ivanovii ATCC 19119 behaviour of two combined stresses, low iron availability and acid environment, that bacteria can encounter in the passage from saprophytic life to the host. In these conditions, L. ivanovii evidenced a different behaviour compared to L. monocytogenes exposed to similar conditions. L. ivanovii was not able to mount an acid tolerance response (ATR) even if, upon entry into the stationary phase in iron-loaded medium, growth phase-dependent acid resistance (AR) was evidenced. Moreover, bacteria grown in iron excess and acidic pH showed the higher invasion value in Caco-2 cells, even though it was not able to efficiently multiply. On the contrary, low iron and acidic conditions improved invasion ability in amniotic WISH cells.

  15. A novel hydroxamic acid-containing antibiotic produced by a Saharan soil-living Streptomyces strain.

    PubMed

    Yekkour, A; Meklat, A; Bijani, C; Toumatia, O; Errakhi, R; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Zitouni, A; Sabaou, N

    2015-06-01

    During screening for potentially antimicrobial actinobacteria, a highly antagonistic strain, designated WAB9, was isolated from a Saharan soil of Algeria. A polyphasic approach characterized the strain taxonomically as a member of the genus Streptomyces. The strain WAB9 exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity toward various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. A PCR-based assay of genomic potential for producing bioactive metabolites revealed the presence of PKS-II gene. After 6 days of strain fermentation, one bioactive compound was extracted from the remaining aqueous phase and then purified by HPLC. The chemical structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic (UV-visible, and (1)H and (13)C NMR) and spectrometric analysis. The compound was identified to be 2-amino-N-(2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl)-N-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanamide, a novel hydroxamic acid-containing molecule. The pure molecule showed appreciable minimum inhibitory concentration values against a selection of drug-resistant bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Significance and impact of the study: This study presents the isolation of a Streptomyces strain, named WAB9, from a Saharan soil in Algeria. This strain was found to produce a new hydroxamic acid-containing molecule with interesting antimicrobial activities towards various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. Although hydroxamic acid-containing molecules are known to exhibit low toxicities in general, only real evaluations of the toxicity levels could decide on the applications for which this new molecule is potentially most appropriate. Thus, this article provides a new framework of research.

  16. Distribution of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Bacteria Present in Intestines of Deep-Sea Fish and Shallow-Sea Poikilothermic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Y.; Nakayama, A.; Yoshida, K.

    1997-01-01

    The lipid and fatty acid compositions in nine obligate and facultative barophilic bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of seven deep-sea fish were determined. Phospholipid compositions were simple, with phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol predominating in all strains. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which has not been reported in procaryotes except for deep-sea bacteria, was found to be present in eight strains at a level of 8.1 to 21.5% of total fatty acids. In the other strain, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) was present at a level of 31.5% of total fatty acids. Other fatty acids observed in all strains were typical of marine gram-negative bacteria. Subcultures from pouches prepared from intestinal contents of five deep-sea fish by the most-probable-number (MPN) method were analyzed for fatty acids, and all subcultures contained DHA and/or EPA. Accordingly, viable cell counts of bacteria containing DHA and EPA were estimated at a maximum of 1.3 x 10(sup8) and 2.4 x 10(sup8) cells per ml, respectively, and accounted for 14 and 30%, respectively, of the total cell counts in the intestinal contents of the deep-sea fish. In the case of 10 shallow-sea poikilothermic animals having bacterial populations of 1.1 x 10(sup6) to 1.9 x 10(sup9) CFU per ml in intestinal contents, no DHA was found in the 112 isolates examined, while production of EPA was found in 40 isolates from cold- and temperate-sea samples. These results suggest that DHA and EPA are involved in some adaptations of bacteria to low temperature and high pressure. PMID:16535638

  17. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼10(7) CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available.

  18. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼107 CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available. PMID:26187960

  19. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  20. Development of Fatty Acid-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Takeno, Seiki; Takasaki, Manami; Urabayashi, Akinobu; Mimura, Akinori; Muramatsu, Tetsuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    To date, no information has been made available on the genetic traits that lead to increased carbon flow into the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To develop basic technologies for engineering, we employed an approach that begins by isolating a fatty acid-secreting mutant without depending on mutagenic treatment. This was followed by genome analysis to characterize its genetic background. The selection of spontaneous mutants resistant to the palmitic acid ester surfactant Tween 40 resulted in the isolation of a desired mutant that produced oleic acid, suggesting that a single mutation would cause increased carbon flow down the pathway and subsequent excretion of the oversupplied fatty acid into the medium. Two additional rounds of selection of spontaneous cerulenin-resistant mutants led to increased production of the fatty acid in a stepwise manner. Whole-genome sequencing of the resulting best strain identified three specific mutations (fasR20, fasA63up, and fasA2623). Allele-specific PCR analysis showed that the mutations arose in that order. Reconstitution experiments with these mutations revealed that only fasR20 gave rise to oleic acid production in the wild-type strain. The other two mutations contributed to an increase in oleic acid production. Deletion of fasR from the wild-type strain led to oleic acid production as well. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the fasR20 mutation brought about upregulation of the fasA and fasB genes encoding fatty acid synthases IA and IB, respectively, by 1.31-fold ± 0.11-fold and 1.29-fold ± 0.12-fold, respectively, and of the accD1 gene encoding the β-subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by 3.56-fold ± 0.97-fold. On the other hand, the fasA63up mutation upregulated the fasA gene by 2.67-fold ± 0.16-fold. In flask cultivation with 1% glucose, the fasR20 fasA63up fasA2623 triple mutant produced approximately 280 mg of fatty acids/liter, which consisted mainly of oleic

  1. [Role of lactic acid bacteria in the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria among healthy persons].

    PubMed

    Zigangirova, N A; Tokarskaia, E A; Narodnitskiĭ, B S; Gintsburg, A L; Tugel'ian, V A

    2006-01-01

    The wide use of antibiotics in livestock raising has contributed to the selection and accumulation of representatives of commensal microflora, as well as pathogenic bacteria, colonizing livestock and poultry. For this reason the problem of the possible transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes along the chain from bacteria, autochthonous for agricultural animals, to bacteria used for the production of foodstuffs, which are incorporated into normal microflora and may thus participate in the exchange of these genes with bacteria, enteropathogenic for humans, is a highly important task of medical microbiology. The article deals with the review of experimental data, indicative the possibility of the appearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria due to the transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes via alimentary chains.

  2. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    PubMed

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations.

  3. Changes in ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid profiles of subsurface bacteria during starvation and desiccation in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Ringelberg, D.B.; White, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of a Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain and an Arthrobacter protophormiae strain, each isolated from a subsurface sediment, were quantified in a starvation experiment in a silica sand porous medium under moist and dry conditions. Washed cells were added to sand microcosms and maintained under saturated conditions or subjected to desiccation by slow drying over a period of 16 days. In a third treatment, cells were added to saturated microcosms along with organic nutrients and maintained under saturated conditions. The numbers of culturable cells of both bacterial strains declined to below detection level within 16 days in both the moist and dried nutrient-deprived conditions, while direct counts and total PLFAs remained relatively constant. Both strains of bacteria maintained culturability in the nutrient-amended microcosms. The dried P. aureofaciens cells showed increased ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, increased ratios of trans- to cis-monoenoic fatty acids, and increased ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids to their monoenoic precursors. P. aureofaciens starved under moist conditions showed few changes in PLFA profiles during the 16-day incubation, whereas cells incubated in the presence of nutrients showed decreases in the ratios of both saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids and cyclopropyl fatty acids to their monoenoic precursors. The PLFA profiles of A. protophormiae changed very little in response to either nutrient deprivation or desiccation. Diglyceride fatty acids, proposedindicators of dead or lysed cells, remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. The results of this laboratory experiment can be useful for interpreting PLFA profiles of subsurface communities of microorganisms for the purpose of determining their physiological status. 43 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Bioconversion of kitchen garbage to lactic acid by two wild strains of Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Ma, Hongzhi; Ren, Nanqi

    2005-01-01

    To enhance lactic acid (LA) production from kitchen garbage, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastics production, the application of high-performance lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as inocula was investigated. Two wild strains of Lactobacillus species, designated as TH165 and TD175, were isolated and screened from kitchen garbage. Strain TH165 was capable of hydrolyzing starch to produce LA; 49.5% of starch was broken down in fermentation medium containing 8.52 g/L of soluble starch, and 4.01 g/L of LA was produced after 24 h fermentation at 37 degrees C without pH control. Strain TD175 could produce 16.06 g/L of LA, 66.9% higher than that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ACCC11058 in fermentation medium containing 2.0% glucose at 30 degrees C without pH control. Furthermore, coinoculation of strains TH165 and TD175 enhanced the LA production, resulting in 33.80 g/L of LA concentration and 0.46 g/g (DW) of LA yield from nonautoclaved kitchen garbage after 72 h fermentation with pH maintained at 5.5-6.0, values 36.9% higher than those of the fermentation without inoculum (control). This study shows that enhancement of LA production from kitchen garbage can be realized by using high-performance LAB. This recycling system is conducive to clear away pollutants and to reduce cost of LA production.

  5. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread.

  6. In vitro and in vivo screening of native lactic acid bacteria toward their selection as a probiotic in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Blajman, Jesica; Gaziano, Cristian; Zbrun, María Virginia; Soto, Lorena; Astesana, Diego; Berisvil, Ayelén; Scharpen, Analía Romero; Signorini, Marcelo; Frizzo, Laureano

    2015-08-01

    Among 360 isolates from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broilers, eleven isolates which showed in vitro probiotic properties were identified and selected for further tests. After the in vitro screening, three strains were chosen for the in vivo study of persistence of fresh cultures and then one strain was selected for the in vivo study of persistence of lyophilized culture. Lyophilized Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P was capable of persisting in broilers during a complete rearing, even 28 days following cessation of administration. L. salivarius DSPV 001P administered to broilers and recovered from GIT was compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to ensure that the same genotype was persistently identified. A combination of in vitro and in vivo screening of native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) described in this study may offer a method for selecting the most suitable strain for potential application as a broiler probiotic supplement. PMID:26267089

  7. Isolation and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from ready-to-eat food products.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W J; Asmundson, R V; Huang, C M

    1996-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a range of foods sold in ready-to-eat form were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing cultures were isolated from 14 of the 41 foods sampled. Bacteriocin-producing isolates from meat, fish and dairy products were Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species typically found associated with these products. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum although two showed activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Fruit and vegetable products gave a broader range of organisms but most of the bacteriocin-producing cultures were found to be strains of Lactococcus. Several lactococci produced a nisin-like activity, and showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested. The ease with which bacteriocin-producing strains could be isolated implies that they are already being safely consumed in food, and highlights the potential for using bacteriocin-producing cultures for biopreservation, especially in association with minimally processed products. PMID:8930706

  8. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  9. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis to evaluate acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    De Vero, Luciana; Gala, Elisabetta; Gullo, Maria; Solieri, Lisa; Landi, Sara; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious micro-organisms to isolate and cultivate despite of the great number of growth media available. Moreover, conventional techniques used to study AAB populations are time consuming and not completely reliable. In this study, we tested the usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electophoresis (PCR-DGGE) as a rapid and cost effective method for the screening of AAB in traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV). DGGE analysis was applied to 19 AAB strains isolated by agar plating from three different samples of TBV. DGGE was also used for the analysis of PCR products obtained from DNA extracted directly from the TBV samples. A tentative species identification was achieved comparing the PCR-DGGE patterns of the isolated strains and the TBV samples to those of 15 AAB reference strains. The results support that DGGE is functional to monitor vinegar's AAB population. PMID:16943087

  10. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented. PMID:25750046

  12. Production of lactic acid from paper sludge using acid-tolerant, thermophilic Bacillus coagulan strains.

    PubMed

    Budhavaram, Naresh K; Fan, Zhiliang

    2009-12-01

    Production of lactic acid from paper sludge was studied using thermophilic Bacillus coagulan strains 36D1 and P4-102B. More than 80% of lactic acid yield and more than 87% of cellulose conversion were achieved using both strains without any pH control due to the buffering effect of CaCO(3) in paper sludge. The addition of CaCO(3) as the buffering reagent in rich medium increased lactic acid yield but had little effect on cellulose conversion; when lean medium was utilized, the addition of CaCO(3) had little effect on either cellulose conversion or lactic acid yield. Lowering the fermentation temperature lowered lactic acid yield but increased cellulose conversion. Semi-continuous simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) using medium containing 100 g/L cellulose equivalent paper sludge without pH control was carried out in serum bottles for up to 1000 h. When rich medium was utilized, the average lactic acid concentrations in steady state for strains 36D1 and P4-102B were 92 g/L and 91.7 g/L, respectively, and lactic acid yields were 77% and 78%. The average lactic acid concentrations produced using semi-continuous SSCF with lean medium were 77.5 g/L and 77.0 g/L for strains 36D1 and P4-102B, respectively, and lactic acid yields were 72% and 75%. The productivities at steady state were 0.96 g/L/h and 0.82 g/L/h for both strains in rich medium and lean medium, respectively. Our data support that B. coagulan strains 36D1 and P4-102B are promising for converting paper sludge to lactic acid via SSCF.

  13. Diversity and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of olive trees and desert truffles of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Fhoula, Imene; Najjari, Afef; Turki, Yousra; Jaballah, Sana; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Hadda

    2013-01-01

    A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota.

  14. Diversity and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Olive Trees and Desert Truffles of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Turki, Yousra; Jaballah, Sana; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Hadda

    2013-01-01

    A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota. PMID:24151598

  15. Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into ‘ogi’ of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol

  16. Determination of 1-aminocycopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to assess the effects of ACC deaminase-containing bacteria on roots of canola seedlings.

    PubMed

    Penrose, D M; Moffatt, B A; Glick, B R

    2001-01-01

    Previously, it was proposed that plant growth-promoting bacteria that possess the enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, can reduce the amount of ethylene produced by a plant and thereby promote root elongation. To test this model, canola seeds were imbibed in the presence of the chemical ethylene inhibitor, 2-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG), various strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria, and a psychrophilic bacterium containing an ACC deaminase gene on a broad host range plasmid. The extent of root elongation and levels of ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene, were measured in the canola seedling roots. A modification of the Waters AccQ.Tag Amino Acid Analysis Method was used to quantify ACC in the root extracts. It was found that, in the presence of the ethylene inhibitor, AVG, or any one of several ACC deaminase-containing strains of bacteria, the growth of canola seedling roots was enhanced and the ACC levels in these roots were lowered.

  17. Metal adsorption capabilities of clinoptilolite and selected strains of bacteria from mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamba, B. B.; Dlamini, N. P.; Nyembe, D. W.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.

    Small-scale mining has socio-economic advantages such as the reduction of unemployment and the general improvement of the economy. However, these operations if not properly managed or controlled have a potential to cause environmental damage, particularly with respect to the contamination of groundwater and water supplies that are not distant from where these mining activities take place. This paper focuses on metal removal from water contaminated by heavy metals emanating from small-scale mining operations using clinoptilolite and bacteria. Removal of As, Ni, Mn, Au, Co, Cu and Fe was carried out on mine water samples using original and HCl-activated (in 0.02 M and 0.04 M) natural clinoptilolite and bacterial strains (a mixed consortia of Bacillus strains ( Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus fusiformis, Bacillus macroides and Bacillus licheniformis), Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella spp. and a mixed consortia of Acidithiobcillus caldus, Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and Sulphobacillus spp.). The purpose of the study was to compare the removal efficiencies of the bacterial strains versus natural clinoptilolite adsorbents for metal cations. The Bacillus consortia removed most of the metals up to 98% metal removal efficiency with the exception of nickel where clinoptilolite showed good removal efficiency. The 0.02 M HCl-activated clinoptilolite also demonstrated excellent removal capabilities with Cu, Co and Fe removal efficiency of up to 98%. Both clinoptilolite and bacteria demonstrated capabilities of removing Cu 2+, Co 2+, Fe 2+, Mn 2+, As 3+ and Au from solution which augurs well for metal recovery from mining and mineral processing solutions, as well as in water decontamination.

  18. Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laiño, Jonathan; Villena, Julio; Kanmani, Paulraj; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics) exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS), that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells) as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105)/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals.

  19. Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laiño, Jonathan; Villena, Julio; Kanmani, Paulraj; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics) exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS), that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells) as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105)/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals. PMID:27681921

  20. Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Laiño, Jonathan; Villena, Julio; Kanmani, Paulraj; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics) exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS), that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells) as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105)/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals. PMID:27681921

  1. Formation of Guaiacol by Spoilage Bacteria from Vanillic Acid, a Product of Rice Koji Cultivation, in Japanese Sake Brewing.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiko; Konno, Mahito; Shimura, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Seiei; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2016-06-01

    The formation of guaiacol, a potent phenolic off-odor compound in the Japanese sake brewing process, was investigated. Eight rice koji samples were analyzed, and one contained guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) at extraordinarily high levels: 374 and 2433 μg/kg dry mass koji, respectively. All samples contained ferulic and vanillic acids at concentrations of mg/kg dry mass koji. Guaiacol forming microorganisms were isolated from four rice koji samples. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens/subtilis, and Staphylococcus gallinarum using 16S rRNA gene sequence. These spoilage bacteria convert vanillic acid to guaiacol and ferulic acid to 4-VG. However, they convert very little ferulic acid or 4-VG to guaiacol. Nine strains of koji fungi tested produced vanillic acid at the mg/kg dry mass koji level after cultivation. These results indicated that spoilage bacteria form guaiacol from vanillic acid, which is a product of koji cultivation in the sake brewing process. PMID:27181257

  2. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  3. Isolation and partial characterization of bacteria in an anaerobic consortium that mineralizes 3-chlorobenzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, D.R.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    A methanogenic consortium able to use 3-chlorobenzoic acid as its sole energy and carbon source was enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge. Seven bacteria were isolated from the consortium in mono- or coculture. They included: one dechlorinating bacterium, one benzoate-oxidizing bacterium, two butyrate-oxidizing bacteria, two H/sub 2/-consuming methanogens (methanospirillum hungatei PM-1 and Methanobacterium sp. strain PM-2), and a sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp.). The dechlorinating bacterium was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe with a unique collar surrounding the cell. A medium containing rumen fluid supported minimal growth; pyruvate was the only substrate found to increase growth. The bacterium had a generation time of 4 to 5 days. 3-Chlorobenzoate was dechlorinated stoichiometrically to benzoate, which accumulated in the medium; the rate of dechlorination was ca. 0.1 pmol bacterium/sup -1/ day/sup -1/. The benzoate-oxidizing bacterium was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe and could only be grown as a syntroph. Benzoate was the only substrate observed to support growth, and, when grown in coculture with M. hungatei, it was fermented to acetate and CH/sub 4/. One butyrate-oxidizing bacterium was a gram-negative, non-sporeforming, obligate anaerobe; the other was a gram-positive, sporeforming, obligate anaerobe. Both could only be grown as syntrophs. The substrates observed to support growth of both bacteria were butyrate, 2-DL-methylbutyrate, valerate, and caproate; isobutyrate supported growth of only the sporeforming bacterium. Fermentation products were acetate and CH/sub 4/ or acetate, propionate, and CH/sub 4/ when grown in coculture with M. hungatei. A mutualism among at least the dechlorinating, benzoate-oxidizing, and methane-forming members was apparently required for utilization of the 3-chlorobenzoate substrate. 21 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Structural and rheological characterisation of heteropolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria in wheat and sorghum sourdough.

    PubMed

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke K; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Hydrocolloids improve the volume, texture, and shelf life of bread. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation can replace hydrocolloids. It was the aim of this study to determine whether heteropolysaccharides (HePS) synthesized intracellularly from sugar nucleotides by glycosyltransferases are produced in wheat and gluten-free sorghum sourdough at effective levels. The HePS-producing strains Lactobacillus casei FUA3185, L. casei FUA3186, and Lactobacillus buchneri FUA3154 were used; Weissella cibaria 10M producing no EPS in the absence of sucrose served as control strain. Cell suspensions of L. buchneri in MRS showed the highest viscosity at low shear rate. Glycosyltransferase genes responsible of HePS formation in LAB were expressed in sorghum and wheat sourdough. However, only HePS produced by L. buchneri influenced the rheological properties of sorghum sourdoughs but not of wheat sourdoughs. Sorghum sourdough fermented with L. buchneri exhibited a low |G*| compared to the control, indicating a decrease in resistance to deformation. An increase in tan δ indicated decreased elasticity. The use of LAB producing HePS expands the diversity of EPS and increases the variety of cultures for use in baking.

  5. Biopolymers from lactic acid bacteria. Novel applications in foods and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Torino, María I.; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS) or released to the extracellular environment (EPS). According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based) food industry. PMID:26441845

  6. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-11-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  7. Bioengineering lactic acid bacteria to secrete the HIV-1 virucide cyanovirin.

    PubMed

    Pusch, Oliver; Boden, Daniel; Hannify, Sean; Lee, Fred; Tucker, Lynne D; Boyd, Michael R; Wells, Jerry M; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2005-12-15

    An urgent need exists to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. With prevalence rates exceeding 35% in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, increasing attention has been placed on developing and testing microbicidal agents capable of preventing virus transmission at mucosal sites. HIV-1 microbicides must meet several requirements before their widespread use. The drugs must be able to neutralize a diversity of HIV-1 strains, not induce mucosal inflammation, be associated with minimal side effects, and be effective for a prolonged period after a single application. Recent work has demonstrated the utility of recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as agents of mucosal drug delivery. Here, we describe the bioengineering of strains of LAB to secrete the prototypic virucidal compound cyanovirin (CV-N) and demonstrate the anti-HIV-1 activity of secreted CV-N. Our results suggest that recombinant LAB may serve as effective microbicidal compounds and deserve in vivo testing in simian immunodeficiency virus models of mucosal virus transmission. PMID:16284525

  8. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk

    PubMed Central

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  9. Biopolymers from lactic acid bacteria. Novel applications in foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Torino, María I; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS) or released to the extracellular environment (EPS). According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based) food industry.

  10. Metabolism of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid and naphthalene via gentisic acid by distinctly different sets of enzymes in Burkholderia sp. strain BC1.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Piyali Pal; Sarkar, Jayita; Basu, Soumik; Dutta, Tapan K

    2014-05-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain BC1, a soil bacterium, isolated from a naphthalene balls manufacturing waste disposal site, is capable of utilizing 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid (2H1NA) and naphthalene individually as the sole source of carbon and energy. To deduce the pathway for degradation of 2H1NA, metabolites isolated from resting cell culture were identified by a combination of chromatographic and spectrometric analyses. Characterization of metabolic intermediates, oxygen uptake studies and enzyme activities revealed that strain BC1 degrades 2H1NA via 2-naphthol, 1,2,6-trihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene and gentisic acid. In addition, naphthalene was found to be degraded via 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, salicylic acid and gentisic acid, with the putative involvement of the classical nag pathway. Unlike most other Gram-negative bacteria, metabolism of salicylic acid in strain BC1 involves a dual pathway, via gentisic acid and catechol, with the latter being metabolized by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Involvement of a non-oxidative decarboxylase in the enzymic transformation of 2H1NA to 2-naphthol indicates an alternative catabolic pathway for the bacterial degradation of hydroxynaphthoic acid. Furthermore, the biochemical observations on the metabolism of structurally similar compounds, naphthalene and 2-naphthol, by similar but different sets of enzymes in strain BC1 were validated by real-time PCR analyses.

  11. d-Amino Acid Catabolism Is Common Among Soil-Dwelling Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Radkov, Atanas D; McNeill, Katlyn; Uda, Koji; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rhizosphere environments were examined in order to determine the identity and relative abundance of bacteria that catabolize d- and l-amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. All substrates were readily catabolized by bacteria from both environments, with most d-amino acids giving similar CFU counts to their l-amino acid counterparts. CFU count ratios between l- and d-amino acids typically ranged between 2 and 1. Isolates were phylogenetically typed in order to determine the identity of d-amino acid catabolizers. Actinobacteria, specifically the Arthrobacter genus, were abundant along with members of the α- and β-Proteobacteria classes. PMID:27169790

  12. In Vitro Activity of TD-1792, a Multivalent Glycopeptide-Cephalosporin Antibiotic, against 377 Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria and 34 Strains of Corynebacterium Species

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2012-01-01

    TD-1792 is a multivalent glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We tested TD-1792 against 377 anaerobes and 34 strains of Corynebacterium species. Against nearly all Gram-positive strains, TD-1792 had an MIC90 of 0.25 μg/ml and was typically 3 to 7 dilutions more active than vancomycin and daptomycin. PMID:22290981

  13. Potential of wine-associated lactic acid bacteria to degrade biogenic amines.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Almudena; González-Rompinelli, Eva M; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2011-08-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented foods have been proven to degrade biogenic amines through the production of amine oxidase enzymes. Since little is known about this in relation to wine micro-organisms, this work examined the ability of LAB strains (n=85) isolated from wines and other related enological sources, as well as commercial malolactic starter cultures (n=3) and type strains (n=2), to degrade histamine, tyramine and putrescine. The biogenic amine-degrading ability of the strains was evaluated by RP-HPLC in culture media and wine malolactic fermentation laboratory experiments. Although at different extent, 25% of the LAB isolates were able to degrade histamine, 18% tyramine and 18% putrescine, whereas none of the commercial malolactic starter cultures or type strains were able to degrade any of the tested amines. The greatest biogenic amine-degrading ability was exhibited by 9 strains belonging to the Lactobacillus and Pediococcus groups, and most of them were able to simultaneously degrade at least two of the three studied biogenic amines. Further experiments with one of the strains that showed high biogenic amine-degrading ability (L. casei IFI-CA 52) revealed that cell-free extracts maintained this ability in comparison to the cell suspensions at pH 4.6, indicating that amine-degrading enzymes were effectively extracted from the cells and their action was optimal in the degradation of biogenic amines. In addition, it was confirmed that wine components such as ethanol (12%) and polyphenols (75 mg/L), and wine additives such as SO(2) (30 mg/L), reduced the histamine-degrading ability of L. casei IFI-CA 52 at pH 4.6 by 80%, 85% and 11%, respectively, in cell suspensions, whereas the reduction was 91%, 67% and 50%, respectively, in cell-free extracts. In spite of this adverse influence of the wine matrix, our results proved the potential of wine-associated LAB as a promising strategy to reduce biogenic amines in wine.

  14. Inactivation of bacteria on surfaces by sprayed slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water: in vitro experiments

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; ALAM, Md. Shahin; SANGSRIRATANAKUL, Natthanan; NAKAJIMA, Katsuhiro; KITAZAWA, Minori; OTA, Mari; TOYOFUKU, Chiharu; YAMADA, Masashi; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SHOHAM, Dany; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels (≤2.6 log10 CFU/ml) within 5 sec of exposure. In addition, SAHW antibacterial capacity was evaluated by spraying it using a nebulizer into a box containing these bacteria, which were present on the surfaces of glass plates and rayon sheets. SAHW was able to inactivate both bacterial species on the glass plates (dry condition) and rayon sheets within 5 min spraying and 5 min contact times, with the exception of 50 ppm SAHW on the rayon sheets. Furthermore, a corrosivity test determined that SAHW does not corrode metallic objects, even at the longest exposure times (83 days). Our findings demonstrate that SAHW is a good candidate for biosecurity enhancement in the poultry industry. Spraying it on the surfaces of objects, eggshells, egg incubators and transport cages could reduce the chances of contamination and disease transmission. These results augment previous findings demonstrating the competence of SAHW as an anti-viral disinfectant. PMID:27052464

  15. Inactivation of bacteria on surfaces by sprayed slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water: in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Alam, Md Shahin; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Ota, Mari; Toyofuku, Chiharu; Yamada, Masashi; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels (≤2.6 log10 CFU/ml) within 5 sec of exposure. In addition, SAHW antibacterial capacity was evaluated by spraying it using a nebulizer into a box containing these bacteria, which were present on the surfaces of glass plates and rayon sheets. SAHW was able to inactivate both bacterial species on the glass plates (dry condition) and rayon sheets within 5 min spraying and 5 min contact times, with the exception of 50 ppm SAHW on the rayon sheets. Furthermore, a corrosivity test determined that SAHW does not corrode metallic objects, even at the longest exposure times (83 days). Our findings demonstrate that SAHW is a good candidate for biosecurity enhancement in the poultry industry. Spraying it on the surfaces of objects, eggshells, egg incubators and transport cages could reduce the chances of contamination and disease transmission. These results augment previous findings demonstrating the competence of SAHW as an anti-viral disinfectant. PMID:27052464

  16. Screening lactic acid bacteria from swine origins for multistrain probiotics based on in vitro functional properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hua; Kim, Jong-Man; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Jae-Myung

    2010-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria originated from swine feces and intestines were selected for potential probiotics based on their bile-salt resistance, low pH tolerance, potential adhesion to epithelial cells and especially functional properties, including production of antimicrobial substances, bile-salt hydrolase (BSH) and amylolytic activity. Results showed 7 isolates with antimicrobial activity, 5 with BSH activity and 3 with amylolytic activity were preliminarily selected from 485 lactic acid bacteria based on their highest potential with functional properties in vitro. The 15 isolates were further assayed on the essential characteristics as potential probiotics. All isolates were fully tolerant to 0.3% bile salts and 11 of them were able to resist pH 3 for 3 h without loss of viable cells. The eleven isolates were then evaluated on their adhesion capability. Wide variation in the hydrophobic character and specific adhesion efficiency was observed and three isolates G1-1, G22-2 and G8-5, with respective antimicrobial, BSH and amylolytic activities were finally selected. In addition, the three isolates were compatible in the coexistence assay. Isolate G1-1 was identified as Lactobacillus salivarius by API system and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both G8-5 and G22-2 showed the closest homology to Lactobacillus reuteri according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99%). From the study, the three Lactobacilli strains were shown to share the functional properties necessary for probiotics use in animal additives. Their compatibility with respective in vitro activities was expected to show enhanced in vivo efficacy after combination for multistrain probiotics use.

  17. Comparative study of biological hydrogen production by pure strains and consortia of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, Serge; Masset, Julien; Hamilton, Christopher; Beckers, Laurent; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a simple and rapid method was developed in order to assess in comparative tests the production of binary biogas mixtures containing CO(2) and another gaseous compound such as hydrogen or methane. This method was validated and experimented for the characterisation of the biochemical hydrogen potential of different pure strains and mixed cultures of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) growing on glucose. The experimental results compared the hydrogen production yield of 19 different pure strains and sludges: facultative and strict anaerobic HPB strains along with anaerobic digester sludges thermally pre-treated or not. Significant yields variations were recorded even between different strains of the same species by i.e. about 20% for three Clostridium butyricum strains. The pure Clostridium butyricum and pasteurianum strains achieved the highest yields i.e. up to 1.36 mol H(2)/mol glucose compared to the yields achieved by the sludges and the tested Escherichia and Citrobacter strains.

  18. Competitive Ability and Survival in Soil of Pseudomonas Strain 679-2, a Dominant, Nonobligate Bacterial Predator of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Casida, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    A copper-resistant, nonobligate, bacterial predator of bacteria was isolated from soil. It was a Pseudomonas species, designated strain 679-2. It attacked most other nonobligate bacterial predators and hence could control their predatory and other activities in nature. It also inhibited various fungi. It attached to prey cells and produced a toxic, copper-related, growth initiation factor like that produced by Cupriavidus necator. In addition, it produced a second, novel compound that was both antibacterial and antifungal. Strain 679-2 appeared to have only a very limited natural occurrence. It was found only in the soil from one small area in one field. It was absent on the leaves of the plant species that were examined. Regardless of its rarity, however, it was highly competitive in soil. An inoculum consisting of only a few cells added to soil multiplied rapidly to become a major component of the soil microflora within 24 h. A small amount of glutamic acid could be added along with the cells to stimulate production of the toxic compounds noted above, but this was not necessary. After this multiplication, or when large numbers of cells were added to soil, the numbers decreased only slowly during the next several months. Cell survival also was good on plant leaves. The survival in soil and on plant leaves occurred in both laboratory and field experiments. Other than desiccation, the natural mechanism for controlling the numbers or activities of strain 679-2 in soil is not known. The various characteristics of this bacterium, as noted above, are of particular interest because they indicate a possible use of the cells or inhibitor compounds for controlling organisms in soil or on plant surfaces. PMID:16348631

  19. Competitive ability and survival in soil of Pseudomonas strain 679-2, a dominant, nonobligate bacterial predator of bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Casida, L.E. )

    1992-01-01

    A copper-resistant, nonobligate, bacterial predator of bacteria was isolated from soil. It was a Pseudomonas species, designated strain 679-2. It attacked most other nonobligate bacterial predators and hence could control their predatory and other activities in nature. It also inhibited various fungi. It attached to prey cells and produced a toxic, copper-related, growth initiation factor like that produced by Cupriavidus necator. In addition, it produced a second, novel compound that was both antibacterial and antifungal. Strain 679-2 appeared to have only a very limited natural occurrence. It was found only in the soil from one small area in one field. It was absent on the leaves of the plant species that were examined. An inoculum consisting of only a few cells added to soil multiplied rapidly to become a major component of the soil microflora within 24 h. A small amount of glutamic acid could be added along with the cells to stimulate production of the toxic compounds noted above, but this was not necessary. After this multiplication, or when large numbers of cells were added to soil, the numbers decreased only slowly during the next several months. Cell survival also was good on plant leaves. The survival in soil and on plant leaves occurred in both laboratory and field experiments. Other than desiccation, the natural mechanism for controlling the numbers or activities of strain 679-2 in soil is not known. The various characteristics of this bacterium, as noted above, are of particular interest because they indicate a possible use of the cells or inhibitor compounds for controlling organisms in soil or on plant surfaces.

  20. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  1. Comparison of thirty-seven strains of Vd-3 bacteria with Agrobacterium radiobacter: morphological and physiological observations.

    PubMed

    Riley, P S; Weaver, R E

    1977-02-01

    Thirty-seven cultures of Vd-3 bacteria, isolated from clinical specimens, were characterized morphologically and physiologically. The cultures produced positive reactions when tested for oxidase, urease, nitrate reduction, phenylalanine deaminase, oxidative metabolism of carbohydrate substrates, and 3-ketolactose production. These peritrichously flagellated microorganisms were isolated primarily from the respiratory tract. When compared to authentic strains of Agrobacterium, they appeared to be most similar to A. radiobacter. Gas-liquid chromatography of trimethylsilyl derivatives of whole-cell hydrolysates of some of the Vd-3 strains and A. radiobacter yielded nearly identical elution patterns. The Vd-3 cultures were identified as probable strains of A. radiobacter. A method is presented for differentiating cultures of A. radiobacter from other similar bacteria encountered in clinical specimens. Although these bacteria rarely occur in clinical specimens, the clinical microbiologist should be familiar withe their outstanding characteristics.

  2. Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI. PMID:21569932

  3. Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI.

  4. Antagonistic lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk and identification of a novel nisin variant Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The raw goat milk microbiota is considered a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that can be exploited as an alternative for use as biopreservatives in foods. The constant demand for such alternative tools justifies studies that investigate the antimicrobial potential of such strains. Results The obtained data identified a predominance of Lactococcus and Enterococcus strains in raw goat milk microbiota with antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Enzymatic assays confirmed the bacteriocinogenic nature of the antimicrobial substances produced by the isolated strains, and PCR reactions detected a variety of bacteriocin-related genes in their genomes. Rep-PCR identified broad genetic variability among the Enterococcus isolates, and close relations between the Lactococcus strains. The sequencing of PCR products from nis-positive Lactococcus allowed the identification of a predicted nisin variant not previously described and possessing a wide inhibitory spectrum. Conclusions Raw goat milk was confirmed as a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic LAB strains, having identified Lactococcus isolates possessing variations in their genomes that suggest the production of a nisin variant not yet described and with potential for use as biopreservatives in food due to its broad spectrum of action. PMID:24521354

  5. Isolation and identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria in traditional yak milk products of Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Bao, QiuHua; Liu, WenJun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Weihong; Qing, ManJun; Chen, Xia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Wenyi; Qiao, Jianmin; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Various traditional fermented yak milk and raw milk foods could be considered as an abundant resource for obtaining novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with unique properties. Eighty-eight samples of yak milk products were collected from Gansu Province in China. Three hundred and nineteen strains of LAB isolated from these samples were identified by phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology. Among the isolates, one hundred and sixty-four isolates (51.41% of the total) were classified under Lactobacilli, and one hundred and fifty-five (48.59%) belonged to cocci. All the isolates were classified to six genera (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella) and twenty-one species. Lactobacillus helveticus (87 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (49 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (39 strains), Lactobacillus casei (31 strains) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (19 strains) were considered as the predominant populations in the yak milk products. The results showed that there were abundant genus and species LAB existing in yak milk products in Gansu Province in China. The obtained LAB pure cultures may be a valuable source for further starter selection. PMID:22688240

  6. Lactic acid bacteria colonization and clinical outcome after probiotic supplementation in conventionally treated bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ehrström, Sophia; Daroczy, Katalin; Rylander, Eva; Samuelsson, Carolina; Johannesson, Ulrika; Anzén, Bo; Påhlson, Carl

    2010-09-01

    This randomized double-blind placebo controlled study assessed the vaginal colonization of lactic acid bacteria and clinical outcome. Vaginal capsules containing L gasseri LN40, Lactobacillus fermentum LN99, L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LN113 and P. acidilactici LN23, or placebos were administered for five days to 95 women after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal examinations and vaginal samplings were performed before and after administration, after the first and second menstruation, and after six months. Presence of LN strains was assessed using RAPD analysis. LN strains were present 2-3 days after administration in 89% of the women receiving LN strains (placebo: 0%, p < 0.0001). After one menstruation 53% were colonized by at least one LN strain. Nine percent were still colonized six months after administration. Ninety-three percent of the women receiving LN strains were cured 2-3 days after administration (placebo: 83%), and 78% after one menstruation (placebo: 71%) (ns). The intervention group experienced less malodorous discharge 2-3 days after administration (p = 0.03) and after the second menstruation (p = 0.04), compared with placebo. In summary, five days of vaginal administration of LN strains after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis lead to vaginal colonization, somewhat fewer recurrences and less malodorous discharge.

  7. Binding and detoxification of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria on rice straw silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Wu, Tian-Hao; Yang, Yao; Zhu, Cen-Ling; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the reduction of pesticide residues on straw inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during ensiling. Lactobacillus casei WYS3 was isolated from rice straw that contained pesticide residues. Non-sterilized rice straw, which was inoculated with L. casei WYS3, showed increased removal of chlorpyrifos after ensiling, compared with rice straw that was not inoculated with L. casei WYS3 or sterilized rice straw. In pure culture, these strains can bind chlorpyrifos as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Viable L. casei WYS3 was shown to bind 33.3-42% of exogenously added chlorpyrifos. These results are similar to those of acid-treated cells but less than those of heat-treated cells, which were found to bind 32.0% and 77.2% of the added chlorpyrifos respectively. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that L. casei WYS3 detoxified chlorpyrifos via P-O-C cleavage. Real-time polymerized chain reaction analysis determined that organophosphorus hydrolase gene expression tripled after the addition of chlorpyrifos to LAB cultures, compared with the control group (without chlorpyrifos). This paper highlights the potential use of LAB starter cultures for the detoxification and removal of chlorpyrifos residues in the environment.

  8. Effect of culture medium on acid production from sorbitol by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalfas, S; Edwardsson, S

    1990-08-01

    The fermentation of sorbitol or glucose and the acid production by strains belonging to the genera Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus isolated from the predominant sorbitol-fermenting human dental plaque flora were studied in cultures in complex or defined bacteriologic broths and in saliva-based broth. The growth yields of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus in the saliva-based media and of Actinomyces in the defined broth were poor. Addition of fermentable carbohydrate to the saliva-based broth favored the growth of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus but not that of Actinomyces. The results showed obvious differences in the capacity of oral bacteria to ferment sorbitol between cultures in saliva-based and bacteriologic broths. Lactobacillus failed to utilize sorbitol when saliva was the only source of nutrients. Lower proportions of lactic and formic acids were formed from sorbitol by Actinomyces and Lactobacillus in the saliva-based than in the bacteriologic media. The findings illustrate some mechanisms possibly involved in the interactions between sorbitol and dental plaque flora.

  9. Isolation and characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ripe mulberries in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ripe mulberries collected in Taiwan. Ripe mulberry samples were collected at five mulberry farms, located in different counties of Taiwan. Eighty-eight acid-producing cultures were isolated from these samples, and isolates were divided into classes first by phenotype, then into groups by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of four bacterial groups (A to D). Weissella cibaria was the most abundant type of LAB distributed in four mulberry farms, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in the remaining farm. Ten W. cibaria and one Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolate produced bacteriocins against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157T. These results suggest that various LAB are distributed in ripe mulberries and W. cibaria was the most abundant LAB found in this study. PMID:24031571

  10. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

  11. Evaluation of a facile method of template DNA preparation for PCR-based detection and typing of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Ramesh, Aiyagari

    2009-08-01

    The objective of our investigation was to develop a convenient and reliable method of generating template DNA for routine PCR-based detection and typing of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Template DNA extracted from Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc using a combination of urea, SDS and NaOH yielded amplicons of expected size in PCR with genus-specific primers. Apart from LAB, the proposed method could also be adopted to generate PCR-compatible template DNA from a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. DNA template prepared by the proposed method from various standard strains of Lactobacillus sp. also generated discriminating fingerprints with BOXA1R primer in rep-PCR. A significant finding of the investigation was that a comparable banding profile of LAB strains was obtained in rep-PCR using template DNA prepared by urea-SDS-NaOH method and a commercially available DNA isolation kit. This was further evidenced by high dice coefficient values obtained in the range of 81.8-96.7 when cluster analysis was performed by UPGAMA method. The application potential of this DNA extraction method for PCR-based direct detection of LAB in fermented food samples such as dahi, idli batter and salt-fermented cucumber was validated by detecting specific amplicons of LAB genera in the fermented samples. The applicability of the proposed template DNA extraction method was further substantiated when 29 bacteriocinogenic LAB strains (Bac+) previously detected in salt-fermented cucumber by PCR [Singh, A.K., Ramesh, A., 2008. Succession of dominant and antagonistic lactic acid bacteria in fermented cucumber: Insights from a PCR-based approach. Food. Microbiol. 25, 278-287] generated differentiating fingerprints in BOX element based rep-PCR and formed clusters with reference LAB strains. PMID:19465247

  12. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination.

  13. Use of anaerobic green fluorescent protein versus green fluorescent protein as reporter in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Landete, José M; Langa, Susana; Revilla, Concepción; Margolles, Abelardo; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan L

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in the production of fermented and probiotic foods. Development of molecular tools to discriminate the strains of interest from the endogenous microbiota in complex environments like food or gut is of high interest. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like chromophores strictly requires molecular oxygen for maturation of fluorescence, which restrict the study of microorganisms in low-oxygen environments. In this work, we have developed a noninvasive cyan-green fluorescent based reporter system for real-time tracking of LAB that is functional under anoxic conditions. The evoglow-Pp1 was cloned downstream from the promoters D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase and elongation factor Tu of Lactobacillus reuteri CECT925 using pNZ8048 and downstream of the lactococcal P1 promoter using pT1NX. The classical gfp was also cloned in pT1NX. These recombinant expression vectors were electroporated into Lactococccus, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus strains with biotechnological and/or probiotic interests to assess and compare their functionality under different conditions of oxygen and pH. The expression was analyzed by imaging and fluorometric methods as well as by flow cytometry. We demonstrate that reporter systems pNZ:TuR-aFP and pT1-aFP are two versatile molecular markers for monitoring LAB in food and fecal environments without the potential problems caused by oxygen and pH limitations, which could be exploited for in vivo studies. Production of the fluorescent protein did not disturb any important physiological properties of the parental strains, such as growth rate, reuterin, or bacteriocin production.

  14. Molecular identification and quantification of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented dairy foods of Russia.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, H M; Zha, M S; Qing, Y T; Bai, N; Ren, Y; Xi, X X; Liu, W J; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P

    2015-08-01

    Russian traditional fermented dairy foods have been consumed for thousands of years. However, little research has focused on exploiting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resources and analyzing the LAB composition of Russian traditional fermented dairy foods. In the present study, we cultured LAB isolated from fermented mare and cow milks, sour cream, and cheese collected from Kalmykiya, Buryats, and Tuva regions of Russia. Seven lactobacillus species and the Bifidobacterium genus were quantified by quantitative PCR. The LAB counts in these samples ranged from 3.18 to 9.77 log cfu/mL (or per gram). In total, 599 LAB strains were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. The identified LAB belonged to 7 genera and 30 species by 16S rRNA and murE gene sequencing and multiplex PCR assay. The predominant LAB isolates were Lactobacillus helveticus (176 strains) and Lactobacillus plantarum (63 strains), which represented 39.9% of all isolates. The quantitative PCR results revealed that counts of 7 lactobacilli species and Bifidobacterium spp. of 30 fermented cow milk samples ranged from 1.19±0.34 (Lactobacillus helveticus in Tuva) to 8.09±0.71 (Lactobacillus acidophilus in Kalmykiya) log cfu/mL of fermented cow milk (mean ± standard error). The numbers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lb. plantarum, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. acidophilus revealed no significant difference between the 3 regions; nevertheless, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus exhibited different degrees of variation across 3 regions. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Russia have complex compositions of LAB species. The diversity of LAB might be related to the type of fermented dairy product, geographical origin, and manufacturing process.

  15. Selecting lactic acid bacteria for their safety and functionality by use of a mouse colitis model.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Catherine; Poiret, Sabine; Goudercourt, Denise; Dennin, Veronique; Leyer, Gregory; Pot, Bruno

    2006-09-01

    Studies showed that specific probiotics might provide therapeutic benefits in inflammatory bowel disease. However, a rigorous screening of new probiotics is needed to study possible adverse interactions with the host, particularly when intended for administration to individuals with certain health risks. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of three lactobacilli (LAB) on intestinal inflammation and bacterial translocation using variations of the mouse model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis. We first compared the in vitro ability of LAB to survive gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions and their ability to persist in the GIT of mice following daily oral administration. As a control, we included a nonprobiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient. Feeding high doses of LAB strains to healthy and to TNBS-treated mice did not induce any detrimental effect or abnormal translocation of the bacteria. Oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 had a significant preventive effect on colitis in mice, while Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM did not. None of the three selected LAB strains translocated to extraintestinal organs of TNBS-treated mice. In contrast, L. paracasei exacerbated colitis under severe inflammatory conditions and translocated to extraintestinal organs. This study showed that evaluations of the safety and functionality of new probiotics are recommended. We conclude that not all lactobacilli have similar effects on intestinal inflammation and that selected probiotics such as L. salivarius Ls-33 may be considered in the prevention or treatment of intestinal inflammation.

  16. Selecting Lactic Acid Bacteria for Their Safety and Functionality by Use of a Mouse Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Catherine; Poiret, Sabine; Goudercourt, Denise; Dennin, Veronique; Leyer, Gregory; Pot, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Studies showed that specific probiotics might provide therapeutic benefits in inflammatory bowel disease. However, a rigorous screening of new probiotics is needed to study possible adverse interactions with the host, particularly when intended for administration to individuals with certain health risks. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of three lactobacilli (LAB) on intestinal inflammation and bacterial translocation using variations of the mouse model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis. We first compared the in vitro ability of LAB to survive gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions and their ability to persist in the GIT of mice following daily oral administration. As a control, we included a nonprobiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient. Feeding high doses of LAB strains to healthy and to TNBS-treated mice did not induce any detrimental effect or abnormal translocation of the bacteria. Oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 had a significant preventive effect on colitis in mice, while Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM did not. None of the three selected LAB strains translocated to extraintestinal organs of TNBS-treated mice. In contrast, L. paracasei exacerbated colitis under severe inflammatory conditions and translocated to extraintestinal organs. This study showed that evaluations of the safety and functionality of new probiotics are recommended. We conclude that not all lactobacilli have similar effects on intestinal inflammation and that selected probiotics such as L. salivarius Ls-33 may be considered in the prevention or treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:16957197

  17. Molecular identification and quantification of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented dairy foods of Russia.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, H M; Zha, M S; Qing, Y T; Bai, N; Ren, Y; Xi, X X; Liu, W J; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P

    2015-08-01

    Russian traditional fermented dairy foods have been consumed for thousands of years. However, little research has focused on exploiting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resources and analyzing the LAB composition of Russian traditional fermented dairy foods. In the present study, we cultured LAB isolated from fermented mare and cow milks, sour cream, and cheese collected from Kalmykiya, Buryats, and Tuva regions of Russia. Seven lactobacillus species and the Bifidobacterium genus were quantified by quantitative PCR. The LAB counts in these samples ranged from 3.18 to 9.77 log cfu/mL (or per gram). In total, 599 LAB strains were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. The identified LAB belonged to 7 genera and 30 species by 16S rRNA and murE gene sequencing and multiplex PCR assay. The predominant LAB isolates were Lactobacillus helveticus (176 strains) and Lactobacillus plantarum (63 strains), which represented 39.9% of all isolates. The quantitative PCR results revealed that counts of 7 lactobacilli species and Bifidobacterium spp. of 30 fermented cow milk samples ranged from 1.19±0.34 (Lactobacillus helveticus in Tuva) to 8.09±0.71 (Lactobacillus acidophilus in Kalmykiya) log cfu/mL of fermented cow milk (mean ± standard error). The numbers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lb. plantarum, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. acidophilus revealed no significant difference between the 3 regions; nevertheless, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus exhibited different degrees of variation across 3 regions. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Russia have complex compositions of LAB species. The diversity of LAB might be related to the type of fermented dairy product, geographical origin, and manufacturing process. PMID:26004836

  18. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown. PMID:26638484

  19. Ribosomal multilocus sequence typing: universal characterization of bacteria from domain to strain

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Carly M.; Bennett, Julia S.; Bratcher, Holly B.; Brehony, Carina; Colles, Frances M.; Wimalarathna, Helen; Harrison, Odile B.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Cody, Alison J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2012-01-01

    No single genealogical reconstruction or typing method currently encompasses all levels of bacterial diversity, from domain to strain. We propose ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST), an approach which indexes variation of the 53 genes encoding the bacterial ribosome protein subunits (rps genes), as a means of integrating microbial genealogy and typing. As with multilocus sequence typing (MLST), rMLST employs curated reference sequences to identify gene variants efficiently and rapidly. The rps loci are ideal targets for a universal characterization scheme as they are: (i) present in all bacteria; (ii) distributed around the chromosome; and (iii) encode proteins which are under stabilizing selection for functional conservation. Collectively, the rps loci exhibit variation that resolves bacteria into groups at all taxonomic and most typing levels, providing significantly more resolution than 16S small subunit rRNA gene phylogenies. A web-accessible expandable database, comprising whole-genome data from more than 1900 bacterial isolates, including 28 draft genomes assembled de novo from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) sequence read archive, has been assembled. The rps gene variation catalogued in this database permits rapid and computationally non-intensive identification of the phylogenetic position of any bacterial sequence at the domain, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species and strain levels. The groupings generated with rMLST data are consistent with current nomenclature schemes and independent of the clustering algorithm used. This approach is applicable to the other domains of life, potentially providing a rational and universal approach to the classification of life that is based on one of its fundamental features, the translation mechanism. PMID:22282518

  20. Ribosomal multilocus sequence typing: universal characterization of bacteria from domain to strain.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Keith A; Bliss, Carly M; Bennett, Julia S; Bratcher, Holly B; Brehony, Carina; Colles, Frances M; Wimalarathna, Helen; Harrison, Odile B; Sheppard, Samuel K; Cody, Alison J; Maiden, Martin C J

    2012-04-01

    No single genealogical reconstruction or typing method currently encompasses all levels of bacterial diversity, from domain to strain. We propose ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST), an approach which indexes variation of the 53 genes encoding the bacterial ribosome protein subunits (rps genes), as a means of integrating microbial genealogy and typing. As with multilocus sequence typing (MLST), rMLST employs curated reference sequences to identify gene variants efficiently and rapidly. The rps loci are ideal targets for a universal characterization scheme as they are: (i) present in all bacteria; (ii) distributed around the chromosome; and (iii) encode proteins which are under stabilizing selection for functional conservation. Collectively, the rps loci exhibit variation that resolves bacteria into groups at all taxonomic and most typing levels, providing significantly more resolution than 16S small subunit rRNA gene phylogenies. A web-accessible expandable database, comprising whole-genome data from more than 1900 bacterial isolates, including 28 draft genomes assembled de novo from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) sequence read archive, has been assembled. The rps gene variation catalogued in this database permits rapid and computationally non-intensive identification of the phylogenetic position of any bacterial sequence at the domain, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species and strain levels. The groupings generated with rMLST data are consistent with current nomenclature schemes and independent of the clustering algorithm used. This approach is applicable to the other domains of life, potentially providing a rational and universal approach to the classification of life that is based on one of its fundamental features, the translation mechanism.

  1. CO2 leaking from sub-seabed storage: Responses of two marine bacteria strains.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Santiago, A R; Carbú, M; DelValls, T Á; Riba, I

    2016-10-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in stable geological locations is one of the options to mitigate the negative effects of global warming produced by the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. A CO2 leak is one of the risks associated with this strategy. Marine bacteria attached to the sediment may be affected by an acidification event. Responses of two marine strains (Roseobacter sp. CECT 7117 and Pseudomonas litoralis CECT 7670) were assessed under different scenarios using a range of pH values (7.8, 7, 6.5, 6, and 5.5) to mimic a CO2 leak. A CO2 injection system was used to simulate an escape from a stable sub-seabed. Growth rate (μ), cell number, inhibition of Relative Inhibitory Effect (RI CO2) and inhibited population were analysed as endpoints. P. litoralis showed more sensitivity to high CO2 concentrations than Roseobacter sp. Our results highlight the diversity and resistance in marine bacteria and their capacity to adapt under a stressful CO2 leakage. PMID:27255122

  2. CO2 leaking from sub-seabed storage: Responses of two marine bacteria strains.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Santiago, A R; Carbú, M; DelValls, T Á; Riba, I

    2016-10-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in stable geological locations is one of the options to mitigate the negative effects of global warming produced by the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. A CO2 leak is one of the risks associated with this strategy. Marine bacteria attached to the sediment may be affected by an acidification event. Responses of two marine strains (Roseobacter sp. CECT 7117 and Pseudomonas litoralis CECT 7670) were assessed under different scenarios using a range of pH values (7.8, 7, 6.5, 6, and 5.5) to mimic a CO2 leak. A CO2 injection system was used to simulate an escape from a stable sub-seabed. Growth rate (μ), cell number, inhibition of Relative Inhibitory Effect (RI CO2) and inhibited population were analysed as endpoints. P. litoralis showed more sensitivity to high CO2 concentrations than Roseobacter sp. Our results highlight the diversity and resistance in marine bacteria and their capacity to adapt under a stressful CO2 leakage.

  3. Characterization of the spoilage lactic acid bacteria in “sliced vacuum-packed cooked ham”

    PubMed Central

    Kalschne, Daneysa Lahis; Womer, Rute; Mattana, Ademir; Sarmento, Cleonice Mendes Pereira; Colla, Luciane Maria; Colla, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria are involved with food fermentation and in such cases with food spoilage. Considering the need to reduce the lactic acid bacteria growth in meat products, the aim of this work was to enumerated and investigated the lactic acid bacteria present on sliced vacuum-packed cooked ham stored at 4 °C and 8 °C for 45 days by phenotypic and molecular techniques. The quantification showed that the lactic acid bacteria were present from the first day with mean count of 1.98 log cfu/g for the four batches analyzed. The lactic acid bacteria grew rapidly on the samples, and plate counts around 7.59 log cfu/g and 8.25 log cfu/g were detected after 45 days of storage at 4 °C and 8 °C, respectively; storage temperatures studied showed significant influence on the microorganism in study growth. The predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the spoilage samples at one day of storage includes Lactobacillus sp., the phenotypic overlap Leuconostoc / Weissella sp. and Enterococcus sp. At 45 days of storage at 4 and 8 °C the mainly specie was Lactobacillus curvatus , following by Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc mesentereoides ; the Enterococcus sp. was not present in the samples. PMID:26221105

  4. Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov., associated with coffee plants.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ramírez, L E; Bustillos-Cristales, R; Tapia-Hernández, A; Jiménez-Salgado, T; Wang, E T; Martínez-Romero, E; Caballero-Mellado, J

    2001-07-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated, in two different years, from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants cultivated in Mexico; they were designated as type DOR and type SAd isolates. They showed characteristics of the family Acetobacteraceae, having some features in common with Gluconacetobacter (formerly Acetobacter) diazotrophicus, the only known N2-fixing species of the acetic acid bacteria, but they differed from this species with regard to several characteristics. Type DOR isolates can be differentiated phenotypically from type SAd isolates. Type DOR isolates and type SAd isolates can both be differentiated from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus by their growth features on culture media, their use of amino acids as nitrogen sources and their carbon-source usage. These results, together with the electrophoretic mobility patterns of metabolic enzymes and amplified rDNA restriction analysis, suggested that the type DOR and type SAd isolates represent two novel N2-fixing species. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences revealed that strains CFN-Cf55T (type DOR isolate) and CFN-Ca54T (type SAd isolate) were closer to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (both strains had sequence similarities of 98.3%) than to Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, Gluconacetobacter sacchari (similarities < 98%) or any other acetobacteria. Strain CFN-Cf55T exhibited low levels of DNA-DNA reassociation with type SAd isolates (mean 42%) and strain CFN-Ca54T exhibited mean DNA-DNA reassociation of 39.5% with type DOR isolates. Strains CFN-Cf55T and CFN-Ca54T exhibited very low DNA reassociation levels, 7-21%, with other closely related acetobacterial species. On the basis of these results, two novel N2-fixing species are proposed for the family Acetobacteraceae, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. (for the type DOR isolates), with strain CFN-Cf55T (= ATCC 700987T = DSM 13595T) as the type strain, and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov. (for the type SAd

  5. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  6. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria in Acid Sulfate Soils and Their Beneficial Effects on Rice Growth

    PubMed Central

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmolc kg−1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  7. Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria, in maize porridge with added malted barley.

    PubMed

    Helland, Merete H; Wicklund, Trude; Narvhus, Judith A

    2004-03-15

    A fermented probiotic maize porridge with high energy density and low viscosity was prepared, using maize flour and barley malt. The porridge was fermented with four probiotic strains (grown separately): Lactobacillus reuteri, Lb. acidophilus (LA5 and 1748) and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains were inoculated at two levels; to obtain approx. 7 or 6 log cfu g(-1) in the porridge at 0 h. The porridge was fermented for 24 h at 37 degrees C, and analysed for viable cell count, pH, organic acids, volatile aromatic compounds and sugar content. The inoculated cell concentration was shown to be particularly important during the first hours of the fermentation period, showing a delayed production of most metabolites in porridge inoculated with approx. 6 log cfu g(-1). Most strains reached maximum cell count after 12-h fermentation (7.2-8.2 log cfu g(-1)), with a pH below 4.0. Depending on the strain, lactic acid was produced in amounts ranging from 1360 to 4000 mg kg(-1). Lb. reuteri metabolised succinate, while pyruvate and small amounts of diacetyl were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748. High amounts of diacetyl (6 mg kg(-1)) and acetoin (27 mg kg(-1)) were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. rhamnosus GG. Porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748, contained acetaldehyde, while both Lb. reuteri and Lb. rhamnosus GG reduced the acetaldehyde to ethanol. Lb. reuteri utilised both maltose and glucose as carbohydrate sources, while Lb. acidophilus LA5, Lb. acidophilus 1748 and Lb. rhamnosus GG utilised only glucose.

  8. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria – the fledgling cuckoos of the gut?

    PubMed Central

    Berstad, Arnold; Raa, Jan; Midtvedt, Tore; Valeur, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to look at bacteria from our human egocentric point of view and label them as either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. However, a microbial society has its own system of government – ‘microcracy’ – and its own rules of play. Lactic acid bacteria are often referred to as representatives of the good ones, and there is little doubt that those belonging to the normal intestinal flora are beneficial for human health. But we should stop thinking of lactic acid bacteria as always being ‘friendly’ – they may instead behave like fledgling cuckoos. PMID:27235098

  9. Pristine environments harbor a new group of oligotrophic 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kamagata, Y; Fulthorpe, R R; Tamura, K; Takami, H; Forney, L J; Tiedje, J M

    1997-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria were isolated from pristine environments which had no history of 2,4-D exposure. By using 2,4-D dye indicator medium or 14C-labeled 2,4-D medium, six strains were isolated from eight enrichment cultures capable of degrading 2,4-D. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and physiological properties revealed that one isolate from Hawaiian volcanic soil could be classified in the genus Variovorax (a member of the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria) and that the other five isolates from Hawaiian volcanic soils, Saskatchewan forest soil, and Chilean forest soil have 16S rDNAs with high degrees of similarity to those of the Bradyrhizobium group (a member of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria). All the isolates grow slowly on either nutrient media (0.1 x Bacto Peptone-tryptone-yeast extract-glucose [PTYG] or 0.1 x Luria broth [LB] medium) or 2,4-D medium, with mean generation times of 16 to 30 h, which are significantly slower than previously known 2,4-D degraders. Nutrient-rich media such as full-strength PTYG and LB medium did not allow their growth. PCR amplification using internal consensus sequences of tfdA (a gene encoding an enzyme for the first step of 2,4-D mineralization, found in pJP4 of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 and some other 2,4-D-degrading bacteria) as primers and Southern hybridization with pJP4-tfdA as a probe revealed that the isolate belonging to the genus Variovorax carried the tfdA gene. This gene was transmissible to A. eutrophus JMP228 carrying a plasmid with a mutant tfdA gene. The other five isolates did not appear to carry tfdA, and 2,4-D-specific alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity could not be detected in cell lysates. These results indicate that 2,4-D-degrading bacteria in pristine environments are slow-growing bacteria and that most of their phylogenies and catabolic genes differ from those of 2,4-D degraders