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Sample records for acid bacterium pediococcus

  1. The Lactic Acid Bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici Suppresses Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inducing IL-10-Producing Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Kazushiro; Kinoshita, Makoto; Okuno, Tatsusada; Moriya, Masayuki; Kohda, Tohru; Honorat, Josephe A.; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Kayama, Hisako; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Sakoda, Saburo; Nakatsuji, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Background Certain intestinal microflora are thought to regulate the systemic immune response. Lactic acid bacteria are one of the most studied bacteria in terms of their beneficial effects on health and autoimmune diseases; one of which is Multiple sclerosis (MS) which affects the central nervous system. We investigated whether the lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici, which comprises human commensal bacteria, has beneficial effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Methodology/Principal Findings P. acidilactici R037 was orally administered to EAE mice to investigate the effects of R037. R037 treatment suppressed clinical EAE severity as prophylaxis and therapy. The antigen-specific production of inflammatory cytokines was inhibited in R037-treated mice. A significant increase in the number of CD4+ Interleukin (IL)-10-producing cells was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and spleens isolated from R037-treated naive mice, while no increase was observed in the number of these cells in the lamina propria. Because only a slight increase in the CD4+Foxp3+ cells was observed in MLNs, R037 may primarily induce Foxp3− IL10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells in MLNs, which contribute to the beneficial effect of R037 on EAE. Conclusions/Significance An orally administered single strain of P. acidilactici R037 ameliorates EAE by inducing IL10-producing Tr1 cells. Our findings indicate the therapeutic potential of the oral administration of R037 for treating multiple sclerosis. PMID:22110705

  2. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  3. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the fermented milks obtained from three different species were evaluated. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay showed activity in probiotic fermented milk obtained from all the products being highest in goat milk (93 %) followed by product from camel milk (86 %) and then product from cow milk (79 %). The composition of beneficial fatty acids such as stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in fermented milk than the unfermented ones. Results suggested that probiotic bacteria are able to utilize the nutrients in goat and camel milk more efficiently compared to cow milk. Increase in antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milks enhances the therapeutic value of the products. PMID:25477694

  4. pUCL287 plasmid from Tetragenococcus halophila (Pediococcus halophilus) ATCC 33315 represents a new theta-type replicon family of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Benachour, A; Frère, J; Novel, G

    1995-05-01

    A cryptic plasmid, pUCL287, was isolated from Tetragenococcus halophila (Pediococcus halophilus) ATCC 33315. It had a theta-type mechanism of replication in its natural host. Its minimal replicon, Rep287, was isolated on a 1.6-kb EcoRI fragment. The Rep287 host range included the genera Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc but not genus Lactococcus. Plasmids hybridizing to pUCL287 are rare among lactic acid bacteria. As assessed by hybridization, Rep287 is dissimilar to pAM beta 1, pIP501 and pUCL22, representatives of the most common theta-type replicon groups in Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, pUCL287 appears to represent a new theta-type replicon family from lactic acid bacteria. PMID:7750734

  5. Biochemical, kinetic, and in silico characterization of DING protein purified from probiotic lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici NCDC 252.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pooja; Khaket, Tejinder P; Jodha, Drukshakshi; Singh, Jasbir; Dhanda, Suman

    2015-01-01

    DING proteins are intriguing proteins characterized by conserved N-terminal sequence. In spite of unusually high sequence conservation even between distantly related species, DING proteins exhibit outstanding functional diversity. An extracellular caseinolytic alkaline enzyme was purified to homogeneity from a probiotic lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici NCDC 252 using a simple procedure involving ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. This was purified 45.72-fold with a yield and specific activity of 43.5 % and 250 U/mg, respectively. The calculated molecular weight was 38.7 and 38.9 kDa by MALDI and SDS-PAGE, respectively, and pI was 7.77. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 40 °C. It was considerably stable up to pH 12. For casein, the enzyme had K m of 20 μM with V max of 26 U/ml. The enzyme was resistant to organic solvents but sensitive to DTNB and EDTA that confirmed it as thiol protein with involvement of metal ions in catalysis. Its tryptic peptide fragments showed 95 % similarity with eukaryotic DING, i.e., human phosphate binding protein (HPBP). Homology-based structure evaluation using HBPB as template revealed both to be structurally conserved and also possessing conserved phosphate binding motifs. PMID:25367285

  6. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period. PMID:22991559

  7. Development and Characterization of Lactose-Positive Pediococcus Species for Milk Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, S. L.; McMahon, D. J.; Oberg, C. J.; Broadbent, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Bacteriophages against Streptococcus thermophilus are a growing problem in the Italian cheese industry. One possible control method involves replacing S. thermophilus in mozzarella starter blends with lactic acid bacteria from a different genus or species. In this study, we evaluated lactose-positive pediococci for this application. Because we could not identify any commercially available pediococci with fast acid-producing ability in milk, we transformed Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 25744, P. pentosaceus ATCC 25745, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 12697 by electroporation with pPN-1, a 35-kb Lactococcus lactis lactose plasmid. Transformants of P. pentosaceus ATCC 25745 and P. acidilactici ATCC 12697 were then used to examine lactose-positive pediococci for properties related to milk fermentation. Both transformants rapidly produced acid and efficiently retained pPN-1 in lactose broth, and neither bacterium was attacked by bacteriophages in whey collected from commercial cheese facilities. Paired starter combinations of Pediococcus spp. and Lactobacillus helveticus LH100 exhibited synergistic pH reduction in milk, and small-scale cheese trials showed that these cultures could be used to manufacture part-skim mozzarella cheese. Results demonstrate that lactose-positive pediococci have potential as replacement cocci for S. thermophilus in Italian cheese starter blends and may facilitate development of new strain rotation schemes to combat S. thermophilus bacteriophage problems in mozzarella cheese plants. PMID:16535280

  8. Engineering wild-type robust Pediococcus acidilactici strain for high titer L- and D-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xia; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jiaoe; Tu, Yi; Gao, Qiuqiang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-10

    Pediococcus acidilactici TY112 producing L-lactic acid and P. acidilactici ZP26 producing D-lactic acid, were engineered from the wild-type P. acidilactici DQ2 by ldhD or ldh gene disruption, and the robustness of the wild-type strain to the inhibitors derived from lignocellulose pretreatment was maintained well. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), 77.66 g L(-1) of L-lactic acid and 76.76 g L(-1) of D-lactic acid were obtained at 25% (w/w) solids content of dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover feedstock. L- and D-Lactic acid yield and productivity were highly dependent on the inhibitor removal extent due to the significant down-regulation on the expressions of ldh and ldhD encoding lactate dehydrogenase by inhibitor, especially syringaldehyde and vanillin at the low concentrations. This study provided a prototype of industrial process for high titer L- and D-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock. PMID:26616423

  9. Metabolic engineering of Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 for production of vanillin through ferulic acid catabolic pathway and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2014-10-01

    Occurrence of feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ech) genes responsible for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin have been reported and characterized from Amycolatopsis sp., Streptomyces sp., and Pseudomonas sp. Attempts have been made to express these genes in Escherichia coli DH5α, E. coli JM109, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, none of the lactic acid bacteria strain having GRAS status was previously proposed for heterologous expression of fcs and ech genes for production of vanillin through biotechnological process. Present study reports heterologous expression of vanillin synthetic gene cassette bearing fcs and ech genes in a dairy isolate Pediococcus acidilactici BD16. After metabolic engineering, statistical optimization of process parameters that influence ferulic acid to vanillin biotransformation in the recombinant strain was carried out using central composite design of response surface methodology. After scale-up of the process, 3.14 mM vanillin was recovered from 1.08 mM ferulic acid per milligram of recombinant cell biomass within 20 min of biotransformation. From LCMS-ESI spectral analysis, a metabolic pathway of phenolic biotransformations was predicted in the recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)). PMID:25077778

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Chertkov, Olga; Land, Miriam L

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brelan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Pitluck, Sam; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  13. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  14. Effect of tannic acid on the transcriptome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are plant-produced organic compounds that are found in soils, are able to sequester iron, and have antimicrobial properties. We studied the effect of tannic acid on the molecular physiology of the soil-inhabiting biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (formerly Pseudomonas fluoresce...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Perfluorooctane Acid-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chongjian; Peng, Qingjing; Peng, Qingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1, isolated from perfluorinated compound-contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) compound. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of the PFOA-degrading bacterium P. parafulva YAB-1. The data provide the basis to investigate the molecular mechanism of PFOA metabolism. PMID:26337877

  16. Distillery spentwash decolorization by a noval consortium of Pediococcus acidilactici and Candida tropicalis under static condition.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Soni; Gaur, Rajeeva; Singh, Anurag

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate a consortium of bacterium and yeast from natural resources for better decolorization of distillery spentwash. Consortium exhibited 82±1.5% decolorization within 24 h when incubated at 45°C under static condition in effluent supplemented with 0.1%, glucose; 0.1%, peptone; 0.05%, MgSO4; 0.01%. The cultures were identified as Pediococcus acidilactici by 16S rDNA analysis and Candida tropicalis on the basis of phenotypic level. It is the first time when thermotolerant melanoidin decolorizing consortium (Pediococcus acidilactici and Candida tropicalis) isolated from distillery soil was capable to decolorizing melanoidin pigment of distillery effluent. Hence, it was observed that consortium has the ability to degrade the spentwash efficiently. This study could be an approach towards control of ecological pollution and health hazards of humans in and about the distillery location. PMID:26035951

  17. Isolation and characterization of bacterium producing lipid from short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yoshiko; Nakai, Shota; Ohkawachi, Masahiko; Suemitsu, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic fermentation generates propionic acid, which inhibits microbial growth and accumulates in wastewater containing increased amounts of organic matter. We therefore isolated a propionic acid-assimilating bacterium that could produce triacylglycerol, for use in wastewater treatment. Nitratireductor sp. strain OM-1 can proliferate in medium containing propionic, acetic, butyric, and valeric acids as well as glycerol, and produces triacylglycerol when both propionic and acetic acids or glycerol are present. In composite model wastewater containing acetic acid, propionic acid and glycerol, this strain shows an even higher conversion rate, suggesting that it is suitable for wastewater treatment. Further, nitrogen depletion in medium containing an acetic-propionic acid mixture resulted in the production of the light oil 2-butenoic acid 1-methylethyl ester, but not triacylglycerol. Collectively, our data indicate that strain OM-1 has the potential to reduce accumulation of activated sludge in wastewater treatment and may contribute to the production of biodiesel. PMID:26649900

  18. Characterization and application of a native lactic acid bacterium isolated from tannery fleshings for fermentative bioconversion of tannery fleshings.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Bhaskar, N; Halami, Prakash M; Indirani, K; Suresh, P V; Mahendrakar, N S

    2009-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species isolated from limed and delimed tannery fleshings (TF) were evaluated for their fermentation efficiency and antibacterial property. The native LAB isolates efficiently fermented TF and resulted in a fermented mass with antioxidant properties, indicating their potential for effective eco-friendly bioconversion of TF. From among the LAB isolated, a proteolytic isolate showing better antimicrobial spectrum and reasonably good fermentation efficiency was identified as Enterococcus faecium HAB01 based on various biochemical and molecular tests. This isolate afforded a better degree of hydrolysis (81.36%) of TF than Pediococcus acidilactici (54.64%) that was previously reported by us. The bacteriocin produced by E. faecium was found to be antagonistic to several human pathogens including Listeria, Aeromonas, Staphylococcus and Salmonella. Further, E. faecium HAB01 bacteriocin was thermostable and had a molecular weight of around 5 kDa, apart from being stable at both acidic and alkaline conditions. The bacteriocin was unstable against proteases. PMID:19333593

  19. Effect of Tannic Acid on the Transcriptome of the Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chee Kent; Penesyan, Anahit; Hassan, Karl A.

    2013-01-01

    Tannins are a diverse group of plant-produced, polyphenolic compounds with metal-chelating and antimicrobial properties that are prevalent in many soils. Using transcriptomics, we determined that tannic acid, a form of hydrolysable tannin, broadly affects the expression of genes involved in iron and zinc homeostases, sulfur metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5. PMID:23435890

  20. Mechanism of biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3, a psychrotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Fukunaga, N.; Sasaki, S. )

    1989-08-01

    Biosynthesis of palmitic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acids in Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3 was investigated with in vitro and in vivo systems. (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid was aerobically converted to palmitoleate and cis-vaccenate, and the radioactivities on their carboxyl carbons were 100 and 43%, respectively, of the total radioactivity in the fatty acids. Palmitoyl coenzyme A desaturase activity was found in the membrane fraction. (1-{sup 14}C)stearic acid was converted to octadecenoate and C16 fatty acids. The octadecenoate contained oleate and cis-vaccenate, but only oleate was produced in the presence of cerulenin. (1-{sup 14}C)lauric acid was aerobically converted to palmitate, palmitoleate, and cis-vaccenate. Under anaerobic conditions, palmitate (62%), palmitoleate (4%), and cis-vaccenate (34%) were produced from (1-{sup 14}C)acetic acid, while they amounted to 48, 39, and 14%, respectively, under aerobic conditions. In these incorporation experiments, 3 to 19% of the added radioactivity was detected in released {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, indicating that part of the added fatty acids were oxidatively decomposed. Partially purified fatty acid synthetase produced saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths of C10 to C18. These results indicated that both aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms for the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid are operating in this bacterium.

  1. Assessment of Pediococcus acidilactici as a Potential Silage Inoculant

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, A.; Duffner, F.; Curtin, D.; Brophy, G.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Connell, M.

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen Pediococcus strains were screened for their potential as silage inoculants. Pediococcus acidilactici G24 was found to be the most suitable, exhibiting a short lag phase on both glucose and fructose, a rapid rate of acid production, a high sugar-to-lactate conversion efficiency, no detectable breakdown of proteins or lactic acid, and the ability to grow within a broad range of pH and temperature. When tested in laboratory silos using grass with a water-soluble carbohydrate content of 24 g/kg of aqueous extract, P. acidilactici G24 stimulated the natural Lactobacillus plantarum population and accelerated the rates of lactic acid production and pH decrease. After 6 days of fermentation, the inoculated silage exhibited a 12% decrease in ammonia nitrogen and an 11% increase in crude protein levels compared with uninoculated controls. The use of an L. plantarum inoculant at a rate of 104 bacteria per g of grass in conjunction with P. acidilactici G24 produced no additional beneficial effect. Inoculation of grass with a water-soluble carbohydrate level of 8 g/kg of aqueous extract with P. acidilactici G24 led to no acceleration in the rate of L. plantarum growth or pH decrease. However, after 7 days of fermentation the inoculated silage had a 14% lower ammonia nitrogen protein content than did uninoculated controls. The results suggest that P. acidilactici G24 may be useful as a silage inoculant for crops with a sufficiently high water-soluble carbohydrate level. PMID:16348773

  2. Uncoupling effect of fatty acids in halo- and alkalotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU.

    PubMed

    Popova, I V; Bodrova, M E; Mokhova, E N; Muntyan, M S

    2004-10-01

    Natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, long-chain non-esterified fatty acids, cause uncoupling in the alkalo- and halotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU. The uncoupling effect in the bacterial cells was manifested as decrease of membrane potential and increase of respiratory activity. The membrane potential decrease was detected only in bacterial cells exhausted by their endogenous substrates. In proteoliposomes containing reconstituted bacterial cytochrome c oxidase, fatty acids caused a "mild" uncoupling effect by reducing membrane potential only at low rate of membrane potential generation. "Free respiration" induced by the "mild" uncouplers, the fatty acids, can be considered as possible mechanism responsible for adaptation of the bacteria to a constantly changed environment. PMID:15527418

  3. Glutathione-mediated response to acid stress in the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kibeom; Pi, Kyungbae; Kim, Eun Bae; Rho, Beom-Seop; Kang, Sang-Kee; Lee, Hong Gu; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2010-07-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius, a probiotic bacterium, encounters acidic conditions in its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of human and animal hosts. We studied the effect of a rapid downshift in extracellular pH from 6.5 to 4 on cell growth. The maximum growth rate was higher in low pH medium with glutathione supplementation than without. Cells developed a GSH-mediated acid-tolerance response and, when grown with 0.5 mM GSH, reached a higher final density than with other conditions. These findings suggest that the increased growth rate is caused by uptake of GSH which acts as a nutrient source as well as having protective functions, allowing for continued growth. PMID:20349113

  4. Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundset, Monica A.; Kohn, Alexandra; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Præsteng, Kirsti E.

    2008-08-01

    Reindeer are able to eat and utilize lichens as an important source of energy and nutrients. In the current study, the activities of antibiotic secondary metabolites including usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid commonly found in lichens were tested against a collection of 26 anaerobic rumen bacterial isolates from reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus) using the agar diffusion method. The isolates were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. Usnic acid had a potent antimicrobial effect against 25 of the isolates, belonging to Clostridiales, Enterococci, and Streptococci. Isolates of Clostridia and Streptococci were also susceptible to atranoric and lobaric acid. However, one isolate (R3_91_1) was found to be resistant to usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid. R3_91_1 was also seen invading and adhering to lichen particles when grown in a liquid anaerobic culture as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. This was a Gram-negative, nonmotile rod (0.2-0.7 × 2.0-3.5 μm) with a deoxyribonucleic acid G + C content of 47.0 mol% and main cellular fatty acids including 15:0 anteiso-dimethyl acetal (DMA), 16:0 iso-fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), 13:0 iso-3OH FAME, and 17:0 anteiso-FAME, not matching any of the presently known profiles in the MIDI database. Combined, the phenotypic and genotypic traits including the 16S rRNA gene sequence show that R3_91_1 is a novel species inside the order Clostridiales within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Eubacterium rangiferina. This is the first record of a rumen bacterium able to tolerate and grow in the presence of usnic acid, indicating that the rumen microorganisms in these animals have adapted mechanisms to deal with lichen secondary metabolites, well known for their antimicrobial and toxic effects.

  5. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403

    PubMed Central

    Bolotin, Alexander; Wincker, Patrick; Mauger, Stéphane; Jaillon, Olivier; Malarme, Karine; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2001-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic AT-rich gram-positive bacterium closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is the most commonly used cheese starter. It is also the best-characterized lactic acid bacterium. We sequenced the genome of the laboratory strain IL1403, using a novel two-step strategy that comprises diagnostic sequencing of the entire genome and a shotgun polishing step. The genome contains 2,365,589 base pairs and encodes 2310 proteins, including 293 protein-coding genes belonging to six prophages and 43 insertion sequence (IS) elements. Nonrandom distribution of IS elements indicates that the chromosome of the sequenced strain may be a product of recent recombination between two closely related genomes. A complete set of late competence genes is present, indicating the ability of L. lactis to undergo DNA transformation. Genomic sequence revealed new possibilities for fermentation pathways and for aerobic respiration. It also indicated a horizontal transfer of genetic information from Lactococcus to gram-negative enteric bacteria of Salmonella-Escherichia group. [The sequence data described in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AE005176.] PMID:11337471

  6. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Naphthenic Acid Degrading and Metal Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Meili; Xiao, Jingfa; Hao, Lirui; Crowley, David E; Zhang, Zhewen; Yu, Jun; Huang, Ning; Huo, Mingxin; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:26301592

  7. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Naphthenic Acid Degrading and Metal Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jingfa; Hao, Lirui; Crowley, David E.; Zhang, Zhewen; Yu, Jun; Huang, Ning; Huo, Mingxin; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:26301592

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk.

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Julie; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  9. Quantitative analysis of growth and volatile fatty acid production by the anaerobic ruminal bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii T81

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megaspheara elsdenii T81 grew on either DL-lactate or D-glucose at similar rates (0.85 per h), but displayed major differences in the fermentation of these substrates. Lactate was fermented at up to 210-mM concentration to yield acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. The bacterium was able t...

  10. Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, Isolated from a Nonscalded Curd Pressed Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Velly, H.; Abraham, A.-L.; Loux, V.; Delacroix-Buchet, A.; Fonseca, F.; Bouix, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the production of many fermented foods, such as dairy products. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, isolated from nonscalded curd pressed cheese. This genome sequence provides information in relation to dairy environment adaptation. PMID:25377704

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk

    PubMed Central

    Meneghel, Julie; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  12. The effects of a vegetable-derived probiotic lactic acid bacterium on the immune response.

    PubMed

    Chon, Heeson; Choi, Byungryul

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of the fermented vegetable derived lactic acid bacterium, L. plantarum. L. plantarum 10hk2 showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulating effects on murine macrophage cell lines. RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with viable cells of this probiotic strain increased the amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as well as the anti-inflammatory mediator, IL-10. ICR mice fed with viable cells of L. plantarum 10hk2 had reduced numbers of enteric Salmonella and Shigella species in comparison to controls from 2 weeks after supplementation, and this effect was observed for up to 4 weeks. The findings of this study suggest that this specific lactic acid bacterial strain, which is derived from vegetable fermentation, holds great promise for use in probiotics and as a food additive since it can reduce the number of some pathogenic bacteria through production of lactic acids. PMID:20377751

  13. Proteomic analysis of responses of a new probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei Zhang to low acid stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rina; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Tiansong; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

    2011-06-30

    Tolerance to acid is an important feature for probiotic bacteria during transition through the gastrointestinal tract. Proteomics analysis of a new probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, was performed upon 30-min exposure to low acid stress (pH 2.5 vs. pH 6.4) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Out of 33 protein spots that showed changes of expression between the two pHs, 22 showed 1.5-fold higher expression at pH 2.5 than at pH 6.4, whereas five spots had expression decreased by 1.5-fold at pH 2.5. There were also six protein spots that were exclusively present on different pH maps. Further analysis showed that eight of the enhanced proteins, NagA, NagB, PGM, GlmM, LacC, TDP, GALM and PtsI, were involved in carbohydrate catabolism. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of dnaK, nagB, galm, estC, tuf and luxS were consistent with changes in protein expression. We postulate that there might be some relationship between differentially expressed proteins and acid tolerance in L. casei Zhang. PMID:21561676

  14. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)). PMID:25281727

  15. A Highly Stable D-Amino Acid Oxidase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shouji; Furukawara, Makoto; Omae, Keishi; Tadokoro, Namiho; Saito, Yayoi; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a biotechnologically attractive enzyme that can be used in a variety of applications, but its utility is limited by its relatively poor stability. A search of a bacterial genome database revealed a gene encoding a protein homologous to DAO in the thermophilic bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus (RxDAO). The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was a monomeric protein containing noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. This protein exhibited oxidase activity against neutral and basic d-amino acids and was significantly inhibited by a DAO inhibitor, benzoate, but not by any of the tested d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) inhibitors, thus indicating that the protein is DAO. RxDAO exhibited higher activities and affinities toward branched-chain d-amino acids, with the highest specific activity toward d-valine and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward d-leucine. Substrate inhibition was observed in the case of d-tyrosine. The enzyme had an optimum pH range and temperature of pH 7.5 to 10 and 65°C, respectively, and was stable between pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, with a T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the initial enzymatic activity is lost) of 64°C. No loss of enzyme activity was observed after a 1-week incubation period at 30°C. This enzyme was markedly inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by thiol-modifying reagents and diethyl pyrocarbonate, which are known to inhibit certain DAOs. These results demonstrated that RxDAO is a highly stable DAO and suggested that this enzyme may be valuable for practical applications, such as the determination and quantification of branched-chain d-amino acids, and as a scaffold to generate a novel DAO via protein engineering. PMID:25217016

  16. A Highly Stable d-Amino Acid Oxidase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus

    PubMed Central

    Furukawara, Makoto; Omae, Keishi; Tadokoro, Namiho; Saito, Yayoi; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a biotechnologically attractive enzyme that can be used in a variety of applications, but its utility is limited by its relatively poor stability. A search of a bacterial genome database revealed a gene encoding a protein homologous to DAO in the thermophilic bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus (RxDAO). The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was a monomeric protein containing noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. This protein exhibited oxidase activity against neutral and basic d-amino acids and was significantly inhibited by a DAO inhibitor, benzoate, but not by any of the tested d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) inhibitors, thus indicating that the protein is DAO. RxDAO exhibited higher activities and affinities toward branched-chain d-amino acids, with the highest specific activity toward d-valine and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward d-leucine. Substrate inhibition was observed in the case of d-tyrosine. The enzyme had an optimum pH range and temperature of pH 7.5 to 10 and 65°C, respectively, and was stable between pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, with a T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the initial enzymatic activity is lost) of 64°C. No loss of enzyme activity was observed after a 1-week incubation period at 30°C. This enzyme was markedly inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by thiol-modifying reagents and diethyl pyrocarbonate, which are known to inhibit certain DAOs. These results demonstrated that RxDAO is a highly stable DAO and suggested that this enzyme may be valuable for practical applications, such as the determination and quantification of branched-chain d-amino acids, and as a scaffold to generate a novel DAO via protein engineering. PMID:25217016

  17. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  18. Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion

    PubMed Central

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  19. Sphingopyxis fribergensis sp. nov., a soil bacterium with the ability to degrade styrene and phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Oelschlägel, Michel; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Schmidt, Gert; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Strain Kp5.2(T) is an aerobic, Gram-negative soil bacterium that was isolated in Freiberg, Saxony, Germany. The cells were motile and rod-shaped. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30 °C. The fatty acids of strain Kp5.2(T) comprised mainly C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The major polar lipids of strain Kp5.2(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingoglycolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.7%. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of strain Kp5.2(T) allowed its classification into the family Sphingomonadaceae, and the sequence showed the highest similarity to those of members of the genus Sphingopyxis, with Sphingopyxis italica SC13E-S71(T) (99.15% similarity), Sphingopyxis panaciterrae Gsoil 124(T) (98.96%), Sphingopyxis chilensis S37(T) (98.90%) and Sphingopyxis bauzanensis BZ30(T) (98.51%) as the nearest neighbours. DNA-DNA hybridization and further characterization revealed that strain Kp5.2(T) can be considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingopyxis. Hence, the name Sphingopyxis fribergensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Kp5.2(T) ( = DSM 28731(T) = LMG 28478(T)). PMID:26040579

  20. Amino acid transport by membrane vesicles of an obligate anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed Central

    Driessen, A J; Ubbink-Kok, T; Konings, W N

    1988-01-01

    Membrane vesicles were isolated from the obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. Beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase was inserted in these membrane vesicles by membrane fusion by using the freeze-thaw sonication technique (A. J. M. Driessen, W. de Vrij, and W. N. Konings, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7555-7559, 1985) to accommodate them with a functional proton motive force-generating system. With ascorbate-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine-cytochrome c as the electron donor, a proton motive force (delta p) of -80 to -120 mV was generated in these fused membranes. This delta p drove the accumulation of leucine and lysine up to 40- and 100-fold, respectively. High transport activities were observed in fused membranes containing Escherichia coli lipids, whereas the transport activities in fused membranes containing mainly soybean lipids or phosphatidylcholine were low. It is suggested that branched-chain amino acids and lysine were taken up by separate systems. The effects of the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin indicated that lysine and leucine were translocated in symport with a proton. PMID:2828326

  1. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  2. Sphingobium phenoxybenzoativorans sp. nov., a 2-phenoxybenzoic-acid-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shu; Shi, Chao; Zhao, Jia-Dong; Cao, Qin; He, Jian; Chen, Li-Wei

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SC_3T, was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil sediment. The strain was able to mineralize 2-phenoxybenzoic acid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SC_3T formed a monophyletic lineage in the genus Sphingobium, and showed highest similarity to the type strains of Sphingobium abikonense (97.0 %), followed by Sphingobium lactosutens (96.8 %) and Sphingobium cloacae (96.7 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain SC_3T and its closest phylogenetic neighbours was lower than 70 %. The major fatty acids (>5 % of the total) were summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1ω7c/C18:1ω6c), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c), C14:0 2-OH, C16:0 and C17:1ω6c. The predominant quinone was ubiquinone Q-10, and the major polyamine was spermidine. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), sphingoglycolipid (SGL), phosphatidylethanolamine (PDME), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PMME), an unknown aminolipid (AL), two unknown lipids (L1, L2) and several unknown phospholipids (PL1-6). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SC_3T was 62.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, strain SC_3T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobium, for which the name Sphingobium phenoxybenzoativorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SC_3T ( = CCTCC AB 2014349T = KACC 42448T). PMID:25807977

  3. The phylogeny of Aerococcus and Pediococcus as determined by 16S rRNA sequence analysis: description of Tetragenococcus gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Collins, M D; Williams, A M; Wallbanks, S

    1990-08-01

    The phylogenetic interrelationships of the genera Pediococcus and Aerococcus were investigated using reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. The genus Pediococcus was found to be phylogenetically heterogeneous. The four species P. acidilactici, P. damnosus, P. parvulus and P. pentosaceus formed a phylogenetically distinct group. Within this pediococcal cluster, P. acidilactici was closely related to P. pentosaceus whereas P. damnosus showed a specific relationship with P. parvulus. The species P. dextrinicus, although showing significant sequence relatedness with these pediococcal species, was peripheral to the genus. Pediococcus halophilus exhibited low sequence homology with all of the species examined and formed a distinct line of descent. Pediococcus halophilus exhibited a closer affinity with enterococci and carnobacteria than with the other lactic acid bacteria. Pediococcus urinae-equi was phylogenetically very closely related to Aerococcus viridans. The 16S rRNA sequences of the type strains of these species differed by only two nucleotides (99.9% sequence homology) and clearly demonstrate that P. urinae-equi is a member of the genus Aerococcus. PMID:2227360

  4. Influence of Artisan Bakery- or Laboratory-Propagated Sourdoughs on the Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas. PMID:22635989

  5. Desulfurella amilsii sp. nov., a novel acidotolerant sulfur-respiring bacterium isolated from acidic river sediments.

    PubMed

    Florentino, Anna P; Brienza, Claudio; Stams, Alfons J M; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A novel acidotolerant and moderately thermophilic sulfur-reducing bacterium was isolated from sediments of the Tinto River (Spain), an extremely acidic environment. Strain TR1T stained Gram-negative, and was obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming and motile. Cells were short rods (1.5-2 × 0.5-0.7 μm), appearing singly or in pairs. Strain TR1T was catalase-negative and slightly oxidase-positive. Urease activity and indole formation were absent, but gelatin hydrolysis was present. Growth was observed at 20-52 °C with an optimum close to 50 °C, and a pH range of 3-7 with optimum between pH 6 and 6.5. Yeast extract was essential for growth, but extra vitamins were not required. In the presence of sulfur, strain TR1T grew with acetate, formate, lactate, pyruvate, stearate, arginine and H2/CO2. All substrates were completely oxidized and H2S and CO2 were the only metabolic products detected. Besides elemental sulfur, thiosulfate was used as an electron acceptor. The isolate also grew by disproportionation of elemental sulfur. The predominant cellular fatty acids were saturated components: C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C18 : 0. The only quinone component detected was menaquinone MK-7(H2). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34 mol%. The isolate is affiliated to the genus Desulfurella of the class Deltaproteobacteria, sharing 97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the four species described in the genus Desulfurella. Considering the distinct physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strain TR1T represents a novel species within the genus Desulfurella, for which the name Desulfurella amilsii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TR1T ( = DSM 29984T = JCM 30680T). PMID:26704766

  6. Identification and Characterization of a New 7-Aminocephalosporanic Acid Deacetylase from Thermophilic Bacterium Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun-Mei; Yu, Ting-Ting; Han, Nan-Yu; Yu, Jia-Lin; Li, Jun-Jun; Yang, Yun-Juan; Tang, Xiang-Hua; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Jun-Pei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deacetylation of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) at position C-3 provides valuable starting material for producing semisynthetic β-lactam antibiotics. However, few enzymes have been characterized in this process before now. Comparative analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis revealed a hypothetical protein (EstD1) with typical esterase features. The EstD1 protein was functionally cloned, expressed, and purified from Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). It indeed displayed esterase activity, with optimal activity at around 65°C and pH 8.5, with a preference for esters with short-chain acyl esters (C2 to C4). Sequence alignment revealed that EstD1 is an SGNH hydrolase with the putative catalytic triad Ser15, Asp191, and His194, which belongs to carbohydrate esterase family 12. EstD1 can hydrolyze acetate at the C-3 position of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) to form deacetyl-7-ACA, which is an important starting material for producing semisynthetic β-lactam antibiotics. EstD1 retained more than 50% of its initial activity when incubated at pH values ranging from 4 to 11 at 65°C for 1 h. To the best of our knowledge, this enzyme is a new SGNH hydrolase identified from thermophiles that is able to hydrolyze 7-ACA. IMPORTANCE Deacetyl cephalosporins are highly valuable building blocks for the industrial production of various kinds of semisynthetic β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are derived mainly from 7-ACA, which is obtained by chemical or enzymatic processes from cephalosporin C. Enzymatic transformation of 7-ACA is the main method because of the adverse effects chemical deacylation brought to the environment. SGNH hydrolases are widely distributed in plants. However, the tools for identifying and characterizing SGNH hydrolases from bacteria, especially from thermophiles, are rather limited. Here, our work demonstrates that EstD1 belongs to the SGNH family and can hydrolyze acetate at the C-3 position of

  7. Characterization and Identification of Pediococcus Species Isolated from Forage Crops and Their Application for Silage Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yimin; Kumai, Sumio; Ogawa, Masuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Pediococcus species isolated from forage crops were characterized, and their application to silage preparation was studied. Most isolates were distributed on forage crops at low frequency. These isolates could be divided into three (A, B, and C) groups by their sugar fermentation patterns. Strains LA 3, LA 35, and LS 5 are representative isolates from groups A, B, and C, respectively. Strains LA 3 and LA 35 had intragroup DNA homology values above 93.6%, showing that they belong to the species Pediococcus acidilactici. Strain LS 5 belonged to Pediococcus pentosaceus on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness. All three of these strains and strain SL 1 (Lactobacillus casei, isolated from a commercial inoculant) were used as additives to alfalfa and Italian ryegrass silage preparation at two temperatures (25 and 48°C). When stored at 25°C, all of the inoculated silages were well preserved and exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fermentation losses compared to that of their control in alfalfa and Italian ryegrass silages. When stored at 48°C, silages inoculated with strains LA 3 and LA 35 were also well preserved, with a significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia-nitrogen content, gas production, and dry matter loss and significantly (P < 0.05) higher lactate content than the control, but silages inoculated with LS 5 and SL 1 were of poor quality. P. acidilactici LA 3 and LA 35 are considered suitable as potential silage inoculants. PMID:10388681

  8. Optimization studies for enhanced bacteriocin production by Pediococcus pentosaceus KC692718 using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Suganthi, V; Mohanasrinivasan, V

    2015-06-01

    Bacteriocins have been produced by various Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from dairy and fermented vegetable sources. In the current study we have isolated a novel bacteriocin producing strain Pediococcus pentosaceus KC692718 from mixed vegetable pickles (India). A 2 step process optimization for enhancing production of bacteriocin from the isolates was carried out with One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) methods. A 2.5 fold (AU/mL) increase of bacteriocin was observed for sucrose (2.4 %) as carbon source and 4.7 fold (AU/mL) increased bacteriocin was observed in the presence of soyatone (1.03 %) as nitrogen source in the OFAT experiments. In order to increase bacteriocin production RSM tool was performed with optimized chemical and physical sources using Design expert 8.0.7.1. Soyatone (1.03 %), sucrose (2.4 %), pH (5.5) and temperature (34.5 ºC) condition yielded 25,600.34 AU/mL of bacteriocin from P. pentosaceus KC692718. This is the first report which has produced 20 fold increase of bacteriocin for Pediococcus pentosaceus KC692718 from that of MRS medium with 1 280 AU/mL. PMID:26028762

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Pediococcus pentosaceus strains isolated from food matrices and characterisation of the penocin operon.

    PubMed

    Martino, Maria Elena; Maifreni, Michela; Marino, Marilena; Bartolomeoli, Ingrid; Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in the food industry. Pediococcus spp. belong to the LAB group and include several species that are essential for the quality of fermented food. Pediococcus pentosaceus is the species that is most frequently isolated from fermented food and beverages but its uncontrolled growth during food fermentation processes can contribute to undesired flavours. Hence, the characterisation of these bacteria at the strain level is of great importance for the quality of fermented products. Despite their importance, misidentification at the species level is common for members of the genus Pediococcus. To clarify the taxonomic relationships among strains, a multilocus sequencing approach was developed for the characterisation of a collection of 29 field strains, 1 type strain and 1 reference strain of P. pentosaceus isolated from food. These strains were also tested for several phenotypic properties of technological interest and for the production of bacteriocins. The chromosomal operon involved in the synthesis of the bacteriocin penocin was also investigated. The present study enabled a good genomic characterisation, identifying 17 sequence types, with an overview of phenotypic characteristics related to different technological abilities, and also provides a thorough characterisation of the operon involved in penocin production. PMID:23444039

  10. Dietary supplementation of Pediococcus pentosaceus enhances innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) are economically important fish species in Southeast Asian aquaculture. Vibriosis caused by Vibro spp. is one of the severe bacterial diseases that devastate the grouper aquaculture industry. Probiotics have been reported to show the potential to enhance fish immunity and to antagonize pathogens. In our previous study, a lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 4012 (LAB4012), isolated from cobia intestine, protects cobia from photobacteriosis after a 2-week feeding. In this study, we examined the potential of LAB4012 to be a probiotic for the orange-spotted grouper through feeding, thus to guard against vibriosis. In vitro, LAB4012 culture supernatant with low pH suppressed the growth of Vibrio anguillarum, and lactic acid in the metabolite of LAB4012 appeared to be the major factor to the growth inhibition of V. anguillarum. In vivo, the challenge test showed that the cumulative mortality of the LAB4012-fed groupers was significantly lower than that of the control fish after V. anguillarum infection. Supplementation of LAB4012 in commercial diet not only enhanced the growth rate and erythrocyte numbers of the groupers, but also regulated the gene expression of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. One day post-infection of V. anguillarum, the leukocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and the phagocytic activity of the head-kidney phagocytes in the LAB4012-fed groupers were found significantly increased, when compared with those without LAB4012-feeding. These results suggested that LAB4012 can be a dietary probiotic for groupers in modulating the immunity and protecting the groupers from V. anguillarum infection. PMID:24845519

  11. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Pediococcus pentosaceus Strain SL4

    PubMed Central

    Dantoft, Shruti Harnal; Bielak, Eliza Maria; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus SL4 was isolated from a Korean fermented vegetable product, kimchi. We report here the whole-genome sequence (WGS) of P. pentosaceus SL4. The genome consists of a 1.79-Mb circular chromosome (G+C content of 37.3%) and seven distinct plasmids ranging in size from 4 kb to 50 kb. PMID:24371205

  13. Value-added lipid production from brown seaweed biomass by two-stage fermentation using acetic acid bacterium and thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Arafiles, Kim Hazel V; Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Eramoto, Yuri; Okamura, Yoshiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2014-11-01

    Thraustochytrid production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls have been generally sourced from crop-derived substrates, making the exploration of alternative feedstocks attractive since they promise increased sustainability and lower production costs. In this study, a distinct two-stage fermentation system was conceptualized for the first time, using the brown seaweed sugar mannitol as substrate for the intermediary biocatalyst Gluconobacter oxydans, an acetic acid bacterium, along with the marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. to produce the value-added lipids and xanthophylls. Jar fermenter culture resulted in seaweed mannitol conversion to fructose with an efficiency of 83 % by G. oxydans and, after bacteriostasis with sea salts, production of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. Astaxanthin productivity was high at 3.60 mg/L/day. This new system, therefore, widens possibilities of obtaining more varieties of industrially valuable products including foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuel precursor lipids from seaweed fermentation upon the use of suitable thraustochytrid strains. PMID:25086614

  14. Cloning and Characterization of an Intracellular Esterase from the Wine-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Oenococcus oeni▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sumby, Krista M.; Matthews, Angela H.; Grbin, Paul R.; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of EstB28, the first esterase to be so characterized from the wine-associated lactic acid bacterium, Oenococcus oeni. The published sequence for O. oeni strain PSU-1 was used to identify putative esterase genes and design PCR primers in order to amplify the corresponding region from strain Ooeni28, an isolate intended for inoculation of wines. In this way a 912-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative esterase of 34.5 kDa was obtained. The amino acid sequence indicated that EstB28 is a member of family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the GDSAG motif common to other lactic acid bacteria. This ORF was cloned into Escherichia coli using an appropriate expression system, and the recombinant esterase was purified. Characterization of EstB28 revealed that the optimum temperature, pH, and ethanol concentration were 40°C, pH 5.0, and 28% (vol/vol), respectively. EstB28 also retained marked activity under conditions relevant to winemaking (10 to 20°C, pH 3.5, 14% [vol/vol] ethanol). Kinetic constants were determined for EstB28 with p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked substrates ranging in chain length from C2 to C18. EstB28 exhibited greatest specificity for C2 to C4 pNP-linked substrates. PMID:19734337

  15. Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from (1-14C)myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit phospholipid acylation or beta-oxidation using exogenous fatty acids. Unlike Escherichia coli, the two Vibrio species can directly elongate fatty acids such as octanoic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic acid, as demonstrated by radio-gas liquid chromatography. The induction of bioluminescence in late exponential growth had little effect on the ability of V. harveyi to elongate fatty acids, but it did increase the amount of C14:0 relative to C16:0 labeled from (14C)C8:0. This was not observed in a dark mutant of V. harveyi that is incapable of supplying endogenous C14:0 for luminescence. Cerulenin preferentially decreased the labeling of C16:0 and of unsaturated fatty acids from all 14C-labeled fatty acid precursors as well as from (14C)acetate, suggesting that common mechanisms may be involved in elongation of fatty acids from endogenous and exogenous sources. Fatty acylation of the luminescence-related synthetase and reductase enzymes responsible for aldehyde synthesis exhibited a chain-length preference for C14:0, which also was indicated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography of the acyl groups attached to these enzymes. The ability of V. harveyi to activate and elongate exogenous fatty acids may be related to an adaptive requirement to metabolize intracellular C14:0 generated by the luciferase reaction during luminescence development.

  16. A novel algicide: evidence of the effect of a fatty acid compound from the marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. BS02 on the harmful dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Huajun; Fu, Lijun; An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Yi, Lin; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrium tamarense is a notorious bloom-forming dinoflagellate, which adversely impacts water quality and human health. In this study we present a new algicide against A. tamarense, which was isolated from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. BS02. MALDI-TOF-MS, NMR and algicidal activity analysis reveal that this compound corresponds to palmitoleic acid, which shows algicidal activity against A. tamarense with an EC50 of 40 μg/mL. The effects of palmitoleic acid on the growth of other algal species were also studied. The results indicate that palmitoleic acid has potential for selective control of the Harmful algal blooms (HABs). Over extended periods of contact, transmission electron microscopy shows severe ultrastructural damage to the algae at 40 μg/mL concentrations of palmitoleic acid. All of these results indicate potential for controlling HABs by using the special algicidal bacterium and its active agent. PMID:24626054

  17. Tryptophan, thiamine and indole-3-acetic acid exchange between Chlorella sorokiniana and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Oskar A; Gomez-Anduro, Gracia; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2016-06-01

    During synthetic mutualistic interactions between the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana and the plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Azospirillum brasilense, mutual exchange of resources involved in producing and releasing the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by the bacterium, using tryptophan and thiamine released by the microalga, were measured. Although increased activities of tryptophan synthase in C. sorokiniana and indole pyruvate decarboxylase (IPDC) in A. brasilense were observed, we could not detect tryptophan or IAA in the culture medium when both organisms were co-immobilized. This indicates that no extra tryptophan or IAA is produced, apart from the quantities required to sustain the interaction. Over-expression of the ipdC gene occurs at different incubation times: after 48 h, when A. brasilense was immobilized alone and grown in exudates of C. sorokiniana and at 96 h, when A. brasilense was co-immobilized with the microalga. When A. brasilense was cultured in exudates of C. sorokiniana, increased expression of the ipdC gene, corresponding increase in activity of IPDC encoded by the ipdC gene, and increase in IAA production were measured during the first 48 h of incubation. IAA production and release by A. brasilense was found only when tryptophan and thiamine were present in a synthetic growth medium (SGM). The absence of thiamine in SGM yielded no detectable IAA. In summary, this study demonstrates that C. sorokiniana can exude sufficient tryptophan and thiamine to allow IAA production by a PGPB during their interaction. Thiamine is essential for IAA production by A. brasilense and these three metabolites are part of a communication between the two microorganisms. PMID:27090758

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, an Efficient l-(+)-Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Yuh; Yanase, Hiroaki; Hirose, Yuu; Satomi, Shohei; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Watanabe, Satoru; Zendo, Takeshi; Chibazakura, Taku; Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, a non-dairy bacterial strain of ovine faecal origin, can ferment both cellobiose and xylose to produce l-lactic acid. The use of this strain is highly desirable for economical l-lactate production from renewable biomass substrates. Genome sequence determination is necessary for the genetic improvement of this strain. We report the complete genome sequence of strain QU 25, primarily determined using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology. The E. mundtii QU 25 genome comprises a 3 022 186-bp single circular chromosome (GC content, 38.6%) and five circular plasmids: pQY182, pQY082, pQY039, pQY024, and pQY003. In all, 2900 protein-coding sequences, 63 tRNA genes, and 6 rRNA operons were predicted in the QU 25 chromosome. Plasmid pQY024 harbours genes for mundticin production. We found that strain QU 25 produces a bacteriocin, suggesting that mundticin-encoded genes on plasmid pQY024 were functional. For lactic acid fermentation, two gene clusters were identified—one involved in the initial metabolism of xylose and uptake of pentose and the second containing genes for the pentose phosphate pathway and uptake of related sugars. This is the first complete genome sequence of an E. mundtii strain. The data provide insights into lactate production in this bacterium and its evolution among enterococci. PMID:24568933

  19. [Screening and identification of indoleacetic acid producing endophytic bacterium in Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Chen, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guan-jun; Li, Tong; Chen, Jing-xiu; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria which was producing indoleacetic acid was screened from Panax ginseng by using the Salkowski method. The active strain was also tested for its ability of nitrogen fixation by using the Ashby agar plates, the PKV plates and quantitative analysis of Mo-Sb-Ascrobiology acid colorimetry was used to measure its ability of phosphate solubilization, for its ability of potassium solubilization the silicate medium and flame spectrophotometry was used, for its ability of producing siderophores the method detecting CAS was used, for its ability of producing ACC deaminase the Alpha ketone butyric acid method was applied. And the effect on promoting growth of seed by active strain was tested. The results showed that the indoleacetic acid producing strain of JJ5-2 was obtained from 118 endophytes, which the content of indoleacetic acid was 10.2 mg x L(-1). The JJ5-2 strain also had characteristics of phosphate and potassium solubilization, nitrogen fixation, producing siderophores traits, and the promoting germination of ginseng seeds. The JJ5-2 strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis by analyzing morphology, physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:26080547

  20. Asaia bogorensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an unusual acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Katsura, K; Kawasaki, H; Widyastuti, Y; Saono, S; Seki, T; Uchimura, T; Komagata, K

    2000-03-01

    Eight Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and peritrichously flagellated strains were isolated from flowers of the orchid tree (Bauhinia purpurea) and of plumbago (Plumbago auriculata), and from fermented glutinous rice, all collected in Indonesia. The enrichment culture approach for acetic acid bacteria was employed, involving use of sorbitol medium at pH 3.5. All isolates grew well at pH 3.0 and 30 degrees C. They did not oxidize ethanol to acetic acid except for one strain that oxidized ethanol weakly, and 0.35% acetic acid inhibited their growth completely. However, they oxidized acetate and lactate to carbon dioxide and water. The isolates grew well on mannitol agar and on glutamate agar, and assimilated ammonium sulfate for growth on vitamin-free glucose medium. The isolates produced acid from D-glucose, D-fructose, L-sorbose, dulcitol and glycerol. The quinone system was Q-10. DNA base composition ranged from 59.3 to 61.0 mol% G + C. Studies of DNA relatedness showed that the isolates constitute a single species. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates are located in the acetic acid bacteria lineage, but distant from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas and Gluconacetobacter. On the basis of the above characteristics, the name Asaia bogorensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is isolate 71T (= NRIC 0311T = JCM 10569T). PMID:10758893

  1. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  2. Quantitative analysis of growth and volatile fatty acid production by the anaerobic ruminal bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii T81.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Moen, G N

    2013-05-01

    Megasphaera elsdenii T81 grew on either DL-lactate or D-glucose at similar rates (0.85 h(-1)) but displayed major differences in the fermentation of these substrates. Lactate was fermented at up to 210-mM concentration to yield acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. The bacterium was able to grow at much higher concentrations of D-glucose (500 mM), but never removed more than 80 mM of glucose from the medium, and nearly 60 % the glucose removed was sequestered as intracellular glycogen, with low yields of even-carbon acids (acetate, butyrate, caproate). In the presence of both substrates, glucose was not used until lactate was nearly exhausted, even by cells pregrown on glucose. Glucose-grown cultures maintained only low extracellular concentrations of acetate, and addition of exogenous acetate increased yields of butyrate, but not caproate. By contrast, exogenous acetate had little effect on lactate fermentation. At pH 6.6, growth rate was halved by exogenous addition of 60 mM propionate, 69 mM butyrate, 44 mM valerate, or 33 mM caproate; at pH 5.9, these values were reduced to 49, 49, 18, and 22 mM, respectively. The results are consistent with this species' role as an effective ruminal lactate consumer and suggest that this organism may be useful for industrial production of volatile fatty acids from lactate if product tolerance could be improved. The poor fermentation of glucose and sensitivity to caproate suggests that this strain is not practical for industrial caproate production. PMID:23271673

  3. Bombella intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from bumble bee crop.

    PubMed

    Li, Leilei; Praet, Jessy; Borremans, Wim; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of a bumble bee gut microbiota study, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated using a combination of direct isolation methods and enrichment procedures. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of the isolates and a comparison of these profiles with profiles of established AAB species identified most isolates as Asaia astilbis or as 'Commensalibacter intestini', except for two isolates (R-52486 and LMG 28161(T)) that showed an identical profile. A nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28161(T) was determined and showed the highest pairwise similarity to Saccharibacter floricola S-877(T) (96.5%), which corresponded with genus level divergence in the family Acetobacteraceae. Isolate LMG 28161(T) was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing; a 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence as well as partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB were extracted for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained data confirmed that this isolate is best classified into a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae. The DNA G+C content of strain LMG 28161(T) was 54.9 mol%. The fatty acid compositions of isolates R-52486 and LMG 28161(T) were similar to those of established AAB species [with C18:1ω7c (43.1%) as the major component], but the amounts of fatty acids such as C19:0 cyclo ω8c, C14:0 and C14:0 2-OH enabled to differentiate them. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. Both isolates could also be differentiated from the known genera of AAB by means of biochemical characteristics, such as their inability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, negligible acid production from melibiose, and notable acid production from d-fructose, sucrose and d-mannitol. In addition, they produced 2-keto-d-gluconate, but not 5-keto-d-gluconate from d-glucose. Therefore, the name Bombella intestini gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this new taxon, with LMG 28161(T) ( =DSM 28636(T) =R-52487(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:25336723

  4. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c-555 from the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R P; Dalton, H; Meyer, T E; Bartsch, R G; Kamen, M D

    1986-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the cytochrome c-555 from the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath (N.C.I.B. 11132) was determined. It is a single polypeptide chain of 96 residues, binding a haem group through the cysteine residues at positions 19 and 22, and the only methionine residue is a position 59. The sequence does not closely resemble that of any other cytochrome c that has yet been characterized. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the protein has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50131 (12 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies are available on prepayment. PMID:3006666

  5. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. Results In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT) I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.); Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. Conclusions In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows. PMID:23356904

  6. Reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions by the facultative Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Cummings; Scott Fendorf; Rajesh K. Sani; Brent M. Peyton; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biological reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions was evaluated with the acidophilic, facultatively metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum strain JF-5 to explore the role of acidophilic microorganisms in the Cr cycle in low-pH environments. An anaerobic suspension of washed A. cryptum cells rapidly reduced 50 M Cr(VI) at pH 3.2; biological reduction was detected from pH 1.7-4.7. The reduction product, confirmed by XANES analysis, was entirely Cr(III) that was associated predominantly with the cell biomass (70-80%) with the residual residing in the aqueous phase. Reduction of Cr(VI) showed a pH optimum similar to that for growth and was inhibited by 5 mM HgCl2, suggesting that the reaction was enzyme-mediated. Introduction of O2 into the reaction medium slowed the reduction rate only slightly, whereas soluble Fe(III) (as ferric sulfate) increased the rate dramatically, presumably by the shuttling of electrons from bioreduced Fe(II) to Cr(VI) in a coupled biotic-abiotic cycle. Starved cells could not reduce Cr(VI) when provided as sole electron acceptor, indicating that Cr(VI) reduction is not an energy-conserving process in A. cryptum. We speculate, rather, that Cr(VI) reduction is used here as a detoxification mechanism.

  7. Distribution and Functions of Phosphotransferase System Genes in the Genome of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Oenococcus oeni

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Zohra; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Thibau, François; Dutilh, Lucie; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Ballestra, Patricia; Le Marrec, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni, the lactic acid bacterium primarily responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine, is able to grow on a large variety of carbohydrates, but the pathways by which substrates are transported and phosphorylated in this species have been poorly studied. We show that the genes encoding the general phosphotransferase proteins, enzyme I (EI) and histidine protein (HPr), as well as 21 permease genes (3 isolated ones and 18 clustered into 6 distinct loci), are highly conserved among the strains studied and may form part of the O. oeni core genome. Additional permease genes differentiate the strains and may have been acquired or lost by horizontal gene transfer events. The core pts genes are expressed, and permease gene expression is modulated by the nature of the bacterial growth substrate. Decryptified O. oeni cells are able to phosphorylate glucose, cellobiose, trehalose, and mannose at the expense of phosphoenolpyruvate. These substrates are present at low concentrations in wine at the end of alcoholic fermentation. The phosphotransferase system (PTS) may contribute to the perfect adaptation of O. oeni to its singular ecological niche. PMID:23524676

  8. Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of sixteen French traditional sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Lattanzi, Anna; Dousset, Xavier; Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Lacaze, Guylaine; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-12-23

    Sixteen sourdoughs (FS1-FS16) used for the manufacture of traditional French breads were characterized by strongly acid conditions (median value of pH 3.5). The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) was highly variable, due to different proteolytic activity of flour used for back slopping and of dominant microorganisms. Median value of cell density of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was 9.2 log CFU/g. The ratio between LAB and yeasts ranged from 10,000:1 to 10:1. According to the culture-dependent method and 16S metagenetics, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was the dominant species in French sourdoughs. FS5 and FS15, propagated according to protocols including one back slopping step at 14 °C, were the only exceptions. High positive correlations were found between L. sanfranciscensis, temperature of back slopping and FAA. The results of this study highlighted the broad adaptability of L. sanfranciscensis to very acid sourdough. Besides species frequently encountered (e.g., Lactobacillus parabrevis/Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides), first Lactobacillus xiangfangensis (FS5) and Lactobacillus diolivorans (FS15) were found in sourdough. As determined by RAPD-PCR analyses, the sourdough samples showed a different number of strains, ranging from 5 (FS9, FS11 and FS15) to 12 (FS1 and FS13), meaning a highly variable bacterial diversity. Cluster analysis showed that different sourdoughs, especially when propagated in the same bakery, may harbor similar strains. Except for L. plantarum (FS5) and Ln. mesenteroides (FS3), all the dominant species were detected by both 16S metagenetics and culture-dependent method. Yeast diversity was lower than LAB. Except for FS4 (solely dominated by Kazachstania servazzii), yeast microbiota of French sourdoughs was dominated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains isolated in this study could be a useful base for developing new basic researches on physiology, metabolism, and intraspecific diversity of L

  9. Proteome analysis of the hyaluronic acid-producing bacterium, Streptococcus zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Marcellin, Esteban; Gruber, Christian W; Archer, Colin; Craik, David J; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-01-01

    Background Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a commensal of horses and an opportunistic pathogen in many animals and humans. Some strains produce copious amounts of hyaluronic acid, making S. zooepidemicus an important industrial microorganism for the production of this valuable biopolymer used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Encapsulation by hyaluronic acid is considered an important virulence factor in other streptococci, though the importance in S. zooepidemicus remains poorly understood. Proteomics may provide a better understanding of virulence factors in S. zooepidemicus, facilitate the design of better diagnostics and treatments, and guide engineering of superior production strains. Results Using hyaluronidase to remove the capsule and by optimising cellular lysis, a reference map for S. zooepidemicus was completed. This protocol significantly increased protein recovery, allowing for visualisation of 682 spots and the identification of 86 proteins using mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF); of which 16 were membrane proteins. Conclusion The data presented constitute the first reference map for S. zooepidemicus and provide new information on the identity and characteristics of the more abundantly expressed proteins. PMID:19327162

  10. Acetobacter fabarum sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium from a Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cleenwerck, Ilse; Gonzalez, Angel; Camu, Nicholas; Engelbeen, Katrien; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Six acetic acid bacterial isolates, obtained during a study of the microbial diversity of spontaneous fermentations of Ghanaian cocoa beans, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting grouped the isolates together, but they could not be identified using this method. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences allocated the isolates to the genus Acetobacter and revealed Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter syzygii to be nearest neighbours. DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrated that the isolates belonged to a single novel genospecies that could be differentiated from its phylogenetically nearest neighbours by the following phenotypic characteristics: no production of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid from D-glucose; growth on methanol and D-xylose, but not on maltose, as sole carbon sources; no growth on yeast extract with 30% D-glucose; and weak growth at 37 degrees C. The DNA G+C contents of four selected strains were 56.8-58.0 mol%. The results obtained prove that the isolates should be classified as representatives of a novel Acetobacter species, for which the name Acetobacter fabarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 985(T) (=R-36330(T) =LMG 24244(T) =DSM 19596(T)). PMID:18768626

  11. Production of L-lactic Acid from Biomass Wastes Using Scallop Crude Enzymes and Novel Lactic Acid Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kanami; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    In the present study, biomass waste raw materials including paper mill sludge, bamboo, sea lettuce, and shochu residue (from a distiller) and crude enzymes derived from inedible and discarded scallop parts were used to produce L-lactic acid for the raw material of biodegradable plastic poly-lactic acid. The activities of cellulase and amylase in the crude enzymes were 22 and 170units/L, respectively, and L-lactic acid was produced from every of the above mentioned biomass wastes, by the method of liquid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) . The L-lactic acid concentrations produced from sea lettuce and shochu residue, which contain high concentration of starch were 3.6 and 9.3g/L, respectively, and corresponded to greater than 25% of the conversion of glucans contained in these biomass wastes. Furthermore, using the solid state SSF method, concentrations as high as 13g/L of L-lactic acid were obtained from sea lettuce and 26g/L were obtained from shochu residue.

  12. Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a propionigenic bacterium isolated from sediments of an acid rock drainage pond.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Sanz, Jose Luis; Stams, Alfons J M

    2014-12-01

    A novel anaerobic propionigenic bacterium, strain ADRI(T), was isolated from sediment of an acid rock drainage environment (Tinto River, Spain). Cells were small (0.4-0.6×1-1.7 µm), non-motile and non-spore-forming rods. Cells possessed a Gram-negative cell-wall structure and were vancomycin-resistant. Strain ADRI(T) utilized yeast extract and various sugars as substrates and formed propionate, lactate and acetate as major fermentation products. The optimum growth temperature was 30 °C and the optimum pH for growth was pH 6.5, but strain ADRI(T) was able to grow at a pH as low as 3.0. Oxidase, indole formation, and urease and catalase activities were negative. Aesculin and gelatin were hydrolysed. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain ADRI(T) were anteiso-C15 : 0 (30.3 %), iso-C15 : 0 (29.2 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (14.9 %). Major menaquinones were MK-8 (52 %) and MK-9 (48 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.9 mol%. Phylogenetically, strain ADRI(T) was affiliated to the family Porphyromonadaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related cultured species were Paludibacter propionicigenes with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 87.5 % and several species of the genus Dysgonomonas (similarities of 83.5-85.4 % to the type strains). Based on the distinctive ecological, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of strain ADRI(T), a novel genus and species, Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ADRI(T) ( = JCM 19374(T) = DSM 27471(T)). PMID:25201913

  13. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of a cold-active {beta}-galactosidase from the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola BA

    SciTech Connect

    Coombs, J.M.; Brenchley, J.E.

    1999-12-01

    The authors are investigating glycosyl hydrolases from new psychrophilic isolates to examine the adaptations of enzymes to low temperatures. A {beta}-galactosidase from isolate BA, which they have classified as a strain of the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola, was capable of hydrolyzing the chromogen 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) at 4 C and possessed higher activity in crude cell lysates at 25 than at 37 C. Sequence analysis of a cloned DNA fragment encoding this activity revealed a gene cluster containing three glycosyl hydrolases with homology to an {alpha}-galactosidase and two {beta}-galactosidases. The larger of the two {beta}-galactosidase genes, bgaB, encoded the 76.9-kDa cold-active enzyme. This gene was homologous to family 42 glycosyl hydrolases, a group which contains several thermophilic enzymes but none from lactic acid bacteria. The bgaB gene from isolate BA was subcloned in Escherichia coli, and its enzyme, BgaB, was purified. The purified enzyme was highly unstable and required 10% glycerol to maintain activity. Its optimal temperature for activity was 30 C, and it was inactivated at 40 C in 10 min. The K{sub m} of freshly purified enzyme at 30 C was 1.7 mM, and the V{sub max} was 450 {micro}mol {sm{underscore}bullet} min{sup {minus}1}{sm{underscore}bullet}mg{sup {minus}1} with o-nitrophenyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside. This cold-active enzyme is interesting because it is homologous to a thermophilic enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus, and comparisons could provide information about structural features important for activity at low temperatures.

  14. Degradation of ferric chelate of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by bacterium isolated from deep-sea stalked barnacle.

    PubMed

    Imada, Chiaki; Harada, Yohei; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Hamada-Sato, Naoko; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2005-01-01

    Twenty strains of marine bacteria that degrade ferric chelate of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe-EDTA) were isolated from among 117 strains collected from a marine environment. Among them strain 02-N-2, which was isolated from stalked barnacle collected from the deep sea in the Indian Ocean, had the highest Fe-EDTA degradation ability and was selected for further study. The strain showed high Fe-EDTA degradation ability at different seawater concentrations. In addition, the intact cells of this strain had the ability to degrade such metal-EDTAs as Ca, Cu, and Mg. The strain was an aerobic, gram-variable, rod-shaped organism. The results of various taxonomic studies revealed that the strain had significant similarity to Bacillus jeotgali JCM 10885(T), which was isolated from a Korean traditional fermented seafood, Jeotgal. PMID:15747087

  15. An engineered bacterium auxotrophic for an unnatural amino acid: a novel biological containment system.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Biological containment is a genetic technique that programs dangerous organisms to grow only in the laboratory and to die in the natural environment. Auxotrophy for a substance not found in the natural environment is an ideal biological containment. Here, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain that cannot survive in the absence of the unnatural amino acid 3-iodo-L-tyrosine. This synthetic auxotrophy was achieved by conditional production of the antidote protein against the highly toxic enzyme colicin E3. An amber stop codon was inserted in the antidote gene. The translation of the antidote mRNA was controlled by a translational switch using amber-specific 3-iodo-L-tyrosine incorporation. The antidote is synthesized only when 3-iodo-L-tyrosine is present in the culture medium. The viability of this strain rapidly decreased with less than a 1 h half-life after removal of 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, suggesting that the decay of the antidote causes the host killing by activated colicin E3 in the absence of this unnatural amino acid. The contained strain grew 1.5 times more slowly than the parent strains. The escaper frequency was estimated to be 1.4 mutations (95% highest posterior density 1.1-1.8) per 10(5) cell divisions. This containment system can be constructed by only plasmid introduction without genome editing, suggesting that this system may be applicable to other microbes carrying toxin-antidote systems similar to that of colicin E3. PMID:26401457

  16. An engineered bacterium auxotrophic for an unnatural amino acid: a novel biological containment system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biological containment is a genetic technique that programs dangerous organisms to grow only in the laboratory and to die in the natural environment. Auxotrophy for a substance not found in the natural environment is an ideal biological containment. Here, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain that cannot survive in the absence of the unnatural amino acid 3-iodo-L-tyrosine. This synthetic auxotrophy was achieved by conditional production of the antidote protein against the highly toxic enzyme colicin E3. An amber stop codon was inserted in the antidote gene. The translation of the antidote mRNA was controlled by a translational switch using amber-specific 3-iodo-L-tyrosine incorporation. The antidote is synthesized only when 3-iodo-L-tyrosine is present in the culture medium. The viability of this strain rapidly decreased with less than a 1 h half-life after removal of 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, suggesting that the decay of the antidote causes the host killing by activated colicin E3 in the absence of this unnatural amino acid. The contained strain grew 1.5 times more slowly than the parent strains. The escaper frequency was estimated to be 1.4 mutations (95% highest posterior density 1.1–1.8) per 105 cell divisions. This containment system can be constructed by only plasmid introduction without genome editing, suggesting that this system may be applicable to other microbes carrying toxin-antidote systems similar to that of colicin E3. PMID:26401457

  17. Neoasaia chiangmaiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel osmotolerant acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Malimas, Taweesak; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Yamada, Yuzo

    2005-10-01

    An acetic acid bacterium, designated as isolate AC28(T), was isolated from a flower of red ginger (khing daeng in Thai; Alpinia purpurata) collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand, at pH 3.5 by use of a glucose/ethanol/acetic acid (0.3%, w/v) medium. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences for 1,376 bases showed that isolate AC28(T) constituted a cluster along with the type strain of Kozakia baliensis. However, the isolate formed an independent cluster in a phylogenetic tree based on 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences for 586 bases. Pair-wise sequence similarities of the isolate in 16S rRNA gene sequences for 1,457 bases were 93.0-88.3% to the type strains of Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, and Saccharibacter species. Restriction analysis of 16S-23S rDNA ITS regions discriminated isolate AC28(T) from the type strains of Asaia and Kozakia species. Cells were non-motile. Colonies were pink, shiny, and smooth. The isolate produced acetic acid from ethanol. Oxidation of acetate and lactate was negative. The isolate grew on glutamate agar and mannitol agar. Growth was positive on 30% D-glucose (w/v) and in the presence of 0.35% acetic acid (w/v), but not in the presence of 1.0% KNO(3) (w/v). Ammoniac nitrogen was hardly assimilated on a glucose medium or a mannitol medium. Production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol was weakly positive. The isolate did not produce a levan-like polysaccharide on a sucrose medium. Major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10. DNA base composition was 63.1 mol% G+C. On the basis of the results obtained, Neoasaia gen. nov. was proposed with Neoasaia chiangmaiensis sp. nov. The type strain was isolate AC28(T) (=BCC 15763(T) =NBRC 101099(T)). PMID:16314684

  18. Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Spitaels, Freek; Cnockaert, Margo; Praet, Jessy; El Farricha, Omar; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria isolates obtained from fresh dromedary camel milk produced in Dakhla, a city in southern Morocco, were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. The four isolates had highly similar MALDI-TOF MS and RAPD fingerprints and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the four isolates was most similar to that of Enterococcus sulfureus ATCC 49903(T) and Enterococcus italicus DSM 15952(T) (99.33 and 98.59% similarity, respectively). However, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes revealed that the taxon represented by strain LMG 28766(T) was well separated from E. sulfureus LMG 13084(T) and E. italicus LMG 22039(T), which was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization values that were clearly below the species demarcation threshold. The novel taxon was easily differentiated from its nearest neighbour species through sequence analysis of protein encoding genes, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and multiple biochemical tests, but had a similar percentage G+C content of about 39%. We therefore propose to formally classify these isolates as Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., with LMG 28766(T) (=CCMM B1177(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26346480

  19. Asaia krungthepensis sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Yamada, Yuzo

    2004-03-01

    Three bacterial strains were isolated from flowers collected in Bangkok, Thailand, by an enrichment-culture approach for acetic acid bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates were located in the lineage of the genus Asaia but constituted a cluster separate from the type strains of Asaia bogorensis and Asaia siamensis. The DNA base composition of the isolates was 60.2-60.5 mol% G+C, with a range of 0.3 mol%. The isolates constituted a taxon separate from Asaia bogorensis and Asaia siamensis on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness. The isolates had morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics similar to those of the type strains of Asaia bogorensis and Asaia siamensis, but the isolates grew on maltose. The major ubiquinone was Q(10). On the basis of the results obtained, the name Asaia krungthepensis sp. nov. is proposed for the isolates. The type strain is isolate AA08(T) (=BCC 12978(T)=TISTR 1524(T)=NBRC 100057(T)=NRIC 0535(T)), which had a DNA G+C content of 60.3 mol% and was isolated from a heliconia flower ('paksaasawan' in Thai; Heliconia sp.) collected in Bangkok, Thailand. PMID:15023938

  20. Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Saono, Susono; Seki, Tatsuji; Yamada, Yuzo; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

    2002-05-01

    Four bacterial strains were isolated from palm brown sugar and ragi collected in Bali and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, by an enrichment culture approach for acetic acid bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the four isolates constituted a cluster separate from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter and Asaia with a high bootstrap value in a phylogenetic tree. The isolates had high values of DNA-DNA similarity (78-100%) between one another and low values of the similarity (7-25%) to the type strains of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Asaia bogorensis. The DNA base composition of the isolates ranged from 56.8 to 57.2 mol% G+C with a range of 0-4 mol%. The major quinone was Q-10. The isolates oxidized acetate and lactate to carbon dioxide and water, but the activity was weak, as with strains of Asaia bogorensis. The isolates differed from Asaia bogorensis strains in phenotypic characteristics. The name Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the four isolates. Strain Yo-3T (= NRIC 0488T = JCM 11301T = IFO 16664T = DSM 14400T) was isolated from palm brown sugar collected in Bali, Indonesia, and was designated as the type strain. PMID:12054243

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the psychrophilic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina ACAM 456T: molecular species analysis of major phospholipids and biosynthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D S; Nichols, P D; Russell, N J; Davies, N W; McMeekin, T A

    1997-08-16

    The production of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5omega3; EPA] from Shewanella gelidimarina (ACAM 456T) was investigated with respect to growth temperature and growth on sole carbon sources. The percentage and quantitative yield of EPA remained relatively constant at all growth temperatures within or below the optimal growth temperature region. At higher growth temperatures, these values decreased greatly. Growth on differing sole carbon sources also influenced the percentage and amount of EPA produced, with the fatty acid composition influenced by provision of potential acyl chain primers as sole carbon sources. The highest amounts of EPA occurred from growth on propionic acid and L-leucine respectively, while the highest percentage of EPA occurred from growth on L-proline. Monounsaturated fatty acid components and EPA were concentrated in phosphatidylglycerol (PG), while the proportion of branched-chain fatty acids was elevated in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); the two major phospholipid classes. Specific associations of EPA with other acyl chains were identified within cellular phospholipid classes. The association of EPA with 17:1 and 18:0 acyl chains in phospholipid species was specific to PG, whereas the association of EPA with i13:0/13:0 and 14:0/i14:0 was specific to PE. Such acyl chain 'tailoring' is indicative of the important role of EPA in bacterial membrane adaptive responses. EPA was also a large component (22%) of a non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) fraction within the total lipid extract of the bacterium. This may point toward a particular role of NEFA in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. The formation of EPA was investigated by labelling with L-[U-14C]serine and sodium [1-14C]acetate. The accumulation of radiolabel within unsaturated intermediates (di-, tri- and tetraunsaturated fractions) was low, indicating a rapid formation and derivatisation of these components. Similar results were found for the unsaturated fatty acid fractions of both

  2. Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Malimas, Taweesak; Muramatsu, Yuki; Takahashi, Mai; Kaneyasu, Mika; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Hamana, Koei; Tahara, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Yamada, Yuzo

    2009-10-01

    Two isolates, AC04(T) and AC05, were isolated from the flowers of red ginger collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand. In phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two isolates were included within a lineage comprised of the genera Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, and Tanticharoenia, and they formed an independent cluster along with the type strain of Tanticharoenia sakaeratensis. The calculated pair-wise sequence similarities of isolate AC04(T) were 97.8-92.5% to the type strains of the type species of the 11 genera of acetic acid bacteria. The DNA base composition was 66.0-66.1 mol % G+C with a range of 0.1 mol %. A single-stranded, labeled DNA from isolate AC04(T) presented levels of DNA-DNA hybridization of 100, 85, 4, and 3% respectively to DNAs from isolates AC04(T) and AC05 and the type strains of Tanticharoenia sakaeratensis and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens. The two isolates were unique morphologically in polar flagellation and physiologically in intense acetate oxidation to carbon dioxide and water and weak lactate oxidation. The intensity in acetate oxidation almost equaled that of the type strain of Acetobacter aceti. The two isolates had Q-10. Isolate AC04(T) was discriminated from the type strains of the type species of the 11 genera by 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis using restriction endonucleases TaqI and Hin6I. The unique phylogenetic, genetic, morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics obtained indicate that the two isolates can be classified into a separate genus, and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is isolate AC04(T) (=BCC 15744(T), =NBRC 103196(T)), which has a DNA G+C content of 66.0 mol %. PMID:19809199

  3. Application of recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs⁺/ech⁺) in malolactic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir; Kaur, Gaganjot; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kaur, Kiranjeet

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to enhance flavor characteristics of wine by malolactic fermentation using recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)) encoding synthetic genes of feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase. After malolactic fermentation, wine phenolics were characterized using LCMS-ESI technique and a significant improvement in the antioxidant activity and flavor characteristics of wine was observed due to increased concentration of cinnamic acid derivatives. This proof of concept study highlights the role of recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)) in improving flavor as well as aroma of wine due to production of several phenolic derivatives during secondary fermentation. A novel metabolic pathway was predicted from mass spectral analysis data that indicates biotransformation of cinnamic acid and derivatives into apigenin, catechin, coniferyl aldehyde, cyanidin, hydroxybenzoic acids, laricitrin, luteolin, malvidin 3-glucoside, myricetin, naringenin, pelargonin, piceatannol, querecitin, and vanillin that not only increased the overall consumer appreciation but also improved nutritional and probably the therapeutic properties of wines. This is a first evidence-based study where role of recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)) in the wine secondary fermentation has been elucidated. PMID:25650327

  4. Isolation, characterization, and amino acid sequences of auracyanins, blue copper proteins from the green photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, J. D.; Brune, D. C.; Han, J.; Sanders-Loehr, J.; Meyer, T. E.; Cusanovich, M. A.; Tollin, G.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Three small blue copper proteins designated auracyanin A, auracyanin B-1, and auracyanin B-2 have been isolated from the thermophilic green gliding photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. All three auracyanins are peripheral membrane proteins. Auracyanin A was described previously (Trost, J. T., McManus, J. D., Freeman, J. C., Ramakrishna, B. L., and Blankenship, R. E. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 7858-7863) and is not glycosylated. The two B forms are glycoproteins and have almost identical properties to each other, but are distinct from the A form. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis apparent monomer molecular masses are 14 (A), 18 (B-2), and 22 (B-1) kDa. The amino acid sequences of the B forms are presented. All three proteins have similar absorbance, circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectra, but the electron spin resonance signals are quite different. Laser flash photolysis kinetic analysis of the reactions of the three forms of auracyanin with lumiflavin and flavin mononucleotide semiquinones indicates that the site of electron transfer is negatively charged and has an accessibility similar to that found in other blue copper proteins. Copper analysis indicates that all three proteins contain 1 mol of copper per mol of protein. All three auracyanins exhibit a midpoint redox potential of +240 mV. Light-induced absorbance changes and electron spin resonance signals suggest that auracyanin A may play a role in photosynthetic electron transfer. Kinetic data indicate that all three proteins can donate electrons to cytochrome c-554, the electron donor to the photosynthetic reaction center.

  5. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analysis of Meat-Spoilage-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus piscium MKFS47

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Per; Laine, Pia; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Sonck, Matti; Rahkila, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Elina; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus piscium is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium and is known to be one of the predominant species within spoilage microbial communities in cold-stored packaged foods, particularly in meat products. Its presence in such products has been associated with the formation of buttery and sour off-odors. Nevertheless, the spoilage potential of L. piscium varies dramatically depending on the strain and growth conditions. Additional knowledge about the genome is required to explain such variation, understand its phylogeny, and study gene functions. Here, we present the complete and annotated genomic sequence of L. piscium MKFS47, combined with a time course analysis of the glucose catabolism-based transcriptome. In addition, a comparative analysis of gene contents was done for L. piscium MKFS47 and 29 other lactococci, revealing three distinct clades within the genus. The genome of L. piscium MKFS47 consists of one chromosome, carrying 2,289 genes, and two plasmids. A wide range of carbohydrates was predicted to be fermented, and growth on glycerol was observed. Both carbohydrate and glycerol catabolic pathways were significantly upregulated in the course of time as a result of glucose exhaustion. At the same time, differential expression of the pyruvate utilization pathways, implicated in the formation of spoilage substances, switched the metabolism toward a heterofermentative mode. In agreement with data from previous inoculation studies, L. piscium MKFS47 was identified as an efficient producer of buttery-odor compounds under aerobic conditions. Finally, genes and pathways that may contribute to increased survival in meat environments were considered. PMID:25819958

  6. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analysis of Meat-Spoilage-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus piscium MKFS47.

    PubMed

    Andreevskaya, Margarita; Johansson, Per; Laine, Pia; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Sonck, Matti; Rahkila, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Elina; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2015-06-01

    Lactococcus piscium is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium and is known to be one of the predominant species within spoilage microbial communities in cold-stored packaged foods, particularly in meat products. Its presence in such products has been associated with the formation of buttery and sour off-odors. Nevertheless, the spoilage potential of L. piscium varies dramatically depending on the strain and growth conditions. Additional knowledge about the genome is required to explain such variation, understand its phylogeny, and study gene functions. Here, we present the complete and annotated genomic sequence of L. piscium MKFS47, combined with a time course analysis of the glucose catabolism-based transcriptome. In addition, a comparative analysis of gene contents was done for L. piscium MKFS47 and 29 other lactococci, revealing three distinct clades within the genus. The genome of L. piscium MKFS47 consists of one chromosome, carrying 2,289 genes, and two plasmids. A wide range of carbohydrates was predicted to be fermented, and growth on glycerol was observed. Both carbohydrate and glycerol catabolic pathways were significantly upregulated in the course of time as a result of glucose exhaustion. At the same time, differential expression of the pyruvate utilization pathways, implicated in the formation of spoilage substances, switched the metabolism toward a heterofermentative mode. In agreement with data from previous inoculation studies, L. piscium MKFS47 was identified as an efficient producer of buttery-odor compounds under aerobic conditions. Finally, genes and pathways that may contribute to increased survival in meat environments were considered. PMID:25819958

  7. Lipid-Lowering Effects of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 Isolated from Korean Traditional Makgeolli in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Yeon-Jeong; Baik, Sang-Ho; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 (lactic acid bacteria) isolated from makgeolli on mice fed a high fat diet was investigated to clarify the lipid lowering function. C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a normal diet (ND) group, high fat diet (HD) group, HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284 reference strain (PR) group, and HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici M76 strain (PA) groups. The lyophilized PA and PR strain were dissolved in distilled water at a final concentration of 1.25 × 109 cfu/mL and was given orally to animals at a dose of 4 mL/kg body weight for 12 weeks. The PA group had a lower final body weight, adipose tissue weight, and lipid profile than those in the HD group. Additionally, level of ACC, FAS and PPAR-γ, a key lipid synthesis enzyme, was markedly suppressed in the PA compared to those in the HD group. These data suggest that P. acidilactici M76 may exert a lipid-lowering effect in high fat diet- induced obese mice. PMID:24609135

  8. [Isolation, identification and oxidizing characterization of an iron-sulfur oxidizing bacterium LY01 from acid mine drainage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-jiao; Yang, Xin-ping; Wang, Shi-mei; Liang, Yin

    2013-05-01

    An acidophilic iron-sulfur oxidizing bacterium LY01 was isolated from acid mine drainage of coal in Guizhou Province, China. Strain LY01 was identified as Acidithiobacillusferrooxidans by morphological and physiological characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain LY01 was able to grow using ferrous ion (Fe2+), elemental sulfur (S0) and pyrite as sole energy source, respectively, but significant differences in oxidation efficiency and bacterial growth were observed when different energy source was used. When strain LY01 was cultured in 9K medium with 44.2 g x L(-1) FeSO4.7H2O as the substrate, the oxidation efficiency of Fe2+ was 100% in 30 h and the cell number of strain LY01 reached to 4.2 x 10(7) cell x mL(-1). When LY01 was cultured in 9K medium with 10 g x L(-1) S0 as the substrate, 6.7% S0 oxidation efficiency, 2001 mg x L(-1) SO4(2-) concentration and 8.9 x 10(7) cell x mL(-1) cell number were observed in 21 d respectively. When LY01 was cultured with 30 g x L(-1) pyrite as the substrate, the oxidation efficiency of pyrite, SO4(2-) concentration and cell number reached 10%, 4443 mg x L(-1) and 3.4 x 10(8) cell x mL(-1) respectively in 20 d. The effects of different heavy metals (Ni2+, Pb2+) on oxidation activity of strain LY01 cultured with pyrite were investigated. Results showed that the oxidation activity of strain LY01 was inhibited to a certain extent with the addition of Ni2+ at 10-100 mg x L(-1) to the medium, but the addition of 10-100 mg x L(-1) Pb2+ had no effect on LY01 activity. PMID:23914550

  9. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on bile acids and growth of DFA III-assimilating bacterium Ruminococcus productus on rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Kaneko, Maki; Ohashi, Midori; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-06-01

    The growth of DFA III-assimilating bacteria in the intestines of rats fed 3% DFA III for 2 weeks was examined. Sixty-four percent of the DFA III intake had been assimilated on day 3 of ingestion, and almost all of the DFA III was assimilated at the end of the experiment. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus productus, in DFA III-fed rats was in the stationary state of 10(8)-10(9) cells/g dry feces within a week from 10(6) cells/g dry feces on day 1 of DFA III ingestion. The number of R. productus cells was associated with the amount of DFA III excreted in the feces. The acetic acid produced from DFA III by R. productus lowered the cecal pH to 5.8. In control-fed rats and DFA III-fed rats, 94% of secondary bile acids and 94% of primary bile acids, respectively, were accounted for in the total bile acids analyzed. DFA III ingestion increased the ratio of primary bile acids and changed the composition of fecal bile acids. In conclusion, R. productus assimilated DFA III, produced short chain fatty acids, and the cecal pH was lowered. The acidification of rat intestine perhaps inhibited secondary bile acid formation and decreased the ratio of secondary bile acids. Therefore, it is expected that DFA III may prevent colorectal cancer and be a new prebiotic candidate. PMID:16233830

  10. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis of the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delcour, J

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) were isolated by complementing for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene predicted a protein of 323 amino acids showing significant similarity with other bacterial L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenases and especially with that of Lactobacillus plantarum. The ldhL transcription start points in P. acidilactici were defined by primer extension, and the promoter sequence was identified as TCAAT-(17 bp)-TATAAT. This sequence is closely related to the consensus sequence of vegetative promoters from gram-positive bacteria as well as from E. coli. Northern analysis of P. acidilactici RNA showed a 1.1-kb ldhL transcript whose abundance is growth rate regulated. These data, together with the presence of a putative rho-independent transcriptional terminator, suggest that ldhL is expressed as a monocistronic transcript in P. acidilactici. PMID:7887607

  11. Pediococcus acidilactici ldhD gene: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delplace, B; Delcour, J

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding D-lactate dehydrogenase was isolated on a 2.9-kb insert from a library of Pediococcus acidilactici DNA by complementation for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate-formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of ldhD encodes a protein of 331 amino acids (predicted molecular mass of 37,210 Da) which shows similarity to the family of D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. The enzyme encoded by the cloned fragment is equally active on pyruvate and hydroxypyruvate, indicating that the enzyme has both D-lactate and D-glycerate dehydrogenase activities. Three other open reading frames were found in the 2.9-kb insert, one of which (rpsB) is highly similar to bacterial genes coding for ribosomal protein S2. Northern (RNA) blotting analyses indicated the presence of a 2-kb dicistronic transcript of ldhD (a metabolic gene) and rpsB (a putative ribosomal protein gene) together with a 1-kb monocistronic rpsB mRNA. These transcripts are abundant in the early phase of exponential growth but steadily fade away to disappear in the stationary phase. Primer extension analysis identified two distinct promoters driving either cotranscription of ldhD and rpsB or transcription of rpsB alone. PMID:7539419

  12. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlitshnyi, V.; Wiegel, J.; Rainey, F.

    1996-10-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-264{sup T}; DSM 11003) were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60{degrees}C, the pH range for growth determined at 25{degrees}C [pH{sup 25{degrees}C}] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH{sup 60{degrees}C} of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH{sup 25{degrees}C} of 8.5 temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70{degrees}C, with an optimum between 60 and 66{degrees}C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans include possible antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fasseas, Michael K; Fasseas, Costas; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Syntichaki, Popi

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effects of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici were found to inhibit the development and growth of the worm. Compared to Escherichia coli used as the control, L. reuteri and P. acidilactici reduced the lifespan of wild-type and short-lived daf-16 worms. On the contrary, L. salivarius extended the lifespan of daf-16 worms when used live, but reduced it as UV-killed bacteria. The three LAB induced the expression of genes involved in pathogen response and inhibited the growth of tumor-like germ cells, without affecting DAF16 localization or increasing corpse cells. Our results suggest the possible use of C. elegans as a model for studying the antitumor attributes of LAB. The negative effects of these LAB strains on the nematode also indicate their potential use against parasitic nematodes. PMID:22923095

  14. Gene cloning of cold-adapted isocitrate lyase from a psychrophilic bacterium, Colwellia psychrerythraea, and analysis of amino acid residues involved in cold adaptation of this enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuhya; Watanabe, Seiya; Yamaoka, Naoto; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    The gene (icl) encoding cold-adapted isocitrate lyase (ICL) of a psychrophilic bacterium, Colwellia psychrerythraea, was cloned and sequenced. Open reading frame of the gene was 1,587 bp in length and corresponded to a polypeptide composed of 528 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology with that of cold-adapted ICL from other psychrophilic bacterium, C. maris (88% identity), but the sequential homology with that of the Escherichia coli ICL was low (28% identity). Primer extension analysis revealed that transcriptional start site for the C. psychrerythraea icl gene was guanine, located at 87 bases upstream of translational initiation codon. The expression of this gene in the cells of an E. coli mutant defective in ICL was induced by not only low temperature but also acetate. However, cis-acting elements for cold-inducible expression known in the several other bacterial genes were absent in the promoter region of the C. psychrerythraea icl gene. The substitution of Ala214 for Ser in the C. psychrerythraea ICL introduced by point mutation resulted in the increased thermostability and lowering of the specific activity at low temperature, indicating that Ala214 is important for psychrophilic properties of this enzyme. PMID:17965824

  15. Dye-linked D-amino acid dehydrogenase from the thermophilic bacterium Rhodothermus marinus JCM9785: characteristics and role in trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline catabolism.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Takenori; Ishikura, Masaru; Koyanagi, Takashi; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Suye, Shin-ichiro

    2015-05-01

    A gene from the thermophilic Gram-negative bacterium Rhodothermus marinus JCM9785, encoding a dye-linked D-amino acid dehydrogenase homologue, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its product was purified and characterized. The expressed enzyme was a highly thermostable dye-linked D-amino acid dehydrogenase that retained more than 80% of its activity after incubation for 10 min at up to 70 °C. When enzyme-catalyzed dehydrogenation of several D-amino acids was carried out using 2,6-dichloroindophenol as the electron acceptor, D-phenylalanine was the most preferable substrate among the D-amino acids tested. Immediately upstream of the dye-linked D-amino acid dehydrogenase gene (dadh) was a gene encoding a 4-hydroxyproline 2-epimerase homologue (hypE). That gene was successfully expressed in E. coli, and the gene product exhibited strong 4-hydroxyproline 2-epimerase activity. Reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR showed that the six genes containing the dadh and hypE genes were arranged in an operon and were required for catabolism of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline in R. marinus. This is the first description of a dye-linked D-amino acid dehydrogenase (Dye-DADH) with broad substrate specificity involved in trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline catabolism. PMID:25472442

  16. Cloning and expression of a plasmid-linked pediocin determinant trait of Pediococcus acidilactici F.

    PubMed

    Osmanağaoğlu, O; Beyatli, Y; Gündüz, U

    2000-01-01

    Plasmid DNA from Pediococcus acidilactici F was prepared by lysozyme-mutanolysin method and purified by cesium chloride-ethidium bromide (CsCl-EtBr) density gradient ultracentrifugation. Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA and plasmid-curing experiments suggested that bacteriocin activity was harboured on a small plasmid of approximately 9.1 kb (kilobasepair) in Pediococcus acidilactici F. Plasmid encoding bacteriocin production in P. acidilactici F was examined for restriction enzyme cleavage patterns and its map has been constructed. An Escherichia coli strain transformed with the recombinant plasmid, pQE322, produced and, most probably, secreted pediocin F. PMID:10746198

  17. Detection of Pediococcus spp. in brewing yeast by a rapid immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, M; Crichlow, M; Ingledew, W M; Ziola, B

    1992-01-01

    A membrane immunofluorescent-antibody test was developed to detect diacetyl-producing Pediococcus contaminants in brewery pitching yeast (yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] slurry collected for reinoculation). Centrifugations at 11 and 5,100 x g separate yeast cells from bacteria and concentrate the bacteria, respectively. Pelleted bacteria resuspended and trapped on a black membrane filter are reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface antigens and then with fluorescein-conjugated indicator antibodies. Whether pitching yeast is contaminated with pediococci at 0.001% is determined in less than 4 h. The sensitivity of the assay is 2 orders of magnitude below the Pediococcus detection limit of direct microscopy. Images PMID:1610194

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the nifH gene coding for nitrogen reductase in the acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, A C; Sly, L I

    1998-01-01

    The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was determined with the use of the polymerase chain reaction and universal degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The gene shows highest pair-wise similarity to the nifH gene of Azospirillum brasilense. The phylogenetic relationships of the nifH gene sequences were compared with those inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Knowledge of the sequence of the nifH gene contributes to the growing database of nifH gene sequences, and will allow the detection of Acet. diazotrophicus from environmental samples with nifH gene-based primers. PMID:9489028

  19. A consolidated analysis of the physiologic and molecular responses induced under acid stress in the legume-symbiont model-soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Draghi, W O; Del Papa, M F; Hellweg, C; Watt, S A; Watt, T F; Barsch, A; Lozano, M J; Lagares, A; Salas, M E; López, J L; Albicoro, F J; Nilsson, J F; Torres Tejerizo, G A; Luna, M F; Pistorio, M; Boiardi, J L; Pühler, A; Weidner, S; Niehaus, K; Lagares, A

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses in general and extracellular acidity in particular disturb and limit nitrogen-fixing symbioses between rhizobia and their host legumes. Except for valuable molecular-biological studies on different rhizobia, no consolidated models have been formulated to describe the central physiologic changes that occur in acid-stressed bacteria. We present here an integrated analysis entailing the main cultural, metabolic, and molecular responses of the model bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti growing under controlled acid stress in a chemostat. A stepwise extracellular acidification of the culture medium had indicated that S. meliloti stopped growing at ca. pH 6.0-6.1. Under such stress the rhizobia increased the O2 consumption per cell by more than 5-fold. This phenotype, together with an increase in the transcripts for several membrane cytochromes, entails a higher aerobic-respiration rate in the acid-stressed rhizobia. Multivariate analysis of global metabolome data served to unequivocally correlate specific-metabolite profiles with the extracellular pH, showing that at low pH the pentose-phosphate pathway exhibited increases in several transcripts, enzymes, and metabolites. Further analyses should be focused on the time course of the observed changes, its associated intracellular signaling, and on the comparison with the changes that operate during the sub lethal acid-adaptive response (ATR) in rhizobia. PMID:27404346

  20. A consolidated analysis of the physiologic and molecular responses induced under acid stress in the legume-symbiont model-soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Draghi, W. O.; Del Papa, M. F.; Hellweg, C.; Watt, S. A.; Watt, T. F.; Barsch, A.; Lozano, M. J.; Lagares, A.; Salas, M. E.; López, J. L.; Albicoro, F. J.; Nilsson, J. F.; Torres Tejerizo, G. A.; Luna, M. F.; Pistorio, M.; Boiardi, J. L.; Pühler, A.; Weidner, S.; Niehaus, K.; Lagares, A.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses in general and extracellular acidity in particular disturb and limit nitrogen-fixing symbioses between rhizobia and their host legumes. Except for valuable molecular-biological studies on different rhizobia, no consolidated models have been formulated to describe the central physiologic changes that occur in acid-stressed bacteria. We present here an integrated analysis entailing the main cultural, metabolic, and molecular responses of the model bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti growing under controlled acid stress in a chemostat. A stepwise extracellular acidification of the culture medium had indicated that S. meliloti stopped growing at ca. pH 6.0–6.1. Under such stress the rhizobia increased the O2 consumption per cell by more than 5-fold. This phenotype, together with an increase in the transcripts for several membrane cytochromes, entails a higher aerobic-respiration rate in the acid-stressed rhizobia. Multivariate analysis of global metabolome data served to unequivocally correlate specific-metabolite profiles with the extracellular pH, showing that at low pH the pentose-phosphate pathway exhibited increases in several transcripts, enzymes, and metabolites. Further analyses should be focused on the time course of the observed changes, its associated intracellular signaling, and on the comparison with the changes that operate during the sub lethal acid-adaptive response (ATR) in rhizobia. PMID:27404346

  1. Genomic analysis of Pediococcus starter cultures used to control Listeria monocytogenes in turkey summer sausage.

    PubMed Central

    Luchansky, J B; Glass, K A; Harsono, K D; Degnan, A J; Faith, N G; Cauvin, B; Baccus-Taylor, G; Arihara, K; Bater, B; Maurer, A J

    1992-01-01

    The pulsed-field technique of clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis was employed to characterize and size genomic DNA of three pediocin-producing (Ped+) and two non-pediocin-producing (Ped-) strains of Pediococcus acidilactici. Comparison of genomic fingerprints obtained by digestion with the low-frequency-cleavage endonuclease AscI revealed identical restriction profiles for four of the five strains analyzed. Summation of results for 10 individually sized AscI fragments estimated the genome length to be 1,861 kb for the four strains (H, PAC1.0, PO2, and JBL1350) with identical fingerprints. Genomic analysis of the pediocin-sensitive, plasmid-free strain P. acidilactici LB42 with the unique fingerprint revealed nine AscI fragments and a genome length of about 2,133 kb. Ped- (JBL1350) and Ped+ (JBL1095) starter cultures (one each) were used to separately prepare turkey summer sausage coinoculated with a four-strain Listeria monocytogenes mixture (ca. 10(5) CFU/g). The starter cultures produced equivalent amounts of acid during fermentation, but counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced to a greater extent in the presence of the Ped+ starter culture (3.4 log10 unit decrease) than in the presence of the Ped- starter culture (0.9 log10 unit decrease). Although no listeriae were recovered from sausages following the cook/shower, appreciable pediocin activity was recovered from sausages prepared with the Ped+ strain for at least 60 days during storage at 4 degrees C. The results of this study revealed genomic similarities among pediococcal starter cultures and established that pediocins produced during fermentation provide an additional measure of safety against listerial proliferation in turkey summer sausage. Images PMID:1444419

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M

    PubMed Central

    Barreau, Guillaume; de Carvalho, Vanessa G.

    2012-01-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M is a commercially available probiotic that is widely used in swine, poultry, aquaculture feeds, and human dietary supplements. We prepared a genome sequence for this strain consisting of 2 scaffolds totaling 1,992,928 bases including gaps for a total of 3,346 bases and a G+C content of 42%. PMID:22275099

  3. Effects of Pediococcus and Saccharomyces-based Probiotic (MitoMax) on Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is the major parasitic disease of poultry. Increasing concerns with prophylactic drug use prompted us to look for a new way to control this disease. We investigated the role of the commercial probiotic MitoMax, containing Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces boulardii, as alternat...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pediococcus lolii NGRI 0510QT Isolated from Ryegrass Silage

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Hayashi, Yoshiharu; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Pediococcus lolii NGRI 0510QT was isolated from ryegrass silage produced on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Here we present a draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 103 contigs for a total of 2,047,078 bp, 2,154 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.1%. PMID:23405350

  5. Detection and characterization of a lytic Pediococcus bacteriophage from the fermenting cucumber brine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the twelve lytic bacteriophages recovered from five different fermenting cucumber tanks that were inoculated with Pediococcus sp. LA0281, a lytic phage, 'ps05, was characterized in the present study. The plaques were mostly clear and round-shaped on the lawn of starter strain, indicating lytic ph...

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221 from soy sauce moromi grown in high-salt medium.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Toshiko; Shirakami, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Ryohei F; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2008-02-10

    A halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, was found to possess an immunomodulatory activity that promotes T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity in addition to its important roles in soy sauce brewing. Strain Th221 was selected from 151 strains isolated from soy sauce (shoyu) moromi, since it induced strong interleukin (IL)-12 production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The relationship between the salt concentration in the medium and the IL-12 production-inducing activity of this strain was investigated, and the activity was found to be strong when the bacteria were grown in medium containing > or =10% (w/v) salt. The Th1-promoting activity was also manifested in an in vivo mouse study, since Th1-dependant contact sensitivity was augmented and Th2 immunity, as evaluated by specific immunoglobulin E production, was suppressed following oral ingestion of Th221. Based on these findings, Th221 administration may be useful for improving allergic symptoms. PMID:18061297

  7. [Cloning and expression of variants of the glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporic acid acylase of the bacterium Brevundimonas diminuta in Escherichia coli cells].

    PubMed

    Khatuntseva, S A; El'darov, M A; Lopatin, S A; Zeĭnalov, O A; Skriabin, K G

    2007-01-01

    The gene coding for glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporic acid acylase (Gl7ACA acylase) of the bacterium Brevundimonas diminuta (BrdGl7ACA), a commercial enzyme widely used in modem biocatalytic technologies for manufacture of b-lactam antibiotics, was cloned. Efficient expression systems for producing a "native" recombinant BrdGl7ACA and its analogs modified by attaching affinity groups--the chitin-binding domain of chitinases A1 and hexahistidine sequence--were designed. It was demonstrated that both the recombinant hybrid proteins and the native Gl7ACA acylase produced in E. coli cells underwent a correct autoproteolytic processing with generation of functionally active enzymes and could be isolated with a high yield using one-step affinity chromatography. PMID:17929575

  8. DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies using traditional biochemical methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four lactic acid bacteria species, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were the primary microorganisms in...

  9. Oral administration of live exopolysaccharide-producing Pediococcus parvulus, but not purified exopolysaccharide, suppressed Enterobacteriaceae without affecting bacterial diversity in ceca of mice.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Cecilia; Xu, Jie; Oste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Molin, Göran

    2013-08-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota could have an important role in the development of diet- and lifestyle-induced diseases. It has been shown that modulation of the gut microbiota by means of probiotics and prebiotics could improve host health. An oat-based product fermented by the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing organism Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 has been reported to have a bifidogenic effect. To find out whether the effect could be attributed to the EPS or the bacterium, mice were fed a diet supplemented with 2% purified EPS or 10(8) CFU/g of live P. parvulus 2.6 for 6 weeks. Both supplementations altered the gut microbiota composition but in different directions. Purified EPS not only significantly lowered the microbial diversity (P < 0.001) but decreased the bifidobacterial population (P = 0.01). In contrast, the live EPS-producing bacterium P. parvulus 2.6 antagonized Enterobacteriaceae without disturbing the homeostasis of the cecal microbiota. PMID:23770909

  10. A novel thermotolerant Pediococcus acidilactici B-25 strain for color, COD, and BOD reduction of distillery effluent for end use applications.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Soni; Rai, Priyanka; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Rajeeva

    2013-06-01

    The present study was aimed to characterize physico-chemical and microbial population of distillery effluent and isolate a novel thermotolerant bacterium for color, COD, and BOD reduction of spentwash. The level of alkalinity, TSS, DO, COD, BOD, TN, ammonical nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, chloride, and calcium of spentwash (SW), bioreactor effluent (BE), and secondary treated effluent (STE) were well above the permissible limits. The level of color, TS, and TDS were under the permissible limits for STE but not for SW and BE. The microbial population was higher in BE. The results revealed that effluent was highly polluted and require suitable treatment before discharge. A novel thermotolerant bacterium, identified as Pediococcus acidilactici, was isolated which exhibited maximum 79 % decolorization, 85 % COD, and 94 % BOD reduction at 45 °C using 0.1 %, glucose; 0.1 %, peptone; 0.05 %, MgSO4; 0.05 %, K2HPO4; pH 6.0 within 24 h under static condition. The ability of this strain to decolorize melanoidin at minimum carbon and nitrogen supplementation warrants its possible application for effluent treatment at industrial level. In addition, it is first instance when melanoidin decolorization was reported by P. acidilactici. This study could be an approach towards control of environmental pollution and health hazards of people in and around the effluent distillery unit. PMID:23224419

  11. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  12. Acetobacter senegalensis sp. nov., a thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium isolated in Senegal (sub-Saharan Africa) from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Ndoye, Bassirou; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Dubois-Dauphin, Robin; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Willems, Anne; Thonart, Phillipe

    2007-07-01

    A thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium, designated strain CWBI-B418(T), isolated in Senegal from mango fruit (Mangifera indica), was characterized in detail by means of genotypic and phenotypic methods. The novel strain was strictly aerobic and exhibited optimal growth on YGM medium at 35 degrees C. Cells were Gram-negative, motile and coccoid. The strain was assigned to the genus Acetobacter on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with its phylogenetically closest relatives showed that strain CWBI-B418(T) represented a novel Acetobacter genospecies. The DNA G+C content of strain CWBI-B418(T) was 56.0 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics enabling the differentiation of strain CWBI-B418(T) from phylogenetically related Acetobacter species were: production of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid from D-glucose, but not 5-keto-D-gluconic acid, production of catalase but not oxidase, growth on yeast extract with 30 % d-glucose, growth with ammonium as sole nitrogen source with ethanol as carbon source, utilization of glycerol and ethanol but not maltose or methanol as carbon sources, and growth in the presence of 10 % ethanol. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data presented, strain CWBI-B418(T) clearly represents a novel Acetobacter species, for which the name Acetobacter senegalensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CWBI-B418(T) (=LMG 23690(T)=DSM 18889(T)). PMID:17625197

  13. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the uptake and respiration of amino acids by a facultatively psychrophilic marine bacterium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, K. L.; Morita, R. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Studies of pressure and temperature effects on glutamic acid transport and utilization indicated that hydrostatic pressure and low temperature inhibit glutamate transport more than glutamate respiration. The effects of pressure on transport were reduced at temperatures near the optimum. Similar results were obtained for glycine, phenylalanine, and proline. Pressure effects on the transport systems of all four amino acids were reversible to some degree. Both proline and glutamic acid were able to protect their transport proteins against pressure damage. The data presented indicate that the uptake of amino acids by cells under pressure is inhibited, which is the cause of their inability to grow under pressure.

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Paddy Rice Silage as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ennahar, Saïd; Cai, Yimin; Fujita, Yasuhito

    2003-01-01

    A total of 161 low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria isolated from whole-crop paddy rice silage were classified and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. Based on morphological and biochemical characters, these presumptive lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were divided into 10 groups that included members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Weissella. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used to confirm the presence of the predominant groups indicated by phenotypic analysis and to determine the phylogenetic affiliation of representative strains. The virtually complete 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced. The sequences from the various LAB isolates showed high degrees of similarity to those of the GenBank reference strains (between 98.7 and 99.8%). Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rDNA sequence displayed high consistency, with nodes supported by high bootstrap values. With the exception of one species, the genetic data was in agreement with the phenotypic identification. The prevalent LAB, predominantly homofermentative (66%), consisted of Lactobacillus plantarum (24%), Lactococcus lactis (22%), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (20%), Pediococcus acidilactici (11%), Lactobacillus brevis (11%), Enterococcus faecalis (7%), Weissella kimchii (3%), and Pediococcus pentosaceus (2%). The present study, the first to fully document rice-associated LAB, showed a very diverse community of LAB with a relatively high number of species involved in the fermentation process of paddy rice silage. The comprehensive 16S rDNA-based approach to describing LAB community structure was valuable in revealing the large diversity of bacteria inhabiting paddy rice silage and enabling the future design of appropriate inoculants aimed at improving its fermentation quality. PMID:12514026

  15. Diet supplementation of Pediococcus pentosaceus in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) enhances growth rate, respiratory burst and resistance against photobacteriosis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chen-Fu; Hu, Hung-Hsi; Huang, Jian-Bin; Fang, Han-Chun; Kai, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2013-10-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is an economically important fish species for aquaculture in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Cobia aquaculture industry has severely damaged due to photobacteriosis caused by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Pdp), especially in Taiwan. Antibiotics and vaccines have been applied to control Pdp infection, but the efficacy has been inconsistent. One species of lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 4012 (LAB 4012), was isolated from the intestine of adult cobia, and its culture supernatant can effectively inhibit Pdp growth in vitro. The acidic pH derived from metabolic acids in LAB culture supernatant was demonstrated to be an important factor for the suppression. After a 2-week feeding of LAB 4012, the growth rate of the fed cobia was 12% higher than that of the non-fed group, and the relative percentage of survival (RPS) of the fed cobia was found to be 74.4 in Pdp immersion challenge. In addition, the respiratory burst (RB) of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in the LAB 4012-fed group was significantly higher than that of the non-fed group. Although feeding LAB 4012 did not improve specific antibody response in cobia after immunization with Pdp vaccine, it still significantly raised the survival rate by 22% over that of the non-fed group after Pdp immersion challenge. Judging by the quick induction of high protection against Pdp infection and promotion of growth in larvae, LAB 4012 was considered to be a viable probiotic for cobia aquaculture. PMID:23916590

  16. Growth and gas formation by Lactobacillus wasatchensis, a novel obligatory heterofermentative nonstarter lactic acid bacterium, in Cheddar-style cheese made using a Streptococcus thermophilus starter.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, Fatih; Broadbent, Jeffery R; Oberg, Craig J; McMahon, Donald J

    2015-11-01

    A novel slow-growing, obligatory heterofermentative, nonstarter lactic acid bacterium (NSLAB), Lactobacillus wasatchensis WDC04, was studied for growth and gas production in Cheddar-style cheese made using Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter culture. Cheesemaking trials were conducted using S. thermophilus alone or in combination with Lb. wasatchensis deliberately added to cheese milk at a level of ~10(4) cfu/mL. Resulting cheeses were ripened at 6 or 12°C. At d 1, starter streptococcal numbers were similar in both cheeses (~10(9) cfu/g) and fast-growing NSLAB lactobacilli counts were below detectable levels (<10(2) cfu/g). As expected, Lactobacillus wasatchensis counts were 3×10(5) cfu/g in cheeses inoculated with this bacterium and below enumeration limits in the control cheese. Starter streptococci decreased over time at both storage temperatures but declined more rapidly at 12°C, especially in cheese also containing Lb. wasatchensis. Populations of fast-growing NSLAB and the slow-growing Lb. wasatchensis reached 5×10(7) and 2×10(8) cfu/g, respectively, after 16 wk of storage at 12°C. Growth of NSLAB coincided with a reduction in galactose concentration in the cheese from 0.6 to 0.1%. Levels of galactose at 6°C had similar decrease. Gas formation and textural defects were only observed in cheese with added Lb. wasatchensis ripened at 12°C. Use of S. thermophilus as starter culture resulted in galactose accumulation that Lb. wasatchensis can use to produce CO2, which contributes to late gas blowing in Cheddar-style cheeses, especially when the cheese is ripened at elevated temperature. PMID:26364109

  17. PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

  18. Favourable effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on the late step of the cell division in a piezophilic bacterium, Shewanella violacea DSS12, at high-hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Jun; Sato, Takako; Nakasone, Kaoru; Kato, Chiaki; Mihara, Hisaaki; Esaki, Nobuyoshi; Kurihara, Tatsuo

    2011-08-01

    Shewanella violacea DSS12, a deep-sea bacterium, produces eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a component of membrane phospholipids. Although various isolates from the deep sea, such as Photobacterium profundum SS9, Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H and various Shewanella strains, produce EPA- or docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids, the physiological role of these polyunsaturated fatty acids remains unclear. In this article, we illustrate the physiological importance of EPA for high-pressure adaptation in strain DSS12 with the help of an EPA-deficient mutant (DSS12(pfaA)). DSS12(pfaA) showed significant growth retardation at 30 MPa, but not at 0.1 MPa. We also found that DSS12(pfaA) grown at 30 MPa forms filamentous cells. When an EPA-containing phospholipid (sn-1-oleoly-sn-2-eicosapentaenoyl phosphatidylethanolamine) was supplemented, the growth retardation and the morphological defect of DSS12(pfaA) were suppressed, indicating that the externally added EPA-containing phospholipid compensated for the loss of endogenous EPA. In contrast, the addition of an oleic acid-containing phospholipid (sn-1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine) did not affect the growth and the morphology of the cells. Immunofluorescent microscopic analysis with anti-FtsZ antibody revealed a number of Z-rings and separated nucleoids in DSS12(pfaA) grown at 30 MPa. These results demonstrate the physiological importance of EPA for the later step of Z-ring formation of S. violacea DSS12 under high-pressure conditions. PMID:21518217

  19. Acetobacter ghanensis sp. nov., a novel acetic acid bacterium isolated from traditional heap fermentations of Ghanaian cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Cleenwerck, Ilse; Camu, Nicholas; Engelbeen, Katrien; De Winter, Tom; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-three acetic acid bacteria, isolated from traditional heap fermentations of Ghanaian cocoa beans, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolates were catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods. They oxidized ethanol to acetic acid and were unable to produce 2-ketogluconic acid, 5-ketogluconic acid and 2,5-diketogluconic acid from glucose; therefore, they were tentatively identified as Acetobacter species. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed their position in the genus Acetobacter, with Acetobacter syzygii and Acetobacter lovaniensis as their closest phylogenetic neighbours. (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting grouped the strains in a cluster that did not contain any type strains of members of the genus Acetobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strains of all recognized Acetobacter species revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values below the species level. The DNA G+C contents of three selected strains were 56.9-57.3 mol%. The novel strains had phenotypic characteristics that enabled them to be differentiated from phylogenetically related Acetobacter species, i.e. they were motile, did not produce 2-ketogluconic acid or 5-ketogluconic acid from glucose, were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, grew on yeast extract with 30 % glucose, grew on glycerol (although weakly) but not on maltose or methanol as carbon sources, and did not grow with ammonium as sole nitrogen source and ethanol as carbon source. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Acetobacter for which the name Acetobacter ghanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R-29337(T) (=430A(T)=LMG 23848(T)=DSM 18895(T)). PMID:17625210

  20. Fatty acids in bacterium Dietzia sp. grown on simple and complex hydrocarbons determined as FAME by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, Ina; Mjøs, Svein Are; Bødtker, Gunhild; Barth, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    The influence of growth substrates on the fatty acids produced by Dietzia sp. A14101 has been studied to investigate how qualitative and semi-quantitative information on fatty acids correlates with the ability of this strain to access and utilize a wide range of water-immiscible HC-substrates by modifying the FA content and thus also the properties of the cellular membrane. After incubation on different substrates and media, the profiles of fatty acids (FA) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The equivalent chain length (ECL) index calibration system was employed to identify FA. The effect of each substrate on the cell surface charge and on the hydrophobicity of the cellular membrane was also investigated. The results indicate that the variation of the content of saturated fatty acids (SAT-FA) versus mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was found to be the most pronounced while branched FA exhibited much less variation in spite of different substrate regimes. The regulation of the ratio of SAT-FA and MUFA seems to be coupled with the regulation of the charge and hydrophobicity of the outer cellular surface. The exposure to a water immiscible substrate led to the development of the negative cellular surface charge, production of carotenoid-type pigments and increased hydrophobicity of the cellular surface. The specific aspects of the adaptation mechanism could have implications for bioremediation and/or (M)EOR applications. PMID:26120076

  1. Utilization of CO2 fixating bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z for simultaneous biogas upgrading and biosuccinic acid production.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-10-21

    Biogas is an attractive renewable energy carrier. However, it contains CO2 which limits its use for certain applications. Here we report a novel approach for removing CO2 from biogas and capturing it as a biochemical through a biological process. This approach entails converting CO2 into biosuccinic acid using the bacterial strain Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z, and simultaneously producing high-purity CH4 (> 95%). Results showed that when pressure during fermentation was increased from 101.325 to 140 kPa, higher CO2 solubility was achieved, thereby positively affecting final succinic acid yield and titer, CO2 consumption rate, and CH4 purity. When using biogas as the only CO2 source at 140 kPa, the CO2 consumption rate corresponded to 2.59 L CO2 L(-1) d(-1) with a final succinic acid titer of 14.4 g L(-1). Under this pressure condition, the highest succinic acid yield and biogas quality reached corresponded to 0.635 g g(-1) and 95.4% (v v(-1)) CH4 content, respectively, after 24 h fermentation. This work represents the first successful attempt to develop a system capable of upgrading biogas to vehicle fuel/gas grid quality and simultaneously produce biosuccinic acid, a valuable building block with large market potential in the near term. PMID:25275929

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus sp. Strain SK-3, a 4-Chlorobiphenyl- and 4-Clorobenzoic Acid-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Vilo, Claudia; Benedik, Michael J.; Ilori, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, which can use 4-chlorobiphenyl and 4-clorobenzoic acid as the sole carbon source for growth. The draft genome sequence allowed the study of the polychlorinated biphenyl degradation mechanism and the recharacterization of the strain SK-3 as a Cupriavidus species. PMID:24994805

  3. INDUCTION AND REPRESSION OF l-ARABINOSE ISOMERASE IN PEDIOCOCCUS PENTOSACEUS1

    PubMed Central

    Dobrogosz, Walter J.; DeMoss, Ralph D.

    1963-01-01

    Dobrogosz, Walter J. (University of Illinois, Urbana) and Ralph D. DeMoss. Induction and repression of l-arabinose isomerase in Pediococcus pentosaceus. J. Bacteriol. 85:1350–1355. 1963.—The inducible l-arabinose isomerase of Pediococcus pentosaceus can be rapidly and conveniently measured in whole-cell preparations by use of a standard colorimetric procedure originally developed for studies with cell-free enzyme preparations. The enzyme is measured by its ability to catalyze the isomerization of l-arabinose to l-ribulose. Whole cells suspended in a suitable buffer and pretreated with toluene were shown to exhibit this isomerase activity at a level comparable with that observed in cell-free enzyme preparations. Conditions for optimal induction of l-arabinose isomerase are described. In addition, it was determined that the formation of this enzyme is subject to repression by glucose, i.e., via catabolite repression. PMID:14047229

  4. Diversity of the lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiota in the switch from firm- to liquid-sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Calasso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap-/solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-/SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  5. Diversity of the Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiota in the Switch from Firm- to Liquid-Sourdough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Calasso, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap–/solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT–/SPME–GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Unclassified Iron-Oxidizing, Chemolithoautotrophic Burkholderiales Bacterium GJ-E10, Isolated from an Acidic River

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Fuyumi; Asano, Ryoki; Kobayashi, Yayoi; Shimura, Yoichiro; Okano, Kunihiro; Miyata, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderiales bacterium GJ-E10, isolated from the Tamagawa River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, is an unclassified, iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacterium. Its single circular genome, consisting of 3,276,549 bp, was sequenced by using three types of next-generation sequencers and the sequences were then confirmed by PCR-based Sanger sequencing. PMID:25657271

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid plays a beneficial role in membrane organization and cell division of a cold-adapted bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Jun; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Nagayasu, Makiko; Tani, Yasushi; Mihara, Hisaaki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Baba, Takeshi; Sato, Satoshi B; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, a psychrotrophic gram-negative bacterium isolated from Antarctic seawater, produces eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a component of phospholipids at low temperatures. EPA constitutes about 5% of the total fatty acids of cells grown at 4 degrees C. We found that five genes, termed orf2, orf5, orf6, orf7, and orf8, are specifically required for the synthesis of EPA by targeted disruption of the respective genes. The mutants lacking EPA showed significant growth retardation at 4 degrees C but not at 18 degrees C. Supplementation of a synthetic phosphatidylethanolamine that contained EPA at the sn-2 position complemented the growth defect. The EPA-less mutant became filamentous, and multiple nucleoids were observed in a single cell at 4 degrees C, indicating that the mutant has a defect in cell division. Electron microscopy of the cells by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution revealed abnormal intracellular membranes in the EPA-less mutant at 4 degrees C. We also found that the amounts of several membrane proteins were affected by the depletion of EPA. While polyunsaturated fatty acids are often considered to increase the fluidity of the hydrophobic membrane core, diffusion of a small hydrophobic molecule, pyrene, in the cell membranes and large unilamellar vesicles prepared from the lipid extracts was very similar between the EPA-less mutant and the parental strain. These results suggest that EPA in S. livingstonensis Ac10 is not required for bulk bilayer fluidity but plays a beneficial role in membrane organization and cell division at low temperatures, possibly through specific interaction between EPA and proteins involved in these cellular processes. PMID:19011019

  8. The Antisense RNA Approach: a New Application for In Vivo Investigation of the Stress Response of Oenococcus oeni, a Wine-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Darsonval, Maud; Msadek, Tarek; Alexandre, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is a wine-associated lactic acid bacterium mostly responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine. In wine, O. oeni grows in an environment hostile to bacterial growth (low pH, low temperature, and ethanol) that induces stress response mechanisms. To survive, O. oeni is known to set up transitional stress response mechanisms through the synthesis of heat stress proteins (HSPs) encoded by the hsp genes, notably a unique small HSP named Lo18. Despite the availability of the genome sequence, characterization of O. oeni genes is limited, and little is known about the in vivo role of Lo18. Due to the lack of genetic tools for O. oeni, an efficient expression vector in O. oeni is still lacking, and deletion or inactivation of the hsp18 gene is not presently practicable. As an alternative approach, with the goal of understanding the biological function of the O. oeni hsp18 gene in vivo, we have developed an expression vector to produce antisense RNA targeting of hsp18 mRNA. Recombinant strains were exposed to multiple stresses inducing hsp18 gene expression: heat shock and acid shock. We showed that antisense attenuation of hsp18 affects O. oeni survival under stress conditions. These results confirm the involvement of Lo18 in heat and acid tolerance of O. oeni. Results of anisotropy experiments also confirm a membrane-protective role for Lo18, as previous observations had already suggested. This study describes a new, efficient tool to demonstrate the use of antisense technology for modulating gene expression in O. oeni. PMID:26452552

  9. Septic Shock Secondary to a Urinary Tract Infection with Pediococcus Pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Han, Amneet; Mehta, Jeet; Pauly, Rebecca R

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a urinary tract infection secondary to Pediococcus pentosaceus causing septic shock and acute kidney injury in a 70-year-old male. We demonstrate successful treatment with a 10-day course of piperacillin/tazobactam. Recently, Pediococci have been found to be the cause of opportunistic infections in humans. This has posed a challenge to treating infections caused by this species because it has been found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics, including glycopeptides. PMID:27443041

  10. Aminiphilus circumscriptus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic amino-acid-degrading bacterium from an upflow anaerobic sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Díaz, C; Baena, S; Fardeau, M-L; Patel, B K C

    2007-08-01

    Strain ILE-2(T) was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor treating brewery wastewater. The motile, non-sporulating, slightly curved cells (2-4 x 0.1 microm) stained Gram-negative and grew optimally at 42 degrees C and pH 7.1 with 0.5 % NaCl. The strain required yeast extract for growth and fermented Casamino acids, peptone, isoleucine, arginine, lysine, alanine, valine, glutamate, histidine, glutamine, methionine, malate, fumarate, glycerol and pyruvate to acetate, propionate and minor amounts of branched-chain fatty acids. Carbohydrates, formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, butanol, lactate, succinate, starch, casein, gelatin, xylan and a number of other amino acids were not utilized. The DNA G+C content of strain ILE-2(T) was 52.7 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that ILE-2(T) was distantly related to members of the genera Aminobacterium (83 % similarity) and Aminomonas (85 % similarity) in the family Syntrophomonadaceae, order Clostridiales, phylum Firmicutes. On the basis of the results of our polyphasic analysis, strain ILE-2(T) represents a novel species and genus within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, for which the name Aminiphilus circumscriptus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aminiphilus circumscriptus is ILE-2(T) (=DSM 16581(T) =JCM 14039(T)). PMID:17684281

  11. Structural and functional conversion of molecular chaperone ClpB from the gram-positive halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus mediated by ATP and stress.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Tsuruno, Keigo; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we report the purification, initial structural characterization, and functional analysis of the molecular chaperone ClpB from the gram-positive, halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus. A recombinant T. halophilus ClpB (ClpB(Tha)) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. As demonstrated by gel filtration chromatography, chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, and electron microscopy, ClpB(Tha) forms a homohexameric single-ring structure in the presence of ATP under nonstress conditions. However, under stress conditions, such as high-temperature (>45 degrees C) and high-salt concentrations (>1 M KCl), it dissociated into dimers and monomers, regardless of the presence of ATP. The hexameric ClpB(Tha) reactivated heat-aggregated proteins dependent upon the DnaK system from T. halophilus (KJE(Tha)) and ATP. Interestingly, the mixture of dimer and monomer ClpB(Tha), which was formed under stress conditions, protected substrate proteins from thermal inactivation and aggregation in a manner similar to those of general molecular chaperones. From these results, we hypothesize that ClpB(Tha) forms dimers and monomers to function as a holding chaperone under stress conditions, whereas it forms a hexamer ring to function as a disaggregating chaperone in cooperation with KJE(Tha) and ATP under poststress conditions. PMID:16997952

  12. Structural and Functional Conversion of Molecular Chaperone ClpB from the Gram-Positive Halophilic Lactic Acid Bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Mediated by ATP and Stress▿

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Tsuruno, Keigo; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we report the purification, initial structural characterization, and functional analysis of the molecular chaperone ClpB from the gram-positive, halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus. A recombinant T. halophilus ClpB (ClpBTha) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. As demonstrated by gel filtration chromatography, chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, and electron microscopy, ClpBTha forms a homohexameric single-ring structure in the presence of ATP under nonstress conditions. However, under stress conditions, such as high-temperature (>45°C) and high-salt concentrations (>1 M KCl), it dissociated into dimers and monomers, regardless of the presence of ATP. The hexameric ClpBTha reactivated heat-aggregated proteins dependent upon the DnaK system from T. halophilus (KJETha) and ATP. Interestingly, the mixture of dimer and monomer ClpBTha, which was formed under stress conditions, protected substrate proteins from thermal inactivation and aggregation in a manner similar to those of general molecular chaperones. From these results, we hypothesize that ClpBTha forms dimers and monomers to function as a holding chaperone under stress conditions, whereas it forms a hexamer ring to function as a disaggregating chaperone in cooperation with KJETha and ATP under poststress conditions. PMID:16997952

  13. In vivo and in vitro complementation study comparing the function of DnaK chaperone systems from halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Saruwatari, Kozue; Higashi, Chihana; Tsuruno, Keigo; Matsumoto, Shunsuke; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we characterized the DnaK chaperone system from Tetragenococcus halophilus, a halophilic lactic acid bacterium. An in vivo complementation test showed that under heat stress conditions, T. halophilus DnaK did not rescue the growth of the Escherichia coli dnaK deletion mutant, whereas T. halophilus DnaJ and GrpE complemented the corresponding mutations of E. coli. Purified T. halophilus DnaK showed intrinsic weak ATPase activity and holding chaperone activity in vitro, but T. halophilus DnaK did not cooperate with the purified DnaJ and GrpE from either T. halophilus or E. coli in ATP hydrolysis or luciferase-refolding reactions under the conditions tested. E. coli DnaK, however, cross-reacted with those from both bacteria. This difference in the cooperation with DnaJ and GrpE appears to result in an inability of T. halophilus DnaK to replace the in vivo function of the DnaK chaperone of E. coli. PMID:18323638

  14. WaaA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is a monofunctional 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Uwe; Schmidt, Helgo; Munoz, Eva; Lindner, Buko; Fukase, Koichi; Hanuszkiewicz, Anna; Wu, Jing; Meredith, Timothy C; Woodard, Ronald W; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Mesters, Jeroen R; Holst, Otto

    2009-08-14

    The hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus belongs to the deepest branch in the bacterial genealogy. Although it has long been recognized that this unique Gram-negative bacterium carries genes for different steps of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) formation, data on the LPS itself or detailed knowledge of the LPS pathway beyond the first committed steps of lipid A and 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) synthesis are still lacking. We now report the functional characterization of the thermostable Kdo transferase WaaA from A. aeolicus and provide evidence that the enzyme is monofunctional. Compositional analysis and mass spectrometry of purified A. aeolicus LPS, showing the incorporation of a single Kdo residue as an integral component of the LPS, implicated a monofunctional Kdo transferase in LPS biosynthesis of A. aeolicus. Further, heterologous expression of the A. aeolicus waaA gene in a newly constructed Escherichia coli DeltawaaA suppressor strain resulted in synthesis of lipid IVA precursors substituted with one Kdo sugar. When highly purified WaaA of A. aeolicus was subjected to in vitro assays using mass spectrometry for detection of the reaction products, the enzyme was found to catalyze the transfer of only a single Kdo residue from CMP-Kdo to differently modified lipid A acceptors. The Kdo transferase was capable of utilizing a broad spectrum of acceptor substrates, whereas surface plasmon resonance studies indicated a high selectivity for the donor substrate. PMID:19546212

  15. Plasmid load adversely affects growth and gluconic acid secretion ability of mineral phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 under P limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2011-01-20

    Effect of the metabolic load caused by the presence of plasmids on mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) Enterobacter asburiae PSI3, was monitored with four plasmid cloning vectors and one native plasmid, varying in size, nature of the replicon, copy number and antibiotic resistance genes. Except for one plasmid, the presence of all other plasmids in E. asburiae PSI3 resulted in the loss of the MPS phenotype as reflected by the failure to bring about a drop in pH and release soluble P when grown in media containing rock phosphate (RP) as the sole P source. When 100 μM soluble P was supplemented along with RP, the adverse effects of plasmids on MPS phenotype and on growth parameters was reduced for some plasmid bearing derivatives, as monitored in terms of specific growth rates, glucose consumed, gluconic acids yields and P released. When 10 mM of soluble P as the only P source, was added to the medium all transformants showed growth and pH drop comparable with native strain. It may be concluded that different plasmids impose, to varying extents, a metabolic load in the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium E. asburiae PSI3 and results in diminishing its growth and P-solubilizing ability in P deficient conditions. PMID:20171856

  16. High Genetic Diversity among Strains of the Unindustrialized Lactic Acid Bacterium Carnobacterium maltaromaticum in Dairy Products as Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Abdur; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Bontemps, Cyril; Payot, Sophie; Chaillou, Stéphane; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are colonized with three main classes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB): opportunistic bacteria, traditional starters, and industrial starters. Most of the population structure studies were previously performed with LAB species belonging to these three classes and give interesting knowledge about the population structure of LAB at the stage where they are already industrialized. However, these studies give little information about the population structure of LAB prior their use as an industrial starter. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a LAB colonizing diverse environments, including dairy products. Since this bacterium was discovered relatively recently, it is not yet commercialized as an industrial starter, which makes C. maltaromaticum an interesting model for the study of unindustrialized LAB population structure in dairy products. A multilocus sequence typing scheme based on an analysis of fragments of the genes dapE, ddlA, glpQ, ilvE, pyc, pyrE, and leuS was applied to a collection of 47 strains, including 28 strains isolated from dairy products. The scheme allowed detecting 36 sequence types with a discriminatory index of 0.98. The whole population was clustered in four deeply branched lineages, in which the dairy strains were spread. Moreover, the dairy strains could exhibit a high diversity within these lineages, leading to an overall dairy population with a diversity level as high as that of the nondairy population. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis according to which the industrialization of LAB leads to a diversity reduction in dairy products. PMID:24747901

  17. WaaA of the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Aquifex aeolicus Is a Monofunctional 3-Deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic Acid Transferase Involved in Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Mamat, Uwe; Schmidt, Helgo; Munoz, Eva; Lindner, Buko; Fukase, Koichi; Hanuszkiewicz, Anna; Wu, Jing; Meredith, Timothy C.; Woodard, Ronald W.; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Mesters, Jeroen R.; Holst, Otto

    2009-01-01

    The hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus belongs to the deepest branch in the bacterial genealogy. Although it has long been recognized that this unique Gram-negative bacterium carries genes for different steps of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) formation, data on the LPS itself or detailed knowledge of the LPS pathway beyond the first committed steps of lipid A and 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) synthesis are still lacking. We now report the functional characterization of the thermostable Kdo transferase WaaA from A. aeolicus and provide evidence that the enzyme is monofunctional. Compositional analysis and mass spectrometry of purified A. aeolicus LPS, showing the incorporation of a single Kdo residue as an integral component of the LPS, implicated a monofunctional Kdo transferase in LPS biosynthesis of A. aeolicus. Further, heterologous expression of the A. aeolicus waaA gene in a newly constructed Escherichia coli ΔwaaA suppressor strain resulted in synthesis of lipid IVA precursors substituted with one Kdo sugar. When highly purified WaaA of A. aeolicus was subjected to in vitro assays using mass spectrometry for detection of the reaction products, the enzyme was found to catalyze the transfer of only a single Kdo residue from CMP-Kdo to differently modified lipid A acceptors. The Kdo transferase was capable of utilizing a broad spectrum of acceptor substrates, whereas surface plasmon resonance studies indicated a high selectivity for the donor substrate. PMID:19546212

  18. The cold shock response of the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas fragi involves four low-molecular-mass nucleic acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, V; Lehoux, I; Depret, G; Anglade, P; Labadie, J; Hebraud, M

    1997-01-01

    The psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas fragi was subjected to cold shocks from 30 or 20 to 5 degrees C. The downshifts were followed by a lag phase before growth resumed at a characteristic 5 degrees C growth rate. The analysis of protein patterns by two-dimentional gel electrophoresis revealed overexpression of 25 or 17 proteins and underexpression of 12 proteins following the 30- or 20-to-5 degrees C shift, respectively. The two downshifts shared similar variations of synthesis of 20 proteins. The kinetic analysis distinguished the induced proteins into cold shock proteins (Csps), which were rapidly but transiently overexpressed, and cold acclimation proteins (Caps), which were more or less rapidly induced but still overexpressed several hours after the downshifts. Among the cold-induced proteins, four low-molecular-mass proteins, two of them previously characterized as Caps (CapA and CapB), and heat acclimation proteins (Haps) as well as heat shock proteins (Hsps) for the two others (TapA and TapB) displayed higher levels of induction. Partial amino acid sequences, obtained by microsequencing, were used to design primers to amplify by PCR the four genes and then determine their nucleotide sequences. A BamHI-EcoRI restriction fragment of 1.9 kb, containing the complete coding sequence for capB, was cloned and sequenced. The four peptides belong to the family of small nucleic acid-binding proteins as CspA, the major Escherichia coli Csp. They are likely to play a major role in the adaptative response of P. fragi to environmental temperature changes. PMID:9393697

  19. Influence of nitrogen substrates and substrate C:N ratios on the nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, K.; Ohkouchi, N.; Chikaraishi, Y.; Fukuda, H.; Miyajima, T.; Nagata, T.

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) isotopic compositions of individual hydrolysable amino acids (δ15NAAs) in N pools have been increasingly used for trophic position assessment and evaluation of sources and transformation processes of organic matter in marine environments. However, there are limited data about variability in δ15NAAs patterns and how this variability influences marine bacteria, an important mediator of trophic transfer and organic matter transformation. We explored whether marine bacterial δ15NAAs profiles change depending on the type and C:N ratio of the substrate. The δ15NAAs profile of a marine bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, was examined using medium containing either glutamate, alanine or ammonium as the N source [substrate C:N ratios (range, 3 to 20) were adjusted with glucose]. The data were interpreted as a reflection of isotope fractionations associated with de novo synthesis of amino acids by bacteria. Principal component analysis (PCA) using the δ15N offset values normalized to glutamate + glutamine δ15N revealed that δ15NAAs profiles differed depending on the N source and C:N ratio of the substrate. High variability in the δ15N offset of alanine and valine largely explained this bacterial δ15NAAs profile variability. PCA was also conducted using bacterial and phytoplankton (cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae) δ15NAAs profile data reported previously. The results revealed that bacterial δ15NAAs patterns were distinct from those of phytoplankton. Therefore, the δ15NAAs profile is a useful indicator of biochemical responses of bacteria to changes in substrate conditions, serving as a potentially useful method for identifying organic matter sources in marine environments.

  20. Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov., a novel marine lactic acid bacterium isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment of the Nankai Trough.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Zink, Klaus; Kato, Chiaki; Pignet, Patricia; Bidault, Adeline; Bienvenu, Nadège; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Prieur, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A piezotolerant, mesophilic, marine lactic acid bacterium (strain LT20T) was isolated from a deep sub-seafloor sediment core collected at Nankai Trough, off the coast of Japan. Cells were Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-sporulating and non-motile. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-120 g l(-1), with the optimum at 10-20 g l(-1). The temperature range for growth at pH 7.0 was 4-50 degrees C, with the optimum at 37-40 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-8.0. The optimum pressure for growth was 0.1 MPa with tolerance up to 30 MPa. The main cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerols (25 %), diphosphatidylglycerols (34 %) and a group of compounds tentatively identified as ammonium-containing phosphatidylserines (32 %); phosphatidylethanolamines (9 %) were minor components. The fatty acid composition was dominated by side chains of 16 : 0, 14 : 0 and 16 : 1. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the secondary structure of the V6 region, this organism was found to belong to the genus Marinilactibacillus and was closely related to Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans M13-2(T) (99 %), Marinilactibacillus sp. strain MJYP.25.24 (99 %) and Alkalibacterium olivapovliticus strain ww2-SN4C (97 %). Despite the high similarity between their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99 %), the DNA-DNA hybridization levels were less than 20 %. On the basis of physiological and genetic characteristics, it is proposed that this organism be classified as a novel species, Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is LT20T (=DSM 16108T=JCM 12337T). PMID:15653899

  1. ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

  2. Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mesophilic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid-degrading bacterium in the phylum Synergistetes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yan-Ling; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Guo, Rong-Bo; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid- degrading bacterium, designated strain 7WAY-8-7(T), was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from isomerized sugar production processes. Cells of strain 7WAY-8-7(T) were motile, curved rods (0.7-1.0×5.0-8.0 µm). Spore formation was not observed. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (range for growth was 25-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 6.0-7.5), and could grow fermentatively on yeast extract, glucose, ribose, xylose, malate, tryptone, pyruvate, fumarate, Casamino acids, serine and cysteine. The main end-products of glucose fermentation were acetate and hydrogen. In co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864(T), strain 7WAY-8-7(T) could utilize lactate, glycerol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, L-glutamate, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, lysine, threonine, 2-oxoglutarate, aspartate and methionine. A Stickland reaction was not observed with some pairs of amino acids. Yeast extract was required for growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite and Fe (III) were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.4 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to the uncultured environmental clone clade (called 'PD-UASB-13' in the Greengenes database) in the bacterial phylum Synergistetes, showing less than 90% sequence similarity with closely related described species such as Aminivibrio pyruvatiphilus and Aminobacterium colombiense (89.7% and 88.7%, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(13 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(18 : 1), C(19 : 1), C(20 : 1) and C(21 : 1). A novel genus and species, Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strain 7WAY-8-7(T) ( = JCM 17151(T

  3. Use of Green Fluorescent Protein To Tag Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains under Development as Live Vaccine Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Guyard, Cyril; Quatannens, Brigitte; Pavan, Sonia; Lange, Marc; Mercenier, Annick

    2000-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are safe microorganisms which are mainly used for the preparation of fermented foods and for probiotic applications. The potential of LAB as live vehicles for the production and delivery of therapeutic molecules such as antigens is also being actively investigated today. However, very little is known about the fate of live LAB when administered in vivo and about the interaction of these microorganisms with the nasal or gastrointestinal ecosystem. For future applications, it is essential to be able to discriminate the biotherapeutic strain from the endogenous microflora and to unravel the mechanisms underlying the postulated health-beneficial effect. We therefore started to investigate both aspects in a mouse model with two LAB species presently under development as live vaccine vectors, i.e., Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. We have constructed different expression vectors carrying the gfp (green fluorescent protein [GFP]) gene from the jellyfish Aequoria victoria, and we found that this visible marker was best expressed when placed under the control of the inducible strong nisA promoter from L. lactis. Notably, a threshold amount of GFP was necessary to obtain a bright fluorescent phenotype. We further demonstrated that fluorescent L. plantarum NCIMB8826 can be enumerated and sorted by flow cytometry. Moreover, tagging of this strain with GFP allowed us to visualize its phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro and ex vivo and to trace it in the gastrointestinal tract of mice upon oral administration. PMID:10618252

  4. Sodium-dependent transport of neutral amino acids by whole cells and membrane vesicles of Streptococcus bovis, a ruminal bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B; Strobel, H J; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1988-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1 cells were able to transport serine, threonine, or alanine, but only when they were incubated in sodium buffers. If glucose-energized cells were washed in potassium phosphate and suspended in potassium phosphate buffer, there was no detectable uptake. Cells deenergized with 2-deoxyglucose and incubated in sodium phosphate buffer were still able to transport serine, and this result indicated that the chemical sodium gradient was capable of driving transport. However, when the deenergized cells were treated with valinomycin and diluted into sodium phosphate to create both an artificial membrane potential and a chemical sodium gradient, rates of serine uptake were fivefold greater than in cells having only a sodium gradient. If deenergized cells were preloaded with sodium (no membrane potential or sodium gradient), there was little serine transport. Nigericin and monensin, ionophores capable of reversing sodium gradients across membranes, strongly inhibited sodium-dependent uptake of the three amino acids. Membrane vesicles loaded with potassium and diluted into either lithium or choline chloride were unable to transport serine, but rapid uptake was evident if sodium chloride was added to the assay mixture. Serine transport had an extremely poor affinity for sodium, and more than 30 mM was needed for half-maximal rates of uptake. Serine transport was inhibited by an excess of threonine, but an excess of alanine had little effect. Results indicated that S. bovis had separate sodium symport systems for serine or threonine and alanine, and either the membrane potential or chemical sodium gradient could drive uptake. PMID:3136141

  5. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    overexpressed genes involved in amino acid transport and metabolism as well as DNA replication. Conclusions The genome of S. thermophilus LMD-9 is shaped by its domestication in the dairy environment, with gene features that conferred rapid growth in milk, stress response mechanisms and host defense systems that are relevant to its industrial applications. The presence of a unique exopolysaccharide gene cluster and cell surface protein orthologs commonly associated with probiotic functionality revealed potential probiotic applications of LMD-9. PMID:21995282

  6. Sequencing and Characterization of the xyl Operon of a Gram-Positive Bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Yasuo; Takase, Kazuma; Yamato, Ichiro; Abe, Keietsu

    1998-01-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive bacterium. The xyl operon consisted of three genes, xylA, encoding a xylose isomerase, xylB, encoding a xylulose kinase, and xylE, encoding a xylose transporter, with predicted molecular weights of 49,400, 56,400, and 51,600, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the XylR, XylA, XylB, and XylE proteins were similar to those of the corresponding proteins in other gram-positive and -negative bacteria, the similarities being 37 to 64%. Each polypeptide of XylB and XylE was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. XylE transported d-xylose in a sodium ion-dependent manner, suggesting that it is the first described xylose/Na+ symporter. The XylR protein contained a consensus sequence for binding catabolites of glucose, such as glucose-6-phosphate, which has been discovered in glucose and fructose kinases in bacteria. Correspondingly, the regulatory region of this operon contained a putative binding site of XylR with a palindromic structure. Furthermore, it contained a consensus sequence, CRE (catabolite-responsive element), for binding CcpA (catabolite control protein A). We speculate that the transcriptional regulation of this operon resembles the regulation of catabolite-repressible operons such as the amy, lev, xyl, and gnt operons in various gram-positive bacteria. We discuss the significance of the regulation of gene expression of this operon in T. halophila. PMID:9647823

  7. Sequencing and characterization of the xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Takase, K; Yamato, I; Abe, K

    1998-07-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive bacterium. The xyl operon consisted of three genes, xylA, encoding a xylose isomerase, xylB, encoding a xylulose kinase, and xylE, encoding a xylose transporter, with predicted molecular weights of 49,400, 56,400, and 51,600, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the XylR, XylA, XylB, and XylE proteins were similar to those of the corresponding proteins in other gram-positive and -negative bacteria, the similarities being 37 to 64%. Each polypeptide of XylB and XylE was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. XylE transported D-xylose in a sodium ion-dependent manner, suggesting that it is the first described xylose/Na+ symporter. The XylR protein contained a consensus sequence for binding catabolites of glucose, such as glucose-6-phosphate, which has been discovered in glucose and fructose kinases in bacteria. Correspondingly, the regulatory region of this operon contained a putative binding site of XylR with a palindromic structure. Furthermore, it contained a consensus sequence, CRE (catabolite-responsive element), for binding CcpA (catabolite control protein A). We speculate that the transcriptional regulation of this operon resembles the regulation of catabolite-repressible operons such as the amy, lev, xyl, and gnt operons in various gram-positive bacteria. We discuss the significance of the regulation of gene expression of this operon in T. halophila. PMID:9647823

  8. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sauce-type Kimchi.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suk Hee; Park, Joung Whan; Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Hye Kyung; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from naturally fermented sauce-type kimchi. Sauce-type kimchi was prepared with fresh, chopped ingredients (Korean cabbage, radish, garlic, ginger, green onion, and red pepper). The two isolated bacteria from sauce-type kimchi were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rDNA sequencing and tentatively named Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2, respectively. Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 was isolated from the early and middle fermentation stages of sauce-type kimchi whereas Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 was isolated from the late fermentation stage. The resistance of Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 to artificial gastric and bile acids led to bacterial survival rates that were 100% and 84.21%, respectively. PMID:24471087

  9. Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

    2013-12-27

    The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis. PMID:23978352

  10. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)-degrading gene cluster in the soybean root-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA94.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shohei; Sano, Tomoki; Suyama, Kousuke; Itoh, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)-degrading Bradyrhizobium strains possess tfdAα and/or cadABC as degrading genes. It has been reported that root-nodulating bacteria belonging to Bradyrhizobium elkanii also have tfdAα and cadA like genes but lack the ability to degrade these herbicides and that the cadA genes in 2,4-D-degrading and non-degrading Bradyrhizobium are phylogenetically different. In this study, we identified cadRABCK in the genome of a type strain of soybean root-nodulating B. elkanii USDA94 and demonstrated that the strain could degrade the herbicides when cadABCK was forcibly expressed. cadABCK-cloned Escherichia coli also showed the degrading ability. Because co-spiked phenoxyacetic acid (PAA) could induce the degradation of 2,4-D in B. elkanii USDA94, the lack of degrading ability in this strain was supposed to be due to the low inducing potential of the herbicides for the degrading gene cluster. On the other hand, tfdAα from B. elkanii USDA94 showed little potential to degrade the herbicides, but it did for 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and PAA. The 2,4-D-degrading ability of the cad cluster and the inducing ability of PAA were confirmed by preparing cadA deletion mutant. This is the first study to demonstrate that the cad cluster in the typical root-nodulating bacterium indeed have the potential to degrade the herbicides, suggesting that degrading genes for anthropogenic compounds could be found in ordinary non-degrading bacteria. PMID:27296963

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Pediococcus Strains Isolated from Human Clinical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Rosana R.; Carvalho, Maria Da Glória S.; Peralta, José Mauro; Facklam, Richard R.; Teixeira, Lúcia M.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-two strains of pediococci isolated from human clinical sources were characterized by conventional physiological tests, chromogenic enzymatic tests, analysis of whole-cell protein profiles (WCPP) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of chromosomal DNA restriction profiles by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Conventional tests allowed identification of 67 isolates: 52 strains were identified as Pediococcus acidilactici, 15 strains were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, and 5 strains were not identified because of atypical reactions. Analysis of WCPP identified all isolates since each species had a unique WCPP. By the WCPP method, the atypical strains were identified as P. acidilactici (two strains) and P. pentosaceus (three strains). The chromogenic substrate test with o-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside differentiated all 54 strains of P. acidilactici (negative reactions) and 13 (72%) of 18 strains of P. pentosaceus (positive reactions). Isolates of both species were shown to be nonclonal as revealed by the genetic diversity when chromosomal DNA was analyzed by PFGE. Using WCPP as the definitive identification procedure, P. acidilactici (28 of 54 strains; 51.8%) was more likely than P. pentosaceus (4 of 18 strains; 22.3%) to be isolated from blood cultures. PMID:11283035

  12. Expression, purification, and characterization of a bifunctional 99-kDa peptidoglycan hydrolase from Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042.

    PubMed

    García-Cano, Israel; Campos-Gómez, Manuel; Contreras-Cruz, Mariana; Serrano-Maldonado, Carlos Eduardo; González-Canto, Augusto; Peña-Montes, Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Sánchez, Sergio; Farrés, Amelia

    2015-10-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042 is a lactic acid bacteria that inhibits pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus through the production of two proteins with lytic activity, one of 110 kDa and the other of 99 kDa. The 99-kDa one has high homology to a putative peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) enzyme reported in the genome of P. acidilactici 7_4, where two different lytic domains have been identified but not characterized. The aim of this work was the biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme of 99 kDa. The enzyme was cloned and expressed successfully and retains its activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. It has a higher N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, but the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase can also be detected spectrophotometrically. The protein was then purified using gel filtration chromatography. Antibacterial activity showed an optimal pH of 6.0 and was stable between 5.0 and 7.0. The optimal temperature for activity was 60 °C, and all activity was lost after 1 h of incubation at 70 °C. The number of strains susceptible to the recombinant 99-kDa enzyme was lower than that susceptible to the mixture of the 110- and 99-kDa PGHs of P. acidilactici, a result that suggests synergy between these two enzymes. This is the first PGH from LAB that has been shown to possess two lytic sites. The results of this study will aid in the design of new antibacterial agents from natural origin that can combat foodborne disease and improve hygienic practices in the industrial sector. PMID:25940238

  13. Characterization of Pediococcus acidilactici strains isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feed and larvae: safety, DNA fingerprinting, and bacteriocinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-05-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics constitutes an alternative or complementary strategy to chemotherapy and vaccination for disease control in aquaculture. The objectives of this work were (1) the in vitro safety assessment of 8 Pediococcus acidilactici strains isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) feed and larvae; (2) the evaluation of their genetic relatedness; (3) the study of their antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against fish pathogens; and (4) the biochemical and genetic characterization of the bacteriocin produced by the strain displaying the greatest antimicrobial activity. Concerning the safety assessment, none of the pediococci showed antibiotic resistance nor produced hemolysin or gelatinase, degraded gastric mucin, or deconjugated bile salts. Four strains (50%) produced tyramine or putrescine, but the corresponding genes were not amplified by PCR. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) fingerprinting allowed clustering of the pediococci into 2 well-defined groups (68% similarity). From the 8 pediococci displaying direct antimicrobial activity against at least 3 out of 9 fish pathogens, 6 strains (75%) were identified as bacteriocin producers. The bacteriocin produced by P. acidilactici L-14 was purified, and mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing revealed its identity to pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1). Altogether, our results allowed the identification of 4 (50%) putatively safe pediococci, including 2 bacteriocinogenic strains. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting was a valuable tool for genetic profiling of P. acidilactici strains. This work reports for the first time the characterization of a PedPA-1-producing P. acidilactici strain isolated from an aquatic environment (rainbow trout larvae), which shows interesting properties related to its potential use as a probiotic in aquaculture. PMID:27137071

  14. Characterization of Two Distinct Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 78 α-l-Rhamnosidases from Pediococcus acidilactici▿†

    PubMed Central

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Brandes, Walter; Eder, Reinhard; Schümann, Christina; del Hierro, Andrés M.; Kulbe, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    α-l-Rhamnosidases play an important role in the hydrolysis of glycosylated aroma compounds (especially terpenes) from wine. Although several authors have demonstrated the enological importance of fungal rhamnosidases, the information on bacterial enzymes in this context is still limited. In order to fill this important gap, two putative rhamnosidase genes (ram and ram2) from Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284 were heterologously expressed, and the respective gene products were characterized. In combination with a bacterial β-glucosidase, both enzymes released the monoterpenes linalool and cis-linalool oxide from a muscat wine extract under ideal conditions. Additionally, Ram could release significant amounts of geraniol and citronellol/nerol. Nevertheless, the potential enological value of these enzymes is limited by the strong negative effects of acidity and ethanol on the activities of Ram and Ram2. Therefore, a direct application in winemaking seems unlikely. Although both enzymes are members of the same glycosyl hydrolase family (GH 78), our results clearly suggest the distinct functionalities of Ram and Ram2, probably representing two subclasses within GH 78: Ram could efficiently hydrolyze only the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (Vmax = 243 U mg−1). In contrast, Ram2 displayed considerable specificity toward hesperidin (Vmax = 34 U mg−1) and, especially, rutinose (Vmax = 1,200 U mg−1), a disaccharide composed of glucose and rhamnose. Both enzymes were unable to hydrolyze the flavanone glycoside naringin. Interestingly, both enzymes displayed indications of positive substrate cooperativity. This study presents detailed kinetic data on two novel rhamnosidases, which could be relevant for the further study of bacterial glycosidases. PMID:21784921

  15. Isolation of Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10 with ability to secrete bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance from milk products for applications in food industry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be isolated from traditional milk products. LAB that secrete substances that inhibit pathogenic bacteria and are resistant to acid, bile, and pepsin but not vancomycin may have potential in food applications. Results LAB isolated from a range of traditional fermented products were screened for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. A total of 222 LAB strains were isolated from fermented milk products in the form of fresh curds, dried curds, and ghara (a traditional flavor enhancer prepared from whey), and fermented cocoa bean. Eleven LAB isolates that produced antimicrobial substances were identified as Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici strains by biochemical methods and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Of these, the cell-free supernatant of Kp10 (P. acidilactici) most strongly inhibited Listeria monocytogenes. Further analysis identified the antimicrobial substance produced by Kp10 as proteinaceous in nature and active over a wide pH range. Kp10 (P. acidilactici) was found to be catalase-negative, able to produce β-galactosidase, resistant to bile salts (0.3%) and acidic conditions (pH 3), and susceptible to most antibiotics. Conclusion Traditionally prepared fermented milk products are good sources of LAB with characteristics suitable for industrial applications. The isolate Kp10 (P. acidilactici) shows potential for the production of probiotic and functional foods. PMID:23153191

  16. Characterization of the properties of Pediococcus parvulus for probiotic or protective culture use.

    PubMed

    Immerstrand, Tina; Paul, Catherine J; Rosenquist, Anna; Deraz, Sahar; Mårtensson, Olof Böök; Ljungh, Asa; Blücher, Anna; Oste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg

    2010-05-01

    Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 (previously Pediococcus damnosus 2.6, here confirmed as P. parvulus by 16S DNA sequencing) displayed antibacterial activity toward several bacterial species, including isolates found as contaminants in oats, herein genetically identified as Bacillus cereus. No inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes was found under the conditions used. Antibacterial activity was retrieved after ammonium sulfate or acetone precipitation showed it to be peptide mediated. P. parvulus 2.6 has previously shown good technological properties in oat-based products. This, together with the currently found inhibition of food spoilage microorganisms like B. cereus, makes it suitable as a food protective culture. Survival trials of P. parvulus 2.6 at conditions mimicking the gastrointestinal tract were prompted by previously found cholesterol-lowering effects in humans after consumption of oat products cofermented by using P. parvulus 2.6 and Bifidobacterium spp. Viability was measured with in vitro, gutlike simulations at 37 degrees C. High survival was shown under two of three conditions (gastric juice, bile, and small intestine juice), defined as main obstacles of the gastrointestinal tract. The critical step was bile exposure. At a concentration of 20%, viability was low, but 0.3% bile (mean concentration in the intestine) did not have a major influence on growth. Viability of P. parvulus 2.6 was significantly decreased in gastric juice at pH 1.5 (with pepsin), but it was not significantly affected at pH 2.5, and was also improved at a lower pH in 20% oat milk. Viability was judged sufficient for colonization at gutlike conditions, qualifying the strain for further probiotic studies. PMID:20501049

  17. Putrescine production from different amino acid precursors by lactic acid bacteria from wine and cider.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Antonella; Pietroniro, Roberta; Doria, Francesca; Pessione, Enrica; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the production of biogenic amines and particularly putrescine in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) related to wine and cider. We applied an analytical protocol that involves the use of PCR and TLC techniques to determine the production of putrescine from different precursors. Moreover, we also studied the ability of the Lactobacillus and Pediococcus tested to produce histamine and tyramine. The results showed that the majority of the Lactobacillus brevis analyzed harbour both AgDI and tdc genes and are tyramine and putrescine producers. Conversely, among the other LAB tested, only one Lactobacillus hilgardii and one Pediococcus pentosaceus produced putrescine. The AgDI gene was also detected in two other LAB (Lactobacillus mali and Pediococcus parvulus), but no putrescine production was observed. Finally, hdc gene and histamine production were found in strains (L. hilgardii 5211, isolated from wine, and Lactobacillus casei 18, isolated from cider) that were not putrescine producers. PMID:23685467

  18. Functional Replacement of the Escherichia coli d-(−)-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene (ldhA) with the l-(+)-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene (ldhL) from Pediococcus acidilactici†

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

    2003-01-01

    The microbial production of l-(+)-lactic acid is rapidly expanding to allow increased production of polylactic acid (PLA), a renewable, biodegradable plastic. The physical properties of PLA can be tailored for specific applications by controlling the ratio of l-(+) and d-(−) isomers. For most uses of PLA, the l-(+) isomer is more abundant. As an approach to reduce costs associated with biocatalysis (complex nutrients, antibiotics, aeration, product purification, and waste disposal), a recombinant derivative of Escherichia coli W3110 was developed that contains five chromosomal deletions (focA-pflB frdBC adhE ackA ldhA). This strain was constructed from a d-(−)-lactic acid-producing strain, SZ63 (focA-pflB frdBC adhE ackA), by replacing part of the chromosomal ldhA coding region with Pediococcus acidilactici ldhL encoding an l-lactate dehydrogenase. Although the initial strain (SZ79) grew and fermented poorly, a mutant (SZ85) was readily isolated by selecting for improved growth. SZ85 exhibited a 30-fold increase in l-lactate dehydrogenase activity in comparison to SZ79, functionally replacing the native d-lactate dehydrogenase activity. Sequencing revealed mutations in the upstream, coding, and terminator regions of ldhL in SZ85, which are presumed to be responsible for increased l-lactate dehydrogenase activity. SZ85 produced l-lactic acid in M9 mineral salts medium containing glucose or xylose with a yield of 93 to 95%, a purity of 98% (based on total fermentation products), and an optical purity greater than 99%. Unlike other recombinant biocatalysts for l-lactic acid, SZ85 remained prototrophic and is devoid of plasmids and antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:12676706

  19. Molecular analysis of the replication region of the theta-replicating plasmid pUCL287 from Tetragenococcus (Pediococcus) halophilus ATCC33315.

    PubMed

    Benachour, A; Frère, J; Flahaut, S; Novel, G; Auffray, Y

    1997-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 8.7-kb theta-replicating plasmid pUCL287 from Tetragenococcus halophilus (formerly Pediococcus halophilus) ATCC33315 has been determined. The replication region was identified and analyzed. Its nucleotide sequence contains an untranslated region, the replication origin, followed by two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding two proteins of 311 (RepA287) and 168 (RepB287) amino acids, respectively. Evidence is presented to show that RepA287 represents the plasmid replication protein. RepB287, which is non-essential for replication, is involved in the plasmid copy-number control and segregational stability. The roles of lactococcal proteins homologous to RepB287 have not been defined so far. Nevertheless, the structural organization of the pUCL287 replication region is remarkably similar to those of well known theta-replicating lactococcal plasmids despite the absence of homology of the replication origin and of the replication protein, and this suggests that pUCL287 uses the same mechanism of replication. Nucleotide sequence comparisons show that pSMB74, a pediococcal plasmid encoding bacteriocin production, is a member of the pUCL287 replicon family. PMID:9294035

  20. Naturally occurring 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucan producing Lactobacillus suebicus and Pediococcus parvulus strains with potential utility in the production of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, Gaizka; Dueñas, María Teresa; Irastorza, Ana; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Werning, María Laura; López, Paloma; Corbí, Angel Luis; Fernández de Palencia, Pilar

    2010-12-01

    We have isolated three lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221, Pediococcus parvulus CUPV1 and P. parvulus CUPV22) that produced high levels of 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucans which increased the viscosity of the growth media. The (1,3)-beta-D-glucan consisted of two main molecular species, with masses of approximately 10(7) and 10(4) Da, whose proportions varied among the strains. The three strains survived exposure to saliva and simulated gastric conditions at pH 5, with P. parvulus CUPV22 surviving at pH 3.1, and L. suebicus CUPV221 surviving at pH 1.8. All strains were resistant to pancreatin and bile salts. P. parvulus CUPV22 exhibited the highest adhesion (10.5%) to Caco-2 cells, which decreased to 1.2% after washing the cells. Finally, P. parvulus CUPV22 and L. suebicus CUPV221 induced the production of inflammation-related cytokines by polarized macrophages, and interestingly, L. suebicus stimulated the production of cytokine IL-10. These results indicate that the three strains have potential utility for the production of functional foods. PMID:20691585

  1. Antilisterial activity of bacteriocinogenic Pediococcus acidilactici HA6111-2 and Lactobacillus plantarum ESB 202 grown under pH and osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Tekla; Albano, Helena; Kiskó, Gabriella; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Teixeira, Paula

    2015-06-01

    Bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures can be used as biopreservatives in fermented food products; thus the food industry is interested in stable cultures that produce bacteriocins consistently. Inhibtion of Listeria spp. by bacteriocinogenic Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum (both isolated from fermented meats) was investigated under conditions of stress induced by low pH and high salt concentrations. Listeria monocytogenes serogroup IIb (from cheese), L. monocytogenes serogroup IVb (from cheese), L. monocytogenes serogroup IIb (from ground beef) and Listeria innocua NCTC 11288 were used as target strains. P. acidilactici and Lb. plantarum demonstrated antilisterial activity under the stress conditions investigated (pH 3.5; pH 8.5; 7.5% NaCl). However, activity was dependent on the stress conditions applied and on the target organism. L. monocytogenes serogroup IIb (from ground beef) and L. innocua C 11288 were, respectively the most sensitive and the most resistant to the cell-free supernatants produced by the LAB investigated. PMID:25790998

  2. Safety Evaluation of Multiple Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Wistar Rats Based on the Ames Test and a 28-Day Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Sew-Fen; Huang, Quan-Rong; Chou, Lan-Chun; Huang, Chun-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Three lactic acid bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, HK006, and HK109, and Pediococcus pentosaceus PP31 exhibit probiotic potential as antiallergy agents, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the safety of these new strains requires evaluation when isolated from infant faeces or pickled cabbage. Multiple strains (HK006, HK109, and PP31) were subject to a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a short-term oral toxicity study. The powder product exhibited mutagenic potential in Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA1535 (with or without metabolic activation). In the short-term oral toxicity study, rats received a normal dosage of 390 mg/kg/d (approximately 9 × 109 CFU/kg/d) or a high dosage of 1950 mg/kg/d (approximately 4.5 × 1010 CFU/kg/d) for 28 d. No adverse effects were observed regarding the general condition, behaviour, growth, feed and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry indices, organ weights, or histopathologic analysis of the rats. These studies have demonstrated that the consumption of multiple bacterial strains is not associated with any signs of mutagenicity of S. Typhimurium or toxicity in Wistar rats, even after consuming large quantities of bacteria. PMID:25379552

  3. Safety evaluation of multiple strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Wistar rats based on the Ames test and a 28-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Leu, Sew-Fen; Huang, Quan-Rong; Chou, Lan-Chun; Huang, Chun-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Three lactic acid bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, HK006, and HK109, and Pediococcus pentosaceus PP31 exhibit probiotic potential as antiallergy agents, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the safety of these new strains requires evaluation when isolated from infant faeces or pickled cabbage. Multiple strains (HK006, HK109, and PP31) were subject to a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a short-term oral toxicity study. The powder product exhibited mutagenic potential in Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA1535 (with or without metabolic activation). In the short-term oral toxicity study, rats received a normal dosage of 390 mg/kg/d (approximately 9 × 10(9) CFU/kg/d) or a high dosage of 1950 mg/kg/d (approximately 4.5 × 10(10) CFU/kg/d) for 28 d. No adverse effects were observed regarding the general condition, behaviour, growth, feed and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry indices, organ weights, or histopathologic analysis of the rats. These studies have demonstrated that the consumption of multiple bacterial strains is not associated with any signs of mutagenicity of S. Typhimurium or toxicity in Wistar rats, even after consuming large quantities of bacteria. PMID:25379552

  4. Effect of high pressure on growth and bacteriocin production of Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, S. M.; Kolomeytseva, M.; Casquete, R.; Silva, J.; Saraiva, J. A.; Teixeira, P.

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of high pressure processing (HPP, 200-600 MPa) on the (i) survival of Listeria innocua and Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2; (ii) production of bacteriocin bacHA-6111-2 and (iii) activity of bacteriocin against untreated and pressure-treated L. innocua cells. Inactivation of P. acidilactici was observed for pressures of >300 MPa. However, at this pressure level, L. innocua was more sensitive. Bacteriocin crude extract was pressure stable, with a decrease for pressures of ≥400 MPa. Pressures of ≤200 MPa did not affect bacteriocin production when compared with non-pressure-treated cells, whereas higher pressures caused a 2- to 4-fold decrease on the maximum level of bacteriocin production. Growth curves of P. acidilactici were fitted with the modified Gompertz model. The lag phase period depended on the magnitude of the pressure applied: there was a delay in the exponential phase as pressure increased and, as a consequence, in the beginning of bacteriocin production. Since P. acidilactici HA-6111-2 and its bacteriocin have shown resistance to pressures up to 300-400 MPa, they could be used in combination with HPP in order to improve food safety.

  5. Probiotic properties of Pediococcus strains isolated from jeotgals, salted and fermented Korean sea-food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Wook; Park, Ji Yeong; Sa, Hyun Deok; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Heo, Ho Jin; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Three Pediococcus pentosaceus strains were isolated from jeotgals, salted and fermented Korean sea-foods, and their probiotic potentials were examined. After 2 h exposure to pH 3.0, P. pentosaceus F66 survived with the survival ratio of 32.6% followed by P. pentosaceus D56 (17.2%) and P. pentosaceus A24 (7.5%). P. pentosaceus F66 also survived better (26.6%) than P. pentosaceus A24 (13.7%) and P. pentosaceus D56 (5.8%) after 2 h exposure to 0.3% bile salts. Three strains grew slowly on MRS broth with 15% NaCl (w/v), reaching the OD600 values of 0.4-0.8 in 36 h. They adhered to Caco-2 cells (10.9-13.9 CFU/cell) with similar degree of adherence of a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (12.8 ± 0.5 CFU/cell). Three strains possess some desirable enzyme activities such as β-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosidase. From these results, P. pentosaceus F66 seems qualified as a probiotic and can be utilized for fermented foods including jeotgals. PMID:24979684

  6. Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid via the Indole-3-Acetamide Pathway in the Plant-Beneficial Bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 Is Inhibited by ZnO Nanoparticles but Enhanced by CuO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jia; McLean, Joan E.; Britt, David W.; Zhan, Jixun; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 produces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator. However, the pathway involved in IAA production in this bacterium has not been reported. In this paper we describe the involvement of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway in IAA production in P. chlororaphis O6 and the effects of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Sublethal levels of CuO and ZnO NPs differentially affected the levels of IAA secreted in medium containing tryptophan as the precursor. After 15 h of growth, CuO NP-exposed cells had metabolized more tryptophan than the control and ZnO NP-challenged cells. The CuO NP-treated cells produced higher IAA levels than control cultures lacking NPs. In contrast, ZnO NPs inhibited IAA production. Mixing of CuO and ZnO NPs resulted in an intermediate level of IAA production relative to the levels in the separate CuO and ZnO NP treatments. The effect of CuO NPs on IAA levels could be duplicated by ions at the concentrations released from the NPs. However, ion release did not account for the inhibition caused by the ZnO NPs. The mechanism underlying changes in IAA levels cannot be accounted for by effects on transcript accumulation from genes encoding a tryptophan permease or the IAM hydrolase in 15-h cultures. These findings raise the issue of whether sublethal doses of NPs would modify the beneficial effects of association between plants and bacteria. PMID:22210218

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the d-Amino Acid Catabolism Bacterium Phaeobacter sp. Strain JL2886, Isolated from Deep Seawater of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingnan; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zilian; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phaeobacter sp. strain JL2886, isolated from deep seawater of the South China Sea, can catabolize d-amino acids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Phaeobacter sp. JL2886. It comprises ~4.06 Mbp, with a G+C content of 61.52%. A total of 3,913 protein-coding genes and 10 genes related to d-amino acid catabolism were obtained. PMID:27587825

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the d-Amino Acid Catabolism Bacterium Phaeobacter sp. Strain JL2886, Isolated from Deep Seawater of the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingnan; Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Phaeobacter sp. strain JL2886, isolated from deep seawater of the South China Sea, can catabolize d-amino acids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Phaeobacter sp. JL2886. It comprises ~4.06 Mbp, with a G+C content of 61.52%. A total of 3,913 protein-coding genes and 10 genes related to d-amino acid catabolism were obtained. PMID:27587825

  9. Probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus strain GS4 alleviates azoxymethane-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit R; Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur R

    2015-10-01

    Probiotic treatment has been gaining attention due to its remarkable effects in alleviating toxicity and carcinogenesis. The novel strain Pediococcus pentosaceus GS4 has been reported for probiotic, survivability in simulated gastrointestinal fluid, and antioxidative and biohydrogenation properties. Therefore, we hypothesize that this specific strain might be able to assuage the effect of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced toxicity in mice. Twenty-eight Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups and were studied for 32 weeks. Azoxymethane (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally twice (0th and 14th days), and probiotic GS4 (1.1 × 10(9) colony-forming unit/mL) was given orally for the respective groups. Mice who served as the normal control received only normal saline. GS4-intervened AOM-induced mice showed marked improvement at the histopathologic level, in the liver and kidney. Moreover, probiotic GS4 intervention in AOM-induced mice exhibited a significant reduction in the liver function biomarker when compared with the AOM-induced mice. Probiotic GS4 intervention reduced the intestinal structural deformities as evident from the elevated brush border membrane-associated disaccharidases (sucrase, lactase) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities, which were found disrupted by AOM intoxication. Fecal bacterial load was found to be reduced in AOM-induced mice which were subsequently replenished by the probiotic GS4 intervention as apparent from the enhanced fecal bacterial load. There were no adverse effects observed in the probiotic control group. Conclusively, novel probiotic strain GS4 exhibited safe and beneficial effects against the toxicity threats posed by AOM. Thus, GS4 could be considered as a potential food supplement/additive for therapeutic purposes in gastrointestinal disorders related to inflammation and cancer. PMID:26319614

  10. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  11. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C.; Phelps, T.

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  12. Antifungal and Zearalenone Inhibitory Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from Dairy Products on Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Sellamani, Muthulakshmi; Kalagatur, Naveen K; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Mudili, Venkataramana; Krishna, Kadirvelu; Natarajan, Gopalan; Rao Putcha, Venkata L

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the bio-control efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from traditional fermented dairy products originated from India, against the growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. The cell-free supernatants of P. pentosaceus (PPCS) were prepared and chemical profiling was carried out by GC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis. Chemical profiling of PPCS evidenced that, the presence of phenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for the antifungal activity. Another hand, MALDI-TOF analysis also indicated the presence of antimicrobial peptides. To know the antioxidant potential of PPCS, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out and IC50 value was determined as 32 ± 1.89 μL/mL. The antifungal activity of P. pentosaceus was determined by dual culture overlay technique and zone of inhibition was recorded as 47 ± 2.81%, and antifungal activity of PPCS on F. graminearum was determined by micro-well dilution and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPCS was determined as 66 ± 2.18 μL/mL in the present study. Also a clear variation in the micromorphology of mycelia treated with MIC value of PPCS compared to untreated control was documented. Further, the mechanism of growth inhibition was revealed by ergosterol analysis and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PPCS treated samples. The effects of PPCS on mycelial biomass and ZEA production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism behind the suppression of ZEA production was studied by reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13), and results showed that there is a dose dependent down-regulation of target gene expression in PPCS treated samples. The results of the present study were collectively proved that, the antifungal and ZEA inhibitory activity of PPCS against F. graminearum and it may find a potential application in agriculture and food

  13. Antifungal and Zearalenone Inhibitory Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from Dairy Products on Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Sellamani, Muthulakshmi; Kalagatur, Naveen K.; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Mudili, Venkataramana; Krishna, Kadirvelu; Natarajan, Gopalan; Rao Putcha, Venkata L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the bio-control efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from traditional fermented dairy products originated from India, against the growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. The cell-free supernatants of P. pentosaceus (PPCS) were prepared and chemical profiling was carried out by GC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis. Chemical profiling of PPCS evidenced that, the presence of phenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for the antifungal activity. Another hand, MALDI-TOF analysis also indicated the presence of antimicrobial peptides. To know the antioxidant potential of PPCS, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out and IC50 value was determined as 32 ± 1.89 μL/mL. The antifungal activity of P. pentosaceus was determined by dual culture overlay technique and zone of inhibition was recorded as 47 ± 2.81%, and antifungal activity of PPCS on F. graminearum was determined by micro-well dilution and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPCS was determined as 66 ± 2.18 μL/mL in the present study. Also a clear variation in the micromorphology of mycelia treated with MIC value of PPCS compared to untreated control was documented. Further, the mechanism of growth inhibition was revealed by ergosterol analysis and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PPCS treated samples. The effects of PPCS on mycelial biomass and ZEA production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism behind the suppression of ZEA production was studied by reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13), and results showed that there is a dose dependent down-regulation of target gene expression in PPCS treated samples. The results of the present study were collectively proved that, the antifungal and ZEA inhibitory activity of PPCS against F. graminearum and it may find a potential application in agriculture and food

  14. Caproiciproducens galactitolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium capable of producing caproic acid from galactitol, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Seung Jeon, Byoung; Kim, Seil; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2015-12-01

    A strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated BS-1T, was isolated from an anaerobic digestion reactor during a study of bacteria utilizing galactitol as the carbon source. Its cells were 0.3-0.5 μm × 2-4 μm, and they grew at 35-45 °C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Strain BS-1T produced H2, CO2, ethanol, acetic acid, butyric acid and caproic acid as metabolic end products of anaerobic fermentation. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain BS-1T represented a novel bacterial genus within the family Ruminococcaceae, Clostridium Cluster IV. The type strains that were most closely related to strain BS-1T were Clostridium sporosphaeroides KCTC 5598T (94.5 %), Clostridium leptum KCTC 5155T (94.3 %), Ruminococcus bromii ATCC 27255T (92.1 %) and Ethanoligenens harbinense YUAN-3T (91.9 %). Strain BS-1T had 17.6 % and 20.9 % DNA-DNA relatedness values with C. sporosphaeroides DSM 1294T and C. leptum DSM 753T, respectively. The major components of the cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 dimethyl aldehyde (DMA) (22.1 %), C16 : 0 aldehyde (14.1 %) and summed feature 11 (iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and/or C18 : 2 DMA; 10.0 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 50.0 mol%. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics allowed strain BS-1T to be clearly distinguished from other taxa of the genus Clostridium Cluster IV. On the basis of these data, the isolate is considered to represent a novel genus and novel species within Clostridium Cluster IV, for which the name Caproiciproducens galactitolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is BS-1T ( = JCM 30532T and KCCM 43048T). PMID:26474980

  15. Taxonomic structure and monitoring of the dominant population of lactic acid bacteria during wheat flour sourdough type I propagation using Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis starters.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Sonya; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ercolini, Danilo; Minervini, Fabio; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2009-02-01

    The structure and stability of the dominant lactic acid bacterium population were assessed during wheat flour sourdough type I propagation by using singly nine strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Under back-slopping propagation with wheat flour type 0 F114, cell numbers of presumptive lactic acid bacteria varied slightly between and within starters. As determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses, only three (LS8, LS14, and LS44) starters dominated throughout 10 days of propagation. The others progressively decreased to less than 3 log CFU g(-1). Partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and recA genes and PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis analysis using the rpoB gene allowed identification of Weissella confusa, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus spp. as the dominant species of the raw wheat flour. At the end of propagation, one autochthonous strain of L. sanfranciscensis was found in all the sourdoughs. Except for L. brevis, strains of the above species were variously found in the mature sourdoughs. Persistent starters were found in association with other biotypes of L. sanfranciscensis and with W. confusa or L. plantarum. Sourdoughs were characterized for acidification, quotient of fermentation, free amino acids, and community-level catabolic profiles by USING Biolog 96-well Eco microplates. In particular, catabolic profiles of sourdoughs containing persistent starters behaved similarly and were clearly differentiated from the others. The three persistent starters were further used for the production of sourdoughs and propagated by using another wheat flour whose lactic acid bacterium population in part differed from the previous one. Also, in this case all three starter strains persisted during propagation. PMID

  16. Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas of 19 Sourdoughs Used for Traditional/Typical Italian Breads: Interactions between Ingredients and Microbial Species Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Lattanzi, Anna; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The study of the microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical breads allowed the identification, through a culture-dependent approach, of 20 and 4 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, respectively. Numerically, the most frequent LAB isolates were Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ca. 28% of the total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 16%), and Lactobacillus paralimentarius (ca. 14%). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in 16 sourdoughs. Candida humilis, Kazachstania barnettii, and Kazachstania exigua were also identified. As shown by principal component analysis (PCA), a correlation was found between the ingredients, especially the type of flour, the microbial community, and the biochemical features of sourdoughs. Triticum durum flours were characterized by the high level of maltose, glucose, fructose, and free amino acids (FAA) correlated with the sole or main presence of obligately heterofermentative LAB, the lowest number of facultatively heterofermentative strains, and the low cell density of yeasts in the mature sourdoughs. This study highlighted, through a comprehensive and comparative approach, the dominant microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs, which determined some of the peculiarities of the resulting traditional/typical Italian breads. PMID:22156414

  17. Identification and sequence analysis of pWcMBF8-1, a bacteriocin-encoding plasmid from the lactic acid bacterium Weissella confusa.

    PubMed

    Malik, Amarila; Sumayyah, Sumayyah; Yeh, Chia-Wen; Heng, Nicholas C K

    2016-04-01

    Members of the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-known for their beneficial properties as starter cultures and probiotics. Many LAB species produce ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics (bacteriocins). Weissella confusa MBF8-1 is a strain isolated from a fermented soybean product that not only produces useful exopolysaccharides but also exhibits bacteriocin activity, which we call weissellicin MBF. Here, we show that bacteriocin production by W. confusa MBF8-1 is specified by a large plasmid, pWcMBF8-1. Plasmid pWcMBF8-1 (GenBank accession number KR350502), which was identified from the W. confusa MBF8-1 draft genome sequence, is 17 643 bp in length with a G + C content of 34.8% and contains 25 open reading frames (ORFs). Six ORFs constitute the weissellicin MBF locus, encoding three putative double-glycine-motif peptides (Bac1, Bac2, Bac3), an ABC transporter complex (BacTE) and a putative immunity protein (BacI). Two ORFs encode plasmid partitioning and mobilization proteins, suggesting that pWcMBF8-1 is transferable to other hosts. To the best of our knowledge, plasmid pWcMBF8-1 not only represents the first large Weissella plasmid to be sequenced but also the first to be associated with bacteriocin production in W. confusa. PMID:26976853

  18. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is the dominating lactic acid bacterium in retail modified-atmosphere-packaged marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day.

    PubMed

    Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2003-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, three to five packages of seven differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6 degrees C, 7-9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product was checked and pH measured. Bacteria were cultured on MRS and Tomato Juice Agar (TJA), Rogosa SL agar (SLA), Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Streptomycin Thallium Acetate Agar (STAA) for the enumeration of LAB, lactobacilli, total bacterial count and Brochothrix thermosphacta, respectively. The average CFU/g of the 32 packages was 2.3 x 10(8) on PCA. The highest bacterial average, 3.1 x 10(8), was recovered on TJA, the corresponding CFU/g averages on MRS and SLA being 2.3 x 10(8) and 1.3 x 10(8), respectively. Despite the high LAB numbers detected, radical spoilage changes such as unpleasant odor, slime production and formation of gas were not seen. B. thermosphacta did not form a significant part of the bacterial population since none of the levels exceeded the spoilage threshold level of 10(5) CFU/g reported in previous studies for this organism. In order to characterize the dominating LAB population, as many as 85, 85 and 88 colonies from MRS, TJA and SLA, respectively, were randomly picked and cultured pure. LAB were identified to species level using a 16 and 23S rDNA HindIiI RFLP (ribotyping) database. Fifty-six of the 170 isolates picked from the non-selective LAB media (MRS and TJA) were identified as L. gasicomitatum, followed by Carnobacterium divergens (41 isolates), Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. melibiosus (31 isolates) and L. curvatus subsp. curvatus (20 isolates) species. SLA proved not to be completely selective for lactobacilli because the growth of Leuconostoc spp. was not

  19. Aii20J, a wide-spectrum thermostable N-acylhomoserine lactonase from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. 20J, can quench AHL-mediated acid resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C; Romero, M; Muras, A; Otero, A

    2015-11-01

    Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by many Gram-negative bacteria to coordinate gene expression in cellular density dependent mechanisms known as quorum sensing (QS). Since the disruption of the communication systems significantly reduces virulence, the inhibition of quorumsensing processes or quorum quenching (QQ) represents an interesting anti-pathogenic strategy to control bacterial infections. Escherichia coli does not produce AHLs but possesses an orphan AHL receptor, SdiA, which is thought to be able to sense the QS signals produced by other bacteria and controls important traits as the expression of glutamate-dependent acid resistance mechanism, therefore constituting a putative target for QQ. A novel AHL-lactonase, named Aii20J, has been identified, cloned and over expressed from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. strain 20 J presenting a wide-spectrum QQ activity. The enzyme, belonging to the metallo-β-lactamase family, shares less than 31 % identity with the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus spp. Aii20J presents a much higher specific activity than the Bacillus enzyme, maintains its activity after incubation at 100 ºC for 10 minutes, is resistant to protease K and α-chymotrypsin, and is unaffected by wide ranges of pH. The addition of Aii20J (20 μg/mL) to cultures of E. coli K-12 to which OC6-HSL was added resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability in comparison with the acidresistant cultures derived from the presence of the signal. Results confirm the interaction between AHLs and SdiA in E. coli for the expression of virulence-related genes and reveal the potential use of Aii20J as anti-virulence strategy against important bacterial pathogens and in other biotechnological applications. PMID:26092757

  20. Isolation, Characterization, and U(VI)-Reducing Potential of a Facultatively Anaerobic, Acid-Resistant Bacterium from Low-pH, Nitrate- and U(VI)-Contaminated Subsurface Sediment and Description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Sullivan, Sara A.; O'Neill, Kathleen R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2004-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant bacterium, designated strain FRCl, was isolated from a low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment at site FW-024 at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Strain FRCl was enriched at pH 4.5 in minimal medium with nitrate as the electron acceptor, hydrogen as the electron donor, and acetate as the carbon source. Clones with 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences identical to the sequence of strain FRCl were also detected in a U(VI)-reducing enrichment culture derived from the same sediment. Cells of strain FRCl were gram-negative motile regular rods 2.0 to 3.4 μm long and 0.7 to 0.9 μm in diameter. Strain FRCl was positive for indole production, by the methyl red test, and for ornithine decarboxylase; it was negative by the Voges-Proskauer test (for acetylmethylcarbinol production), for urea hydrolysis, for arginine dihydrolase, for lysine decarboxylase, for phenylalanine deaminase, for H2S production, and for gelatin hydrolysis. Strain FRCl was capable of using O2, NO3−, S2O32−, fumarate, and malate as terminal electron acceptors and of reducing U(VI) in the cell suspension. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate indicated that this strain was 96.4% similar to Salmonella bongori and 96.3% similar to Enterobacter cloacae. Physiological and phylogenetic analyses suggested that strain FRCl belongs to the genus Salmonella and represents a new species, Salmonella subterranea sp. nov. PMID:15128557

  1. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-01-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination. PMID:9023922

  2. Isolation, characterization, and U(VI)-reducing potential of a facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant Bacterium from Low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment and description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Sullivan, Sara A; O'Neill, Kathleen R; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2004-05-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant bacterium, designated strain FRCl, was isolated from a low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment at site FW-024 at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Strain FRCl was enriched at pH 4.5 in minimal medium with nitrate as the electron acceptor, hydrogen as the electron donor, and acetate as the carbon source. Clones with 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences identical to the sequence of strain FRCl were also detected in a U(VI)-reducing enrichment culture derived from the same sediment. Cells of strain FRCl were gram-negative motile regular rods 2.0 to 3.4 micro m long and 0.7 to 0.9 microm in diameter. Strain FRCl was positive for indole production, by the methyl red test, and for ornithine decarboxylase; it was negative by the Voges-Proskauer test (for acetylmethylcarbinol production), for urea hydrolysis, for arginine dihydrolase, for lysine decarboxylase, for phenylalanine deaminase, for H(2)S production, and for gelatin hydrolysis. Strain FRCl was capable of using O(2), NO(3)(-), S(2)O(3)(2-), fumarate, and malate as terminal electron acceptors and of reducing U(VI) in the cell suspension. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate indicated that this strain was 96.4% similar to Salmonella bongori and 96.3% similar to Enterobacter cloacae. Physiological and phylogenetic analyses suggested that strain FRCl belongs to the genus Salmonella and represents a new species, Salmonella subterranea sp. nov. PMID:15128557

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Survival and Colonic Adhesion of Pediococcus acidilactici MTCC5101 in Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, Praveen P.; Kaur, Baljinder; Daroch, Natisha; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the probiotic nature of Pediococcus acidilactici MTCC5101 by an in vitro assay of bacterial adherence to intestinal epithelial cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) tract using Caco-2 cell line. Further to assess the in vivo survival in the GI tract, oral feeding was carried out with the help of 10 healthy volunteers. The effect on wellness was assessed by studying blood biochemical parameters of the volunteers. The survival of the bacteria was assessed using PCR-based detection of P. acidilactici MTCC5101 in fecal samples. The probiotic nature of P. acidilactici MTCC 5101 was strengthened by its adherence to the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line in the in vitro SEM observations. Oral feeding study for assessing the survival of bacteria in GI tract of volunteers showed the strain to be established in the GI tract which survived for about 2 weeks after feeding. PMID:24175293

  4. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  5. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  6. Aqueous two-phase flotation for primary recovery of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10.

    PubMed

    Md Sidek, Nurul Lyana; Tan, Joo Shun; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Wong, Fadzlie Wong Faizal; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2016-08-01

    An aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium citrate (NaNO3C6H5O7·2H2O) was considered for primary recovery of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10. The effects of ATPF parameters namely phase composition, tie-line length (TLL), volume ratio between the two phases (VR), amount of crude load (CL), pH, nitrogen gas flow rate (FR) and flotation time (FT) on the performance of recovery were evaluated. BLIS was mainly concentrated into the upper PEG-rich phase in all systems tested so far. The optimum conditions for BLIS purification, which composed of PEG 8000/sodium citrate, were: TLL of 42.6, VR of 0.4, CL of 22% (w/w), pH 7, average FT of 30min and FR of 20mL/min. BLIS was partially purified up to 5.9-fold with a separation efficiency of 99% under this optimal conditions. A maximum yield of BLIS activity of about 70.3% was recovered in the PEG phase. The BLIS from the top phase was successfully recovered with a single band in SDS-gel with molecular weight of about 10-15kDa. ATPF was found to be an effective technique for the recovery of BLIS from the fermentation broth of P. acidilactici Kp10. PMID:27262666

  7. Analysis of cell growth dynamics of Pediococcus acidilactici in the presence of inulin in an optimized microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Samanta Koruri, Sharmistha; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation deals with the optimization of cell growth rate of the candidate probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici in the presence of the specific prebiotic inulin. Three independent variables viz. concentration of inulin, concentration of glucose and pH have been selected for optimization study using response surface methodology. Theoretical analysis indicates that the maximum cell growth rate occurs at pH 7, 20 g/dm(3) concentration of inulin and 20 g/dm(3) concentration of glucose. Validation of these values has been done through a set of programmed experiments. Studies on cell dynamics in the presence of different concentrations of inulin have also been carried out to identify any limitation on the initial inulin concentration. Results clearly indicate that cell growth is enhanced with the increase in inulin concentration. However, there is a critical value of the prebiotic concentration (20 g/dm(3) inulin) beyond which the cell growth is inhibited. A summative type growth model has been proposed to explain the growth behaviour of P. acidilactici in the presence of the dual substrate, i.e. glucose and inulin. While growth on glucose follows Monod model, Haldane-type substrate-inhibited growth model holds good for growth on inulin. Intrinsic kinetic parameters for all the model equations have been determined experimentally. PMID:26159350

  8. Lactobionic and cellobionic acid production profiles of the resting cells of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was produced by acetic acid bacteria to oxidize lactose. Gluconobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp. showed higher lactose-oxidizing activities than Acetobacter spp. Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC3285 produced the highest amount of lactobionic acid per cell, among the strains tested. This bacterium assimilated neither lactose nor lactobionic acid. At high lactose concentration (30%), resting cells of the bacterium showed sufficient oxidizing activity for efficient production of lactobionic acid. These properties may contribute to industrial production of lactobionic acid by the bacterium. The bacterium showed higher oxidizing activity on cellobiose than that on lactose and produced cellobionic acid. PMID:25965080

  9. Effects of Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 and its exopolysaccharide on plasma cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers in mice.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Cecilia; Holst, Olle; Nilsson, Lars; Oste, Rickard; Andersson, Kristina E

    2012-01-01

    Intake of dietary fibres may reduce the prevalence of physiological risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, such as high plasma lipid levels and low-grade inflammatory state. Dietary fibres are usually of plant origin however microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have analogue structures that could potentially exert similar physiological effects. Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 (Pd 2.6) excretes a ropy EPS and has previously shown probiotic potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate physiological effects of Pd 2.6 and its EPS in vivo. The live Pd 2.6 (both the ropy and non-ropy isogenic variant) and its purified EPS were fed to hypercholesterolemic LDL-receptor deficient mice for 6 weeks to investigate their effects on cholesterol levels and the inflammatory tone of the animals. Both variants of Pd 2.6 survived passage through the mouse gut fulfilling an important criterion of probiotics. The ability to produce EPS was conferring an advantage to survival (faecal recovery of 3.7 (1.9-8.7) vs. 0.21 (0.14-0.34) *108 CFU, P < 0.001, median and 25th and 75th percentiles). The ropy Pd 2.6 decreased the levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 compared to the EPS alone (591 ± 14 vs. 646 ± 13 ng/ml, P < 0.05). An increase in liver weight in mice fed the purified EPS was observed, but with no change in liver lipids. No changes in blood lipids were detected in any group. Further the EPS induced growth of the caecal tissue and increased the amount of caecal content showing bulking properties like that of a dietary fibre. PMID:23234432

  10. Statistical media and process optimization for biotransformation of rice bran to vanillin using Pediococcus acidilactici.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar

    2013-11-01

    An isolate of P. acidilactici capable of producing vanillin from rice bran was isolated from a milk product. Response Surface Methodology was employed for statistical media and process optimization for production of biovanillin. Statistical medium optimization was done in two steps involving Placket Burman Design and Central Composite Response Designs. The RSM optimized vanillin production medium consisted of 15% (w/v) rice bran, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.1% (w/v) ammonium nitrate, 0.005% (w/v) ferulic acid, 0.005% (w/v) magnesium sulphate, and 0.1% (v/v) tween-80, pH 5.6, at a temperature of 37 degrees C under shaking conditions at 180 rpm. 1.269 g/L vanillin was obtained within 24 h of incubation in optimized culture medium. This is the first report indicating such a high vanillin yield obtained during biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a Pediococcal isolate. PMID:24416928

  11. Whole-genome sequence assembly of Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 (CGMCC 7049) from the human gastrointestinal tract and comparative analysis with representative sequences from three food-borne strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus from food and the human gastrointestinal tract have been widely identified, and some have been reported to reduce inflammation, encephalopathy, obesity and fatty liver in animals. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of P. pentosaceus LI05 (CGMCC 7049), which was isolated from the fecal samples of healthy volunteers, and determined its ability to reduce acute liver injury. No other genomic information for gut-borne P. pentosaceus is currently available in the public domain. Results We obtained the draft genome of P. pentosaceus LI05, which was 1,751,578 bp in size and possessed a mean G + C content of 37.3%. This genome encoded an abundance of proteins that were protective against acids, bile salts, heat, oxidative stresses, enterocin A, arsenate and universal stresses. Important adhesion proteins were also encoded by the genome. Additionally, P. pentosaceus LI05 genes encoded proteins associated with the biosynthesis of not only three antimicrobials, including prebacteriocin, lysin and colicin V, but also vitamins and functional amino acids, such as riboflavin, folate, biotin, thiamine and gamma-aminobutyrate. A comparison of P. pentosaceus LI05 with all known genomes of food-borne P. pentosaceus strains (ATCC 25745, SL4 and IE-3) revealed that it possessed four novel exopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteins, additional putative environmental stress tolerance proteins and phage-related proteins. Conclusions This work demonstrated the probiotic properties of P. pentosaceus LI05 from the gut and the three other food-borne P. pentosaceus strains through genomic analyses. We have revealed the major genomic differences between these strains, providing a framework for understanding the probiotic effects of strain LI05, which exhibits unique physiological and metabolic properties. PMID:25349631

  12. Exopolysaccharide produced by Pediococcus acidilactici M76 isolated from the Korean traditional rice wine, makgeolli.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Cha, Youn-Soo; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2013-05-01

    This work is aimed to increase knowledge of the functional exopolysaccharide (EPS) from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in makgeolli, a Korean fermented rice wine. Among LAB strains isolated from makgeolli, strain M76 was selected as a functional strain producing a bioactive EPS, based on its antioxidative activity on the DPPH radical. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed a high sequence similarity (99.0%) with P. acidilactici, but had different biochemical properties with the already known P. acidilactici type strains in the aspect of carbohydrates utilization. The obtained P. acidilactici M76 produced a soluble EPS above 2 g/l. One-step chromatography using gel filtration after ethanol precipitation from the supernatant of P. acidilactici M76 was enough to obtain purified EPS with a single peak, showing a molecular mass of approximately 67 kDa. Componential and structural analyses of EPS by TLC, HPLC, and FT-IR indicated that the EPS is a glucan, consisting of glucose units. The purified EPS had antioxidant activity on the DPPH radical of 45.8% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The purified EPS also showed proliferative effect on the pancreatic RIN-m5F cell line and remarkable protection activity on alloxan-induced cytotoxicity. This potent antioxidant and antidiabetic EPS by LAB in makgeolli may contribute to understanding the functionality of makgeolli. PMID:23648859

  13. Effect of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress of Litopenaeus stylirostris under Vibrio nigripulchritudo challenge.

    PubMed

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant defences and induced oxidative stress tissue damage of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, under challenge with Vibrio nigripulchritudo, were investigated for a 72-h period. For this purpose, L. stylirostris were first infected by immersion with pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain SFn1 and then antioxidant defences: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), Total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathiones and induced tissue damage (MDA and carbonyl proteins) were determined in the digestive gland at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (h.p.i.). In the meantime, TAS was also measured in the blood. Infection level of the shrimps during the challenge was followed by determining V. nigripulchritudo prevalence and load in the haemolymph of the shrimps. Changes in all these parameters during the 72-h.p.i. period were recorded for control shrimps and shrimps previously fed for one month with probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M at 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed. Our results showed that immersion with V. nigripulchritudo led to maximal infection level in the haemolymph at 24 h.p.i. preceding the mortality peak recorded at 48 h.p.i. Significant decreases in the antioxidant defences were detected from 24 h.p.i. and beyond that time infection leaded to increases in oxidative stress level and tissue damage. Compared to control group, shrimps fed the probiotic diet showed lower infection (20% instead of 45% at 24 h.p.i. in the control group) and mortality (25% instead of 41.7% in the control group) levels. Moreover, infected shrimp fed the probiotic compared to uninfected control shrimps exhibited very similar antioxidant status and oxidative stress level. Compared to the infected control group, shrimps fed the probiotic sustained higher antioxidant defences and lower oxidative stress level. This study shows that bacterial infection leads to oxidative stress in L. stylirostris and highlighted a beneficial effect of P

  14. Pregnancy coexisting with uterus didelphys with a blind hemivagina complicated by pyocolpos due to Pediococcus infection: a case report and review of the published reports.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Chul; Lee, Hee Joong

    2013-07-01

    A woman in early pregnancy was referred due to severe pelvic pain. Vaginal examination showed a severely protruding left vaginal wall with severe tenderness. A transvaginal ultrasound showed a double uterus and a mixed echogenic mass next to the cervix of the left uterus. After creating an opening in the left vaginal wall and inserting a Foley catheter through the opening into the vaginal wall for drainage with antibiotic therapy, the patient's condition rapidly improved. A culture of the pus drained from the vaginal wall showed Pediococcus species. The patient delivered a healthy infant by cesarean section at term gestation without recurrence of pyocolpos. Ten months after delivery, resection of the vaginal septum was performed and the left cervix was exposed. Ultrasound revealed normal kidneys. PMID:23718909

  15. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments. PMID:26853478

  16. Antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence factors of Lactic Acid Bacteria of aquatic origin intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The microorganisms intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture should exert antimicrobial activity and be regarded as safe not only for the aquatic hosts but also for their surrounding environments and humans. The objective of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against fish pathogens, the antibiotic susceptibility, and the prevalence of virulence factors and detrimental enzymatic activities in 99 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) (59 enterococci and 40 non-enterococci) isolated from aquatic animals regarded as human food. Results These LAB displayed a broad antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against the main Gram-positive and Gram-negative fish pathogens. However, particular safety concerns based on antibiotic resistance and virulence factors were identified in the genus Enterococcus (86%) (Enterococcus faecalis, 100%; E. faecium, 79%). Antibiotic resistance was also found in the genera Weissella (60%), Pediococcus (44%), Lactobacillus (33%), but not in leuconostocs and lactococci. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in 7.5% of the non-enterococci, including the genera Pediococcus (12.5%) and Weissella (6.7%). One strain of both Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella cibaria carried the erythromycin resistance gene mef(A/E), and another two P. pentosaceus strains harboured lnu(A) conferring resistance to lincosamides. Gelatinase activity was found in E. faecalis and E. faecium (71 and 11%, respectively), while a low number of E. faecalis (5%) and none E. faecium exerted hemolytic activity. None enterococci and non-enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities, or other detrimental enzymatic activities. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of mef(A/E) in the genera Pediococcus and Weissella, and lnu(A) in the genus Pediococcus. The in vitro subtractive screening presented in this work constitutes a valuable strategy for the large-scale preliminary selection of putatively safe LAB

  17. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bee Pollen: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    BELHADJ, Hani; HARZALLAH, Daoud; BOUAMRA, Dalila; KHENNOUF, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; GHADBANE, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133. PMID:24936378

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of some lactic Acid bacteria isolated from bee pollen: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Hani; Harzallah, Daoud; Bouamra, Dalila; Khennouf, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; Ghadbane, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133. PMID:24936378

  19. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus FW-101-2B, an Organic Acid-Oxidizing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Uranium(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Bradley D.; Hwang, Chiachi; Carroll, Sue L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; Peters, Lin; Chertkov, Olga; Held, Brittany; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff S.; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Woyke, Tanja; Arkin, Adam P.; Dehal, Paramvir; Chivian, Dylan; Criddle, Craig S.; Wu, Weimin; Chakraborty, Romy

    2015-01-01

    Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing δ-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction. PMID:25767232

  20. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus FW-101-2B, an Organic Acid-Oxidizing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Uranium(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ramsay, Bradley D.; Hwang, Chiachi; Woo, Hannah L.; Carroll, Sue L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; et al

    2015-03-12

    Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing δ-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction.

  1. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. PMID:26965627

  2. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

  3. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide from a marine bacterium Echinicola pacifica КММ 6172(Т) containing 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucuronic acid.

    PubMed

    Tomshich, Svetlana V; Kokoulin, Maxim S; Kalinovsky, Anatoliy I; Nedashkovskaya, Ol'ga I; Komandrova, Nadezhda A

    2016-04-29

    The O-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Echinicola pacifica KMM 6172(T) and studied by chemical analyses along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H, (1)H COSY, 1D and 2D TOCSY, ROESY, (1)H, (13)С HMQC, HMBC and H2BC experiments. It was found that the polysaccharide is built up of branched pentasaccharide repeating units, containing D-galactose (Gal), L-rhamnose (Rha), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (GlcNAc), two residues of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucuronic acid (GlcNAc3NAcA) and O-acetyl group in nonstoichiometric amount and has the following structure. PMID:27015142

  4. N-Acyl Dehydrotyrosines, Tyrosinase Inhibitors from the Marine Bacterium Thalassotalea sp. PP2-459.

    PubMed

    Deering, Robert W; Chen, Jianwei; Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L; Seeram, Navindra P; Wang, Hong; Rowley, David C

    2016-02-26

    Thalassotalic acids A-C and thalassotalamides A and B are new N-acyl dehydrotyrosine derivatives produced by Thalassotalea sp. PP2-459, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a marine bivalve aquaculture facility. The structures were elucidated via a combination of spectroscopic analyses emphasizing two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Thalassotalic acid A (1) displays in vitro inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase with an IC50 value (130 μM) that compares favorably to the commercially used control compounds kojic acid (46 μM) and arbutin (100 μM). These are the first natural products reported from a bacterium belonging to the genus Thalassotalea. PMID:26824128

  5. Metabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate by a soil bacterium.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Takeuchi, Y; Sasaki, K; Katsuki, H

    1976-10-01

    Studies on threo-beta-methylmalate metabolism in a soil bacterium of the genus Bacillus which can utilize threo-beta-methylmalate as a sole carbon source were carried out. When DL-threo-beta-methylmalate was incubated with a cell-free extract of the bacterium, citramalate was found to be formed. Similarly, formation of threo-beta-methylmalate from DL-citramalate was confirmed. These dicarbosylic acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Examination of inducibility, substrate specificity, and cofactor requirement of the enzymes involved in the reactions showed the existence of two interconversion reactions between the threo-beta-methylmalate and citramalate. One was an interconversion reaction between L-threo-beta-methylmalate and L-citramalate via mesaconate and the other was an interconversion reaction between D-threo-beta-methylmalate and D-citramalate via citraconate. These reactions were both reversible and were catalyzed by distinct and inducible enzymes. It is suggested that the two reactions participate in the catabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate. PMID:1010849

  6. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation potential of a new acid tolerant, diazotrophic P-solubilizing and heavy metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus sp. MTS-7 isolated from long-term mixed contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    An isolate of Cupriavidus (strain MTS-7) was identified from a long-term PAHs and heavy metals mixed contaminated soil with the potential to biodegrade both LMW and HMW PAHs with added unique traits of acid and alkali tolerance, heavy metal tolerance, self-nutrient assimilation by N fixation and P solubilization. This strain completely degraded the model 3 (150 mg L(-1) Phe), 4 (150 mg L(-1) Pyr) and 5 (50 mg L(-1) BaP) ring PAHs in 4, 20 and 30 days, respectively. It could mineralize 90-100% of PAHs (200 mg L(-1) of Phe and Pyr) within 15 days across pH ranging from 5 to 8 and even in the presence of toxic metal contaminations. During biodegradation, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 (Cu(2+)) and 3 (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+)) mg L(-1) of the potentially bioavailable metal ions and over 17 mg L(-1) metal levels was lethal for the microbe. Further, it could fix 217-274 μg mL(-1) of N and solubilize 79-135 μg mL(-1) of P while PAHs degradation. MTS-7 as a superior candidate could be thus used in the enhanced bioaugmentation and/or phytoremediation of long-term mixed contaminated sites. PMID:27475295

  7. Evaluating Pediococcus acidilactici and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as Thermal Surrogate Microorganisms for Salmonella for In-Plant Validation Studies of Low-Moisture Pet Food Products.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Erdogan; Bautista, Derrick A

    2015-05-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042 and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 were investigated as potential surrogates for Salmonella serovars using thermal death time kinetics in products such as dry pet foods. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, E. faecium NRRL B-2354, and a cocktail of seven Salmonella serovars associated with low-moisture products were determined in a preservative-free dry pet food product at moisture levels of 9.1, 17.9, and 27.0% and heated between 76.7 and 87.8°C. The D-values were calculated by least squares linear regression. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 were higher than those for the Salmonella serovar cocktail but lower than those for E. faecium NRRL 2354. At 9.1% moisture, D-values of 6.54, 11.51, and 11.66 min at 76.7°C, 2.66, 3.22, and 4.08 min at 82.2°C, and 1.07, 1.29, and 1.69 min at 87.8°C were calculated for Salmonella serovars, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, and E. faecium NRRL B-2354, respectively. The data suggest that the thermal inactivation characteristics of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 can be utilized as a surrogate to predict the response of Salmonella in dry pet food products that are thermally processed at <90°C. PMID:25951387

  8. Primary recovery of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance derived from Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10 by an aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Tan, Joo Shun; Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi Tengku; Kadkhodaei, Saeid; Ng, Hui Suan; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Ajdari, Zahra; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Ling, Tau Chuan; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2014-05-15

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of polyethylene-glycol (PEG) with sodium citrate was developed for direct recovery of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from a culture of Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10. The influences of phase composition, tie-line length (TLL), volume ratio (VR), crude sample loading, pH and sodium chloride (NaCl) on the partition behaviour of BLIS was investigated. Under optimum conditions of ATPS, the purification of BLIS was achieved at 26.5% PEG (8000)/11% sodium citrate with a TLL of 46.38% (w/w), VR of 1.8, and 1.8% crude load at pH 7 without the presence of NaCl. BLIS from P. acidilactici Kp10 was successfully purified by the ATPS up to 8.43-fold with a yield of 81.18%. Given that the operation of ATPS is simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective, as it requires only salts and PEG, it may have potential for industrial applications in the recovery of BLIS from fermentation broth. PMID:24423507

  9. Effect of some nutritional and environmental parameters on the production of diacetyl and on starch consumption by Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in submerged cultures.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, M L; Valdés, S E; Soriano, J; Tomasini, A

    2000-01-01

    Three series of 5-day submerged cultures with Pediococcus pentosaceus MITJ-10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus Hansen 1748 were carried out in starch-based media, and the effect of cultural factors on the changes of starch, diacetyl and amylase activity determined. In axenic cultures, Ped. pentosaceus MITJ-10 produced more diacetyl (63.27 mg l(-1)) by adding glucose, yeast extract and CaCO3 (P < 0.01), at 28 degrees C (P < 0.05); but more starch was consumed (18.4 g l(-1)) in the absence of glucose (P < 0.01). Lact. acidophilus Hansen 1748 consumed more starch (26.56 g l(-1)) at 28 degrees C, with CaCO3, glucose (P < 0.01) and yeast extract (P < 0.05); however, the amylolytic activity (10077U l(-1)) was favoured at 35 degrees C (P < 0.01). Little starch was consumed in mixed cultures due to the low pH; nevertheless, diacetyl content rose to 135.76 mg l(-1) at 32 degrees C (P < 0.01). Therefore, both studied strains might be useful to produce aromatic extensors from starchy substrates. These natural aromatic extensors are of interest to the food industry. PMID:10735253

  10. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  11. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  12. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc. PMID:26583968

  13. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc. PMID:26583968

  14. A combination of two lactic acid bacteria improves the hydrolysis of gliadin during wheat dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Carla Luciana; Dallagnol, Andrea; Rollán, Graciela; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    The evaluation of gliadin hydrolysis during dough fermentation by using two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 775 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CRL 792, as pooled cell suspension (LAB) or cell free extract (CFE) was undertaken. The CFE pool produced a greater (121%) increase in amino acid concentration than the LAB pool (70-80%). These results were correlated with the decrease (76,100 and 64,300 ppm) in the gliadin concentration of doughs supplemented with CFE and LAB, respectively, compared to control doughs. The use of LAB peptidases seemed to be a viable technologic alternative to reduce the gliadin concentration in wheat dough without using living bacteria as starter. PMID:22986210

  15. Importance of tetrahydroiso alpha-acids to the microbiological stability of beer.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Isabel; Agut, Montserrat; Armentia, Alicia; Blanco, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    While beer provides a very stable microbiological environment, a few niche microorganisms are capable of growth in malt, wort, and beer. The production of off-flavors and development of turbidity in the packaged product are due to the growth and metabolic activity of wild yeast, certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Beer also contains bitter hop compounds, which are toxic to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and contribute to preventing the spoilage of this beverage. In the boiling process, the hop alpha-acids (humulones) are isomerized into iso alpha-acids. These products are responsible for the bitter taste of beer, but they also play an essential role in enhancing foam stability. Antibacterial activity of iso alpha-acids and their hydrogenated derivates (rhoiso alpha-acids and tetrahydroiso alpha-acids) in MRS broth and beer have been evaluated against different LAB (Lactobacillus and Pediococcus) for the determination of their beer-stabilizing capabilities. Besides this, we have determined the minimum inhibitory concentration and the bacteriostatic effect of each compound against Pediococcus. We found that tetrahydroiso alpha-acids (added directly to beer during production processes) are the compounds that present the greatest antibacterial activity against the main agents implicated in beer spoilage. PMID:19714985

  16. Halobacterium saccharovorum sp. nov., a carbohydrate-metabolizing, extremely halophilic bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1976-01-01

    The previously described extremely halophilic bacterium, strain M6, metabolizes a variety of carbohydrates with the production of acid. In addition, the organism produces nitrite (but no gas) from nitrate, is motile, and grows most rapidly at about 50 C. These characteristics distinguish it from all previously described halophilic bacteria in the genus Halobacterium. It is suggested that it be designated as a new species, Halobacterium saccharovorum.

  17. Biotransformation of rice bran to ferulic acid by pediococcal isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kaur, Gundeep; Kaur, Gaganjot

    2013-06-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is widely used in foods, in beverages, and in various pharmaceutical industries as a precursor of vanillin. FA biotransformation can occur during the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and its conversion to other phenolic derivatives is observed by many scientists, where ferulic acid esterase (FAE) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC) play significant roles. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB for their ability to release FA from rice bran, an agro waste material. FAE and FDC activities were analyzed for the preliminary screening of various dairy isolates. Two Pediococcus acidilactici isolates were selected for studying further the hydrolysis of FA from rice bran and its bioconversion into phenolic derivatives like 4-ethylphenol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. P. acidilactici M16, a probiotic isolate, has great potential for the production of FA from rice bran and could be exploited as starter culture in the food industry for the production of biovanillin. PMID:23615732

  18. The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici bacteria used as probiotic supplement on the growth and non-specific immune responses of green terror, Aequidens rivulatus.

    PubMed

    Neissi, Alireza; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Nematollahi, Mohammadali; Safari, Omid

    2013-12-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted on a species of ornamental fish called green terror (Aequidens rivulatus) (0.388 ± 0.0021 g) to assess the effect of probiotic bacteria, Pediococcus acidilactici on the growth indices and innate immune response. The fish were randomly allocated into 9 oval tanks (120 l) at a density of 60 fish per tank. The experimental diets were comprised of the control (C), C complemented with fish oil (O) and the probiotic and fish oil (PA) and fed ad lib twice a day. The growth indices (specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and immunological indices of fish fed the diets including lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin and alternative complement activity were measured. The Fish fed with the diet containing P. acidilactici (PA) displayed significantly (P < 0.05) higher final weight (3.25 ± 0.065 g), weight gain (830.94 ± 9.46%), SGR (3.53 ± 0.02%/day) and lower FCR (1.45 ± 0.011) compared to those of other experimental diets. Total immunoglobulin (10.05 ± 0.12 μg/ml), lysozyme activity (4.08 ± 0.85 μg/ml) and alternative complement activity (2.65 ± 0.12 U/ml) in the serum of PA fed fish showed significant compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The results showed positive effects of P. acidilactici as a potent probiotic on growth indices and non-specific immune system of green terror. PMID:24161762

  19. Influence of supplemented diet with Pediococcus acidilactici on non-specific immunity and stress indicators in green terror (Aequidens rivulatus) during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Neissi, Alireza; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Nematollahi, Mohammadali; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Maniei, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    Green terror fish were fed for two months with three types of feed including: control diet (C), diet containing 2% fish oil (O) and diet containing fish oil supplemented with 0.1% Pediococcus acidilactici bacteria (PA). At the end of the feeding period, 50 fish of different groups (n = 3) with an average weight of 4.28 g were transferred to 9 tank. Hypoxia tests were set out by sampling at three times including before hypoxia (BH) initiation, hypoxia stress spot (H) and starting mortality (SM). In fish submitted to the diet containing P. acidilactici bacteria, the immune indices of lysozyme activity (4.08, 4.19 and 4.85 μg/ml)], complement activity (2.65, 2.77 and 2.1 U/ml) and total immunoglobulin (10.05, 10.25 and 9.9 μg/ml) improved in all stages of sampling (BH, H and SM), respectively (p < 0.05). The positive effects of the bacteria application also extends for the stress indicators including: cortisol (0.175, 0.3 and 0.335 μM/ml), glucose (0.9, 1.25 and 0.6 μg/ml) and lactate (2.7, 3 and 3.35) μg/ml and plasma electrolytes consisting of Na(+) (178.5, 175.43 and 175.8 mmol/l) and Cl(-)(123.85, 119.30 and 118.43 mmol/l) in all sampling stages (BH, H and SM), respectively (p < 0.05). Put it all together, P. acidilactici, acting as a probiotic, helps reducing stress symptoms in green terror fish. PMID:25891275

  20. Thermally Induced Leakage from Vibrio marinus, an Obligately Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium1

    PubMed Central

    Haight, Roger D.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1966-01-01

    Haight, Rodger D. (Oregon State University, Corvallis), and Richard Y. Morita. Thermally induced leakage from Vibrio marinus, an obligately psychrophilic bacterium. J. Bacteriol. 92:1388–1393. 1966.—Leakage of various cellular components into the surrounding menstruum occurred when Vibrio marinus was subjected to temperatures above 20 C (organism's maximal growth temperature). These materials, listed in decreasing rates of leakage, were identified as protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and amino acids. The amount of polar amino acids increased as the time and temperature of heat treatment were increased, whereas the nonpolar amino acids decreased. The ribonucleic acid in the supernatant fluid resulting from heat treatment was both polymeric and nonpolymeric. Leakage of cellular components may be one of the reasons that V. marinus MP-1 loses viability when exposed to temperatures above its maximal temperature for growth. PMID:5924270

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Producing Bacterium Burkholderia sacchari LMG 19450 Isolated from Brazilian Sugarcane Plantation Soil

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrino, Paulo Moises Raduan; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Guamán Bautista, Linda Priscila; Cherix, Juliano; Lozano-Sakalauskas, Gabriela Cazonato; Fujita, André; Ramos Filho, Edmar; Long, Paul; Padilla, Gabriel; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia sacchari LMG 19450, isolated from the soil of a sugarcane plantation in Brazil, accumulates large amounts of polyhydroxyalkanoates from sucrose, xylose, other carbohydrates, and organic acids. We present the draft genome sequence of this industrially relevant bacterium, which is 7.2 Mb in size and has a G+C content of 64%. PMID:25953171

  2. Gracilibacillus kimchii sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from kimchi.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Joon; Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Jang, Ja-Young; Park, Hae Woong; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-09-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium, strain K7(T), was isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. The strain is Gram-positive, motile, and produces terminal endospores. The isolate is facultative aerobic and grows at salinities of 0.0-25.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10-15% NaCl), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5), and 15-42°C (optimum 37°C). The predominant isoprenoid quinone in the strain is menaquinone-7 and the peptidoglycan of the strain is meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids of the strain are anteisio-C15:0, iso-C15:0, and, C16:0 (other components were < 10.0%), while the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and three unidentified lipids. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that the isolated strain was a cluster of the genus Gracilibacillus. High levels of gene sequence similarity were observed between strain K7(T) and Gracilibacillus orientalis XH-63(T) (96.5%), and between the present strain and Gracilibacillus xinjiangensis (96.5%). The DNA G+C content of this strain is 37.7 mol%. Based on these findings, strain K7(T) is proposed as a novel species: Gracilibacillus kimchii sp. nov. The type strain is K7(T) (KACC 18669(T); JCM 31344(T)). PMID:27572507

  3. A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Blum, J.S.; Kulp, T.R.; Gordon, G.W.; Hoeft, S.E.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Stolz, J.F.; Webb, S.M.; Weber, P.K.; Davies, P.C.W.; Anbar, A.D.; Oremland, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids and thus the bulk of living matter, it is theoretically possible that some other elements in the periodic table could serve the same functions. Here, we describe a bacterium, strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae, isolated from Mono Lake, California, that is able to substitute arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. Our data show evidence for arsenate in macromolecules that normally contain phosphate, most notably nucleic acids and proteins. Exchange of one of the major bio-elements may have profound evolutionary and geochemical importance.

  4. A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe-Simon, F; Blum, J S; Kulp, T R; Gordon, G W; Hoeft, S E; Pett-Ridge, J; Stolz, J F; Webb, S M; Weber, P K; Davies, P W; Anbar, A D; Oremland, R S

    2010-11-01

    Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and thus the bulk of living matter, it is theoretically possible that some other elements in the periodic table could serve the same functions. Here we describe a bacterium, strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae, isolated from Mono Lake, CA, which substitutes arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. Our data show evidence for arsenate in macromolecules that normally contain phosphate, most notably nucleic acids and proteins. Exchange of one of the major bio-elements may have profound evolutionary and geochemical significance.

  5. Isolation and identification of berberine and berberrubine metabolites by berberine-utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain BD7100.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuki; Takeda, Hisashi; Wakana, Daigo; Sato, Fumihiko; Hosoe, Tomoo

    2016-05-01

    Based on the finding of a novel berberine (BBR)-utilizing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain BD7100, we investigated the degradation of BBR and its analog berberrubine (BRU). Resting cells of BD7100 demethylenated BBR and BRU, yielding benzeneacetic acid analogs. Isolation of benzeneacetic acid analogs suggested that BD7100 degraded the isoquinoline ring of the protoberberine skeleton. This work represents the first report of cleavage of protoberberine skeleton by a microorganism. PMID:26882131

  6. Preliminary probiotic and technological characterization of Pediococcus pentosaceus strain KID7 and in vivo assessment of its cholesterol-lowering activity

    PubMed Central

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Lee, Young Sil; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar A.; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to characterize the probiotic properties of a Pediococcus pentosaceus strain, KID7, by in vitro and in vivo studies. The strain possessed tolerance to oro-gastrointestinal transit, adherence to the Caco-2 cell line, and antimicrobial activity. KID7 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity and cholesterol-lowering activity, in vitro. In vivo cholesterol-lowering activity of KID7 was studied using atherogenic diet-fed hypercholesterolemic mice. The experimental animals (C57BL/6J mice) were divided into 4 groups viz., normal diet-fed group (NCD), atherogenic diet-fed group (HCD), atherogenic diet- and KID7-fed group (HCD-KID7), and atherogenic diet- and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121-fed group (HCD-L.ac) as positive control. Serum total cholesterol (T-CHO) level was significantly decreased by 19.8% in the HCD-KID7 group (P < 0.05), but not in the HCD-L.ac group compared with the HCD group. LDL cholesterol levels in both HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups were decreased by 35.5 and 38.7%, respectively, compared with HCD group (both, P < 0.05). Glutamyl pyruvic transaminase (GPT) level was significantly lower in the HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups compared to HCD group and was equivalent to that of the NCD group. Liver T-CHO levels in the HCD-KID7 group were reduced significantly compared with the HCD group (P < 0.05) but not in the HCD-L.ac group. Analysis of expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in liver showed that low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) mRNA expression was significantly increase in the HCD-KID7 group compared to the HCD group. Furthermore, KID7 exhibited desired viability under freeze-drying and subsequent storage conditions with a combination of skim milk and galactomannan. P. pentosaceus KID7 could be a potential probiotic strain, which can be used to develop cholesterol-lowering functional food after appropriate human clinical trials. PMID:26300852

  7. Application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria to control pathogens in ready-to-use vegetables.

    PubMed

    Vescovo, M; Torriani, S; Orsi, C; Macchiarolo, F; Scolari, G

    1996-08-01

    Five psychrotrophic strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lact. plantarum and Pediococcus spp.) were isolated from 22 samples of commercial salads. These strains were shown to inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on MRS agar, in salads and in juice prepared from vegetable salads. Lactobacillus casei IMPCLC34 was most effective in reducing total mesophilic bacteria and the coliform group; Aer. hydrophila, Salm. typhimurium and Staph. aureus disappeared after 6 d of storage, while the counts for L. monocytogenes remained constant. The potential application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria as biopreservatives of ready-to-use vegetables is suggested. PMID:8760320

  8. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  9. Copper-binding characteristics of exopolymers from a freshwater-sediment bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelman, M.W.; Geesey, G.G.

    1985-04-01

    Copper-binding activity by exopolymers from adherent cells of freshwater-sediment bacterium was demonstrated by a combination of equilibrium dialysis and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Crude, cell-free exopolymer preparations containing protein and polysaccharide components bound up to 37 nmol of Cu per mg (dry weight). A highly purified exopolysaccharide preparation bound up to 253 nmol of Cu per mg of carbohydrate. The conditional stability constant for the crude exopolymer-Cu complex was 7.3 x 10/sup 8/. This value was similar to those obtained for Cu complexes formed with humic acids and xanthan, an exopolysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. Studies conducted at copper concentrations, pHs, and temperatures found in sediments from which the bacterium was isolated indicated that the exopolymers were capable of binding copper under natural conditions.

  10. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Leisner, Jørgen J.; Pot, Bruno; Christensen, Henrik; Rusul, Gulam; Olsen, John E.; Wee, Bee Wah; Muhamad, Kharidah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg−1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682. PMID:9925588

  11. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. from faeces of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Allegretti, L; Revolledo, L; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Chacón, J L; Martins, L M; Seixas, G H F; Ferreira, A J P

    2014-12-01

    In Brazil, the blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) is a common pet. The faecal microbiota of these birds include a wide variety of bacterial species, the majority of which belong to the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) clade. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the diversity and abundance of LAB and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cloacae between wild and captive birds and to select, identify and characterise LAB for consideration as a parrot probiotic. Cloacal swabs were collected from 26 wild and 26 captive birds. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA genes were amplified. The numbers of PCR-positive Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species isolated from wild and captive birds were significantly different (P<0.05). Enterococcus was the most frequently isolated genus, followed by Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most frequently isolated species from all birds. This study increases our understanding of the faecal microbiota, and may help to improve the nutrition and habitat management of captive and wild parrots. The bacterial population identified in the faecal microbiota of clinically healthy wild and captive parrots can serve as a database to analyse variations in the gut microbiota of pathogen-infected parrots and to develop probiotics specific to these genera. PMID:25062609

  12. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    PubMed

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  13. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a diazotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kanvinde, L.; Sastry, G.R.K. )

    1990-07-01

    This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grown on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate {sup 15}N supplied as {sup 15}N{sub 2}. As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship.

  14. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life. PMID:22170293

  15. Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic ruminal bacterium capable of degrading hydrolyzable tannins.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K E; Pell, A N; Schofield, P; Zinder, S

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic diplococcoid bacterium able to degrade hydrolyzable tannins was isolated from the ruminal fluid of a goat fed desmodium (Desmodium ovalifolium), a tropical legume which contains levels as high as 17% condensed tannins. This strain grew under anaerobic conditions in the presence of up to 30 g of tannic acid per liter and tolerated a range of phenolic monomers, including gallic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids. The predominant fermentation product from tannic acid breakdown was pyrogallol, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Tannic acid degradation was dependent on the presence of a sugar such as glucose, fructose, arabinose, sucrose, galactose, cellobiose, or soluble starch as an added carbon and energy source. The strain also demonstrated resistance to condensed tannins up to a level of 4 g/liter. PMID:7574640

  16. Physiological and taxonomic description of the novel autotrophic, metal oxidizing bacterium, Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002.

    PubMed

    Weber, Karrie A; Hedrick, David B; Peacock, Aaron D; Thrash, J Cameron; White, David C; Achenbach, Laurie A; Coates, John D

    2009-06-01

    A lithoautotrophic, Fe(II) oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacterium, strain 2002 (ATCC BAA-1479; =DSM 18807), was isolated as part of a study on nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation in freshwater lake sediments. Here we provide an in-depth phenotypic and phylogenetic description of the isolate. Strain 2002 is a gram-negative, non-spore forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium which tested positive for oxidase, catalase, and urease. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain 2002 in a clade within the family Neisseriaceae in the order Nessieriales of the Betaproteobacteria 99.3% similar to Pseudogulbenkiania subflava. Similar to P. sublfava, predominant whole cell fatty acids were identified as 16:17c, 42.4%, and 16:0, 34.1%. Whole cell difference spectra of the Fe(II) reduced minus nitrate oxidized cyctochrome content revealed a possible role of c-type cytochromes in nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. Strain 2002 was unable to oxidize aqueous or solid-phase Mn(II) with nitrate as the electron acceptor. In addition to lithotrophic growth with Fe(II), strain 2002 could alternatively grow heterotrophically with long-chain fatty acids, simple organic acids, carbohydrates, yeast extract, or casamino acids. Nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, and oxygen also served as terminal electron acceptors with acetate as the electron donor. PMID:19333599

  17. Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov., the redmouth (RM) bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, W.H.; Ross, A.J.; Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of the redmouth (RM) bacterium, one of the etiological agents of redmouth disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and certain other fishes, were characterized by means of their biochemical reactions, by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, and by determination of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratios in DNA. The DNA relatedness studies confirmed the fact that the RM bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and that they comprise a single species that is not closely related to any other species of Enterobacteriaceae. They are about 30% related to species of both Serratia and Yersinia. A comparison of the biochemical reactions of RM bacteria and serratiae indicated that there are many differences between these organisms and that biochemically the RM bacteria are most closely related to yersiniae. The G+C ratios of RM bacteria were approximated to be between 47.5 and 48.5% These values are similar to those of yersiniae but markedly different from those of serratiae. On the basis of their biochemical reactions and their G+C ratios, the RM bacteria are considered to be a new species of Yersinia, for which the name Yersinia ruckeri is proposed. Strain 2396-61 (= ATCC 29473) is designated the type strain of the species.

  18. A serine sensor for multicellularity in a bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Arvind R; DeLoughery, Aaron; Bradshaw, Niels; Chen, Yun; O’Shea, Erin; Losick, Richard; Chai, Yunrong

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a simple environmental sensing mechanism for biofilm formation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis that operates without the involvement of a dedicated RNA or protein. Certain serine codons, the four TCN codons, in the gene for the biofilm repressor SinR caused a lowering of SinR levels under biofilm-inducing conditions. Synonymous substitutions of these TCN codons with AGC or AGT impaired biofilm formation and gene expression. Conversely, switching AGC or AGT to TCN codons upregulated biofilm formation. Genome-wide ribosome profiling showed that ribosome density was higher at UCN codons than at AGC or AGU during biofilm formation. Serine starvation recapitulated the effect of biofilm-inducing conditions on ribosome occupancy and SinR production. As serine is one of the first amino acids to be exhausted at the end of exponential phase growth, reduced translation speed at serine codons may be exploited by other microbes in adapting to stationary phase. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01501.001 PMID:24347549

  19. Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant pleomorphic bacterium isolated from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-resistant, Gram-negative and pleomorphic bacterium (CON-1) was isolated from a contaminated tryptone glucose yeast extract agar plate in the laboratory. It was red pigmented, nonmotile, nonsporulating, and aerobic, and contained MK-8 as respiratory quinone. The cell wall of this bacterium contained ornithine. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:1 and iso C18:0. The DNA of CON-1 had a G+C content of 70 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that CON-1 exhibited a maximum similarity (94.72%) with Deinococcus grandis. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the bacterium CON-1 was identified as a new species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of D. mumbaiensis is CON-1 (MTCC 7297(T)=DSM 17424(T)). PMID:16445756

  20. Metabolic Evolution of a Deep-Branching Hyperthermophilic Chemoautotrophic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA) cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere. PMID:24516572

  1. Metabolic evolution of a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA) cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere. PMID:24516572

  2. Jeongeupia chitinilytica sp. nov., a chitinolytic bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Chang, Rey-Chang; Cheng, Chih-Yu; Shiau, Yu-Wen; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2013-03-01

    A novel bacterium, designated strain Jchi(T), was isolated from soil in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain Jchi(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, motile and rod-shaped. They contained poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules and formed dark-yellow colonies. Growth occurred at 20-37 °C (optimum between 25 and 30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum between pH 7.0 and pH 8.0) and with 0-2 % NaCl (optimum between 0 and 1 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain Jchi(T) belonged to the genus Jeongeupia and that its closest neighbour was Jeongeupia naejangsanensis BIO-TAS4-2(T) (98.0 % sequence similarity). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain Jchi(T) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c. The major cellular hydroxy fatty acid was C12 : 0 3-OH. The isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 66.1 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Jchi(T) and J. naejangsanensis BIO-TAS4-2(T) was about 41.0 %. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain Jchi(T) represents a novel species in the genus Jeongeupia, for which the name Jeongeupia chitinilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Jchi(T) ( = BCRC 80367(T)  = KCTC 23701(T)). PMID:22659500

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium isolated from marine sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Rontani, J F; Gilewicz, M J; Michotey, V D; Zheng, T L; Bonin, P C; Bertrand, J C

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium (Marinobacter sp. strain CAB) isolated from marine sediments. Under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, this strain efficiently degraded this ubiquitous isoprenoid ketone. Several bacterial metabolites, 4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecan-1-ol, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanal, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid, Z-3,7-dimethylocten-2-oic acid, Z-3,7,11-trimethyldodecen-2-oic acid, and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol, were formally identified, and different pathways were proposed to explain the formation of such isoprenoid compounds. PMID:9023941

  4. The effect of low pH on protein expression by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Lee, Hong-Gu; Pi, KyungBae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2008-04-01

    The ability of a lactic acid bacterium to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract is a key point in its function as a probiotic. In this study, protein synthesis by the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri, was analyzed under transiently decreased pH conditions. L. reuteri cells grown to the midexponential growth phase at 37 degrees C were exposed to transient (1 h) low-pH stresses from pH 6.8 to pH 5.0, 4.5, or 4.0. 2-DE allowed us to identify 40 common proteins that were consistently and significantly altered under all three low-pH conditions. PMF was used to identify these 40 proteins, and functional annotation allowed them to be distributed to six major classes: (i) transport and binding proteins; (ii) transcription-translation; (iii) nucleotide metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis; (iv) carbon energy metabolism; (v) pH homeostasis and stress; and (vi) unassigned. These findings provide new insight into the inducible mechanisms underlying the capacity of gastrointestinal L. reuteri to tolerate acid stress. PMID:18351691

  5. Characterizations of intracellular arsenic in a bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Yannone, S. M.; Tainer, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Life requires a key set of chemical elements to sustain growth. Yet, a growing body of literature suggests that microbes can alter their nutritional requirements based on the availability of these chemical elements. Under limiting conditions for one element microbes have been shown to utilize a variety of other elements to serve similar functions often (but not always) in similar molecular structures. Well-characterized elemental exchanges include manganese for iron, tungsten for molybdenum and sulfur for phosphorus or oxygen. These exchanges can be found in a wide variety of biomolecules ranging from protein to lipids and DNA. Recent evidence suggested that arsenic, as arsenate or As(V), was taken up and incorporated into the cellular material of the bacterium GFAJ-1. The evidence was interpreted to support As(V) acting in an analogous role to phosphate. We will therefore discuss our ongoing efforts to characterize intracellular arsenate and how it may partition among the cellular fractions of the microbial isolate GFAJ-1 when exposed to As(V) in the presence of various levels of phosphate. Under high As(V) conditions, cells express a dramatically different proteome than when grown given only phosphate. Ongoing studies on the diversity and potential role of proteins and metabolites produced in the presence of As(V) will be reported. These investigations promise to inform the role and additional metabolic potential for As in biology. Arsenic assimilation into biomolecules contributes to the expanding set of chemical elements utilized by microbes in unusual environmental niches.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, William R; Muscarella, Mario E; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments. PMID:26089434

  7. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments. PMID:26089434

  8. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-01-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU. PMID:25133457

  9. Soil components mitigate the antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles towards a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6.

    PubMed

    Calder, Alyssa J; Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Johnson, William; Anderson, Anne J

    2012-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used for their antimicrobial activity and consequently the particles will become environmental contaminants. This study evaluated in sand and soil matrices the toxicity of 10nm spherical Ag NPs (1 and 3 mg Ag/L) toward a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. In sand, both NP doses resulted in loss in bacterial culturability whereas in a loam soil, no cell death was observed. Amendments of sand with clays (30% v/v kaolinite or bentonite) did not protect the bacterium when challenged with Ag NPs. However, culturability of the bacterium was maintained when the Ag NP-amended sand was mixed with soil pore water or humic acid. Imaging by atomic force microscopy revealed aggregation of single nanoparticles in water, and their embedding into background material when suspended in pore water and humic acids. Zeta potential measurements supported aggregation and surface charge modifications with pore water and humic acids. Measurement of soluble Ag in the microcosms and geochemical modeling to deduce the free ion concentration revealed bacterial culturability was governed by the predicted free Ag ion concentrations. Our study confirmed the importance of Ag NPs as a source of ions and illustrated that processes accounting for protection in soil against Ag NPs involved distinct NP- and ion-effects. Processes affecting NP bioactivity involved surface charge changes due to sorption of Ca²⁺ from the pore water leading to agglomeration and coating of the NPs with humic acid and other organic materials. Removal of bioactive ions included the formation of soluble Ag complexes with dissolved organic carbon and precipitation of Ag ions with chloride in pore water. We conclude that mitigation of toxicity of Ag NPs in soils towards a soil bacterium resides in several interactions that differentially involve protection from the Ag NPs or the ions they produce. PMID:22591989

  10. Microbiological Study of Lactic Acid Fermentation of Caper Berries by Molecular and Culture-Dependent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Ben Omar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Martínez Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation of capers (the fruits of Capparis sp.) was studied by molecular and culture-independent methods. A lactic acid fermentation occurred following immersion of caper berries in water, resulting in fast acidification and development of the organoleptic properties typical of this fermented food. A collection of 133 isolates obtained at different times of fermentation was reduced to 75 after randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis. Isolates were identified by PCR or 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (37 isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1 isolate), Lactobacillus pentosus (5 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (9 isolates), Lactobacillus fermentum (6 isolates), Pediococcus pentosaceus (14 isolates), Pediococcus acidilactici (1 isolate), and Enterococcus faecium (2 isolates). Cluster analysis of RAPD-PCR patterns revealed a high degree of diversity among lactobacilli (with four major groups and five subgroups), while pediococci clustered in two closely related groups. A culture-independent analysis of fermentation samples by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) also indicated that L. plantarum is the predominant species in this fermentation, in agreement with culture-dependent results. The distribution of L. brevis and L. fermentum in samples was also determined by TTGE, but identification of Pediococcus at the species level was not possible. TTGE also allowed a more precise estimation of the distribution of E. faecium, and the detection of Enterococcus casseliflavus (which was not revealed by the culture-dependent analysis). Results from this study indicate that complementary data from molecular and culture-dependent analysis provide a more accurate determination of the microbial community dynamics during caper fermentation. PMID:16332762

  11. ["Candidatus contubernalis alkalaceticum," an obligately syntrophic alkaliphilic bacterium capable of anaerobic acetate oxidation in a coculture with Desulfonatronum cooperativum].

    PubMed

    Zhilina, T N; Zavarzina, D G; Kolganova, T V; Turova, T P; Zavarzin, G A

    2005-01-01

    From the silty sediments of the Khadyn soda lake (Tuva), a binary sulfidogenic bacterial association capable of syntrophic acetate oxidation at pH 10.0 was isolated. An obligately syntrophic, gram-positive, spore-forming alkaliphilic rod-shaped bacterium performs acetate oxidation in a syntrophic association with a hydrogenotrophic, alkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacterium; the latter organism was previously isolated and characterized as the new species Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Other sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genera Desulfonatronum and Desulfonatronovibrio can also act as the hydrogenotrophic partner. Apart from acetate, the syntrophic culture can oxidize ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, serine, fructose, and isobutyric acid. Selective amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments of the acetate-utilizing syntrophic component of the binary culture was performed; it was found to cluster with clones of uncultured gram-positive bacteria within the family Syntrophomonadaceae. The acetate-oxidizing bacterium is thus the first representative of this cluster obtained in a laboratory culture. Based on its phylogenetic position, the new acetate-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium is proposed to be assigned, in a Candidate status, to a new genus and species: "Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum." PMID:16400991

  12. Pangenome Evolution in the Marine Bacterium Alteromonas

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We have examined a collection of the free-living marine bacterium Alteromonas genomes with cores diverging in average nucleotide identities ranging from 99.98% to 73.35%, i.e., from microbes that can be considered members of a natural clone (like in a clinical epidemiological outbreak) to borderline genus level. The genomes were largely syntenic allowing a precise delimitation of the core and flexible regions in each. The core was 1.4 Mb (ca. 30% of the typical strain genome size). Recombination rates along the core were high among strains belonging to the same species (37.7–83.7% of all nucleotide polymorphisms) but they decreased sharply between species (18.9–5.1%). Regarding the flexible genome, its main expansion occurred within the boundaries of the species, i.e., strains of the same species already have a large and diverse flexible genome. Flexible regions occupy mostly fixed genomic locations. Four large genomic islands are involved in the synthesis of strain-specific glycosydic receptors that we have called glycotypes. These genomic regions are exchanged by homologous recombination within and between species and there is evidence for their import from distant taxonomic units (other genera within the family). In addition, several hotspots for integration of gene cassettes by illegitimate recombination are distributed throughout the genome. They code for features that give each clone specific properties to interact with their ecological niche and must flow fast throughout the whole genus as they are found, with nearly identical sequences, in different species. Models for the generation of this genomic diversity involving phage predation are discussed. PMID:27189983

  13. Pangenome Evolution in the Marine Bacterium Alteromonas.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We have examined a collection of the free-living marine bacterium Alteromonas genomes with cores diverging in average nucleotide identities ranging from 99.98% to 73.35%, i.e., from microbes that can be considered members of a natural clone (like in a clinical epidemiological outbreak) to borderline genus level. The genomes were largely syntenic allowing a precise delimitation of the core and flexible regions in each. The core was 1.4 Mb (ca. 30% of the typical strain genome size). Recombination rates along the core were high among strains belonging to the same species (37.7-83.7% of all nucleotide polymorphisms) but they decreased sharply between species (18.9-5.1%). Regarding the flexible genome, its main expansion occurred within the boundaries of the species, i.e., strains of the same species already have a large and diverse flexible genome. Flexible regions occupy mostly fixed genomic locations. Four large genomic islands are involved in the synthesis of strain-specific glycosydic receptors that we have called glycotypes. These genomic regions are exchanged by homologous recombination within and between species and there is evidence for their import from distant taxonomic units (other genera within the family). In addition, several hotspots for integration of gene cassettes by illegitimate recombination are distributed throughout the genome. They code for features that give each clone specific properties to interact with their ecological niche and must flow fast throughout the whole genus as they are found, with nearly identical sequences, in different species. Models for the generation of this genomic diversity involving phage predation are discussed. PMID:27189983

  14. Haloanaerobium salsugo sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, anaerobic bacterium from a subterranean brine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Sharma, P.K.; Tanner, R.S.; McInerney, M.J.; Oren, A.; Woese, C.R.

    1994-07-01

    A strictly anaerobic, moderately halophilic, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a highly saline oil field brine. The bacterium was a non-spore-forming, nonmotile rod, appearing singly, in pairs, or occasionally as long chains, and measured 0.3 to 0.4 by 2.6 to 4 {micro}m. The bacterium had a specific requirement for NaCl and grew at NaCl concentrations of between 6 and 24%, with optimal growth at 9% NaCl. The isolate grew at temperatures of between 22 and 51 C and pH values of between 5.6 and 8.0. The doubling time in a complex medium containing 10% NaCl was 9 h. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and penicillin but not by cycloheximide or azide. Fermentable substrates were predominantly carbohydrates. The end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. The major components of the cellular fatty acids were C{sub 14:0}, C{sub 16:0}, C{sub 16:1}, and C{sub 17:0 cyc} acids. The DNA base composition of the isolate was 34 mol% G+C. Oligonucleotide catalog and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA showed that strain VS-752{sup T} was most closely related to Haloanaerobium praevalens GSL{sup T} (ATCC 33744), the sole member of the genus Haloanaerobium. The authors propose that strain VS-752 (ATCC 51327) by established as the type strain of a new species, Haloanaerobium salsugo, in the genus Haloanaerobium. 40 refs., 3 figs, 5 tabs.

  15. Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov., an airborne xylanolytic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-01-01

    During a search for xylan-degrading micro-organisms, a sporulating bacterium was recovered from xylan-containing agar plates exposed to air in a research laboratory (Salamanca University, Spain). The airborne isolate (designated strain XIL14T) was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as representing a Paenibacillus species most closely related to Paenibacillus illinoisensis JCM 9907T (99.3 % sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus pabuli DSM 3036T (98 % sequence similarity). Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization data indicated that the isolate belongs to a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus. Cells of strain XIL14T were motile, sporulating, rod-shaped, Gram-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain XIL14T was 50.5 mol%. Growth was observed with many carbohydrates, including xylan, as the only carbon source and gas production was not observed from glucose. Catalase was positive and oxidase was negative. The airborne isolate produced a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases, amylases, gelatinase and beta-galactosidase. DNA-DNA hybridization levels between strain XIL14T and P. illinoisensis DSM 11733T and P. pabuli DSM 3036T were 43.3 and 36.3 %, respectively. According to the data obtained, strain XIL14T is considered to represent a novel species for which the name Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed (=LMG 21957T=CECT 5839T). PMID:15653909

  16. Control of spoilage fungi by protective lactic acid bacteria displaying probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Priya, Sulochana; Devendra, Leena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2014-04-01

    Thirty-six lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus were isolated, and the spectrum of antifungal activity was verified against Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 42109), Aspergillus niger (KACC 42589), Fusarium moniliforme (KACC 08141), Penicillium chrysogenum (NII 08137), and the yeast Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). Three isolates, identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (TG2), Lactobacillus casei (DY2), and Lactococcus (BSN) were selected further, and their antifungal compounds were identified by ESI-MS and HPLC analysis as a range of carboxylic acids along with some unidentified, higher molecular weight compounds. An attempt to check out the shelf life extension of wheat bread without fungal spoilage was performed by fermenting the dough with the Lactococcus isolate. Apart from growth in low pH and tolerance to bile salts, probiotic potential of these three isolates was further substantiated by in vitro screening methods that include transit tolerance to the conditions in the upper human gastrointestinal tract and bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines. PMID:24532445

  17. Degradation of phenolic compounds by the lignocellulose deconstructing thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus Acidocaldarius

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, John E.; Apel, William A.; Lee, Brady D.; Thompson, David N.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Newby, Deborah T.; Reed, David. W.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2015-11-05

    Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, a thermoacidophilic bacterium, has a repertoire of thermo- and acid-stable enzymes that deconstruct lignocellulosic compounds. The work presented here describes the ability of A. acidocaldarius to reduce the concentration of the phenolic compounds: phenol, ferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid and sinapinic acid during growth conditions. The extent and rate of the removal of these compounds were significantly increased by the presence of micro-molar copper concentrations, suggesting activity by copper oxidases that have been identified in the genome of A. acidocaldarius. Substrate removal kinetics was first order for phenol, ferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid and sinapinic acid in the presence of 50 μM copper sulfate. In addition, laccase enzyme assays of cellular protein fractions suggested significant activity on a lignin analog between the temperatures of 45 and 90 °C. As a result, this work shows the potential for A. acidocaldarius to degrade phenolic compounds, demonstrating potential relevance to biofuel production and other industrial processes.

  18. Degradation of phenolic compounds by the lignocellulose deconstructing thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus Acidocaldarius

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aston, John E.; Apel, William A.; Lee, Brady D.; Thompson, David N.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Newby, Deborah T.; Reed, David. W.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2015-11-05

    Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, a thermoacidophilic bacterium, has a repertoire of thermo- and acid-stable enzymes that deconstruct lignocellulosic compounds. The work presented here describes the ability of A. acidocaldarius to reduce the concentration of the phenolic compounds: phenol, ferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid and sinapinic acid during growth conditions. The extent and rate of the removal of these compounds were significantly increased by the presence of micro-molar copper concentrations, suggesting activity by copper oxidases that have been identified in the genome of A. acidocaldarius. Substrate removal kinetics was first order for phenol, ferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid and sinapinic acid in the presence ofmore » 50 μM copper sulfate. In addition, laccase enzyme assays of cellular protein fractions suggested significant activity on a lignin analog between the temperatures of 45 and 90 °C. As a result, this work shows the potential for A. acidocaldarius to degrade phenolic compounds, demonstrating potential relevance to biofuel production and other industrial processes.« less

  19. Structural characterization of the lipid A from the LPS of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Halomonas pantelleriensis.

    PubMed

    Carillo, Sara; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Casillo, Angela; Lindner, Buko; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Giuliano, Mariateresa; Cammarota, Marcella; Lanzetta, Rosa; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2016-09-01

    Halomonas pantelleriensis DSM9661(Τ) is a Gram-negative haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from the sand of the volcanic Venus mirror lake, closed to seashore in the Pantelleria Island in the south of Italy. It is able to optimally grow in media containing 3-15 % (w/v) total salt and at pH between 9 and 10. To survive in these harsh conditions, the bacterium has developed several strategies that probably concern the bacteria outer membrane, a barrier regulating the exchange with the environment. In such a context, the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), which are among the major constituent of the Gram-negative outer membrane, are thought to contribute to the restrictive membrane permeability properties. The structure of the lipid A family derived from the LPS of Halomonas pantelleriensis DSM 9661(T) is reported herein. The lipid A was obtained from the purified LPS by mild acid hydrolysis. The lipid A, which contains different numbers of fatty acids residues, and its partially deacylated derivatives were completely characterized by means of ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry and chemical analysis. Preliminary immunological assays were performed, and a comparison with the lipid A structure of the phylogenetic proximal Halomonas magadiensis is also reported. PMID:27329160

  20. Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis sp. nov., a thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from Coso Hot Springs, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Simbahan, Jessica; Drijber, Rhae; Blum, Paul

    2004-09-01

    A thermo-acidophilic Gram-positive bacterium, strain CsHg2T, which grows aerobically at 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 2.0-6.0 (optimum 4.0), was isolated from a geothermal pool located in Coso Hot Springs in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this bacterium was most closely related to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (97.8 % identity) and Alicyclobacillus sendaiensis (96.9 %), three Japanese strains denoted as UZ-1, KHA-31 and MIH 332 (96.1-96.5 %) and Alicyclobacillus genomic species FR-6 (96.3 %). Phenotypic characteristics including temperature and pH optima, G+C composition, acid production from a variety of carbon sources and sensitivity to different metal salts distinguished CsHg2T from A. acidocaldarius, A. sendaiensis and FR-6. The cell lipid membrane was composed mainly of omega-cyclohexyl fatty acid, consistent with membranes from other Alicyclobacillus species. Very low DNA-DNA hybridization values between CsHg2T and the type strains of Alicyclobacillus indicate that CsHg2T represents a distinct species. On the basis of these results, the name Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain is CsHg2T (ATCC BAA-915T = DSM 16176T). PMID:15388732

  1. Photoactive yellow protein from the halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber.

    PubMed

    Memmi, Samy; Kyndt, John; Meyer, Terry; Devreese, Bart; Cusanovich, Michael; Van Beeumen, Jozef

    2008-02-19

    A gene for photoactive yellow protein (PYP) was identified from the genome sequence of the extremely halophilic aerobic bacterium Salinibacter ruber (Sr). The sequence is distantly related to the prototypic PYP from Halorhodospira halophila (Hh) (37% identity) and contains most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for function. However, the Sr pyp gene is not flanked by its two biosynthetic genes as in other species. To determine as to whether the Sr pyp gene encodes a functional protein, we cloned and expressed it in Escherichia coli, along with the genes for chromophore biosynthesis from Rhodobacter capsulatus. The Sr PYP has a 31-residue N-terminal extension as compared to other PYPs that appears to be important for dimerization; however, truncation of these extra residues did not change the spectral and photokinetic properties. Sr PYP has an absorption maximum at 431 nm, which is at shorter wavelengths than the prototypical Hh PYP (at 446 nm). It is also photoactive, being reversibly bleached by either blue or white light. The kinetics of dark recovery is slower than any of the PYPs reported to date (4.27 x 10(-4) s(-1) at pH 7.5). Sr PYP appears to have a normal photocycle with the I1 and I2 intermediates. The presence of the I2' intermediate is also inferred on the basis of the effects of temperature and alchohol on recovery. Sr PYP has an intermediate spectral form in equilibrium with the 431 nm form, similar to R. capsulatus PYP and the Y42F mutant of Hh PYP. Increasing ionic strength stabilizes the 431 nm form at the expense of the intermediate spectral form, and the kinetics of recovery is accelerated 6.4-fold between 0 and 3.5 M salt. This is observed with ions from both the chaotropic and the kosmotropic series. Ionic strength also stabilizes PYP against thermal denaturation, as the melting temperature is increased from 74 degrees C in buffer alone to 92 degrees C in 2 M KCl. Sr accumulates KCl in the cytoplasm, like Halobacterium, to

  2. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten; Schmidt, Bjarne G; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well-documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel-based NCFM proteomics addressed the so-called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6-11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D gel using MALDI-TOF-MS. The 102 unique gene products among the 150 protein identifications were assigned to different functional categories, and evaluated by considering a calculated distribution of abundance as well as grand average of hydrophobicity values. None of the very few available lactic acid bacteria proteome reference maps included the range of pI >7.0. The present report of such data on the proteome of NCFM fundamentally complements current knowledge on protein profiles limited to the acid and neutral pH range. PMID:22522807

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel toluene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Beller, H R; Spormann, A M; Sharma, P K; Cole, J R; Reinhard, M

    1996-01-01

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from fuel-contaminated subsurface soil, strain PRTOL1, mineralizes toluene as the sole electron donor and carbon source under strictly anaerobic conditions. The mineralization of 80% of toluene carbon to CO2 was demonstrated in experiments with [ring-U-14C]toluene; 15% of toluene carbon was converted to biomass and nonvolatile metabolic by-products, primarily the former. The observed stoichiometric ratio of moles of sulfate consumed per mole of toluene consumed was consistent with the theoretical ratio for mineralization of toluene coupled with the reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. Strain PRTOL1 also transforms o- and p-xylene to metabolic products when grown with toluene. However, xylene transformation by PRTOL1 is slow relative to toluene degradation and cannot be sustained over time. Stable isotope-labeled substrates were used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate the by-products of toluene and xylene metabolism. The predominant by-products from toluene, o-xylene, and p-xylene were benzylsuccinic acid, (2-methylbenzyl)succinic acid, and 4-methylbenzoic acid (or p-toluic acid), respectively. Metabolic by-products accounted for nearly all of the o-xylene consumed. Enzyme assays indicated that acetyl coenzyme A oxidation proceeded via the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. Compared with the only other reported toluene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain PRTOL1 is distinct in that it has a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence and was derived from a freshwater rather than marine environment. PMID:8919780

  4. Microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Isolation and characterization of a pyrene-degrading bacterium. [Mycobacterium sp

    SciTech Connect

    Heitkamp, M.A.; Franklin, W.; Cerniglia, C.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Microbiological analyses of sediments located near a point source for petrogenic chemicals resulted in the isolation of a pyrene-mineralizing bacterium. This isolate was identified as a Mycobacterium sp. on the basis of its cellular and colony morphology, gram-positive and strong acid-fast reactions, diagnostic biochemical tests, 66.6% G+C content of the DNA, and high-molecular-weight mycolic acids (C{sub 58} to C{sub 64}). The mycobacterium mineralized pyrene when grown in a mineral salts medium supplemented with nutrients but was unable to utilize pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The mycobacterium grew well at 24 and 30{degree}C and minimally at 35{degree}C. No growth was observed at 5 or 42{degree}C. The mycobacterium grew well at salt concentrations up to 4%. Pyrene-induced Mycobacterium cultures mineralized 5% of the pyrene after 6 h and reached a maximum of 48% mineralization within 72 h. Treatment of induced and noninduced cultures with chloramphenicol showed that pyrene-degrading enzymes were inducible in this Mycobacterium sp. This bacterium could also mineralize other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl- and nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, 3-methylcholanthrene, 1-nitropyrene, and 6-nitrochrysene. This is the first report of a bacterium able to extensively mineralize pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing four aromatic rings.

  5. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Nirakar; Dipasquale, Laura; d'Ippolito, Giuliana; Panico, Antonio; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production. PMID:26053393

  6. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Nirakar; Dipasquale, Laura; d’Ippolito, Giuliana; Panico, Antonio; Lens, Piet N. L.; Esposito, Giovanni; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production. PMID:26053393

  7. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  8. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2012-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Phosphate-Solubilizing Halophilic Bacterium Kushneria sp. YCWA18 from Daqiao Saltern on the Coast of Yellow Sea of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengling; Qu, Lingyun; Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) function in soil phosphorus cycle, increasing the bioavailability of soil phosphorus for plants. Isolation and application of salt-tolerant or halophilic PSB will facilitate the development of saline-alkali soil-based agriculture. A moderately halophilic bacterium was isolated from the sediment of Daqiao saltern on the eastern coast of China, which also performs phosphate-solubilizing ability. The bacterium was assigned to genus Kushneria according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence, and accordingly named as Kushneria sp. YCWA18. The fastest growth was observed when the culturing temperature was 28°C and the concentration of NaCl was 6% (w/v). It was founds that the bacterium can survive at a concentration of NaCl up to 20%. At the optimum condition, the bacterium solubilized 283.16 μg/mL phosphorus in 11 days after being inoculated in 200 mL Ca3(PO4)2 containing liquid medium, and 47.52 μg/mL phosphorus in 8 days after being inoculated in 200 mL lecithin-containing liquid medium. The growth of the bacterium was concomitant with a significant decrease of acidity of the medium. PMID:21716683

  10. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacterium LRE07 from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and its potential for remediation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglian; Wan, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Guo, Hanjun; Chen, Liang; Xi, Qiang; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Chengbin; Chen, Jueliang

    2011-03-01

    Valuable endophytic strains facilitating plants growth and detoxification of heavy metals are required because the application of plant-endophyte symbiotic system is a promising potential technique to improve efficiency of phytoremediation. In this study, endophytic bacterium LRE07 was isolated from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. It was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The endophytic bacterium LRE07 was resistant to the toxic effects of heavy metals, solubilized mineral phosphate, and produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore. The heavy metal detoxification was studied in growing LRE07 cells. The strain bound over 65% of cadmium and 35% of zinc in its growing cells from single metal solutions 72 h after inoculation. Besides the high removal efficiencies in single-ion system, an analogous removal phenomenon was also observed in multi-ions system, indicating that the endophyte possesses specific and remarkable heavy metal remediation abilities. PMID:20953602

  11. Alteromonas infernus sp. nov., a new polysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Raguénès, G H; Peres, A; Ruimy, R; Pignet, P; Christen, R; Loaec, M; Rougeaux, H; Barbier, G; Guezennec, J G

    1997-04-01

    A deep-sea, aerobic, mesophilic and heterotrophic new bacterium was isolated from a sample of fluid collected among a dense population of Riftia pachyptila, in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal vent of the Southern depression of the Guaymas basin (Gulf of California). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses and DNA/DNA relatedness, the strain GY785 was recognized as a new species of the genus Alteromonas and the name of Alteromonas infernus is proposed. During the stationary phase in batch cultures in the presence of glucose, this bacterium secreted two unusual polysaccharides. The water-soluble exopolysaccharide-1 produced contained glucose, galactose, galacturonic and glucuronic acids as monosaccharides. The gel-forming exopolysaccharide-2 was separated from the bacterial cells by dialysis against distilled water and partially characterized. PMID:9134716

  12. Abscesses associated with a Brucella inopinata-like bacterium in a big-eyed tree frog (Leptopelis vermiculatus).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dominik; Lorenz, Nadja; Heuser, Wenke; Kämpfer, Peter; Scholz, Holger C; Lierz, Michael

    2012-09-01

    A 4-yr-old big-eyed tree frog (Leptopelis vermiculatus) was submitted with two pea-sized (4-mm diameter), firm, and painful masses on the right side of its back. The two abscess-like masses were surgically opened, and a whitish-yellow pasty content was removed. A Brucella inopinata-like bacterium was obtained in pure culture and was resistant against ampicillin and tylosin but sensitive to the 8 other antibiotics tested. The organism was identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (acc. no. HE608873) and recA (acc. no. HE608874) genes after preliminary misidentification as Ochrobactrum anthropi when using a commercial identification system. To the authors' knowledge, a B. inopinata-like bacterium has not been reported previously in amphibians. The organism is a potential human pathogen and may present a risk for people handling amphibians. PMID:23082529

  13. [Partial sequence homology of FtsZ in phylogenetics analysis of lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Xiu-zhu

    2005-10-01

    FtsZ is a structurally conserved protein, which is universal among the prokaryotes. It plays a key role in prokaryote cell division. A partial fragment of the ftsZ gene about 800bp in length was amplified and sequenced and a partial FtsZ protein phylogenetic tree for the lactic acid bacteria was constructed. By comparing the FtsZ phylogenetic tree with the 16S rDNA tree, it was shown that the two trees were similar in topology. Both trees revealed that Pediococcus spp. were closely related with L. casei group of Lactobacillus spp. , but less related with other lactic acid cocci such as Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The results also showed that the discriminative power of FtsZ was higher than that of 16S rDNA for either inter-species or inter-genus and could be a very useful tool in species identification of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16342751

  14. Studies of the extracellular glycocalyx of the anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Paul J; Price, Neil P J; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-12-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  15. Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov., a Novel Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium of the Family Cytophagaceae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linghua; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Nie, Yao; Luo, Xuesong; Zhou, Enmin; Zhou, Lingli; Pan, Yunfan; Li, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Few diazotrophs have been found to belong to the family Cytophagaceae so far. In the present study, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that forms red colonies, was isolated from sands of the Takalamakan desert. It was designated H4XT. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis indicated that the isolate is a new species of the genus Pontibacter. The 16S rRNA gene of H4XT displays 94.2–96.8% sequence similarities to those of other strains in Pontibacter. The major respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The DNA G+C content is 46.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15∶0, C16∶1ω5c, summed feature 3 (containing C16∶1ω6c and/or C16∶1ω7c) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17∶1B and/or iso-C17∶1I). The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), one aminophospholipid (APL) and some unknown phospholipids (PLs). It is interesting to see that this bacterium can grow very well in a nitrogen-free medium. PCR amplification suggested that the bacterium possesses at least one type of nitrogenase gene. Acetylene reduction assay showed that H4XT actually possesses nitrogen-fixing activity. Therefore, it can be concluded that H4XT is a new diazotroph. We thus referred it to as Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov. The type strain is H4XT ( = CCTCC AB 2013049T = NRRL B-59974T). PMID:24647674

  16. Microcalorimetric Measurements of Glucose Metabolism by Marine Bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Andrew S.; Millero, Frank J.; Gerchakov, Sol M.

    1982-01-01

    Microcalorimetric measurements of heat production from glucose by Vibrio alginolyticus were made to assess the viability of calorimetry as a technique for studying the metabolism of marine bacteria at organic nutrient concentrations found in marine waters. The results show that the metabolism of glucose by this bacterium can be measured by calorimetry at submicromolar concentrations. A linear correlation between glucose concentration and total heat production was observed over a concentration range of 8 mM to 0.35 μM. It is suggested that these data indicate a constant efficiency of metabolism for this bacterium over the wide range of glucose concentrations studied. PMID:16346131

  17. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hosseini Salekdeh, Ghasem; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated. PMID:26725518

  18. Cellobiohydrolase B, a second exo-cellobiohydrolase from the cellulolytic bacterium Cellulomonas fimi.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, H; Gilkes, N R; Kilburn, D G; Miller, R C; Warren, R A

    1995-01-01

    The gene cbhB from the cellulolytic bacterium Cellulomonas fimi encodes a polypeptide of 1090 amino acids. Cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) is 1037 amino acids long, with a calculated molecular mass of 109765 Da. The enzyme comprises five domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain of 643 amino acids, three fibronectin type III repeats of 97 amino acids each, and a C-terminal cellulose-binding domain of 104 amino acids. The catalytic domain belongs to family 48 of glycosyl hydrolases. CbhB has a very low activity on CM-cellulose. Viscometric analysis of CM-cellulose hydrolysis indicates that the enzyme is an exoglucanase. Cellobiose is the major product of hydrolysis of cellulose. In common with two other exoglycanases from C. fimi, CbhB has low but detectable endoglucanase activity. CbhB is the second exo-cellobiohydrolase found in C. fimi. Therefore, the cellulase system of C. fimi resembles those of fungi in comprising multiple endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases. Images Figure 5 PMID:7575482

  19. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated. PMID:26725518

  20. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  1. Roseovarius aquimarinus sp. nov., a slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeonji; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Jeon, Che Ok; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated CAU 1059T, was isolated from a seawater sample from Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The bacterium grew optimally at 37 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CAU 1059T belonged to the genus Roseovarius. It exhibited only 91.5-96.9 % sequence similarity to the type strains of recognized Roseovarius species. Similar to other species of the genus Roseovarius, strain CAU 1059T had ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the predominant ubiquinone and C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/ω6c) as the major fatty acids. The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine; three unidentified phospholipids, two aminolipids, an aminophospholipid and nine other lipids were also found. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.9 mol%. On the basis of the data provided, strain CAU 1059T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius aquimarinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1059T ( = KCTC 32014T = CCUG 64792T). PMID:26374629

  2. Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Produces N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrobacter winogradskyi is a chemolithotrophic bacterium that plays a role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing nitrite to nitrate. Here, we demonstrate a functional N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase in this bacterium. The N. winogradskyi genome contains genes encoding a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer synthase (nwi0626, nwiI) and a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer receptor (nwi0627, nwiR) with amino acid sequences 38 to 78% identical to those in Rhodopseudomonas palustris and other Rhizobiales. Expression of nwiI and nwiR correlated with acyl-HSL production during culture. N. winogradskyi produces two distinct acyl-HSLs, N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and a monounsaturated acyl-HSL (C10:1-HSL), in a cell-density- and growth phase-dependent manner, during batch and chemostat culture. The acyl-HSLs were detected by bioassay and identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with information-dependent acquisition mass spectrometry (UPLC-IDA-MS). The C=C bond in C10:1-HSL was confirmed by conversion into bromohydrin and detection by UPLC-IDA-MS. PMID:26092466

  3. A symbiotic bacterium differentially influences arsenate absorption and transformation in Dunaliella salina under different phosphate regimes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Zhang, Chun Hua; Lin, Man Man; Ge, Ying

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a symbiotic bacterium and phosphate (PO4(3-)) nutrition on the toxicity and metabolism of arsenate (As(V)) in Dunaliella salina. The bacterium was identified as Alteromonas macleodii based on analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. When no As(V) was added, A. macleodii significantly enhanced the growth of D. salina, irrespective of PO4(3-) nutrition levels, but this effect was reversed after As(V)+PO4(3-) treatment (1.12mgL(-1)) for 3 days. Arsenic (As) absorption by the non-axenic D. salina was significantly higher than that by its axenic counterpart during incubation with 1.12mgL(-1) PO4(3-). However, when the culture was treated with 0.112mgL(-1) PO4(3-), As(V) reduction and its subsequent arsenite (As(III)) excretion by non-axenic D. salina were remarkably enhanced, which, in turn, contributed to lower As absorption in non-axenic algal cells from days 7 to 9. Moreover, dimethylarsinic acid was synthesized by D. salina alone, and the rates of its production and excretion were accelerated when the PO4(3-) concentration was 0.112mgL(-1). Our data demonstrate that A. macleodii strongly affected As toxicity, uptake, and speciation in D. salina, and these impacts were mediated by PO4(3-) in the cultures. PMID:27450336

  4. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    PubMed Central

    Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO2. The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts. PMID:20680263

  5. Geovibrio ferrireducens, a phylogenetically distinct dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caccavo, F., Jr.; Coates, J.D.; Rossello-Mora, R. A.; Ludwig, W.; Schleifer, K.H.; Lovley, D.R.; McInerney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new, phylogenetically distinct, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from surface sediment of a hydrocarbon-contaminated ditch. The isolate, designated strain PAL-1, was an obligately anaerobic, non-fermentative, motile, gram-negative vibrio. PAL-1 grew in a defined medium with acetate as electron donor and ferric pyrophosphate, ferric oxyhydroxide, ferric citrate, Co(III)-EDTA, or elemental sulfur as sole electron acceptor. PAL-1 also used proline, hydrogen, lactate, propionate, succinate, fumarate, pyruvate, or yeast extract as electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. It is the first bacterium known to couple the oxidation of an amino acid to Fe(III) reduction. PAI-1 did not reduce oxygen, Mn(IV), U(VI), Cr(VI), nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate with acetate as the electron donor. Cell suspensions of PAL-1 exhibited dithionite-reduced minus air-oxidized difference spectra that were characteristic of c-type cytochromes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of PAL-1 showed that the strain is not related to any of the described metal-reducing bacteria in the Proteobacteria and, together with Flexistipes sinusarabici, forms a separate line of descent within the Bacteria. Phenotypically and phylogenetically, strain PAI-1 differs from all other described bacteria, and represents the type strain of a new genus and species. Geovibrio ferrireducens.

  6. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  7. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140.

    PubMed

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Lief

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain's superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy. PMID:27257196

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    PubMed Central

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy. PMID:27257196

  10. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. PMID:27052717

  11. Characterization and Determination of Origin of Lactic Acid Bacteria from a Sorghum-Based Fermented Weaning Food by Analysis of Soluble Proteins and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Kunene, Nokuthula F.; Geornaras, Ifigenia; von Holy, Alexander; Hastings, John W.

    2000-01-01

    The group that includes the lactic acid bacteria is one of the most diverse groups of bacteria known, and these organisms have been characterized extensively by using different techniques. In this study, 180 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from sorghum powder (44 strains) and from corresponding fermented (93 strains) and cooked fermented (43 strains) porridge samples that were prepared in 15 households were characterized by using biochemical and physiological methods, as well as by analyzing the electrophoretic profiles of total soluble proteins. A total of 58 of the 180 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains, 47 were Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, 25 were Lactobacillus sake-Lactobacillus curvatus strains, 17 were Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, 13 were Pediococcus acidilactici strains, and 7 were Lactococcus lactis strains. L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides strains were the dominant strains during the fermentation process and were recovered from 87 and 73% of the households, respectively. The potential origins of these groups of lactic acid bacteria were assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprint analysis. PMID:10698775

  12. Use of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starters to ferment mango juice for promoting its probiotic roles.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue-Yi; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Qiu, Ling-Yan; Gu, Feng-Wei; Lin, Jun-Fang

    2016-05-18

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were identified from mango fruits by partial 16S rDNA gene sequence. Based on the ability of producing mannitol and diacetyl, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MPL18 and MPL39 were selected within the lactic acid bacteria isolates, and used as mixed starters to ferment mango juice (MJ). Both the autochthonous strains grew well in fermented mango juice (FMJ) and remained viable at 9.81 log cfu mL(-1) during 30 days of storage at 4°C. The content of total sugar of FMJ was lower than that of MJ, while the concentration of mannitol was higher than that of MJ, and the concentration of diacetyl was 3.29 ± 0.12 mg L(-1). Among detected organic acids including citric acid, gallic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, only citric acid and gallic acid were found in MJ, while all detected organic acids were found in FMJ. The concentration of lactic acid of FMJ was the highest (78.62 ± 13.66 mM) among all detected organic acids. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of FMJ was higher than that of MJ. Total phenolic compounds were better preserved in FMJ. The acidity and sweetness had a noticeable impact on the overall acceptance of the treated sample. PMID:26176886

  13. Pectinatus brassicae sp. nov., a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium isolated from salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-wu; Fang, Ming-xu; Tan, Hai-qin; Zhang, Xin-qi; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-fen

    2012-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, strictly anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, strain TY(T), was isolated from salty pickle wastewater. Cells were rod-shaped with comb-like flagella, slightly curved and very variable in length. Optimal growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 6.5. Cells were resistant to up to 50 g NaCl l(-1). Strain TY(T) produced acid from glycerol, sucrose, glucose, fructose and mannitol. The main fermentation products from glucose were acetic and propionic acids. Tests for acid phosphatase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase activities were positive. The major fatty acids were C(14 : 0) DMA (18.7 %), C(15 : 0) (15.4 %), anteiso-C(18 : 1) (15.2 %), C(11 : 0) (13.3 %) and summed feature 5 (C(17 : 1)ω7c and/or C(17 : 2)) (11.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain TY(T) represented a novel species of the genus Pectinatus (sequence similarity to other members of the genus ranged from 93.2 to 94.8 %). Based on its phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain TY(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, named Pectinatus brassicae sp. nov. (type strain TY(T) = JCM 17499(T) = DSM 24661(T)). PMID:22058316

  14. Against the rules: a marine bacterium, Loktanella rosea, possesses a unique lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ieranò, Teresa; Silipo, Alba; Nazarenko, Evgeny L; Gorshkova, Raisa P; Ivanova, Elena P; Garozzo, Domenico; Sturiale, Luisa; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Molinaro, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Bacteria are an inimitable source of new glyco-structures potentially useful in medicinal and environmental chemistry. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS; endotoxins) are the major components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria; being exposed toward the external environment they can undergo structural changes and thus, they often possess peculiar chemical features that allow them to thrive in harsh chemical and physical environments. Marine bacteria have evolved and adapted over millions of years in order to succeed in different environments, finding a niche for their survival characterized by severe physical or chemical parameters. The present work focuses on the structural investigation of the LPS from Loktanella rosea, a marine Gram-negative bacterium. Through chemical analysis, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry investigations, a unique LPS carbohydrate backbone has been defined. The lipid A skeleton consists of a trisaccharide backbone lacking the typical phosphate groups and is characterized by two beta-glucosamines and an alpha-galacturonic acid. The core region is built up of three ulosonic acids, with two 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid residues, one of which is carrying a neuraminic acid. This carbohydrate structure is an exceptional variation from the typical architectural skeleton of endotoxins which consequently implies a very different biosynthesis. PMID:20093711

  15. Marine transducing bacteriophage attacking a luminous bacterium.

    PubMed

    Keynan, A; Nealson, K; Sideropoulos, H; Hastings, J W

    1974-08-01

    The isolation and partial characterization of a marine bacteriophage attacking a strain of luminous bacteria is described, including some physical, biological, and genetic properties. It is a DNA phage of density of 1.52 with a long flexible tail and an apparently icosohedral head. With respect to stability in suspension, it has a rather specific requirement for the sodium ion in high concentration; it is further stabilized by the addition of calcium and magnesium ions. These same ions are likewise all required for both good plating efficiency and plaque uniformity. Although it goes through a typical lytic growth cycle (about 45 min), with a burst size of 100, and no stable lysogens have been isolated, it is nevertheless a transducing phage specifically for the tryptophan region, transducing several, but not all, independently isolated Trp(-) auxotrophs to protrophy. No other auxotrophs of a variety of amino acids were transduced by this phage to prototrophy. Phage infection does not change the normal expression of the luminescent system, and light remains at near normal levels until cell lysis occurs. PMID:16789143

  16. Nanomechanical properties of the sea-water bacterium Paracoccus seriniphilus--a scanning force microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Neda; Müller-Renno, Christine; Ziegler, Christiane; Raid, Indek; Seewig, Jörg; Schlegel, Christin; Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of force-distance curves on a single bacterium provides a unique opportunity to detect properties such as the turgor pressure under various environmental conditions. Marine bacteria are very interesting candidates for the production of pharmaceuticals, but are only little studied so far. Therefore, the elastic behavior of Paracoccus seriniphilus, an enzyme producing marine organism, is presented in this study. After a careful evaluation of the optimal measurement conditions, the spring constant and the turgor pressure are determined as a function of ionic strength and pH. Whereas the ionic strength changes the turgor pressure passively, the results give a hint that the change to acidic pH increases the turgor pressure by an active mechanism. Furthermore, it could be shown, that P. seriniphilus has adhesive protrusions outside its cell wall. PMID:25708634

  17. Continuous synthesis and excretion of the compatible solute ectoine by a transgenic, nonhalophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Torsten; Maskow, Thomas; Benndorf, Dirk; Harms, Hauke; Breuer, Uta

    2007-05-01

    The compatible solute 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid (ectoine) acts in microorganisms as an osmotic counterweight against halostress and has attracted commercial attention as a protecting agent. Its production and application are restricted by the drawbacks of the discontinuous harvesting procedure involving salt shocks, which reduces volumetric yield, increases reactor corrosion, and complicates downstream processing. In order to synthesize ectoine continuously in less-aggressive media, we introduced the ectoine genes ectABC of the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens into an Escherichia coli strain using the expression vector pASK-IBA7. Under the control of a tet promoter, the transgenic E. coli synthesized 6 g liter-1 ectoine with a space-time yield of 40 mg liter-1 h-1, with the vast majority of the ectoine being excreted. PMID:17369334

  18. Cytochrome P450 enzymes from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Stephen G. . E-mail: stephen.bell@chem.ox.ac.uk; Hoskins, Nicola; Xu Feng; Caprotti, Domenico; Rao Zihe; Wong, L.-L. . E-mail: luet.wong@chem.ox.ac.uk

    2006-03-31

    Four (CYP195A2, CYP199A2, CYP203A1, and CYP153A5) of the seven P450 enzymes, and palustrisredoxin A, a ferredoxin associated with CYP199A2, from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been expressed and purified. A range of substituted benzenes, phenols, benzaldehydes, and benzoic acids was shown to bind to the four P450 enzymes. Monooxygenase activity of CYP199A2 was reconstituted with palustrisredoxin A and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida. We found that 4-ethylbenzoate and 4-methoxybenzoate were oxidized to single products, and 4-methoxybenzoate was demethylated to form 4-hydroxybenzoate. Crystals of substrate-free CYP199A2 which diffracted to {approx}2.0 A have been obtained.

  19. A Mutant Strain of a Surfactant-Producing Bacterium with Increased Emulsification Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingmei; Yao, Jianming; Pan, Renrui; Yu, Zengliang

    2005-06-01

    As reported in this paper, a strain of oil-degrading bacterium Sp-5-3 was determined to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, which would be useful for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The aim of our study was to generate a mutant using low energy N+ beam implantation. With 10 keV of energy and 5.2 × 1014 N+/cm2 of dose - the optimum condition, a mutant, S-34, was obtained, which had nearly a 5-fold higher surface and a 13-fold higher of emulsification activity than the wild type. The surface activity was measured by two methods, namely, a surface tension measuring instrument and a recording of the repulsive circle of the oil film; the emulsification activity was scaled through measuring the separating time of the oil-fermentation mixture. The metabolic acid was determined as methane by means of gas chromatography.

  20. Complete genome of Nitrosospira briensis C-128, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marlen C; Norton, Jeanette M; Valois, Frederica; Bollmann, Annette; Bottomley, Peter J; Klotz, Martin G; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Suwa, Yuichi; Stein, Lisa Y; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole; Goodwin, Lynne A; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Kyrpides, Nikos; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nitrosospira briensis C-128 is an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an acid agricultural soil. N. briensis C-128 was sequenced with PacBio RS technologies at the DOE-Joint Genome Institute through their Community Science Program (2010). The high-quality finished genome contains one chromosome of 3.21 Mb and no plasmids. We identified 3073 gene models, 3018 of which are protein coding. The two-way average nucleotide identity between the chromosomes of Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196 and Nitrosospira briensis C-128 was found to be 77.2 %. Multiple copies of modules encoding chemolithotrophic metabolism were identified in their genomic context. The gene inventory supports chemolithotrophic metabolism with implications for function in soil environments. PMID:27471578

  1. Bioethanol production from mannitol by a newly isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. JMP3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Kim, Young Mi; Rhee, Hong Soon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-05-01

    In this study a new bacterium capable of growing on brown seaweed Laminaria japonica, Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was isolated from the gut of turban shell, Batillus cornutus. In anaerobic condition, it produced high yields of ethanol (1.15 mol-EtOH mol-mannitol(-1)) as well as organic acids from mannitol, the major carbohydrate component of L. japonica. Based on carbon distribution and metabolic flux analysis, it was revealed that mannitol was more favorable than glucose for ethanol production due to their different redox states. This indicates that L. japonica is one of the promising feedstock for bioethanol production. Additionally, the mannitol dehydrogenation pathway in Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was examined and verified. Finally, an attempt was made to explore the possibility of controlling ethanol production by altering the redox potential via addition of external NADH in mannitol fermentation. PMID:23186687

  2. Electron microscopic investigation of the hydrogen-oxidizing acetate-forming anaerobic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Mayer, F; Lurz, R; Schoberth, S

    1977-11-18

    Acetobacterium woodii is a Gram-positive anaerobic nonsporeforming bacterium able to grow on H2 and CO2 as sole sources of energy. The product of fermentation is acetic acid. Fine structural analysis showed rod-shaped flagellated cells, and coccoid cells without flagella arranged predominantly in pairs and chains. The cell wall was found to be composed of three layers. The cell surface exhibited a periodic array of particles consisting of subunits. The cytoplasmic membrane showed particles either in random distribution or in a hexagonal pattern. Intracytoplasmic membranes were rarely observed, whereas inclusion bodies of varying shapes, predominantly in an uncommon disc-shape, could frequently be observed. Their content was dissolved in ultrathin sections indicating hydrophobic nature. PMID:596994

  3. Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens sp. nov., a urolithin-producing bacterium isolated from the human gut.

    PubMed

    Selma, María V; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocio; Espín, Juan C

    2014-07-01

    Urolithins are dibenzopyranone metabolites that exert anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and are produced by the gut microbiota from the dietary polyphenols ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins. However, the bacteria involved in this process remain unknown. We report here a novel bacterium, strain CEBAS 1/15P(T), capable of metabolizing EA to urolithins, that was isolated from healthy human faeces and characterized by determining phenotypic, biochemical and molecular methods. The strain was related to Gordonibacter pamelaeae 7-10-1-b(T), the type and only reported strain of the only species of the genus Gordonibacter, with about 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity; they were both obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive, short-rods/coccobacilli and metabolized only small numbers of carbon sources. L-Fucose, D-fructose, turanose, D-galacturonic acid and α-ketobutyric acid were metabolized by strain CEBAS 1/15P(T), while G. pamelaeae was negative for metabolism of these compounds. The whole-cell fatty acids consisted predominantly of saturated fatty acids (70%); strain CEBAS 1/15P(T) differed significantly from G. pamelaeae in the major fatty acid, which was C18 : 1ω9c, while anteiso-C15 : 0 was the major component for G. pamelaeae. The presence of a number of different fatty acid peaks, especially C19 : 0 cyclo and C18 : 1ω6c, was also indicative of distinct species. Six glycolipids (GL1-6) were recognized, while, in G. pamelaeae, only four glycolipids were described. On the basis of these data, the novel species Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens sp. nov. is described, with strain CEBAS 1/15P(T) ( = DSM 27213(T) = CCUG 64261(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24744017

  4. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis. PMID:26398285

  5. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  6. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A; Wall, Judy D.; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R.; Begemann, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, biohydrogen production remains inefficient and heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium strain sapolanicus, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. sapolanicus ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen and acetate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  7. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from thermophilic bacterium acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Mohagheghi, Ali

    1992-01-01

    A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characteristics.

  8. Delta8(14)-steroids in the bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Bouvier, P; Rohmer, M; Benveniste, P; Ourisson, G

    1976-01-01

    The 4,4-dimethyl and 4alpha-methyl sterols of the bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus were identified as 4,4-dimethyl- and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-ol and 4,4-dimethyl- and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholesta-8(14),24-dien-3beta-ol. Sterol biosynthesis is blocked at the level of 4alpha-methyl delta8(14)-sterols. PMID:999649

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Chlorinated-Pyridinol-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Y.; Racke, K. D.; Bollag, J.

    1997-01-01

    The isolation of a pure culture of bacteria able to use 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) as a sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions was achieved for the first time. The bacterium was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. and designated ATCC 700113. [2,6-(sup14)C]TCP degradation yielded (sup14)CO(inf2), chloride, and unidentified polar metabolites. PMID:16535719

  10. Genomic and phenotypic analyses of Carnobacterium jeotgali strain MS3(T), a lactate-producing candidate biopreservative bacterium isolated from salt-fermented shrimp.

    PubMed

    Whon, Tae Woong; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Nam, Young-Do; Kim, Min-Soo; Song, Eun-Ji; Jang, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eun Sung; Shin, Na-Ri; Oh, Sei Joon; Kim, Pil Soo; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, Choong Hwan; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2015-05-01

    Carnobacterium jeotgali strain MS3(T) was isolated from traditionally fermented Korean shrimp produced with bay salt. The bacterium belongs to the family Carnobacteriaceae, produces lactic acid and contains gene clusters involved in the production of lactate, butyrate, aromatic compounds and exopolysaccharides. Carnobacterium jeotgali strain MS3(T) was characterized through extensive comparison of the virulence potential, genomic relatedness and sequence similarities of its genome with the genomes of other Carnobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. In addition, links between predicted functions of genes and phenotypic characteristics, such as antibiotic resistance and lactate and butyrate production, were extensively evaluated. Genomic and phenotypic analyses of strain MS3(T) revealed promising features, including minimal virulence genes and lactate production, which make this bacterium a desirable candidate for exploitation by the fermented food industry. PMID:25868912

  11. An on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay for protein quantification.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wen-Jun; Lan, Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Yan, Lei; Wang, Zhe-Li

    2013-09-01

    The polystyrene bead-based flow cytometric immunoassay has been widely reported. However, the preparation of functional polystyrene bead is still inconvenient. This study describes a simple and easy on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay for protein quantification, in which Staphylococcus aureus (SAC) is used as an antibody-antigen carrier to replace the polystyrene bead. The SAC beads were prepared by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeling, paraformaldehyde fixation and antibody binding. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) proteins were used as models in the test system. Using prepared SAC beads, biotinylated proteins, and streptavidin-phycoerythrin (SA-PE), the on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay was validated by quantifying CEA and CYFRA 21-1 in sample. Obtained data demonstrated a concordant result between the logarithm of the protein concentration and the logarithm of the PE mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The limit of detection (LOD) in this immunoassay was at least 0.25 ng/ml. Precision and accuracy assessments appeared that either the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) or the relative error (R.E.) was <10%. The comparison between this immunoassay and a polystyrene bead-based flow cytometric immunoassay showed a correlation coefficient of 0.998 for serum CEA or 0.996 for serum CYFRA 21-1. In conclusion, the on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay may be of use in the quantification of serum protein. PMID:23739299

  12. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a new phytase from the phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae DSMZ 18074.

    PubMed

    Shao, Na; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2008-07-01

    The soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae is an economically important pathogen of many crops. A new phytase gene, appA, was cloned from P. wasabiae by degenerate PCR and TAIL-PCR. The open reading frame of appA consisted of 1,302 bp encoding 433 amino acid residues, including 27 residues of a putative signal peptide. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 45 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.5. The amino acid sequence contained the conserved active site residues RHGXRXP and HDTN of typical histidine acid phosphatases, and showed the highest identity of 48.5% to PhyM from Pseudomonas syringae. The gene fragment encoding the mature phytase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the purified recombinant phytase had a specific activity of 1,072+/-47 U/mg for phytate substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified phytase were pH 5.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The Km value was 0.17 mM, with a Vmax of 1,714 micromol/min/mg. This is the first report of the identification and isolation of phytase from Pectobacterium. PMID:18667849

  13. Paenibacillus pini sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of pine tree.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Eun-Mi; Min, Sung Ran; Kim, Hyun Soon; Shin, Kee-Sun

    2009-12-01

    Strain S22(T), a novel cellulolytic bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere of pine trees. This isolate was Gram-reaction positive, motile and rods, and formed terminal or subterminal ellipsoidal spores. S22(T) represented positive activity for catalase, oxidase, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), beta-galactosidase, leucine arylamidase, and hydrolysis of esculin. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic dia-mino acid in the cell-wall. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7), and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (52.9%), iso-Ci(16:0) (11.3%), and iso-C(15:0) (10.0%). The DNA G+C content was 43.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this isolate belonged to the family Paenibacillaceae. S22(T) exhibited less than 97.0% 16S rRNA gene similarity with all relative type strains in the genus Paenibacillus, and the most closely related strains were Paenibacillus anaericanus MH21(T) and Paenibacillus ginsengisoli Gsoil 1638(T), with equal similarities of 95.8%. This polyphasic evidence suggested that strain S22(T) should be considered a novel species in the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name, Paenibacillus pini sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is S22(T) (=KCTC 13694(T) =KACC 14198(T) =JCM 16418(T)). PMID:20127462

  14. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Lobos, J.H.; Leib, T.K. ); Tahmun Su )

    1992-06-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichmet takes from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4[prime]-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO[sub 2], 20% was associated with the bacterial cells, and 20% was converted to soluble organic compounds. Metabolic intermediates detected in the culture medium during growth on bisphenol A were identified as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, and 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol. Most of the bisphenol A degraded by strain MV1 is cleaved in some way to form 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxyacetophenone, which are subsequently mineralized or assimilated into cell carbon. In addition, about 20% of the bisphenol A is hydroxylated to form 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, which is slowly biotransformed to 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol. Cells that were grown on bisphenol A degraded a variety of bisphenol alkanes, hydroxylated benzoic acids, and hydroxylated acetophenones during resting-cell assays. Transmission electron microscopy of cells grown on bisphenol A revealed lipid storage granules and intracytoplasmic membranes.

  15. Deinococcus puniceus sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from soil-irradiated gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Im, Seonghun; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2015-04-01

    A Gram-positive, coccus-shaped, crimson-color-pigmented bacterium was isolated from soil irradiated with 5 kGy gamma radiation and was designated strain DY1(T). Cells showed growth at 10-30 °C and pH 7-11 and were oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain DY1(T) belonged to the genus Deinococcus with sequence similarities to Deinococcus aquatilis CCUG 53370(T) (96.2 %) and Deinococcus navajonensis KR-114(T) (94.1 %). Strain DY1(T) showed low level of DNA relatedness with D. aquatilis CCUG 53370(T) (41.3 ± 3.9 %). The DNA G + C content of DY1(T) was 58.7 mol%. Predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/ω6c), C16:0, and C17:0. The major amino acids were D-alanine, L-glutamic acid, glycine, and L-ornithine in the peptidoglycan. The major polar lipids were unknown phosphoglycolipids (PGL). Strain DY1(T) has resistance to gamma radiation and was found to be a novel species. Therefore, the strain was designated as DY1(T) (=KCTC 33027(T) = JCM 18576(T)), and the name Deinococcus puniceus sp. nov. is herein proposed. PMID:25477066

  16. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lobos, J H; Leib, T K; Su, T M

    1992-06-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichment taken from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO2, 20% was associated with the bacterial cells, and 20% was converted to soluble organic compounds. Metabolic intermediates detected in the culture medium during growth on bisphenol A were identified as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, and 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol. Most of the bisphenol A degraded by strain MV1 is cleaved in some way to form 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxyacetophenone, which are subsequently mineralized or assimilated into cell carbon. In addition, about 20% of the bisphenol A is hydroxylated to form 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, which is slowly biotransformed to 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol. Cells that were grown on bisphenol A degraded a variety of bisphenol alkanes, hydroxylated benzoic acids, and hydroxylated acetophenones during resting-cell assays. Transmission electron microscopy of cells grown on bisphenol A revealed lipid storage granules and intracytoplasmic membranes. PMID:1622258

  17. Transcriptome Sequence and Plasmid Copy Number Analysis of the Brewery Isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T during Growth in Beer

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Vanessa; Phister, Trevor G.; Ziola, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients); however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcusclaussenii ATCC BAA-344T (Pc344-358). Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344T genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:24040005

  18. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  19. Pseudomonas sp. strain CA5 (a selenite-reducing bacterium) 16S rRNA gene complete sequence. National Institute of Health, National Center for Biotechnology Information, GenBank sequence. Accession FJ422810.1.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used 1321 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods to confirm the phylogenetic position of a soil isolate as a bacterium belonging to the genus Pesudomonas sp. Morphological, biochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification...

  20. Anaerobic n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain CV2803T

    PubMed Central

    Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Grossi, Vincent; Raphel, Danielle; Matheron, Robert; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès

    2005-01-01

    The alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T, recently isolated from marine sediments, was investigated for n-alkane metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain had predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms (C odd) when the strain was grown on a C-odd alkane (pentadecane) and even numbers of carbon atoms (C even) when it was grown on a C-even alkane (hexadecane). Detailed analyses of those fatty acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry allowed us to identify saturated 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-methyl- and monounsaturated 6-methyl-branched fatty acids, with chain lengths that specifically correlated with those of the alkane. Growth of D. aliphaticivorans on perdeuterated hexadecane demonstrated that those methyl-branched fatty acids were directly derived from the substrate. In addition, cultures on pentadecane and hexadecane produced (1-methyltetradecyl)succinate and (1-methylpentadecyl)succinate, respectively. These results indicate that D. aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T oxidizes n-alkanes into fatty acids anaerobically, via the addition of fumarate at C-2. Based on our observations and on literature data, a pathway for anaerobic n-alkane metabolism by D. aliphaticivorans is proposed. This involves the transformation of the initial alkylsuccinate into a 4-methyl-branched fatty acid which, in addition to catabolic reactions, can alternatively undergo chain elongation and desaturation to form storage fatty acids. PMID:16000749

  1. Gene identification and molecular characterization of solvent stable protease from a moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium, Geomicrobium sp. EMB2.

    PubMed

    Karan, Ram; Singh, Raj Kumar Mohan; Kapoor, Sanjay; Khare, S K

    2011-02-01

    Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding a solvent-tolerant protease from the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Geomicrobium sp. EMB2 are described. Primers designed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified EMB2 protease helped in the amplification of a 1,505-bp open reading frame that had a coding potential of a 42.7-kDa polypeptide. The deduced EMB2 protein contained a 35.4-kDa mature protein of 311 residues, with a high proportion of acidic amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis placed the EMB2 gene close to a known serine protease from Bacillus clausii KSM-K16. Primary sequence analysis indicated a hydrophobic inclination of the protein; and the 3D structure modeling elucidated a relatively higher percentage of small (glycine, alanine, and valine) and borderline (serine and threonine) hydrophobic residues on its surface. The structure analysis also highlighted enrichment of acidic residues at the cost of basic residues. The study indicated that solvent and salt stabilities in Geomicrobium sp. protease may be accorded to different structural features; that is, the presence of a number of small hydrophobic amino acid residues on the surface and a higher content of acidic amino acid residues, respectively. PMID:21364294

  2. Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chisa; Takahashi, Naoto; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

    2015-02-01

    A novel, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product that had the off-flavour of guaiacol. The bacterium, strain 4F(T), grew aerobically at 20-50 °C (optimum 40 °C) and pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and produced acid from glycerol, d-galactose and d-glucose. It contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4F(T) were ω-alicyclic (ω-cyclohexane fatty acids), which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the Alicyclobacillus cluster, and is related most closely to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (97.4 % similarity) and Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus (97.3 %). Strain 4F(T) produced guaiacol from vanillic acid. It can be distinguished from related species by its acid production type and guaiacol production. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4F(T) ( = DSM 28700(T) = NBRC 108949(T) = NRIC 0938(T)). PMID:25505343

  3. Survival Strategies of the Plant-Associated Bacterium Enterobacter sp. Strain EG16 under Cadmium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanmei; Li, Yaying; Lin, Qingqi; Bai, Jun; Tang, Lu; Wang, Shizhong; Ying, Rongrong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria are of great interest because of their potential use in phytoremediation. However, their ability to survive and promote plant growth in metal-polluted soils remains unclear. In this study, a soilborne Cd-resistant bacterium was isolated and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain EG16. It tolerates high external Cd concentrations (Cd2+ MIC, >250 mg liter−1) and is able to produce siderophores and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), both of which contribute to plant growth promotion. Surface biosorption in this strain accounted for 31% of the total Cd accumulated. The potential presence of cadmium sulfide, shown by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, suggested intracellular Cd binding as a Cd response mechanism of the isolate. Cd exposure resulted in global regulation at the transcriptomic level, with the bacterium switching to an energy-conserving mode by inhibiting energy-consuming processes while increasing the production of stress-related proteins. The stress response system included increased import of sulfur and iron, which become deficient under Cd stress, and the redirection of sulfur metabolism to the maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels in response to Cd toxicity. Increased production of siderophores, responding to Cd-induced Fe deficiency, not only is involved in the Cd stress response systems of EG16 but may also play an important role in promoting plant growth as well as alleviating the Cd-induced inhibition of IAA production. The newly isolated strain EG16 may be a suitable candidate for microbially assisted phytoremediation due to its high resistance to Cd and its Cd-induced siderophore production, which is likely to contribute to plant growth promotion. PMID:26729719

  4. Survival Strategies of the Plant-Associated Bacterium Enterobacter sp. Strain EG16 under Cadmium Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanmei; Chao, Yuanqing; Li, Yaying; Lin, Qingqi; Bai, Jun; Tang, Lu; Wang, Shizhong; Ying, Rongrong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria are of great interest because of their potential use in phytoremediation. However, their ability to survive and promote plant growth in metal-polluted soils remains unclear. In this study, a soilborne Cd-resistant bacterium was isolated and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain EG16. It tolerates high external Cd concentrations (Cd(2+) MIC, >250 mg liter(-1)) and is able to produce siderophores and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), both of which contribute to plant growth promotion. Surface biosorption in this strain accounted for 31% of the total Cd accumulated. The potential presence of cadmium sulfide, shown by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, suggested intracellular Cd binding as a Cd response mechanism of the isolate. Cd exposure resulted in global regulation at the transcriptomic level, with the bacterium switching to an energy-conserving mode by inhibiting energy-consuming processes while increasing the production of stress-related proteins. The stress response system included increased import of sulfur and iron, which become deficient under Cd stress, and the redirection of sulfur metabolism to the maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels in response to Cd toxicity. Increased production of siderophores, responding to Cd-induced Fe deficiency, not only is involved in the Cd stress response systems of EG16 but may also play an important role in promoting plant growth as well as alleviating the Cd-induced inhibition of IAA production. The newly isolated strain EG16 may be a suitable candidate for microbially assisted phytoremediation due to its high resistance to Cd and its Cd-induced siderophore production, which is likely to contribute to plant growth promotion. PMID:26729719

  5. Ca2+-stabilized adhesin helps an Antarctic bacterium reach out and bind ice

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Tyler D. R.; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Campbell, Robert L.; Voets, Ilja K.; Davies, Peter L.; Guo, Shuaiqi

    2014-01-01

    The large size of a 1.5-MDa ice-binding adhesin [MpAFP (Marinomonas primoryensis antifreeze protein)] from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, M. primoryensis, is mainly due to its highly repetitive RII (Region II). MpAFP_RII contains roughly 120 tandem copies of an identical 104-residue repeat. We have previously determined that a single RII repeat folds as a Ca2+-dependent immunoglobulin-like domain. Here, we solved the crystal structure of RII tetra-tandemer (four tandem RII repeats) to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The RII tetra-tandemer reveals an extended (~190-Å × ~25-Å), rod-like structure with four RII-repeats aligned in series with each other. The inter-repeat regions of the RII tetra-tandemer are strengthened by Ca2+ bound to acidic residues. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) profiles indicate the RII tetra-tandemer is significantly rigidified upon Ca2+ binding, and that the protein's solution structure is in excellent agreement with its crystal structure. We hypothesize that >600 Ca2+ help rigidify the chain of ~120 104-residue repeats to form a ~0.6 μm rod-like structure in order to project the ice-binding domain of MpAFP away from the bacterial cell surface. The proposed extender role of RII can help the strictly aerobic, motile bacterium bind ice in the upper reaches of the Antarctic lake where oxygen and nutrients are most abundant. Ca2+-induced rigidity of tandem Ig-like repeats in large adhesins might be a general mechanism used by bacteria to bind to their substrates and help colonize specific niches. PMID:24892750

  6. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  7. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum P5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jinling; Wei, Ying; Zhao, Yupeng; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2012-07-01

    The effects of different NaCl concentrations, nitrogen sources, carbon sources, and carbon to nitrogen molar ratios on biomass accumulation and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production were studied in batch cultures of the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum P5 under aerobic-dark conditions. The results show that the accumulation of PHB in strain P5 is a growth-associated process. Strain P5 had maximum biomass and PHB accumulation at 2%-3% NaCl, suggesting that the bacterium can maintain growth and potentially produce PHB at natural seawater salinity. In the nitrogen source test, the maximum biomass accumulation (8.10±0.09 g/L) and PHB production (1.11±0.13 g/L and 14.62%±2.2 of the cell dry weight) were observed when peptone and ammonium chloride were used as the sole nitrogen source. NH{4/+}-N was better for PHB production than other nitrogen sources. In the carbon source test, the maximum biomass concentration (7.65±0.05 g/L) was obtained with malic acid as the sole carbon source, whereas the maximum yield of PHB (5.03±0.18 g/L and 66.93%±1.69% of the cell dry weight) was obtained with sodium pyruvate as the sole carbon source. In the carbon to nitrogen ratios test, sodium pyruvate and ammonium chloride were selected as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The best carbon to nitrogen molar ratio for biomass accumulation (8.77±0.58 g/L) and PHB production (6.07±0.25 g/L and 69.25%±2.05% of the cell dry weight) was 25. The results provide valuable data on the production of PHB by R. sulfidophilum P5 and further studies are on-going for best cell growth and PHB yield.

  8. Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Flickinger, Michael C.; Schendel, Frederick J.; Guettler, Michael V.

    2001-07-17

    A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

  9. Biocidal action of chlorhexidine is annulled by nicotinic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, H; Frank, O; DeAngelis, B; Baker, E R

    1994-01-01

    An analytical system comprising a bacterium and a protozoan was used to pinpoint the metabolic lesion whereby chlorhexidine (CLX) produced cell death. Nicotinic acid but not nicotinamide annulled the biocidal action of CLX. The results suggest that CLX may not permit bioconversion of nicotinamide to nicotinic acid to annul the growth inhibition induced by CLX. PMID:7840588

  10. Influence of plaque-forming bacterium, Rhodobacteraceae sp. on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Bangzhou; Cai, Guanjing; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to find out the molecular features, infection process of a special alga plaque-forming microorganism and its potential influence on the biomass of Chlorella vulgaris during the infection process. Direct contact between the algal cell and the bacterium may be the primary steps needed for the bacterium to lyse the alga. Addition of C. vulgaris cells into f/2 medium allowed us obtain the object bacterium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons results showed that the plaque-forming bacterium kept the closest relationship with Labrenzia aggregata IAM 12614(T) at 98.90%. The existence of the bacterium could influence both the dry weight and lipid content of C. vulgaris. This study demonstrated that direct cell wall disruption of C. vulgaris by the bacterium would be a potentially effective method to utilize the biomass of microalgae. PMID:25086475

  11. Identification of lactic acid bacteria and Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci isolated from naturally fermented sausage (sucuk).

    PubMed

    Kaban, G; Kaya, M

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to identify lactic acid bacteria and Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci isolated from Turkish dry fermented sausage (sucuk) produced by 7 different manufacturers without using starter culture. A total of 129 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified phenotypically. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species (45.7%) followed by L. curvatus (10.9%) and L. fermentum (9.3%). Pediococcus isolates were identified as P. pentosaceus and P. acidilactici. All the isolates of gram-positive and catalase-positive cocci (123 isolates) were classified as Staphylococcus except for 1 isolate assigned to Kocuria rosea. The species isolated most often were S. xylosus (41.5%) and S. saprophyticus (28.5%). Four isolates were identified as S. equorum (3.3%), 1 isolate was assigned to S. carnosus (0.8%). PMID:19019118

  12. Fast Neutron Irradiation of the Highly Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus Radiodurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Diane Louise

    Fast neutron dose survival curves were generated for the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which is renowned for its unusually high resistance to gamma, x-ray, and ultraviolet radiation, but for which fast neutron response was unknown. The fast neutrons were produced by the University of Massachusetts Lowell 5.5-MV, type CN Van de Graaff accelerator through the ^7Li(p,n)^7 Be reaction by bombarding a thick metallic lithium target with a 4-MeV proton beam. The bacteria were uniformly distributed on 150-mm agar plates and were exposed to the fast neutron beam under conditions of charged particle equilibrium. The plates were subdivided into concentric rings of increasing diameter from the center to the periphery of the plate, within which the average neutron dose was calculated as the product of the precisely known neutron fluence at the average radius of the ring and the neutron energy dependent kerma factor. The neutron fluence and dose ranged from approximately 3 times 1013 n cm^ {-2} to 1 times 1012 n cm^ {-2}, and 200 kilorad to 5 kilorad, respectively, from the center to the periphery of the plate. Percent survival for Deinococcus radiodurans as a function of fast neutron dose was derived from the ability of the irradiated cells to produce visible colonies within each ring compared to that of a nonirradiated control population. The bacterium Escherichia coli B/r (CSH) was irradiated under identical conditions for comparative purposes. The survival response of Deinococcus radiodurans as a result of cumulative fast neutron exposures was also investigated. The quantification of the ability of Deinococcus radiodurans to survive cellular insult from secondary charged particles, which are produced by fast neutron interactions in biological materials, will provide valuable information about damage and repair mechanisms under extreme cellular stress, and may provide new insight into the origin of this bacterium's unprecedented radiation resistance.

  13. Evaluation of lactic acid bacteria for sourdough fermentation of amaranth.

    PubMed

    Sterr, Yasemin; Weiss, Agnes; Schmidt, Herbert

    2009-11-30

    Spontaneous fermented sourdoughs prepared from five amaranth flours were investigated for the presence of lactic acid bacteria predominating the autochthonous microbiota and thus may be suitable as starter cultures. The doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping on a laboratory scale at 30 degrees C for 10 days. Each day, pH-values and total titratable acidity degrees were determined and samples were analyzed for lactic acid bacteria and yeasts by cultural methods. The identity of the strains was tracked with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR during fermentation. Taxonomic identity of the strains was revealed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Sugar and organic acid profiles of fermented doughs were determined with HPLC. The strains Lactobacillus plantarum RTa12, L. sakei RTa14, and Pediococcus pentosaceus RTa11 were selected and applied as starters in laboratory scale fermentations. All strains were predominant in repeated experiments, both as single strains and in combination, regardless of the amaranth flour used. The competitiveness of the strains L. plantarum RTa12 and P. pentosaceus RTa11 was characterized in further growth experiments. Both strains facilitated fast declines of pH-values, overgrew the autochthonous microbiota, and allowed stable fermentation characteristics at different temperatures. Thus, the characterized strains may be considered as candidates for amaranth sourdough starter cultures. PMID:19783060

  14. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  15. Intracellular iron minerals in a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Glasauer, Susan; Langley, Sean; Beveridge, Terry J

    2002-01-01

    Among prokaryotes, there are few examples of controlled mineral formation; the formation of crystalline iron oxides and sulfides [magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4)] by magnetotactic bacteria is an exception. Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, produced microscopic intracellular grains of iron oxide minerals during growth on two-line ferrihydrite in a hydrogen-argon atmosphere. The minerals, formed at iron concentrations found in the soil and sedimentary environments where these bacteria are active, could represent an unexplored pathway for the cycling of iron by bacteria. PMID:11778045

  16. The terminal oxidase in the marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica 617.

    PubMed

    Simpson, H; Denis, M; Malatesta, F

    1997-06-01

    The molecular properties of a novel membrane quinol oxidase from the marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica 617 are presented. The protein contains 2b hemes/mole which may be distinguished by EPR spectroscopy but not by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry. Respiration, though being cyanide insensitive, is not inhibited by carbon monoxide and oxygen reduction is carried out only half-way with production of hydrogen peroxide. The terminal oxidase represents, therefore, a unique example in the large family of terminal oxidases known up to date. PMID:9337488

  17. Triazine herbicide resistance in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.E.; Gilbert, C.W.; Guy, R.; Arntzen, C.J.

    1984-10-01

    The photoaffinity herbicide azidoatrazine (2-azido-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) selectively labels the L subunit of the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Herbicide-resistant mutants retain the L subunit and have altered binding properties for methylthio- and chloro-substituted triazines as well as altered equilibrium constants for electron transfer between primary and secondary electron acceptors. We suggest that a subtle alteration in the L subunit is responsible for herbicide resistance and that the L subunit is the functional analog of the 32-kDa Q/sub B/ protein of chloroplast membranes. 42 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  18. Magnetic guidance of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Schüler, Dirk; Fischer, Thomas M

    2016-04-21

    Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a magnetotactic bacterium with a permanent magnetic moment capable of swimming using two bipolarly located flagella. In their natural environment these bacteria swim along the field lines of the homogeneous geomagnetic field in a typical run and reversal pattern and thereby create non-differentiable trajectories with sharp edges. In the current work we nevertheless achieve stable guidance along curved lines of mechanical instability by using a heterogeneous magnetic field of a garnet film. The successful guidance of the bacteria depends on the right balance between motility and the magnetic moment of the magnetosome chain. PMID:26972517

  19. Characterization of the N2O-producing soil bacterium Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Augustin, Jürgen; Ulrich, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    In the context of studying the bacterial community involved in nitrogen transformation processes in arable soils exposed to different extents of erosion and sedimentation in a long-term experiment (CarboZALF), a strain was isolated that reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide without formation of molecular nitrogen. The presence of the functional gene nirK, encoding the respiratory copper-containing nitrite reductase, and the absence of the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ indicated a truncated denitrification pathway and that this bacterium may contribute significantly to the formation of the important greenhouse gas N2O. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the housekeeping genes recA and atpD demonstrated that the investigated soil isolate belongs to the genus Rhizobium. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of Rhizobium. subbaraonis and Rhizobium. halophytocola. The close relationship with R. subbaraonis was reflected by similarity analysis of the recA and atpD genes and their amino acid positions. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed genetic differences at the species level, which were substantiated by analysis of the whole-cell fatty acid profile and several distinct physiological characteristics. Based on these results, it was concluded that the soil isolate represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov. (type strain Po 20/26T=DSM 100211T=LMG 28788T) is proposed. PMID:27030972

  20. Effects of Inorganic Particles on Metabolism by a Periphytic Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Andrew S.; Gerchakov, Sol M.; Millero, Frank J.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were made of adsorption of a periphytic marine bacterium, glucose, and glutamic acid to inorganic particles in seawater and defined bacterial growth medium. Measurements of the metabolism of bacteria were made in the presence and absence of particles by microcalorimetry and radiorespirometry. It was found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs glutamic acid, but not glucose, from the experimental medium. It was also found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs essentially all of the bacteria from the medium when the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 105 bacteria per ml. If the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 107, then only a small fraction of cells become attached. It was therefore possible to select bacterial concentrations and organic nutrients so that bacterial attachment, organic nutrient adsorption, or both would occur in different experiments. In this experimental system the metabolism by attached and nonattached bacteria of adsorbing and nonadsorbing organic nutrients was measured. The results show that bacterial activity in this model system was not enhanced by the particles, regardless of whether the bacteria, the organic nutrient, or both were associated with the surface. In fact, the respiratory activity of the attached bacteria was diminished in comparison with that of free bacteria. PMID:16346191

  1. The Lipid A from the Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Salinivibrio sharmensis Strain BAGT

    PubMed Central

    Carillo, Sara; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Lindner, Buko; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2013-01-01

    Lipid A is a major constituent of the lipopolysaccharides (or endotoxins), which are complex amphiphilic macromolecules anchored in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The glycolipid lipid A is known to possess the minimal chemical structure for LPSs endotoxic activity, able to cause septic shock. Lipid A isolated from extremophiles is interesting, since very few cases of pathogenic bacteria have been found among these microorganisms. In some cases their lipid A has shown to have an antagonist activity, i.e., it is able to interact with the immune system of the host without triggering a proinflammatory response by blocking binding of substances that could elicit such a response. However, the relationship between the structure and the activity of these molecules is far from being completely clear. A deeper knowledge of the lipid A chemical structure can help the understanding of these mechanisms. In this manuscript, we present our work on the complete structural characterization of the lipid A obtained from the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Salinivibrio sharmensis. Lipid A was obtained from the purified LPS by mild acid hydrolysis. The lipid A, which contains different number of fatty acids residues, and its partially deacylated derivatives were completely characterized by means of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry and chemical analysis. PMID:23337252

  2. The Lipid A from the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Salinivibrio sharmensis strain BAG(T).

    PubMed

    Carillo, Sara; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Lindner, Buko; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2013-01-01

    Lipid A is a major constituent of the lipopolysaccharides (or endotoxins), which are complex amphiphilic macromolecules anchored in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The glycolipid lipid A is known to possess the minimal chemical structure for LPSs endotoxic activity, able to cause septic shock. Lipid A isolated from extremophiles is interesting, since very few cases of pathogenic bacteria have been found among these microorganisms. In some cases their lipid A has shown to have an antagonist activity, i.e., it is able to interact with the immune system of the host without triggering a proinflammatory response by blocking binding of substances that could elicit such a response. However, the relationship between the structure and the activity of these molecules is far from being completely clear. A deeper knowledge of the lipid A chemical structure can help the understanding of these mechanisms. In this manuscript, we present our work on the complete structural characterization of the lipid A obtained from the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Salinivibrio sharmensis. Lipid A was obtained from the purified LPS by mild acid hydrolysis. The lipid A, which contains different number of fatty acids residues, and its partially deacylated derivatives were completely characterized by means of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry and chemical analysis. PMID:23337252

  3. Anion inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Ferraroni, Marta; Dedeoglu, Nurcan; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-03-01

    The genome of the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae encodes for three carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the α-, β- and γ-classes. Here we report and anion inhibition study of the β-CA, VchCAβ with anions and other small molecules which inhibit metalloenzymes. The best VchCAβ anion inhibitors were sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, which showed KIs in the range of 54-86μM. Diethyldithiocarbonate was also an effective VchCAβ inhibitor, with an inhibition constant of 0.73mM. The halides, cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, nitrite, stannate, selenate, tellurate, divanadate, tetraborate, perrhenate, perruthenate, peroxydisulfate, selenocyanide, trithiocarbonate, and fluorosulfonate showed affinity in the low millimolar range, with KIs of 2.3-9.5mM. Identification of selective inhibitors of VchCAβ (over the human CA isoforms) may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of this under-investigated enzyme. PMID:26853167

  4. Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov.: a novel bacterium isolated from the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michele N; Rabe, Lorna K; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Hillier, Sharon L

    2015-04-01

    Three isolates of a bacterium recovered from human endometrium using conventional culture methods were characterized biochemically and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Isolates were non-motile, obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, asaccharolytic, non-cellulolytic, indole positive, Gram positive rods. Cell wall fatty acid profiling revealed C14:0, C16:0, C18:2 ω6, 9c, C18:1 ω9c and C18:0 to be the major fatty acid composition. The DNA mol % G+C was determined to be 44.2%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed only 91% sequence similarity with the closest cultivated bacterial isolate, Saccharofermentans acetigenes. Based on genotypic and phenotypic data, all three isolates are considered to be members of the same species and data suggest it represents a novel genus and species in the order Clostridiales with an association with Clostridium rRNA cluster III within the family Ruminococcaceae. We propose the name, Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is BAA-2120(T) and CCUG 59143(T). PMID:25482717

  5. Purification and characterization of catalase from marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinhua; Wang, Wei; Hao, Jianhua; Zhu, Xianglin; Sun, Mi

    2014-01-01

    The catalase from marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810 (YS0810CAT) was purified and characterized. Consecutive steps were used to achieve the purified enzyme as follows: ethanol precipitation, DEAE Sepharose ion exchange, Superdex 200 gel filtration, and Resource Q ion exchange. The active enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of 57.256 kDa. It showed a Soret peak at 405 nm, indicating the presence of iron protoporphyrin IX. The catalase was not apparently reduced by sodium dithionite but was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and sodium azide. Peroxidase-like activity was not found with the substrate o-phenylenediamine. So the catalase was determined to be a monofunctional catalase. N-terminal amino acid of the catalase analysis gave the sequence SQDPKKCPVTHLTTE, which showed high degree of homology with those of known catalases from bacteria. The analysis of amino acid sequence of the purified catalase by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that it was a new catalase, in spite of its high homology with those of known catalases from other bacteria. The catalase showed high alkali stability and thermostability. PMID:25045672

  6. Global transcriptome response to ionic liquid by a tropical rain forest soil bacterium, Enterobacter lignolyticus.

    PubMed

    Khudyakov, Jane I; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Borglin, Sharon E; Deangelis, Kristen M; Woo, Hannah; Lindquist, Erika A; Hazen, Terry C; Simmons, Blake A; Thelen, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    To process plant-based renewable biofuels, pretreatment of plant feedstock with ionic liquids has significant advantages over current methods for deconstruction of lignocellulosic feedstocks. However, ionic liquids are often toxic to the microorganisms used subsequently for biomass saccharification and fermentation. We previously isolated Enterobacter lignolyticus strain SCF1, a lignocellulolytic bacterium from tropical rain forest soil, and report here that it can grow in the presence of 0.5 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, a commonly used ionic liquid. We investigated molecular mechanisms of SCF1 ionic liquid tolerance using a combination of phenotypic growth assays, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, and RNA sequencing technologies. Potential modes of resistance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride include an increase in cyclopropane fatty acids in the cell membrane, scavenging of compatible solutes, up-regulation of osmoprotectant transporters and drug efflux pumps, and down-regulation of membrane porins. These findings represent an important first step in understanding mechanisms of ionic liquid resistance in bacteria and provide a basis for engineering microbial tolerance. PMID:22586090

  7. A new κ-carrageenase CgkS from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linna; Li, Shangyong; Zhang, Shilong; Li, Jiejing; Yu, Wengong; Gong, Qianhong

    2015-08-01

    A new κ-carrageenase gene cgkS was cloned from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7 by using degenerate and site-finding PCR. The gene was comprised of an open reading frame of 1224 bp, encoding 407 amino acid residues, with a signal peptide of 24 residues. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the κ-carrageenase CgkS was classified into the Glycoside Hydrolase family 16. The cgkS gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 716.8 U mg-1 and a yield of 69%. Recombinant CgkS was most active at 45°C and pH 8.0. It was stable at pH 6.0-9.0 and below 30°C. The enzyme did not require NaCl for activity, although its activity was enhanced by NaCl. CgkS degraded κ-carrageenan in an endo-fashion releasing tetrasaccharides and disaccharides as main hydrolysis products.

  8. Protein inclusions produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus subsp. nematophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Couche, G A; Gregson, R P

    1987-01-01

    The entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus subsp. nematophilus produces two types of intracellular inclusion bodies during in vitro culture. Large cigar-shaped inclusions (designated type 1) and smaller ovoid inclusions (designated type 2) were purified from cell lysates, using differential centrifugation in discontinuous glycerol gradients and isopycnic density gradient centrifugation in sodium diatrizoate. The inclusions, composed almost exclusively of protein, are readily soluble at high and low pH values and in the presence of cation chelators such as EDTA, anionic detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate), or protein denaturants (urea, NaBr). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified inclusions revealed a single 26-kilodalton protein (IP-1) in type 1 inclusions and a 22-kilodalton protein (IP-2) in type 2 inclusions. Analysis of these proteins by isoelectric focusing in the presence of 8 M urea showed that IP-1 is acidic and IP-2 is neutral. Furthermore, each protein occurred in multiple forms differing slightly in isoelectric point. Other variations in peptides released by trypsin digestion, immunological properties, and amino acid composition revealed significant structural differences between IP-1 and IP-2. Kinetic studies using light microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting procedures showed that inclusion protein synthesis occurs only during the second half of exponential culture growth. Synthesis of inclusion proteins and their aggregation to form inclusions occurred concurrently. Possible functions for these abundant proteins are discussed. Images PMID:3667532

  9. Further characterization of o-nitrobenzaldehyde degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 and deduction on its metabolic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang-Bo; Li, Xiao-Dan; Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Shan, Sheng-Dao; Luo, Lin-Ping; Guan, Li-Bo

    2014-01-01

    A previously reported o-nitrobenzaldehyde (ONBA) degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 was further identified and characterized. Based on results of DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization, the strain was identified as P. putida. Its degradation effect enhanced with increase of inoculum amount and no lag phase was observed. Higher removal rate was achieved under shaking conditions. All tested ONBA with different initial concentrations could be completely degraded within 5 d. In addition, degradative enzyme(s) involved was confirmed as intra-cellular distributed and constitutively expressed. Effects of different compounds on relative activity of degradative enzyme(s) within cell-free extract were also evaluated. Finally, 2-nitrobenzoic acid and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected as metabolites of ONBA degradation by P. putida ONBA-17, and relevant metabolic pathway was preliminary proposed. This study might help with future research in better understanding of nitroaromatics biodegradation. PMID:25763034

  10. Paenibacillus lemnae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis).

    PubMed

    Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Thawai, Chitti

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-stain-variable, rod-shaped and endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain L7-75, was isolated from duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis). Cells were motile with a monopolar flagellum. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L7-75(T) belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, and the closest phylogenetically related species were Paenibacillus uliginis N3/975(T) (98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Paenibacillus purispatii ES_M17(T) (98.5%), Paenibacillus lactis MB 1871(T) (98.2%), Paenibacillus campinasensis 324(T) (97.7%), Paenibacillus glucanolyticus S93(T) (97.7%) and Paenibacillus lautus ATCC 43898(T) (97.4%). Growth of strain L7-75(T) was observed at pH 7-10 and at 20-40 °C, and NaCl concentrations up to 5% (w/v) were tolerated. Major cellular fatty acids included anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17:0 that were present at 36.0%, 14.2 % and 10.0% of the total cellular fatty acid profile, respectively. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 49.1 mol% (Tm). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain L7-75(T) and its closest relatives ranged from 4.4 to 47.8%. These results indicate that strain L7-75(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lemnae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L7-75(T) ( = BCC 67838(T) = NBRC 109972(T)). PMID:25288280

  11. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Oral Bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum Strain ATCC 25586

    PubMed Central

    Kapatral, Vinayak; Anderson, Iain; Ivanova, Natalia; Reznik, Gary; Los, Tamara; Lykidis, Athanasios; Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Bartman, Allen; Gardner, Warren; Grechkin, Galina; Zhu, Lihua; Vasieva, Olga; Chu, Lien; Kogan, Yakov; Chaga, Oleg; Goltsman, Eugene; Bernal, Axel; Larsen, Niels; D'Souza, Mark; Walunas, Theresa; Pusch, Gordon; Haselkorn, Robert; Fonstein, Michael; Kyrpides, Nikos; Overbeek, Ross

    2002-01-01

    We present a complete DNA sequence and metabolic analysis of the dominant oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum. Although not considered a major dental pathogen on its own, this anaerobe facilitates the aggregation and establishment of several other species including the dental pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Bacteroides forsythus. The F. nucleatum strain ATCC 25586 genome was assembled from shotgun sequences and analyzed using the ERGO bioinformatics suite (http://www.integratedgenomics.com). The genome contains 2.17 Mb encoding 2,067 open reading frames, organized on a single circular chromosome with 27% GC content. Despite its taxonomic position among the gram-negative bacteria, several features of its core metabolism are similar to that of gram-positive Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., and Lactococcus spp. The genome analysis has revealed several key aspects of the pathways of organic acid, amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. Nine very-high-molecular-weight outer membrane proteins are predicted from the sequence, none of which has been reported in the literature. More than 137 transporters for the uptake of a variety of substrates such as peptides, sugars, metal ions, and cofactors have been identified. Biosynthetic pathways exist for only three amino acids: glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine. The remaining amino acids are imported as such or as di- or oligopeptides that are subsequently degraded in the cytoplasm. A principal source of energy appears to be the fermentation of glutamate to butyrate. Additionally, desulfuration of cysteine and methionine yields ammonia, H2S, methyl mercaptan, and butyrate, which are capable of arresting fibroblast growth, thus preventing wound healing and aiding penetration of the gingival epithelium. The metabolic capabilities of F. nucleatum revealed by its genome are therefore consistent with its specialized niche in the mouth. PMID:11889109

  12. Genome sequence and analysis of the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 25586.

    PubMed

    Kapatral, Vinayak; Anderson, Iain; Ivanova, Natalia; Reznik, Gary; Los, Tamara; Lykidis, Athanasios; Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Bartman, Allen; Gardner, Warren; Grechkin, Galina; Zhu, Lihua; Vasieva, Olga; Chu, Lien; Kogan, Yakov; Chaga, Oleg; Goltsman, Eugene; Bernal, Axel; Larsen, Niels; D'Souza, Mark; Walunas, Theresa; Pusch, Gordon; Haselkorn, Robert; Fonstein, Michael; Kyrpides, Nikos; Overbeek, Ross

    2002-04-01

    We present a complete DNA sequence and metabolic analysis of the dominant oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum. Although not considered a major dental pathogen on its own, this anaerobe facilitates the aggregation and establishment of several other species including the dental pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Bacteroides forsythus. The F. nucleatum strain ATCC 25586 genome was assembled from shotgun sequences and analyzed using the ERGO bioinformatics suite (http://www.integratedgenomics.com). The genome contains 2.17 Mb encoding 2,067 open reading frames, organized on a single circular chromosome with 27% GC content. Despite its taxonomic position among the gram-negative bacteria, several features of its core metabolism are similar to that of gram-positive Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., and Lactococcus spp. The genome analysis has revealed several key aspects of the pathways of organic acid, amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. Nine very-high-molecular-weight outer membrane proteins are predicted from the sequence, none of which has been reported in the literature. More than 137 transporters for the uptake of a variety of substrates such as peptides, sugars, metal ions, and cofactors have been identified. Biosynthetic pathways exist for only three amino acids: glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine. The remaining amino acids are imported as such or as di- or oligopeptides that are subsequently degraded in the cytoplasm. A principal source of energy appears to be the fermentation of glutamate to butyrate. Additionally, desulfuration of cysteine and methionine yields ammonia, H(2)S, methyl mercaptan, and butyrate, which are capable of arresting fibroblast growth, thus preventing wound healing and aiding penetration of the gingival epithelium. The metabolic capabilities of F. nucleatum revealed by its genome are therefore consistent with its specialized niche in the mouth. PMID:11889109

  13. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in lipids of the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Hayes, John M.

    2002-11-01

    Hydrogen isotopic compositions of individual lipids from Methylococcus capsulatus, an aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium, were analyzed by hydrogen isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The purposes of the study were to measure isotopic fractionation factors between methane, water, and lipids and to examine the biochemical processes that determine the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids. M. capsulatus was grown in six replicate cultures in which the δD values of methane and water were varied independently. Measurement of concomitant changes in δD values of lipids allowed estimation of the proportion of hydrogen derived from each source and the isotopic fractionation associated with the utilization of each source. All lipids examined, including fatty acids, sterols, and hopanols, derived 31.4 ± 1.7% of their hydrogen from methane. This was apparently true whether the cultures were harvested during exponential or stationary phase. Examination of the relevant biochemical pathways indicates that no hydrogen is transferred directly (with C-H bonds intact) from methane to lipids. Accordingly, we hypothesize that all methane H is oxidized to H 2O, which then serves as the H source for all biosynthesis, and that a balance between diffusion of oxygen and water across cell membranes controls the concentration of methane-derived H 2O at 31%. Values for α l/ w, the isotopic fractionation between lipids and water, were 0.95 for fatty acids and 0.85 for isoprenoid lipids. These fractionations are significantly smaller than those measured in higher plants and algae. Values for α l/ m, the isotopic fractionation between lipids and methane, were 0.94 for fatty acids and 0.79 for isoprenoid lipids. Based on these results, we predict that methanotrophs living in seawater and consuming methane with typical δD values will produce fatty acids with δD between -50 and -170‰, and sterols and hopanols with δD between -150 and -270‰.

  14. Transfer, composition and technological characterization of the lactic acid bacterial populations of the wooden vats used to produce traditional stretched cheeses.

    PubMed

    Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Gaglio, Raimondo; Macaluso, Giusi; Francesca, Nicola; Randazzo, Walter; Cardamone, Cinzia; Di Grigoli, Antonino; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    The biofilms of 12 wooden vats used for the production of the traditional stretched cheeses Caciocavallo Palermitano and PDO Vastedda della valle del Belìce were investigated. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected. Total coliforms were at low numbers with Escherichia coli found only in three vats. Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were below the enumeration limit, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the surfaces of all vats. In general, the dominance was showed by coccus LAB. Enterococci were estimated at high numbers, but usually between 1 and 2 Log cycles lower than other LAB. LAB populations were investigated at species and strain level and for their technological properties relevant in cheese production. Eighty-five strains were analysed by a polyphasic genetic approach and allotted into 16 species within the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus. Enterococcus faecium was found in all wooden vats and the species most frequently isolated were Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study of the quantitative data on acidification rate, autolysis kinetics, diacetyl production, antibacterial compound generation and proteolysis by cluster and principal component analysis led to the identification of some strains with promising dairy characteristics. Interestingly, a consistent percentage of LAB was bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) producer. Thus, the microbial biofilms of the wooden vats analysed in this study might contribute actively to the stability of the final cheeses. PMID:26338114

  15. Genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction and in silico flux analysis of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thermus thermophilus, an extremely thermophilic bacterium, has been widely recognized as a model organism for studying how microbes can survive and adapt under high temperature environment. However, the thermotolerant mechanisms and cellular metabolism still remains mostly unravelled. Thus, it is highly required to consider systems biological approaches where T. thermophilus metabolic network model can be employed together with high throughput experimental data for elucidating its physiological characteristics under such harsh conditions. Results We reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model of T. thermophilus, iTT548, the first ever large-scale network of a thermophilic bacterium, accounting for 548 unique genes, 796 reactions and 635 unique metabolites. Our initial comparative analysis of the model with Escherichia coli has revealed several distinctive metabolic reactions, mainly in amino acid metabolism and carotenoid biosynthesis, producing relevant compounds to retain the cellular membrane for withstanding high temperature. Constraints-based flux analysis was, then, applied to simulate the metabolic state in glucose minimal and amino acid rich media. Remarkably, resulting growth predictions were highly consistent with the experimental observations. The subsequent comparative flux analysis under different environmental conditions highlighted that the cells consumed branched chain amino acids preferably and utilized them directly in the relevant anabolic pathways for the fatty acid synthesis. Finally, gene essentiality study was also conducted via single gene deletion analysis, to identify the conditional essential genes in glucose minimal and complex media. Conclusions The reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model elucidates the phenotypes of T. thermophilus, thus allowing us to gain valuable insights into its cellular metabolism through in silico simulations. The information obtained from such analysis would not only shed light on the

  16. Molybdate Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by an Antarctic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S. A.; Shukor, M. Y.; Shamaan, N. A.; Mac Cormack, W. P.; Syed, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries. PMID:24381945

  17. Molybdate reduction to molybdenum blue by an Antarctic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S A; Shukor, M Y; Shamaan, N A; Mac Cormack, W P; Syed, M A

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo⁶⁺ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries. PMID:24381945

  18. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

  19. Radiation response mechanisms of the extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Narumi, Issay; Satoh, Katsuya; Funayama, Tomoo; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kitayama, Shigeru; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2004-11-01

    Effect of microgravity on recovery of bacterial cells from radiation damage was examined in IML-2, S/MM-4 and S/MM-9 experiments using the extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The cells were irradiated with gamma rays before the space flight and incubated on board the Space Shuttle. The survival of the wild type cells incubated in space increased compared with the ground controls, suggesting that the recovery of this bacterium from radiation damage was enhanced under the space environment. No difference was observed between the survivals of radiosensitive mutant rec30 cells incubated in space and on the ground. The amount of DNA-repair related RecA protein induced under microgravity was similar to those of ground controls, however, induction of PprA protein, product of a unique radiation-inducible gene (designated pprA) responsible for loss of radiation resistance in repair-deficient mutant, KH311, was enhanced under microgravity compared with ground controls. Recent investigation in vitro showed that PprA preferentially bound to double-stranded DNA carrying strand breaks, inhibited Escherichia coli exonuclease III activity, and stimulated the DNA end-joining reaction catalyzed by DNA ligases. These results suggest that D. radiodurans has a radiation-induced non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair mechanism in which PprA plays a critical role. PMID:15858357

  20. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications. PMID:27263016

  1. Isolation and characterization of luminescent bacterium for sludge biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Zahaba, Maryam; Halmi, Mohd Izuan Effendi; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Syed, Mohd Arif

    2015-11-01

    Microtox is based on the inhibition of luminescence of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri by the toxicants. This technique has been accepted by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) as a biomonitoring tool for remediation of toxicants such as hydrocarbon sludge. In the present study, a luminescent bacterium was isolated from yellow striped scad (Selaroides leptolepis) and was tentatively identified as Vibrio sp. isolate MZ. This aerobic isolate showed high luminescence activity in a broad range of temperature from 25 to 35 °C. In addition, optimal conditions for high bioluminescence activity in range of pH 7.5 to 8.5 and 10 gl(-1) of sodium chloride, 10 gl(-1) of peptone and 10 gl(-1) of sucrose as carbon source. Bench scale biodegradation 1% sludge (w/v) was set up and degradation was determined using gas chromatography with flame ionised detector (GC-FID). In this study, Rhodococcus sp. strain AQ5NOL2 was used to degrade the sludge. Based on the preliminary results obtained, Vibrio sp. isolate MZwas able to monitor the biodegradation of sludge. Therefore, Vibrio sp. isolate MZ has the potential to be used as a biomonitoring agent for biomonitoring of sludge biodegradation particularly in the tropical ranged environment. PMID:26688958

  2. Hydrogenomics of the Extremely Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    van de Werken, Harmen J. G.; Verhaart, Marcel R. A.; VanFossen, Amy L.; Willquist, Karin; Lewis, Derrick L.; Nichols, Jason D.; Goorissen, Heleen P.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Nelson, Karen E.; van Niel, Ed W. J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Ward, Donald E.; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Oost, John; Kelly, Robert M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an extremely thermophilic, gram-positive anaerobe which ferments cellulose-, hemicellulose- and pectin-containing biomass to acetate, CO2, and hydrogen. Its broad substrate range, high hydrogen-producing capacity, and ability to coutilize glucose and xylose make this bacterium an attractive candidate for microbial bioenergy production. Here, the complete genome sequence of C. saccharolyticus, consisting of a 2,970,275-bp circular chromosome encoding 2,679 predicted proteins, is described. Analysis of the genome revealed that C. saccharolyticus has an extensive polysaccharide-hydrolyzing capacity for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and starch, coupled to a large number of ABC transporters for monomeric and oligomeric sugar uptake. The components of the Embden-Meyerhof and nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathways are all present; however, there is no evidence that an Entner-Doudoroff pathway is present. Catabolic pathways for a range of sugars, including rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, glucuronate, fructose, and galactose, were identified. These pathways lead to the production of NADH and reduced ferredoxin. NADH and reduced ferredoxin are subsequently used by two distinct hydrogenases to generate hydrogen. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that there is significant upregulation of the glycolytic pathway and an ABC-type sugar transporter during growth on glucose and xylose, indicating that C. saccharolyticus coferments these sugars unimpeded by glucose-based catabolite repression. The capacity to simultaneously process and utilize a range of carbohydrates associated with biomass feedstocks is a highly desirable feature of this lignocellulose-utilizing, biofuel-producing bacterium. PMID:18776029

  3. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2016-06-04

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. Furthermore, this review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkablemore » ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.« less

  4. Complete genome sequence of the novel Porphyromonadaceae bacterium strain ING2-E5B isolated from a mesophilic lab-scale biogas reactor.

    PubMed

    Hahnke, Sarah; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Pühler, Alfred; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-01-10

    In this study, the whole genome sequence of the mesophilic, anaerobic Porphyromonadaceae bacterium strain ING2-E5B (LMG 28429, DSM 28696) is reported. The new isolate belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and was obtained from a biogas-producing lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) optimized for anaerobic digestion of maize silage in co-fermentation with pig and cattle manure. The genome of strain ING2-E5B contains numerous genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in the degradation of complex carbohydrates and proteinaceous compounds. Moreover, it possesses genes catalyzing the production of volatile fatty acids. Hence, this bacterium was predicted to be involved in hydrolysis and acidogenesis during anaerobic digestion and biomethanation. PMID:25444871

  5. Production of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein by a novel oxygen-tolerant bovine rumen bacterium in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Hong-Lei; Li, Chao-Dong; Wang, Shi-Ying

    2011-11-01

    The original bovine rumen bacterial strain Niu-O16, capable of anaerobically bioconverting isoflavones daidzein and genistein to dihydrodaidzein (DHD) and dihydrogenistein (DHG), respectively, is a rod-shaped obligate anaerobic bacterium. After a long-term domestication, an oxygen-tolerant bacterium, which we named Aeroto-Niu-O16 was obtained. Strain Aeroto-Niu-O16, which can grow in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, differed from the original obligate anaerobic bacterium Niu-O16 by various characteristics, including a change in bacterial shape (from rod to filament), in biochemical traits (from indole negative to indole positive and from amylohydrolysis positive to negative), and point mutations in 16S rRNA gene (G398A and G438A). We found that strain Aeroto-Niu-O16 not only grew aerobically but also converted isoflavones daidzein and genistein to DHD and DHG in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. The bioconversion rate of daidzein and genistein by strain Aeroto-Niu-O16 was 60.3% and 74.1%, respectively. And the maximum bioconversion capacity for daidzein was 1.2 and 1.6 mM for genistein. Furthermore, when we added ascorbic acid (0.15%, m/v) in the cultural medium, the bioconversion rate of daidzein was increased from 60.3% to 71.7%, and that of genistein from 74.1% to 89.2%. This is the first reported oxygen-tolerant isoflavone biotransforming pure culture capable of both growing and executing the reductive activity under aerobic conditions. PMID:21626023

  6. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG)5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5) and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64 mg/L whereas some W. confusa

  7. Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

  8. Structure and morphology of magnetite anaerobically-produced by a marine magnetotactic bacterium and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, N.H.C.; Mann, S.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Lovley, D.R.; Jannasch, H.W.; Frankel, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular crystals of magnetite synthesized by cells of the magnetotactic vibroid organism, MV-1, and extracellular crystals of magnetite produced by the non-magnetotactic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium strain GS-15, were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetotactic bacterium contained a single chain of approximately 10 crystals aligned along the long axis of the cell. The crystals were essentially pure stoichiometric magnetite. When viewed along the crystal long axis the particles had a hexagonal cross-section whereas side-on they appeared as rectangules or truncated rectangles of average dimension, 53 ?? 35 nm. These findings are explained in terms of a three-dimensional morphology comprising a hexagonal prism of {110} faces which are capped and truncated by {111} end faces. Electron diffraction and lattice imaging studies indicated that the particles were structurally well-defined single crystals. In contrast, magnetite particles produced by the strain, GS-15 were irregular in shape and had smaller mean dimensions (14 nm). Single crystals were imaged but these were not of high structural perfection. These results highlight the influence of intracellular control on the crystallochemical specificity of bacterial magnetites. The characterization of these crystals is important in aiding the identification of biogenic magnetic materials in paleomagnetism and in studies of sediment magnetization. ?? 1990.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Antarctic Psychrophile Bacterium Planococcus antarcticus DSM 14505

    PubMed Central

    Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Planococcus antarcticus DSM 14505 is a psychrophile bacterium that was isolated from cyanobacterial mat samples, originally collected from ponds in McMurdo, Antarctica. This orange-pigmented bacterium grows at 4°C and may possess interesting enzymatic activities at low temperatures. Here we report the first genomic sequence of P. antarcticus DSM 14505. PMID:22843594

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Ensifer adhaerens M78, a Mineral-Weathering Bacterium Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanli; Chen, Wei; He, Linyan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Ensifer adhaerens M78, a bacterium isolated from soil, can weather potash feldspar and release Fe, Si, and Al from rock under nutrient-poor conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain M78, which may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in mineral weathering by the bacterium. PMID:27609930

  11. Kinetic study of trichloroethylene and toluene degradation by a bioluminescent reporter bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.J.; Sanseverino, J.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Sayler, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A constructed bioluminescent reporter bacterium, Pseudomonas putida B2, is very briefly described in this paper. The bacterium degrades toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE), and produces light in the presence of toluene. The light response is an indication of cellular viability and expression of the genes encoding toluene and TCE degrading enzymes.

  12. Near-complete genome sequence of the cellulolytic Bacterium Bacteroides (Pseudobacteroides) cellulosolvens ATCC 35603

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dassa, Bareket; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Hurt, Richard A.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Keller, Martin; Xu, Jian; Reddy, Harish Kumar; Borovok, Ilya; Grinberg, Inna Rozman; Lamed, Raphael; et al

    2015-09-24

    We report the single-contig genome sequence of the anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The bacterium produces a particularly elaborate cellulosome system, whereas the types of cohesin-dockerin interactions are opposite of other known cellulosome systems: cell-surface attachment is thus mediated via type-I interactions whereas enzymes are integrated via type-II interactions.

  13. FEEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH BACTERIUM PULLORUM. THE TOXICITY OF INFECTED EGGS.

    PubMed

    Rettger, L F; Hull, T G; Sturges, W S

    1916-04-01

    The problem of eradicating ovarian infection in the domestic fowl assumes still greater importance than heretofore, in the light of data recently acquired. Not only is it of great significance to eliminate the permanent carriers of Bacterium pullorum from all flocks of fowls from the standpoint of successful poultry breeding, but also because they constitute a possible source of danger to man. Eggs which harbor Bacterium pullorum in the yolk in large numbers may produce abnormal conditions, when fed, not only in young chicks, but in adult fowls, young rabbits, guinea pigs, and kittens. The toxicity for young rabbits is most pronounced, the infection usually resulting in the death of the animals. In kittens the most prominent symptoms are those of severe food-poisoning with members of the paratyphoid group of bacteria. The possibility of infected eggs causing serious disturbances in young children and in the sick and convalescent of all ages must therefore receive serious consideration. Ovarian infection of fowls is very common throughout this country. Hence, a large proportion of the marketed eggs are infected with Bacterium pullorum. When such eggs are allowed to remain in nests under broody hens, or in warm storage places, for comparatively few hours, they contain large numbers of the organism. Soft boiling, coddling, and frying on one side only do not necessarily render the yolks free from viable bacteria; therefore, eggs which have gone through these processes may, like raw eggs, be the cause of serious disturbances in persons who are particularly susceptible to such influences, and especially to infants. That no well authenticated instances of egg-poisoning of this kind are on record does not warrant the assumption that there have been no cases. The etiology of infantile stomach and intestinal disturbances is as yet too little understood; in fact, it may be said that many of these disorders have no known cause, and almost as much may be said regarding gastro

  14. Bacillus korlensis sp. nov., a moderately halotolerant bacterium isolated from a sand soil sample in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Dai, Jun; Tang, Yali; Yang, Qiao; Luo, Xuesong; Fang, Chengxiang

    2009-07-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, rod-shaped, motile, spore-forming and moderately halotolerant bacterium, designated ZLC-26(T), was isolated from a sand soil sample collected from Xinjiang Province, China, and was characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. This isolate grew optimally at 30-37 degrees C and pH 7-8. It grew with 0-8% NaCl (optimum, 0-2 %). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ZLC-26(T) was closely related to members of the genus Bacillus, exhibiting the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077(T) (97.1 %), B. shackletonii LMG 18435(T) (97.0 %), B. siralis 171544(T) (97.0 %), B. circulans IAM 12462(T) (96.7 %) and B. pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T) (96.7 %). Strain ZLC-26(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega11c and anteiso-C(15 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 38.2 mol%. These chemotaxonomic results supported the affiliation of strain ZLC-26(T) to the genus Bacillus. However, low DNA-DNA relatedness values and distinguishing phenotypic characteristics allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ZLC-26(T) from recognized Bacillus species. On the basis of the evidence presented, strain ZLC-26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus korlensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZLC-26(T) (=CCTCC AB 207172(T)=NRRL B-51302(T)). PMID:19542113

  15. Biochemical and genetic analyses of a catalase from the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, E R; Smith, C J

    1995-01-01

    A single catalase enzyme was produced by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis when cultures at late log phase were shifted to aerobic conditions. In anaerobic conditions, catalase activity was detected in stationary-phase cultures, indicating that not only oxygen exposure but also starvation may affect the production of this antioxidant enzyme. The purified enzyme showed a peroxidatic activity when pyrogallol was used as an electron donor. It is a hemoprotein containing one heme molecule per holomer and has an estimated molecular weight of 124,000 to 130,000. The catalase gene was cloned by screening a B. fragilis library for complementation of catalase activity in an Escherichia coli catalase mutant (katE katG) strain. The cloned gene, designated katB, encoded a catalase enzyme with electrophoretic mobility identical to that of the purified protein from the B. fragilis parental strain. The nucleotide sequence of katB revealed a 1,461-bp open reading frame for a protein with 486 amino acids and a predicted molecular weight of 55,905. This result was very close to the 60,000 Da determined by denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified catalase and indicates that the native enzyme is composed of two identical subunits. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified catalase obtained by Edman degradation confirmed that it is a product of katB. The amino acid sequence of KatB showed high similarity to Haemophilus influenzae HktE (71.6% identity, 66% nucleotide identity), as well as to gram-positive bacterial and mammalian catalases. No similarities to bacterial catalase-peroxidase-type enzymes were found. The active-site residues, proximal and distal hemebinding ligands, and NADPH-binding residues of the bovine liver catalase-type enzyme were highly conserved in B. fragilis KatB. PMID:7768808

  16. Marinococcus tarijensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt mine.

    PubMed

    Balderrama-Subieta, Andrea; Guzmán, Daniel; Minegishi, Hiroaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Hatada, Yuji; Quillaguamán, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, coccoid-shaped, halophilic bacterium, strain SR-1(T), was isolated from a salt crystal obtained from a mine located in Tarija, Bolivia. The strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The optimum conditions for growth of strain SR-1(T) were reached at 5% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.6 and 37-40 °C. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids of strain SR-1(T) were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and iso-C(16:0). The DNA G+C content of strain SR-1(T) was 48.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed a close relationship between strain SR-1(T) and Marinococcus halophilus JCM 2479(T) (99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Marinococcus halotolerans KCTC 19045(T) (99.4%) and Marinococcus luteus KCTC 13214(T) (99.8%). However, strain SR-1(T) also showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with these reference strains (47, 61 and 58%, respectively). On the basis of phenotypic differences and DNA-DNA hybridization results, strain SR-1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Marinococcus, for which the name Marinococcus tarijensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR-1(T) ( =LMG 26930(T) =CECT 8130(T)). PMID:23504966

  17. Thermoactinomyces khenchelensis sp. nov., a filamentous bacterium isolated from soil sediment of a terrestrial hot spring.

    PubMed

    Mokrane, Salim; Bouras, Noureddine; Meklat, Atika; Lahoum, Abdelhadi; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Verheecke, Carol; Mathieu, Florence; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2016-02-01

    A novel thermophilic filamentous bacterium, designated strain T36(T), was isolated from soil sediment sample from a hot spring source collected in Khenchela province, Algeria. Strain T36(T) was identified as a member of the genus Thermoactinomyces by a polyphasic approach. Strain T36(T) was observed to form white aerial mycelium and non-coloured to pale yellow substrate mycelium, both producing endospores, sessile or borne by short sporophores. The optimum growth temperature and pH were found to be 37-55 °C and 7.0-9.0, respectively and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was found to be 0-7 % (w/v). The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone of strain T36(T) was identified as MK-7 (H0). The major fatty acids were found to be iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0. The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphoglycolipid. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain T36(T) are consistent with those shared by members of the genus Thermoactinomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the sequence similarities between strain T36(T) and Thermoactinomyces species with validly published names were less than 98 %. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that strain T36(T) should be classified as representative of a novel species, for which the name Thermoactinomyces khenchelensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T36(T) (=DSM 45951(T) = CECT 8579(T)). PMID:26678783

  18. Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis sp. nov., an anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline spring.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cárdenas, C; López, G; Patel, B K C; Baena, S

    2010-04-01

    A mesophilic, strictly anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain USBA 82(T), was isolated from a terrestrial saline spring in the Colombian Andes. The non-spore-forming curved rods (5-7 x 1.3 microm) with pointed or rounded ends, stained Gram-negative and were motile by means of laterally inserted flagella. The strain grew optimally at 30 degrees C (growth range 20-40 degrees C), pH 7.3 (growth range pH 5.5-8.5) and 2 % (w/v) NaCl (growth range 0.1-7 % NaCl). The strain fermented peptides, amino acids and a few organic acids, but growth was not observed on carbohydrates, alcohols or fatty acids. The strain reduced thiosulfate and sulfur to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as electron acceptors. On peptone alone, acetate, succinate, propionate and traces of ethanol were formed, but in the presence of thiosulfate, acetate and succinate were formed. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 52 mol% (T(m)). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain USBA 82(T) was affiliated to Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans within the phylum Synergistetes with a similarity value of approximately 93 %. Based on the differences between the new strain and the type species of the genus Dethiosulfovibrio, we suggest that strain USBA 82(T) represents a novel species of the genus for which the name Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is USBA 82(T) (=DSM 21565(T)=KCTC 5659(T)). PMID:19661517

  19. Rhodococcus opacus B4: a promising bacterium for production of biofuels and biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ana Rita; Rocha, Isabel; Alves, Maria Madalena; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial lipids have relevant applications in the production of renewable fuels and biobased oleochemicals. The genus Rhodococcus is one of the most relevant lipid producers due to its capability to accumulate those compounds, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), when cultivated on different defined substrates, namely sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons but also on complex carbon sources present in industrial wastes. In this work, the production of storage lipids by Rhodococcus opacus B4 using glucose, acetate and hexadecane is reported for the first time and its productivity compared with Rhodococcus opacus PD630, the best TAG producer bacterium reported. Both strains accumulated mainly TAG from all carbon sources, being influenced by the carbon source itself and by the duration of the accumulation period. R. opacus B4 produced 0.09 and 0.14 g L(-1) at 24 and 72 h, with hexadecane as carbon source, which was 2 and 3.3 fold higher than the volumetric production obtained by R. opacus PD630. Both strains presented similar fatty acids (FA) profiles in intact cells while in TAG produced fraction, R. opacus B4 revealed a higher variability in fatty acid composition than R. opacus PD630, when both strains were cultivated on hexadecane. The obtained results open new perspectives for the use of R. opacus B4 to produce TAG, in particular using oily (alkane-contaminated) waste and wastewater as cheap raw-materials. Combining TAG production with hydrocarbons degradation is a promising strategy to achieve environmental remediation while producing added value compounds. PMID:27179529

  20. Bacillus shacheensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline-alkali soil.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zuchao; Qiu, Peng; Ye, Renyuan; Tian, Jiewei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lei; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun; Tian, Yongqiang

    2014-01-01

    A moderately halophilic bacterium, strain HNA-14(T), was isolated from a saline-alkali soil sample collected in Shache County, Xinjiang Province. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, the isolate was considered to be a member of the genus Bacillus. The organism grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 8.0. It was moderately halophilic and its optimum growth occurred at 5-10% NaCl. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0 and the polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 48.6 mol%. Strain HNA-14(T) exhibited a low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96% with its nearest neighbors [Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 (96.5%), Bacillus xiaoxiensis DSM 21943(T)(96.2%), Bacillus clausii DSM 8716(T) (96.1%), Bacillus patagoniensis PAT05(T) (96.1%), Bacillus lehensis MLB-2(T) (96.0%), Bacillus oshimensis K11(T) (95.9%) and Bacillus hunanensis DSM 23008(T) (95.8%)] and the phenotypic characteristics indicate that strain HNA-14(T) can be distinguished from them. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus shacheensis sp. nov. (type strain, HNA-14(T) = KCTC 33145 = DSM 26902) is proposed. PMID:25008165

  1. Isolation and Characterization of a Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas faecalis Strain A from Swine Sewage Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongyi; Okunishi, Suguru; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Kamei, Yuto; Maeda, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    A purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium (PNSB), PSB Strain A was isolated from swine sewage wastewater. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PSB Strain A was most closely related to Rhodopseudomonas faecalis. Growth of the isolate under anaerobic-light conditions with a variety of carbon sources was investigated. Both PSB Strain A and the standard strain showed good growth with acetic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid at a concentration of 20 mM. At the high concentration of 200 mM, PSB Strain A showed better growth in pyruvate, acetate, propionate, succinate and malate. By applying PSB Strain A to treat swine sewage wastewater, the concentration of VFAs, which were acetic acid and propionic acid, decreased from 158.0 mM to 120.2±2.9 mM, and 14.9 mM to 9.3±0.9 mM, respectively, after 216-h incubation. After 330-h incubation, the concentrations of TOC and ammonia nitrogen dropped from 4508.0 mg/L to 3104.0±451.5 mg/L, and 629.7 mg/L to 424.1±7.4 mg/L, respectively. The isolated PSB Strain A showed almost the same efficiency compared with the standard strain on the removal of VFAs and TOC. The results suggest the possibility of using the isolated strain to treat swine sewage wastewater. PMID:27009507

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of the heat-stable acrylamidase from a newly isolated thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius AUT-01.

    PubMed

    Cha, Minseok; Chambliss, Glenn H

    2013-02-01

    A thermophilic bacterium capable of degrading acrylamide, AUT-01, was isolated from soil collected from a hot spring area in Montana, USA. The thermophilic strain grew with 0.2 % glucose as the sole carbon source and 1.4 mM acrylamide as the sole nitrogen source. The isolate AUT-01 was identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius based on 16S rDNA sequence. An enzyme from the strain capable of transforming acrylamide to acrylic acid was purified by a series of chromatographic columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme activity had pH and temperature optima of 6.2 and 70 ºC, respectively. The influence of different metals and amino acids on the ability of the purified protein to transform acrylamide to acrylic acid was evaluated. The gene from G. thermoglucosidasius encoding the acrylamidase was cloned, sequenced, and compared to aliphatic amidases from other bacterial strains. The G. thermoglucosidasius gene, amiE, encoded a 38 kDa, monomeric, heat-stable amidase that catalysed the cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bonds in acrylamide. Comparison of the amino acid sequence to other bacterial amidases revealed 99 and 82 % similarity to the amino acid sequences of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. PMID:22639115

  3. Control of aldehyde synthesis in the luminous bacterium Beneckea harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulitzur, S; Hastings, J W

    1979-01-01

    Some of the Beneckea harveyi dim aldehyde mutants, all of which emit light upon addition of exogenous long-chain aldehyde, also emit light when myristic acid is added. Analysis of these myristic acid-responsive mutants indicates that they are blocked before fatty acid formation, whereas another class of mutants, which respond only to aldehyde, appear to be defective in the enzyme(s) involved in the conversion of acid to aldehyde. Evidence is presented that this activity, designated myristic acid reductase, is coinduced with luciferase and is involved in the recycling of acid produced in the luciferase reaction, with specificity for the C14 compounds. PMID:311359

  4. BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF DIPICOLINIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuo; Arima, Kei

    1962-01-01

    Kobayashi, Yasuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) and Kei Arima. Bacterial oxidation of dipicolinic acid. II. Identification of α-ketoglutaric acid and 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid and some properties of cell-free extracts. J. Bacteriol. 84:765–771. 1962—When a dipicolinic acid (DPA)-decomposing bacterium, Achromobacter strain 1–2, was incubated at 30 C with shaking in a DPA solution containing 10−3m arsenite, a keto acid was accumulated. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of this acid was synthesized and identified as α-ketoglutaric acid by paper chromatography, visible absorption spectrum, infrared analysis, elemental analysis, and mixed melting point. During this incubation, oxalic acid equivalent to the consumed dipicolinic acid was produced. A fluorescent material was also isolated from culture fluid and identified as 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid by paper chromatography and the ultraviolet absorption spectrum. Further, cell-free extracts were prepared by sonic oscillation. Ferrous ion and a reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide-generating system were proven to be required for enzymic oxidation of DPA. And 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid was also oxidized by this preparation. From the results obtained, a possible metabolic pathway of dipicolinic acid was proposed. PMID:14033954

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  6. Bacillus coreaensis sp. nov.: a xylan-hydrolyzing bacterium isolated from the soil of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chi, Won-Jae; Youn, Young Sang; Park, Jae-Seon; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2015-07-01

    A xylan-degrading bacterium, designated as MS5(T) strain, was isolated from soil collected from the Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Strain MS5(T) was Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, and motile by polar flagellum. The major fatty acids identified in this bacterium were iso-C15:0 (32.3%), C16:0 (27.3%), and anteiso-C15:0 (10.2%). A similarity search based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belongs to the class Bacilli and shared the highest similarity with the type strains Bacillus beringensis BR035(T) (98.7%) and Bacillus korlensis ZLC-26(T) (98.6%) which form a coherent cluster in a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. The DNA G+C content of strain MS5(T) was 43.0 mol%. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNADNA relatedness values between strain MS5(T) and two closely related species, B. beringensis BR035(T) and B. korlensis ZLC-26(T), were less than 70%. DNA-DNA relatedness analysis and 16S rRNA sequence similarity, as well as phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics suggest that the strain MS5(T) constitutes a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus coreaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MS5(T) (=DSM25506(T) =KCTC13895(T)). PMID:26115993

  7. Bacillus indicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from an aquifer in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Prabagaran, S R; Sengupta, S; Shivaji, S

    2004-07-01

    Strain Sd/3T (=MTCC 4374T=DSM 15820T), an arsenic-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a sand sample obtained from an arsenic-contaminated aquifer in Chakdah district in West Bengal, India (23 degrees 3' N 88 degrees 35' E). The bacterium was Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, endospore-forming and yellowish-orange pigmented. It possessed all the characteristics that conform to the genus Bacillus, such as it had A4beta murein type (L-orn-D-Asp) peptidoglycan variant, MK-7 as the major menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. Based on its chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain Sd/3T was identified as a species of the genus Bacillus. It exhibited maximum similarity (95%) at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus cohnii; however, DNA-DNA similarity with B. cohnii was 60.7%. Strain Sd/3T also exhibited a number of phenotypic differences from B. cohnii (DSM 6307T). These data suggest that Sd/3T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus. The name Bacillus indicus sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:15280316

  8. Proteogenomic Characterization of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Aniline-Degrading Bacterium Burkholderia sp. K24

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung Ho; Choi, Chi-Won; Yi, Yoon-Sun; Kim, Jonghyun; Chung, Young-Ho; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. K24, formerly known as Acinetobacter lwoffii K24, is a soil bacterium capable of utilizing aniline as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that this bacterium possesses putative gene clusters for biodegradation of various monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), including benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), as well as aniline. We verified the proposed MAH biodegradation pathways by dioxygenase activity assays, RT-PCR, and LC/MS-based quantitative proteomic analyses. This proteogenomic approach revealed four independent degradation pathways, all converging into the citric acid cycle. Aniline and p-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathways converged into the β-ketoadipate pathway. Benzoate and toluene were degraded through the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. The xylene isomers, i.e., o-, m-, and p-xylene, were degraded via the extradiol cleavage pathways. Salicylate was degraded through the gentisate degradation pathway. Our results show that Burkholderia sp. K24 possesses versatile biodegradation pathways, which may be employed for efficient bioremediation of aniline and BTX. PMID:27124467

  9. Biomass Yield Efficiency of the Marine Anammox Bacterium, “Candidatus Scalindua sp.,” is Affected by Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The growth rate and biomass yield efficiency of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria are markedly lower than those of most other autotrophic bacteria. Among the anammox bacterial genera, the growth rate and biomass yield of the marine anammox bacterium “Candidatus Scalindua sp.” is still lower than those of other anammox bacteria enriched from freshwater environments. The activity and growth of marine anammox bacteria are generally considered to be affected by the presence of salinity and organic compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of salinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the anammox activity, inorganic carbon uptake, and biomass yield efficiency of “Ca. Scalindua sp.” enriched from the marine sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, were investigated in batch experiments. Differences in VFA concentrations (0–10 mM) were observed under varying salinities (0.5%–4%). Anammox activity was high at 0.5%–3.5% salinity, but was 30% lower at 4% salinity. In addition, carbon uptake was higher at 1.5%–3.5% salinity. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that the biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium “Ca. Scalindua sp.” was significantly affected by salinity. On the other hand, the presence of VFAs up to 10 mM did not affect anammox activity, carbon uptake, or biomass yield efficiency. PMID:25740428

  10. Identification of volatile compounds produced by the bacterium Burkholderia tropica that inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio-Salgado, Silvia; Tinoco, Raunel; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    It has been documented that bacteria from the Burkholderia genera produce different kinds of compounds that inhibit plant pathogens, however in Burkholderia tropica, an endophytic diazotrophic and phosphate-solubilizing bacterium isolated from a wide diversity of plants, the capacity to produce antifungal compounds has not been evaluated. In order to expand our knowledge about Burkholderia tropica as a potential biological control agent, we analyzed 15 different strains of this bacterium to evaluate their capacities to inhibit the growth of four phytopathogenic fungi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolffsi. Diverse analytical techniques, including plant root protection and dish plate growth assays and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy showed that the fungal growth inhibition was intimately associated with the volatile compounds produced by B. tropica and, in particular, two bacterial strains (MTo293 and TTe203) exhibited the highest radial mycelial growth inhibition. Morphological changes associated with these compounds, such as disruption of fungal hyphae, were identified by using photomicrographic analysis. By using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique, 18 volatile compounds involved in the growth inhibition mechanism were identified, including α-pinene and limonene. In addition, we found a high proportion of bacterial strains that produced siderophores during growth with different carbon sources, such as alanine and glutamic acid; however, their roles in the antagonism mechanism remain unclear. PMID:23680857

  11. Impact resistance of different factors on ammonia removal by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium Aeromonas sp. HN-02.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maoxia; Wang, Wenchao; Feng, Ye; Zhu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang; Li, Xudong

    2014-09-01

    To give reference for the application of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria in actual wastewater treatment, the impact resistance of extreme pH, low temperature, heavy metals and high salinity on ammonia removal by a typical heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterium Aeromonas sp. HN-02 was investigated. The results showed that HN-02 demonstrated strong acid- and alkali-resistance. In addition, it remained active at 5°C, and the removal rates of ammonia and COD were 0.90 mg L(-1)h(-1) and 22.34 mg L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Under the same extent of immediate temperature drop, the temperature correction coefficients of ammonia, COD removal rates and cell growth rate were close. Moreover, HN-02 could survive in the solution containing 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu(2+) or 8 mg L(-1) Zn(2+), or 0.5 mg L(-1) of equivalent Cu(2+)-Zn(2+). Furthermore, efficient ammonia removal was retained at salinity below 20 g L(-1), thus it could be identified as a halotolerant bacterium. At last, stronger stress resulted in higher ΔCOD/ΔTN ratio. PMID:25006021

  12. Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus subsp. nov. a phenol-degrading, denitrifying bacterium isolated from a graywater bioprocessor.

    PubMed

    Rehfuss, Marc; Urban, James

    2005-07-01

    A Gram (-) coccobacillary bacterium, J(T), was isolated from a graywater bioprocessor. 16S rRNA and biochemical analysis has revealed strain J(T) closely resembles Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750T and A. faecalis subsp. parafaecalis DSM 13975T, but is a distinct, previously uncharacterized isolate. Strain J(T), along with the type strain of A. faecalis and its previously described subspecies share the ability to aerobically degrade phenol. The degradation rates of phenol for strain J(T) and reference phenol degrading bacteria were determined by photometrically measuring the change in optical density when grown on 0.1% phenol as the sole carbon source, followed by addition of Gibb's reagent to measure depletion of substrate. The phenol degradation rates of strain J(T) was found to exceed that of the phenol hydroxylase group III bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, with isolate J(T) exhibiting a doubling time of 4.5 h. The presence of the large subunit of the multicomponent phenol hydroxylase gene in strain J(T) was confirmed by PCR. The presence of the nirK nitrite reductase gene as demonstrated by PCR as well as results obtained from nitrite media indicated denitrification at least to N2O. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic, fatty acid analysis and results from DNA DNA hybridization, we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Alcaligenes faecalis, to be named Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus with the type strain J(T) (= DSM 16503) (= NRRL B-41076). PMID:16094869

  13. Fungal lysis by a soil bacterium fermenting cellulose.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Cerisy, Tristan; El-Sayyed, Hafez; Boutard, Magali; Salanoubat, Marcel; Church, George M

    2015-08-01

    Recycling of plant biomass by a community of bacteria and fungi is fundamental to carbon flow in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we report how the plant fermenting, soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans enhances growth on cellulose by simultaneously lysing and consuming model fungi from soil. We investigate the mechanism of fungal lysis to show that among the dozens of different glycoside hydrolases C. phytofermentans secretes on cellulose, the most highly expressed enzymes degrade fungi rather than plant substrates. These enzymes, the GH18 Cphy1799 and Cphy1800, synergize to hydrolyse chitin, a main component of the fungal cell wall. Purified enzymes inhibit fungal growth and mutants lacking either GH18 grow normally on cellulose and other plant substrates, but have a reduced ability to hydrolyse chitinous substrates and fungal hyphae. Thus, C. phytofermentans boosts growth on cellulose by lysing fungi with its most highly expressed hydrolases, highlighting the importance of fungal interactions to the ecology of cellulolytic bacteria. PMID:24798076

  14. Characterization of the quinones in purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuuka; Kawakami, Tomoaki; Yu, Long-Jiang; Yoshimura, Miku; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Quinone distributions in the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum have been investigated at different levels of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we show that, on average, the intracytoplasmic membrane contains 18 ubiquinones (UQ) and 4 menaquinones (MQ) per reaction center (RC). About one-third of the quinones are retained in the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) with a similar ratio of UQ to MQ. The numbers of quinones essentially remains unchanged during crystallization of the LH1-RC. There are 1-2 UQ and 1 MQ associated with the RC-only complex in the purified solution sample. Our results suggest that a large proportion of the quinones are confined to the core complex and at least five UQs remain invisible in the current LH1-RC crystal structure. PMID:26048701

  15. Mechanism of anaerobic degradation of triethanolamine by a homoacetogenic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Speranza, Giovanna . E-mail: giovanna.speranza@unimi.it; Morelli, Carlo F.; Cairoli, Paola; Mueller, Britta; Schink, Bernhard

    2006-10-20

    Triethanolamine (TEA) is converted into acetate and ammonia by a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive Acetobacterium strain LuTria3. Fermentation experiments with resting cell suspensions and specifically deuterated substrates indicate that in the acetate molecule the carboxylate and the methyl groups correspond to the alcoholic function and to its adjacent methylene group, respectively, of the 2-hydroxyethyl unit of TEA. A 1,2 shift of a hydrogen (deuterium) atom from -CH{sub 2} -O- to =N-CH{sub 2} - without exchange with the medium was observed. This fact gives evidence that a radical mechanism occurs involving the enzyme and/or coenzyme molecule as a hydrogen carrier. Such a biodegradation appears analogous to the conversion of 2-phenoxyethanol into acetate mediated by another strain of the anaerobic homoacetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium.

  16. Isolation of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetrachloroethene to ethene

    SciTech Connect

    Maymo-Gatell, X.; Chien, Yueh-tyng; Zinder, S.H.

    1997-06-06

    Tetrachloroethene is a prominent groundwater pollutant that can be reductively dechlorinated by mixed anaerobic microbial populations to the nontoxic product ethene. Strain 195, a coccoid bacterium that dechlorinates tetrachlorethene to ethene, was isolated and characterized. Growth of strain 195 with H{sub 2} and tetrachloroethene as the electron donor and acceptor pair required extracts from mixed microbial cultures. Growth of strain 195 was resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin; its cell wall did not react with a peptidoglycan-specific lectin and its ultrastructure resembled S-layers of Archaea. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of strain 195 indicated that it is a eubacterium without close affiliation to any known groups. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The capacity of phototrophic sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina for chemosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kondratieva, E N; Zhukov, V G; Ivanovsky, R N; Petushkova, U P; Monosov, E Z

    1976-07-01

    Purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina strain BBS requiring vitamin B12 may grow in the dark in media containing no other organic compounds. Under such conditions the cells oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate with the use of O2 and assimilate carbon dioxide. After 10--30s assimilation of NaH14CO3 about 60% of radioactivity is found in phosphorylated compounds characteristic for the reductive pentose phosphate cycle. The possibility of the function of this cycle in the dark in the presence of O2 is confirmed by the capacity of cells grown under such conditions to synthesize ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase. All this evidence suggests the ability of T. roseopersicina to change from phototrophy to aerobic chemolithoautotrophy. PMID:942280

  18. Metabolic characterisation of a novel vanillylmandelate-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Turner, J E; Allison, N; Fewson, C A

    1996-10-01

    A newly isolated gram-negative bacterium, possibly Brevundimonas diminuta, utilised D,L-vanillylmandelate (D,L-VMA) as a sole carbon and energy source. The organism converted D,L-VMA to vanillylglyoxylate using a soluble NAD-dependent dehydrogenase specific for D-VMA and a dye-linked, membrane-associated L-VMA dehydrogenase. Vanillylglyoxylate was further metabolised by decarboxylation, dehydrogenation and demethylation to protocatechuate. A 4,5-dioxygenase cleaved protocatechuate to 2-hydroxy-4-carboxymuconic semialdehyde. Partially purified d-VMA dehydrogenase exhibited optimal activity at 30 degrees C and pH 9.5 and had an apparent Km for D-VMA of 470 microM. Although induced by several substituted mandelates, the enzyme had a narrow substrate specificity range with virtually no activity towards D-mandelate. Such properties render the enzyme of potential use in both diagnostic and biosynthetic applications. PMID:8824148

  19. Genome analysis of the Anerobic Thermohalophilic bacterium Halothermothrix orenii

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Hooper, Sean D.; Sun, Hui; Kunin, Victor; Lapidus, Alla; Hugenholtz, Philip; Patel, Bharat; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2008-11-03

    Halothermothirx orenii is a strictly anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium isolated from sediment of a Tunisian salt lake. It belongs to the order Halanaerobiales in the phylum Firmicutes. The complete sequence revealed that the genome consists of one circular chromosome of 2578146 bps encoding 2451 predicted genes. This is the first genome sequence of an organism belonging to the Haloanaerobiales. Features of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were identified with the presence of both a sporulating mechanism typical of Firmicutes and a characteristic Gram negative lipopolysaccharide being the most prominent. Protein sequence analyses and metabolic reconstruction reveal a unique combination of strategies for thermophilic and halophilic adaptation. H. orenii can serve as a model organism for the study of the evolution of the Gram negative phenotype as well as the adaptation under thermohalophilic conditions and the development of biotechnological applications under conditions that require high temperatures and high salt concentrations.

  20. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria exhibiting high scavenging activity for environmental hydrogen peroxide from fermented foods and its two scavenging enzymes for hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akio; Kaneko, Chiaki; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Kouji; Kimata, Shinya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Abe, Akira; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Uchino, Masataka; Satoh, Junichi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Niimura, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    To obtain lactic acid bacteria that scavenge environmental hydrogen peroxide, we developed a specialized enrichment medium and successfully isolated Pediococcus pentosaceus Be1 strain from a fermented food. This strain showed vigorous environmental hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity over a wide range of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. High Mn-catalase and NADH peroxidase activities were found in the cell-free extract of the P. pentosaceus Be1 strain, and these two hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes were purified from the cell-free extract of the strain. Mn-catalase has been purified from several microorganisms by several researchers, and the NADH peroxidase was first purified from the original strain in this report. After cloning the genes of the Mn-catalase and the NADH peroxidase, the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of known related enzymes. PMID:27118075

  1. Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

    2012-05-01

    Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively. PMID:22265314

  2. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    PubMed

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. PMID:26802571

  3. Paenibacillus favisporus sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from cow faeces.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Encarna; de Miguel, Trinidad; Poza, Margarita; Rivas, Raúl; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Villa, Tomás G

    2004-01-01

    During a search for xylan-degrading micro-organisms, a sporulated bacterium was recovered from recent and old cow dung and rectal samples. The isolates were identified as members of a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. According to the results of phylogenetic analysis, the most closely related species was Paenibacillus azoreducens. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments also showed that the isolates belonged to a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus. The novel species is a facultatively anaerobic, motile, Gram-variable, sporulated rod. The spores of this rod-shaped micro-organism occur in slightly swollen sporangia and are honeycomb-shaped. The main fatty acid is anteiso-branched C(15:0). Growth was observed with many carbohydrates, including xylan, as the only carbon source and gas production was not observed from glucose. The novel species produces a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes, such as xylanases, cellulases, amylases, gelatinase, urease and beta-galactosidase. On the contrary, it does not produce caseinase, phenylalanine deaminase or lysine decarboxylase. According to the data obtained in this work, the strains belong to a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus favisporus sp. nov. is proposed (type strain, GMP01T=LMG 20987T=CECT 5760T). PMID:14742459

  4. Colwellia asteriadis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the starfish Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Ju; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Koh, Hye Yeon; Kim, Young Sug; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2010-08-01

    A marine bacterial strain, KMD 002T, was isolated from an Amur starfish, Asterias amurensis, collected in the East Sea of Korea. Strain KMD 002T was a Gram-negative, beige-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium. The strain was capable of growth at relatively low temperatures (4-25 degrees C) and over a broad pH range (pH 4.0-10.0). The major fatty acids were C16:1omega7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH and C16:0 and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content of strain KMD 002T was 40.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KMD 002T belonged to the genus Colwellia. However, various phenotypic properties as well as low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to members of the genus Colwellia (94.1-96.7%) suggested that strain KMD 002T is a representative of a novel species, for which the name Colwellia asteriadis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMD 002T (=KCCM 90077T =JCM 15608T). PMID:19801395

  5. Evidence for the subcellular localization and specificity of chlordane inhibition in the marine bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Nakas, J P; Litchfield, C D

    1979-01-01

    Sublethal levels (10 to 100 micrograms/ml) of the chlorinated insecticide chlordane (1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoindan) were introduced into the growth medium of the marine bacterium, Aeromonas proteolytica. Chlordane inhibited the synthesis of an extracellular endopeptidase by almost 40% but exhibited no such inhibition of the extracellular aminopeptidase also produced during the growth cycle. Studied with 14C-labeled chlordane demonstrated that the insecticide was not biologically degraded under the test conditions used and that up to 75% of the recoverable chlordane was cell associated within 48 h. Studied with uniformly labeled L[14C]valine and [2-14C]uracil established that neither the transport nor the incorporation of these protein and ribonucleic acid precursors was inhibited by chlordane. Separation of the membrane fractions using isopycnic centrifugation localized 14C-labeled chlordane in the cytoplasmic membrane. Also, chlordane inhibited the membrane-bound adenosine 5'-triphosphatase while the soluble (released) form of this enzyme remained unaffected. These data indicate that chlordane resides in the cytoplasmic membrane and may cause specific alterations in membrane-associated activities. PMID:156517

  6. Evidence for quorum sensing and differential metabolite production by a marine bacterium in response to DMSP

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Winifred M; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B

    2016-01-01

    Microbes, the foundation of the marine foodweb, do not function in isolation, but rather rely on molecular level interactions among species to thrive. Although certain types of interactions between autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms have been well documented, the role of specific organic molecules in regulating inter-species relationships and supporting growth are only beginning to be understood. Here, we examine one such interaction by characterizing the metabolic response of a heterotrophic marine bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, to growth on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an abundant organosulfur metabolite produced by phytoplankton. When cultivated on DMSP, R. pomeroyi synthesized a quorum-sensing molecule, N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone, at significantly higher levels than during growth on propionate. Concomitant with the production of a quorum-sensing molecule, we observed differential production of intra- and extracellular metabolites including glutamine, vitamin B2 and biosynthetic intermediates of cyclic amino acids. Our metabolomics data indicate that R. pomeroyi changes regulation of its biochemical pathways in a manner that is adaptive for a cooperative lifestyle in the presence of DMSP, in anticipation of phytoplankton-derived nutrients and higher microbial density. This behavior is likely to occur on sinking marine particles, indicating that this response may impact the fate of organic matter. PMID:26882264

  7. Identification of a Gene Essential for Sheathed Structure Formation in Sphaerotilus natans, a Filamentous Sheathed Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshihiko; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2002-01-01

    Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous bacterium that causes bulking in activated sludge processes, can assume two distinct morphologies, depending on the substrate concentration for growth; in substrate-rich media it grows as single rod-shaped cells, whereas in substrate-limited media it grows as filaments. To identify genes responsible for sheath formation, we carried out transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. Of the approximately 20,000 mutants obtained, 7 did not form sheathed structures. Sequencing of the Tn5-flanking regions showed that five of the seven Tn5 insertions converged at the same open reading frame, designated sthA. The deduced amino acids encoded by sthA were found to be homologous to glycosyltransferase, which is known to be involved in linking sugars to lipid carriers during bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Disruption of the gene of the wild-type strain by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette also resulted in sheathless growth under either type of nutrient condition. These findings indicate that sthA is a crucial component responsible for sheath formation. PMID:11772646

  8. Haloanaerobium kushneri sp. nov., an obligately halophilic, anaerobic bacterium from an oil brine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhupathiraju, V. K.; McInerney, M. J.; Woese, C. R.; Tanner, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    Three strains, designated VS-751T, VS-511 and VS-732, of a strictly anaerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium were isolated from a highly saline (15-20%) brine from an oil reservoir in central Oklahoma, USA. The optimal concentration of NaCl for growth of these three strains was 2 M (12%), and the strains also grew in the presence of an additional 1 M MgCl2. The strains were mesophilic and grew at a pH range of 6-8. Carbohydrates used by all three strains included glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, cellobiose, sucrose and inulin. Glucose fermentation products included ethanol, acetate, H2 and CO2, with formate produced by two of the three strains. Differences were noted among strains in the optimal temperature and pH for growth, the maximum and minimum NaCl concentration that supported growth, substrate utilization and cellular fatty acid composition. Despite the phenotypic differences among the three strains, analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridizations showed that these three strains were members of the same genospecies which belonged to the genus Haloanaerobium. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of strains VS-751T, VS-511 and VS-732 are different from those of previously described species of Haloanaerobium. It is proposed that strain VS-751T (ATCC 700103T) be established as the type strain of a new species, Haloanaerobium kushneri.

  9. Aurantiacicella marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a myxol-producing bacterium from surface seawater.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Maki; Onodera, Ken-Ichi; Moriyama, Hironori; Komatsu, Ayumi; Akakabe, Mai; Nishijima, Miyuki

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, mesophilic, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 2A-8T, was isolated from surface seawater at Muroto city, Kochi prefecture, Japan. The strain produced myxol as a major carotenoid. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the family Flavobacteriaceae and was related most closely to the genus Aquimarina (91.0-94.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of species of this genus). The DNA G+C content was 35 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and five unidentified lipids. Menaquinone 6 was detected as the sole isoprenoid quinone. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain 2A-8T represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Aurantiacicella marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aurantiacicella marina is 2A-8T ( = NBRC 111187T = KCTC 42676T). PMID:26493321

  10. Sphingomonas psychrolutea sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from glacier ice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhang, Jian-Li; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Xin, Yu-Hua

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, orange bacterium (strain MDB1-A(T)) was isolated from ice samples collected from Midui glacier in Tibet, south-west China. Cells were aerobic and psychrotolerant (growth occurred at 0-25 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it was a member of the genus Sphingomonas, with its closest relative being Sphingomonas glacialis C16y(T) (98.9% similarity). Q-10 was the predominant ubiquinone. C17 : 1ω6c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c) were the major cellular fatty acids. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingoglycolipid. The polyamines detected were sym-homospermidine, spermidine and spermine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.6%. Based on data from this polyphasic analysis, strain MDB1-A(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas psychrolutea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MDB1-A(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10106(T) = NBRC 109639(T)). PMID:26025946

  11. Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2000-10-01

    Bacteria have been found associated with a variety of ancient samples, however few studies are generally accepted due to questions about sample quality and contamination. When Cano and Borucki isolated a strain of Bacillus sphaericus from an extinct bee trapped in 25-30 million-year-old amber, careful sample selection and stringent sterilization techniques were the keys to acceptance. Here we report the isolation and growth of a previously unrecognized spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus species, designated 2-9-3) from a brine inclusion within a 250million-year-old salt crystal from the Permian Salado Formation. Complete gene sequences of the 16S ribosomal DNA show that the organism is part of the lineage of Bacillus marismortui and Virgibacillus pantothenticus. Delicate crystal structures and sedimentary features indicate the salt has not recrystallized since formation. Samples were rejected if brine inclusions showed physical signs of possible contamination. Surfaces of salt crystal samples were sterilized with strong alkali and acid before extracting brines from inclusions. Sterilization procedures reduce the probability of contamination to less than 1 in 10 9.

  12. Degradation of polyester polyurethane by a newly isolated soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis strain MZA-75.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ziaullah; Krumholz, Lee; Aktas, Deniz Fulya; Hasan, Fariha; Khattak, Mutiullah; Shah, Aamer Ali

    2013-11-01

    A polyurethane (PU) degrading bacterial strain MZA-75 was isolated from soil through enrichment technique. The bacterium was identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the phylogenetic analysis indicated the strain MZA-75 belonged to genus Bacillus having maximum similarity with Bacillus subtilis strain JBE0016. The degradation of PU films by strain MZA-75 in mineral salt medium (MSM) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). SEM revealed the appearance of widespread cracks on the surface. FTIR spectrum showed decrease in ester functional group. Increase in polydispersity index was observed in GPC, which indicates chain scission as a result of microbial treatment. CO2 evolution and cell growth increased when PU was used as carbon source in MSM in Sturm test. Increase in both cell associated and extracellular esterases was observed in the presence of PU indicated by p-Nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) hydrolysis assay. Analysis of cell free supernatant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that 1,4-butanediol and adipic acid monomers were produced. Bacillus subtilis strain MZA-75 can degrade the soft segment of polyester polyurethane, unfortunately no information about the fate of hard segment could be obtained. Growth of strain MZA-75 in the presence of these metabolites indicated mineralization of ester hydrolysis products into CO2 and H2O. PMID:23536219

  13. Luteimonas arsenica sp. nov., an arsenic-tolerant bacterium isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yao; Pan, Yunfan; Shi, Wanxia; Liu, Lan; Jiang, Zhao; Luo, Xuesong; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that formed yellow and viscous colonies was isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil of the Jianghan plain, Hubei Province, China, and it was designated 26-35T. This strain was capable of resisting arsenate and arsenite with MICs of 40 and 20 mM, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene of the novel isolate displayed 96.7-94.2 % sequence similarities to those of other known species of the genus Luteimonas. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The DNA G+C content was 71.4 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C11 : 0, iso-C11 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic and physiological analysis indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Luteimonas, for which the name Luteimonas arsenica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 26-35T (=KCTC 42824T=CCTCC AB 2014326T). PMID:26978245

  14. Prevention of aflatoxin contamination by a soil bacterium of Stenotrophomonas sp. that produces aflatoxin production inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jermnak, Usuma; Chinaphuti, Amara; Poapolathep, Amnart; Kawai, Ryo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2013-05-01

    A soil bacterium, designated strain no. 27, was found to produce aflatoxin-production inhibitors. The strain was identified as a species of the genus Stenotrophomonas, and was found to be closely related to Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. Two diketopiperazines, cyclo(L-Ala-L-Pro) and cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro), were isolated from the bacterial culture filtrate as main active components. These compounds inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in liquid medium at concentrations of several hundred µM without affecting fungal growth. Both inhibitors inhibited production of norsorolinic acid, a biosynthetic intermediate involved in an early step of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, and reduced the mRNA level of aflR, which is a gene encoding a key regulatory protein necessary for the expression of aflatoxin-biosynthetic enzymes. These results indicated that the inhibitors targets are present in early regulatory steps leading to AflR expression. Co-culture of strain no. 27 with aflatoxigenic fungi in liquid medium effectively suppressed aflatoxin production of the fungus without affecting fungal growth. Furthermore, application of the bacterial cells to peanuts in laboratory experiments and at a farmer's warehouse in Thailand by dipping peanuts in the bacterial cell suspension strongly inhibited aflatoxin accumulation. The inhibitory effect was dependent on bacterial cell numbers. These results indicated that strain no. 27 may be a practically effective biocontrol agent for aflatoxin control. PMID:23449921

  15. Desulfuromonas thiophila sp. nov., a new obligately sulfur-reducing bacterium from anoxic freshwater sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finster, K.; Coates, J.D.; Liesack, W.; Pfennig, N.

    1997-01-01

    A mesophilic, acetate-oxidizing, sulfur-reducing bacterium, strain NZ27(T), was isolated from anoxic mud from a freshwater sulfur spring. The cells were ovoid, motile, and gram negative. In addition to acetate, the strain oxidized pyruvate, succinate, and fumarate. Sulfur flower could be replaced by polysulfide as an electron acceptor. Ferric nitrilotriacetic acid was reduced in the presence of pyruvate; however, this reduction did not sustain growth. These phenotypic characteristics suggested that strain NZ27(T) is affiliated with the genus Desulfuromonas. A phylogenetic analysis based on the results of comparative 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing confirmed that strain NZ27(T) belongs to the Desulfuromonas cluster in the recently proposed family 'Geobacteraceae' in the delta subgroup of the Proteobacteria. In addition, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that strain NZ27(T) represents a novel species. Desulfuromonas thiophila, a name tentatively used in previous publications, is the name proposed for strain NZ27(T) in this paper.

  16. Cellulomonas composti sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from cattle farm compost.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Suk; Im, Wan-Taek; Jung, Hae-Min; Kim, Myung Kyum; Goodfellow, Michael; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Yang, Hee-Chan; An, Dong-Shan; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2007-06-01

    A bacterial strain, TR7-06(T), which has cellulase and beta-glucosidase activities, was isolated from compost at a cattle farm near Daejeon, Republic of Korea. It was a Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belongs to the genus Cellulomonas, with highest sequence similarity to Cellulomonas uda DSM 20107(T) (98.5 %). Cell wall analysis revealed the presence of type A4beta, L-orn-D-Glu peptidoglycan. The cell-wall sugars detected were mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)); MK-8(H(4)) was detected in smaller quantities. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(14 : 0) and C(18 : 0). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that TR7-06(T) represents a novel species. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain TR7-06(T) (=KCTC 19030(T)=NBRC 100758(T)) merits description as the type strain of a novel Cellulomonas species, Cellulomonas composti sp. nov. PMID:17551039

  17. Bacillus haikouensis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic halotolerant bacterium isolated from a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibing; Yang, Guiqin; Lu, Qin; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Shungui

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and facultatively anaerobic halotolerant bacterium, designated as C-89(T), was isolated from a paddy field soil in Haikou, Hainan Province, People's Republic of China. Optimal growth was observed at 37 °C and pH 7.0 in the presence of 4% NaCl (w/v). The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-7, the major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0), and the major cellular polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown phospholipids. The peptidoglycan type was determined to be based on meso-DAP. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as Bacillus vietnamensis JCM 11124(T) (98.8% sequence similarity), Bacillus aquimaris JCM 11545(T) (98.6%) and Bacillus marisflavi JCM 11544(T) (98.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain C-89(T) was determined to be 45.4 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain C-89(T) with its closest relatives were below 18%. Therefore, on the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic results, strain C-89(T) can be considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus haikouensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is C-89(T) (=KCTC 33545(T) = CCTCC AB 2014076(T)). PMID:25100188

  18. Evidence for quorum sensing and differential metabolite production by a marine bacterium in response to DMSP.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Winifred M; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B

    2016-09-01

    Microbes, the foundation of the marine foodweb, do not function in isolation, but rather rely on molecular level interactions among species to thrive. Although certain types of interactions between autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms have been well documented, the role of specific organic molecules in regulating inter-species relationships and supporting growth are only beginning to be understood. Here, we examine one such interaction by characterizing the metabolic response of a heterotrophic marine bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, to growth on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an abundant organosulfur metabolite produced by phytoplankton. When cultivated on DMSP, R. pomeroyi synthesized a quorum-sensing molecule, N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone, at significantly higher levels than during growth on propionate. Concomitant with the production of a quorum-sensing molecule, we observed differential production of intra- and extracellular metabolites including glutamine, vitamin B2 and biosynthetic intermediates of cyclic amino acids. Our metabolomics data indicate that R. pomeroyi changes regulation of its biochemical pathways in a manner that is adaptive for a cooperative lifestyle in the presence of DMSP, in anticipation of phytoplankton-derived nutrients and higher microbial density. This behavior is likely to occur on sinking marine particles, indicating that this response may impact the fate of organic matter. PMID:26882264

  19. Developmentally regulated cleavage of tRNAs in the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Haiser, Henry J.; Karginov, Fedor V.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Elliot, Marie A.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to environmental and physiological signals is critical for the survival of the soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. Nutrient deprivation triggers the onset of a complex morphological differentiation process that involves the raising of aerial hyphae and formation of spore chains, and coincides with the production of a diverse array of clinically relevant antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. These processes are tightly regulated; however, the genes and signals involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report a novel tRNA cleavage event that follows the same temporal regulation as morphological and physiological differentiation, and is growth medium dependent. All tRNAs appear to be susceptible to cleavage; however, there appears to be a bias towards increased cleavage of those tRNAs that specify highly utilized codons. In contrast to what has been observed in eukaryotes, accumulation of tRNA halves in S. coelicolor is not significantly affected by amino acid starvation, and is also not affected by induction of the stringent response or inhibition of ribosome function. Mutants defective in aerial development and antibiotic production exhibit altered tRNA cleavage profiles relative to wild-type strains. PMID:18084030

  20. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J; Glick, Bernard R

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  1. Proteomic comparison of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei Zhang cultivated in milk and soy milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Wu, Rina; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Heping

    2013-09-01

    Soy milk is regarded as a substitute for milk and has become popular in varied diets throughout the world. It has been shown that a newly characterized probiotic bacterium (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) actually grows faster in soy milk than in bovine milk. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we carried out a proteomic analysis to characterize bacterial proteins that varied upon growth in soy milk and bovine milk at 3 different growth phases, and compare their expression under these conditions. A total of 104 differentially expressed spots were identified from different phases using a peptide mass fingerprinting assay. Functional analysis revealed that a major part of these identified proteins is associated with transport and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and amino acids as well. The results from our proteomic analysis were clarified by real-time quantitative PCR assay, which showed that Lb. casei Zhang loci involved in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis were transcriptionally enhanced during growth in soy milk at lag phase (pH 6.4), whereas the loci involved in carbohydrate metabolism were upregulated in bovine milk. Particularly, our results showed that l-glutamine might play an important role in the growth of Lb. casei Zhang in soy milk and bovine milk, perhaps by contributing to purine, pyrimidine, and amino sugar metabolism. PMID:23871367

  2. Ercella succinigenes gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic succinate-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    van Gelder, Antonie H; Sousa, Diana Z; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J M; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene

    2014-07-01

    A novel anaerobic succinate-producing bacterium, strain ZWB(T), was isolated from sludge collected from a biogas desulfurization bioreactor (Eerbeek, the Netherlands). Cells were non-spore-forming, motile, slightly curved rods (0.4-0.5 µm in diameter and 2-3 µm in length), and stained Gram-negative. The temperature range for growth was 25-40 °C, with an optimum at 37 °C. The pH range for growth was 7.0-9.0, with an optimum at pH 7.5. Strain ZWB(T) was able to ferment glycerol and several carbohydrates mainly to H2, succinate and acetate. Sulfur and fumarate could be used as electron acceptors by strain ZWB(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.6 mol%. The most abundant fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 DMA. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain ZWB(T) belongs to the family Ruminococcaceae and it is distantly related to Saccharofermentans acetigenes JCM 14006(T) (92.1%). Based on the physiological features and phylogenetic analysis, strain ZWB(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Ercella succinigenes gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ercella succinigenes is ZWB(T) ( = DSM 27333(T) = JCM 19283(T)). PMID:24776531

  3. Cytochromes c biogenesis in a photosynthetic bacterium requires a periplasmic thioredoxin-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, D L; Kranz, R G

    1993-01-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus is a Gram-negative photosynthetic bacterium that requires c-type cytochromes for photosynthetic electron transport. Our studies demonstrate that the gene helX is required for the biogenesis of c-type cytochromes in R. capsulatus. A helX chromosomal deletion mutant cannot grow photosynthetically, due to a deficiency of all c-type cytochromes. The predicted amino acid sequence of the helX gene product (176 residues) is related to that of thioredoxin and shares active-site homology with protein disulfide isomerase. Cytochrome c2-alkaline phosphatase gene fusions are used to show that HelX is not required for the transcription, translation, or secretion of apocytochrome c2. HelX-alkaline phosphatase and HelX-beta-galactosidase gene fusions are used to demonstrate that HelX is a periplasmic protein, which is consistent with the presence of a typical signal sequence in HelX. Based on these results, we propose HelX functions as a periplasmic disulfide oxidoreductase that is essential for cytochromes c biogenesis. This role is in accordance with the observation that both heme and the cysteines of apocytochromes c (Cys-Xaa-Yaa-Cys-His) must be in the reduced state for covalent linkage between the two moieties to occur. PMID:8384715

  4. Dysgonomonas alginatilytica sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Kita, Akihisa; Miura, Toyokazu; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain HUA-2T, was isolated from an alginate-degrading microbial consortium. Strain HUA-2T was related to Dysgonomonas capnocytophagoides JCM 16697T, Dysgonomonas macrotermitis JCM 19375T and Dysgonomonas mossii CCUG 43457T with 95.1 %, 94.1 % and 92.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The optimal growth temperature and pH for strain HUA-2T were 35 °C and pH 8.0, respectively. Enzyme production, major fermentation products from glucose, and the major cellular fatty acids were different from those of D. capnocytophagoides CCUG 17966T or other members of the genus Dysgonomonas. Therefore, strain HUA-2T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Dysgonomonas, for which we propose the name Dysgonomonas alginatilytica sp. nov. The type strain is HUA-2T ( = DSM 100214T = HUT 8134T). PMID:26297040

  5. Affinity purification of metalloprotease from marine bacterium using immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Yang, Juan; Bao, Jing; Liu, Junzhong; Lin, Shengxiang; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an efficient affinity purification protocol for an alkaline metalloprotease from marine bacterium was developed using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After screening and optimization of the affinity ligands and spacer arm lengths, Cu-iminmodiacetic acid was chosen as the optimal affinity ligand, which was coupled to Sepharose 6B via a 14-atom spacer arm. The absorption analysis of this medium revealed a desorption constant Kd of 21.5 μg/mL and a theoretical maximum absorption Qmax of 24.9 mg/g. Thanks to this affinity medium, the enzyme could be purified by only one affinity purification step with a purity of approximately 95% pure when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recovery of the protease activity reached 74.6%, which is much higher than the value obtained by traditional protocols (8.9%). These results contribute to the industrial purifications and contribute a significant reference for the purification of other metalloproteases. PMID:27058973

  6. Role of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in acetate synthesis by the acetogenic bacterium, Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, T; Ragsdale, S W; Wood, H G

    1988-07-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) plays a key role in acetate synthesis by the acetogenic bacterium, Clostridium thermoaceticum. Acetobacterium woodii, like C. thermoaceticum contains high levels of CODH. In this work we show that crude extracts of A. woodii synthesize acetate from methyl tetrahydrofolate or methyl iodide, carbon monoxide and coenzyme A (CoA). The purified CODH from A. woodii catalyzes an exchange reaction between CO and the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA even faster than the C. thermoaceticum enzyme, indicating the CODH of A. woodii, like that of C. thermoaceticum is an acetyl-CoA synthetase. Fluorescence and EPR studies further support this postulate by demonstrating that CODH binds CoA near the CO binding site involving a tryptophan residue. The UV absorption spectra and the amino acid compositions of A. woodii and C. thermoaceticum CODHs are very similar. Evidence is presented using purified enzymes from A. woodii that the synthesis of acetyl-CoA occurs by a pathway similar to that utilized by C. thermoaceticum. PMID:2855585

  7. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  8. Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov., a marine sediment-derived bacterium with antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2015-06-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium designated KMM 9500(T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis affiliated strain KMM 9500(T) to the genus Pseudomonas as a distinct subline clustered with Pseudomonas marincola KMM 3042(T) and Pseudomonas segetis KCTC 12331(T) sharing the highest similarities of 98 and 97.9 %, respectively. Strain KMM 9500(T) was characterized by mainly possessing ubiquinone Q-9, and by the predominance of C18:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω7c, and C16:0 followed by C12:0 in its fatty acid profile. Polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, and unknown phospholipids. Strain KMM 9500(T) was found to inhibit growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive indicatory microorganisms. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and distinctive phenotypic characteristics, strain 9500(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is strain KMM 9500(T) (=NRIC 0939(T)). PMID:25787010

  9. Marinobacter piscensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from salty food in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hedi, Abdeljabbar; Cayol, Jean Luc; Sadfi, Najla; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacterium, oxidase, and catalase positive-designated Abdou3(T), was isolated from salted traditional foods (Anchovies) in Tunisia. Cells were rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and motile. Growth occurred at 15-45 °C (optimum, 37 °C), pH 5.5-8.75 (optimum, 7.3), and in the presence of 1-15 % NaCl (optimum, 10 %). Strain Abdou3(T) used glucose, D-arabinose, and sucrose. Strain Abdou3(T) had Q9 as the major respiratory quinone and C18:1 ω9c and C16:0 as predominant fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 55.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence indicated that strain Abdou3(T) had as its closest relative Marinobacter maritimus (identity of 96 %). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic, and taxonomic characteristics, strain Abdou3(T) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Marinobacter within the order Alteromonadales, for which the name M. piscensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Abdou3(T) (=DSM 26804(T)). PMID:25510172

  10. Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel filamentous, endospore-forming, thermophilic and halophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Addou, Nariman Ammara; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Hacene, Hocine; Fauque, Guy; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    A novel filamentous, endospore-forming, thermophilic and moderately halophilic bacterium designated strain Nari2A(T) was isolated from soil collected from an Algerian salt lake, Chott Melghir. The novel isolate was Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive. Optimum growth occurred at 50-55 °C, 7-10% (w/v) NaCl and pH 7-8. The strain exhibited 95.4, 95.4 and 95.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Thalassobacillus devorans G19.1(T), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) and Virgibacillus kekensis YIM-kkny16(T), respectively. The major menaquinone was MK-7. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unknown phosphoglycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 41.9 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain Nari2A(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Bacillaceae , order Bacillales , for which the name Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus is Nari2A(T) ( = DSM 25894(T) = CCUG 62543(T)). PMID:25604343

  11. Photobacterium galatheae sp. nov., a bioactive bacterium isolated from a mussel in the Solomon Sea.

    PubMed

    Machado, Henrique; Giubergia, Sonia; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Gram, Lone

    2015-12-01

    A novel, Gram-negative marine bacterium, S2753T, was isolated from a mussel of the Solomon Sea, Solomon Islands. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole genome sequence data placed strain S2753T in the genus Photobacterium with the closest relative being Photobacterium halotolerans DSM 18316T (97.7 % 16S rRNA gene similarity). Strain S2753T was able to grow from 15 to 40 °C and in NaCl concentrations of 0.5 to 9 % (w/v). The predominant fatty acids were 16 : 1ω7c/16 : 1ω6c (27.9 %), 16 : 0 (22.1 %) and 18 : 1ω7c/8 : 1ω6c (21.4 %). The genomic DNA G+C mol content was 49.5 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic differences, strain S2753T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Photobacterium. Furthermore, whole genome sequence analysis comparing S2753T and type-strains of closely related species of the genus Photobacterium also demonstrated that the strain is genomically distinct enough to be considered a novel species. The name Photobacterium galatheae is proposed and the type-strain is S2753T( = LMG 28894T = DSM 100496T). PMID:26374506

  12. Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from coastal sediment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Qian-Qian; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain HF08(T), was isolated from marine sediment of the coast of Weihai, China. Cells were rod-shaped, and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The isolate grew optimally at 33 °C, at pH 7.5-8.0 and with 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone and the DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was a member of the class Bacteroidia, and shared 88-90% sequence similarity with the closest genera Sunxiuqinia, Prolixibacter, Draconibacterium, Mariniphaga and Meniscus. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented, a novel species in a new genus of the family Prolixibacteraceae is proposed, with the name Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Roseimarinus sediminis is HF08(T) ( = KCTC 42261(T) = CICC 10901(T)). PMID:25866024

  13. Flavobacterium arsenatis sp. nov., a novel arsenic-resistant bacterium from high-arsenic sediment.

    PubMed

    Ao, Lian; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Nie, Yao; Mu, Yao; Zhou, Lingli; Luo, Xuesong

    2014-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain Z(T) was isolated from the high-arsenic sediment in Jianghan Plain, China. The strain was Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped and formed yellow colonies. This bacterium is capable of tolerating arsenate and arsenite, with MICs of 40 mM and 20 mM, respectively. The strain also possesses catalase and does not produce oxidase. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate showed the highest similarity (96.9%) to that of the type strain of Flavobacterium soli. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the phenotypic properties of strain Z(T), it was assigned to the genus Flavobacterium. The major respiratory menaquinone was MK-6 and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (containing C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c) and iso-C15:1G. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, three uncharacterized aminophospholipids and four unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 32.1 mol%. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data presented in this article, it can be concluded that this isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium arsenatis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Z(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2013048(T) = KCTC 32397(T)). PMID:25013224

  14. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  15. Biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in spontaneously-fermented buckwheat and teff sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2011-05-01

    In this study, four different laboratory scale gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs were developed from buckwheat or teff flours. The fermentations were initiated by the spontaneous biota of the flours and developed under two technological conditions (A and B). Sourdoughs were propagated by continuous back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable biota occurring in each sourdough was assessed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Overall, a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts species, belonging mainly to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Kazachstania and Candida, were identified in the stable sourdoughs. Buckwheat and teff sourdoughs were dominated mainly by obligate or facultative heterofermentative LAB, which are commonly associated with traditional wheat or rye sourdoughs. However, the spontaneous fermentation of the GF flours resulted also in the selection of species which are not consider endemic to traditional sourdoughs, i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc holzapfelii, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus graminis and Weissella cibaria. In general, the composition of the stable biota was strongly affected by the fermentation conditions, whilst Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in all buckwheat sourdoughs. Lactobacillus pontis is described for the first time as dominant species in teff sourdough. Among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata dominated teff sourdoughs, whereas the solely Kazachstania barnetti was isolated in buckwheat sourdough developed under condition A. This study allowed the identification and isolation of LAB and yeasts species which are highly competitive during fermentation of buckwheat or teff flours. Representatives of these species can be selected as starters for the production of sourdough destined to GF bread production. PMID:21356457

  16. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus.

    PubMed

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E; Bennett, Braden W; Lyons, Eric M; Carney, Laura T

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The "crash" of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  17. Halomonas urumqiensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline-alkaline lake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Pan, Jiao; Lu, Weidong; Yan, Yanchun; Wang, Haisheng; Wiegel, Jurgen; Zhao, Baisuo

    2016-05-01

    A moderately halophilic, aerobic bacterium, strain BZ-SZ-XJ27T, belonging to the genus Halomonas, was isolated from a saline-alkaline lake in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and a multilocus sequence analysis using the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes demonstrated that strain BZ-SZ-XJ27T represents a member of the genus Halomonas. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the closest relatives were Halomonas campaniensis 5AGT, H. fontilapidosi 5CRT, H. korlensis XK1T and H. sinaiensis ALO SharmT, with similarities of 96.2-97.2 %. DNA-DNA hybridization with H. korlensis CGMCC 1.6981T (the nearest phylogenetic neighbour) and H. campaniensis DSM 15293T (the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) showed relatedness values of 53 and 38 %, respectively, demonstrating the separateness of the three taxa. The bacterium stained Gram-negative and the cells were motile and rod-shaped. The strain formed creamy-white colonies and grew under optimal conditions of 1.42 M Na+ (range 0.22-4.32 M Na+), pH 8.0-8.5 (range pH 6.0-10.0) and 39 °C (range 4-43 °C). The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c; 36.6 %), C16 : 0 (25.9 %) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c; 21.2 %). The dominant polar lipids were two unknown phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and the main respiratory quinones were ubiquinone 9 (Q-9; 89 %) and ubiquinone 8 (Q-8; 10 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.7 ± 0.8 mol% (Tm). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain BZ-SZ-XJ27T is proposed to represent a novel species, Halomonas urumqiensis sp. nov., within the genus Halomonas of the family Halomonadaceae. The type strain is BZ-SZ-XJ27T ( = JCM 30202T = CGMCC 1.12917T). PMID:26873696

  18. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus

    PubMed Central

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E.; Bennett, Braden W.; Lyons, Eric M.; Carney, Laura T.

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The “crash” of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  19. Complete genome sequence of the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria. Methods The complete genomic sequence of Cfl. aurantiacus has been determined, analyzed and compared to the genomes of other photosynthetic bacteria. Results Abundant genomic evidence suggests that there have been numerous gene adaptations/replacements in Cfl. aurantiacus to facilitate life under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, including duplicate genes and gene clusters for the alternative complex III (ACIII), auracyanin and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase; and several aerobic/anaerobic enzyme pairs in central carbon metabolism and tetrapyrroles and nucleic acids biosynthesis. Overall, genomic information is consistent with a high tolerance for oxygen that has been reported in the growth of Cfl. aurantiacus. Genes for the chimeric photosystem, photosynthetic electron transport chain, the 3-hydroxypropionate autotrophic carbon fixation cycle, CO2-anaplerotic pathways, glyoxylate cycle, and sulfur reduction pathway are present. The central carbon metabolism and sulfur assimilation pathways in Cfl. aurantiacus are discussed. Some features of the Cfl. aurantiacus genome are compared with those of the Roseiflexus castenholzii genome. Roseiflexus castenholzii is a recently characterized FAP bacterium and phylogenetically closely related to Cfl. aurantiacus. According to

  20. Caenibacillus caldisaponilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, spore-forming and phospholipid-degrading bacterium isolated from acidulocompost.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Ryo; Furuya, Hiroto; Ishihara, Daisuke; Sahara, Takehiko; Kimura, Nobutada; Nishino, Tokuzo; Tsuruoka, Naoki; Shigeri, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2016-07-01

    A thermophilic and phospholipid-degrading bacterium, designated strain B157T, was isolated from acidulocompost, a garbage compost processed under acidic conditions at moderately high temperature. The organism was Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Growth was observed to occur at 40-65 °C and pH 4.8-8.1 (optimum growth: 50-60 °C, pH 6.2). The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, glutamic acid and galactose. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain B157T was related most closely to Tuberibacillus calidus 607T (94.8 % identity), and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belonged to the family Sporolactobacillaceae. The DNA G+C content was determined as 51.8 mol%. In spite of many similarities with the type strains of members of the family Sporolactobacillaceae, genotypic analyses suggest that strain B157T represents a novel species of a new genus, Caenibacilluscaldisaponilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Caenibacilluscaldisaponilyticus is B157T (=NBRC 111400T=DSM 101100T). PMID:27117268

  1. Constrained water access to the active site of cytochrome P450 from the piezophilic bacterium Photobacterium profundum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sineva, Elena V.; Davydov, Dmitri R.

    2010-12-01

    Living species inhabiting ocean deeps must adapt to high hydrostatic pressure. This adaptation, which must enable functioning under conditions of promoted protein hydration, is especially important for proteins such as cytochromes P450 that exhibit functionally important hydration-dehydration dynamics. Here we study the interactions of substrates with cytochrome P450-SS9, a putative fatty acid hydroxylase from the piezophilic bacterium Photobacterium profundum SS9, and characterize the protein's barotropic properties. Comparison of P450-SS9 with cytochrome P450BM-3, a mesophilic fatty acid hydroxylase, suggests that P450-SS9 is characterized by severely confined accessibility and low water occupancy of the active site. This feature may reveal a mechanism for the structural adaptation of the piezophilic enzyme. We also demonstrate that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids exert opposite effects on solvent accessibility and hydration of the active site. Modulation of the protein conformation by fatty acids is hypothesized to have an important physiological function in the piezophile.

  2. A description of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota associated with the production of traditional fermented vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan Thi Lam; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Cnockaert, Margo; De Brandt, Evie; Aerts, Maarten; Binh Thanh, Le; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-04-15

    An important part of the daily nourishment in Vietnam constitutes of fermented vegetables. Bacteria and especially lactic acid bacteria play a central role in the production of many fermented vegetables. The current study was conducted to investigate the diversity of native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in 'dua muoi' (mustard and beet fermentation) and 'ca muoi' (eggplant fermentation), three types of popular traditional fermented vegetables of Vietnamese origin. To this end a polyphasic approach combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and pheS gene sequence analysis was used. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed as a culture-independent method to complement the observed culturable diversity data. A total of 881 LAB isolates were recovered from 21 different samples. Predominant LAB associated with 'dua muoi' and 'ca muoi' were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (56.6%), Lactobacillus pentosus (24.4%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (17.1%). Less abundant species were Pediococcus pentosaceus (1.0%) and Lactobacillus brevis (0.5%). Species present less than 0.1% included Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus pantheris and Pediococcus acidilactici. In contrast to fermented mustard and beet with the highest prevalence of L. fermentum, the species most recovered from fermented eggplant samples was L. pentosus. In addition, an important degree of genetic variability within the different predominant species was observed and strain dependency correlating with the type of fermented vegetable or location of production could be demonstrated using multivariate statistics. This research gives an extensive and detailed inventory of the LAB diversity associated with the production of diverse Vietnamese fermented vegetables and demonstrates the influence of type of raw material and/or production location and conditions on this diversity. PMID:23500611

  3. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  4. Paenibacillus populi sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Populus alba.

    PubMed

    Han, Tong-Yan; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Yan-Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Kong, De-Long; Guo, Xiang; Ruan, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0705(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of Populus alba in the Peking University Third Hospital. Cells of strain LAM0705(T) were observed to be Gram-stain positive, motile, spore-forming and rod-shaped. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were found to be 30 °C and pH 7.5, respectively. Strain LAM0705(T) was found to be able to grow in the presence 0-5 % NaCl (w/v) (optimum 1.0 %). The major fatty acids of strain LAM0705(T) were identified as anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and iso-C16:0. The dominant polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain LAM0705(T) was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-7. The G+C content of genomic DNA was found to be 48 mol% when determined by the T m method. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis indicated that strain LAM0705(T) is closely related to Paenibacillus agaridevorans DSM 1355(T) and Paenibacillus thailandensis KCTC 13043(T) with 97.8 and 96.1 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain LAM0705(T) and P. agaridevorans DSM 1355(T) was 47 ± 0.8 %. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0705(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus populi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0705(T) (=ACCC 06427(T) = JCM 19843(T)). PMID:26133115

  5. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in Response to Agarolytic Enzyme and Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leen; Siow, Rouh-San; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial epiphytes of agar-producing seaweeds secrete agarase that degrade algal cell wall matrix into oligoagars which elicit defense-related responses in the hosts. The molecular defense responses of red seaweeds are largely unknown. In this study, we surveyed the defense-related transcripts of an agarophyte, Gracilaria changii, treated with β-agarase through next generation sequencing (NGS). We also compared the defense responses of seaweed elicited by agarase with those elicited by an agarolytic bacterium isolated from seaweed, by profiling the expression of defense-related genes using quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). NGS detected a total of 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a higher abundance (>2-fold change with a p value <0.001) in the agarase-treated transcriptome compared to that of the non-treated G. changii. Among these DEGs were genes related to signaling, bromoperoxidation, heme peroxidation, production of aromatic amino acids, chorismate, and jasmonic acid. On the other hand, the genes encoding a superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase and related to photosynthesis were downregulated. The expression of these DEGs was further corroborated by qRT-PCR results which showed more than 90 % accuracy. A comprehensive analysis of their gene expression profiles between 1 and 24 h post treatments (hpt) revealed that most of the genes analyzed were consistently upregulated or downregulated by both agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments, indicating that the defense responses induced by both treatments are highly similar except for genes encoding vanadium bromoperoxidase and animal heme peroxidase. Our study has provided the first glimpse of the molecular defense responses of G. changii to agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments. PMID:26631182

  6. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    PubMed Central

    Genicot, Sabine M.; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ι-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40 ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ι-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ι-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ι-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes. PMID:25207269

  7. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genicot, Sabine; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-08-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ?-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ?-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ?-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ?-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  8. Metabolic flux analysis of the mixotrophic metabolisms in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueyang; Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Blankenship, Robert E; Tang, Yinjie J

    2010-12-10

    The photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum assimilates CO(2) and organic carbon sources (acetate or pyruvate) during mixotrophic growth conditions through a unique carbon and energy metabolism. Using a (13)C-labeling approach, this study examined biosynthetic pathways and flux distributions in the central metabolism of C. tepidum. The isotopomer patterns of proteinogenic amino acids revealed an alternate pathway for isoleucine synthesis (via citramalate synthase, CimA, CT0612). A (13)C-assisted flux analysis indicated that carbons in biomass were mostly derived from CO(2) fixation via three key routes: the reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle, the pyruvate synthesis pathway via pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and the CO(2)-anaplerotic pathway via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. During mixotrophic growth with acetate or pyruvate as carbon sources, acetyl-CoA was mainly produced from acetate (via acetyl-CoA synthetase) or citrate (via ATP citrate lyase). Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase converted acetyl-CoA and CO(2) to pyruvate, and this growth-rate control reaction is driven by reduced ferredoxin generated during phototrophic growth. Most reactions in the RTCA cycle were reversible. The relative fluxes through the RTCA cycle were 80∼100 units for mixotrophic cultures grown on acetate and 200∼230 units for cultures grown on pyruvate. Under the same light conditions, the flux results suggested a trade-off between energy-demanding CO(2) fixation and biomass growth rate; C. tepidum fixed more CO(2) and had a higher biomass yield (Y(X/S), mole carbon in biomass/mole substrate) in pyruvate culture (Y(X/S) = 9.2) than in acetate culture (Y(X/S) = 6.4), but the biomass growth rate was slower in pyruvate culture than in acetate culture. PMID:20937805

  9. Dichloromethane dehalogenase with improved catalytic activity isolated from a fast-growing dichloromethane-utilizing bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, R.; Egli, C.; Cook, A.M.; Leisinger, T. ); Wackett, L.P. )

    1988-12-01

    A methylotrophic bacterium, denoted strain DM11, was isolated from groundwater and shown to utilize dichloromethane or dibromomethane as the sole carbon and energy source. The new isolate grew at the high rate of 0.22 h{sup {minus}1} compared with 11 previously characterized dichloromethane-utilizing bacteria ({mu}{sub max}, 0.08 h{sup {minus}1}). The dichloromethane dehalogenase from strain DM11 (group B enzyme) was purified by anion-exchange chromatography. It was shown to be substantially different from the set of dichloromethane dehalogenases from the 11 slow-growing strains (group A enzymes) that had previously been demonstrated to be identical. The V{sub max} for the group B enzyme was 97 mkat/kg of protein, some 5.6-fold higher than that of the group A enzymes. The group A dehalogenases showed hyperbolic saturation with the cosubstrate glutathione, whereas the group B enzyme showed positive cooperativity in glutathione binding. Only 1 of 15 amino acids occupied common positions at the N termini, and amino acid contents were substantially different in group A and group B dehalogenases. Immunological assays demonstrated weak cross-reactivity between the two enzymes. Despite the observed structural and kinetic differences, there is potentially evolutionary relatedness between group A and group B enzymes, as indicated by (i) hybridization of DM11 DNA with a gene probe of the group A enzyme, (ii) a common requirement for glutathione in catalysis, and (iii) similar subunit molecular weights of about 34,000.

  10. Paenibacillus assamensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a warm spring in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, P; Mondal, A K; Mayilraj, S; Krishnamurthi, S; Bhattacharya, A; Chakrabarti, T

    2005-11-01

    A polyphasic approach was used to characterize a bacterium, GPTSA 11(T), isolated from a warm spring located in a reserve forest in Assam, India. The cells are Gram-variable, strictly aerobic, sporulating motile rods. The major fatty acids of the strain are C(15 : 0) anteiso (48.42 %), C(16 : 0) iso (11.59 %), C(16 : 1)omega11c (6.16 %), C(15 : 0) iso (6.03 %), C(17 : 0) anteiso (5.68 %) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.01 %). The presence of the fatty acid C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol distinguishes this strain from other closely related species of the genus Paenibacillus. The strain contains MK-7 as the diagnostic menaquinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 41.2 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence (1466 nt) revealed the presence of signature sequences PAEN 515F (5'-GAGTAACTGCTCTCGGAATGACGGTACTTGAGAAGAAAGCCCC-3') and PAEN 862F (5'-TCGATACCCTTGGTGCCGAAGT-3'), which were found in the species of the genus Paenibacillus surveyed by Shida et al. [Shida, O., Takagi, H., Kadowaki, K., Nakamura, L. K. & Komagata, K. (1997). Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 289-298]. The sequence shows closest similarity (95.85 %) to that of Paenibacillus apiarius, followed by Paenibacillus alvei (94.34 %), Paenibacillus cineris (93.87 %), Paenibacillus favisporus (93.80 %), Paenibacillus chibensis (93.47 %) and Paenibacillus azoreducens (93.40 %). Biochemical, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses justify placement of the strain in the genus Paenibacillus but not within any existing species. It should, therefore, be considered as representing a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus assamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GPTSA 11T (=MTCC 6934T=JCM 13186T). PMID:16280530

  11. Nitrincola lacisaponensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from an alkaline, saline lake.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Pedro A; Shukla, Sanjay K; Conradt, Jennifer; Márquez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Maglia, Anne; Peyton, Brent M; Pinkart, Holly C; Mormile, Melanie R

    2005-11-01

    A novel alkaliphilic bacterium, strain 4CAT, was isolated from decomposing wood taken from the shore of Soap Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in Grant County, WA, USA. Cells of the isolate were Gram-negative, asporogenous, short, motile rods that utilized only a limited range of organic acids as sole carbon and energy sources. In addition to oxygen, the strain possessed the ability to reduce in the presence of acetate. Strain 4CAT was oxidase- and catalase-positive; it degraded Tween 60, but not DNA, urea, gelatin or starch. It grew at pH values from 7.5 to 11.0, with optimum growth occurring at pH 9.0, and growth was observed in NaCl concentrations of 0.2-1.3 M, with optimum growth at 0.8 M NaCl. The optimum temperature for growth was 37 degrees C. Strain 4CAT was resistant to erythromycin, bacitracin, novobiocin, polymyxin B, neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, carbenicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline, and was susceptible to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and penicillin. The isolate's 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it belonged to the gamma-Proteobacteria, showing 90-94 % similarity to its closest relatives. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic inferences placed strain 4CAT within a novel lineage related to the marine bacterial genera Neptunomonas and Marinobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 47.4 mol%. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characterization, it was concluded that strain 4CAT should be placed in a separate taxon as a novel genus and species, with the proposed name Nitrincola lacisaponensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is 4CAT (=ATCC BAA-920T=DSM 16316T). PMID:16280482

  12. Transverse and lateral distribution of phospholipids and glycolipids in the membrane of the bacterium Micrococcus luteus

    SciTech Connect

    de Bony, J.; Lopez, A.; Gilleron, M.; Welby, M.; Laneelle, G.; Rousseau, B.; Beaucourt, J.P.; Tocanne, J.F. )

    1989-05-02

    The photodimerization of anthracene was used to investigate the transverse and lateral distribution of lipids in the membrane of the Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus. 9-(2-Anthryl)nonanoic acid (9-AN) is incorporated at a high rate into various membrane lipids of M. luteus. On irradiation of intact bacteria at 360 nm, anthracene-labeled lipids form stable photodimers which can be extracted and separated by thin-layer chromatography. We present here the results of a study on the distribution of two major lipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and dimannosyldiacylglycerol (DMDG), within each leaflet of the membrane lipid bilayer. After metabolic incorporation of a tritiated derivative of 9-AN in M. luteus, the radioactivity associated with the photodimers issued from PG and DMDG was counted. In the bacterial membrane, the ratio of PG-DMDG heterodimer with respect to PG-PG and DMDG-DMDG homodimers is around half of what should be obtained for a homogeneous mixture of the two lipids. In order to find out whether this was due to an asymmetric distribution of the two lipids between the two membrane leaflets or a heterogeneous distribution of the two lipids within the same membrane leaflet, the transverse distribution of PG and DMDG was also investigated. This was carried out by following the kinetics of oxidation of the two lipids by periodic acid in the membrane of M. luteus protoplasts. PG predominated slightly in the outer layer (60%), while DMDG was found to be symmetrically distributed between the two leaflets. By itself, this lipid asymmetry cannot account for the lipid distribution determined from the photodimerization experiments. This indicates that PG and DMDG are not homogeneously distributed in the plane of the bacterial membrane.

  13. Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from saline sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Ma, Ke-Dong; Wang, Yan-Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Li, Yan-Bin; Zhou, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Kong, De-Long; Guo, Xiang; He, Ming-Xiong; Ruan, Zhi-Yong

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporogenous, aerobic, rod-shaped and halophilic bacterium, designated LAM0015(T), was isolated from a saline sediment sample collected from Yantai City in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 5-25 % (w/v) (optimum: 7-12 %), 15-45 °C (optimum: 35 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum: 7.0). The major fatty acids were determined to be anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidyglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, five phospholipids and one glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol% as determined by the T m method. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belongs within the genus Lentibacillus and is closely related to Lentibacillus persicus DSM 22530(T), Lentibacillus salicampi JCM 11462(T) and Lentibacillus jeotgali JCM 15795(T) with 97.3, 96.7 and 96.4 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between LAM0015(T) and L. persicus DSM 22530(T) was 51.2 ± 1.4 %. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0015(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0015(T) (=ACCC 06401(T) = JCM 19838(T)). PMID:26545789

  14. Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Ke; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Li-Li

    2010-02-01

    A novel bacterium, TRM 0175(T), belonging to the genus Halomonas, was isolated from a soil sample taken from a salt lake in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The isolate was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. It was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations of 0-20 % (optimum at 10-13 %), at 15-50 degrees C (optimum at 37 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0). Metabolism was respiratory with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. Acid was produced from D-ribose, D- and L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose and D- and L-fucose and was produced weakly from aesculin. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.0 mol%. The affiliation of strain TRM 0175(T) with the genus Halomonas was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The most closely related species was Halomonas anticariensis; 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between H. anticariensis FP35(T) and strain TRM 0175(T) was 95.3 %. Phenotypically, some characteristics of TRM 0175(T) differed from those of H. anticariensis. On the basis of data from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 0175(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is TRM 0175(T) (=CCTCC AB 208329(T) =KCTC 22608(T)). PMID:19651733

  15. Antibiofilm Activity of an Exopolysaccharide from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101

    PubMed Central

    Han, Feng; Duan, Gaofei; Lu, Xinzhi; Gu, Yuchao; Yu, Wengong

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial exopolysaccharides have always been suggested to play crucial roles in the bacterial initial adhesion and the development of complex architecture in the later stages of bacterial biofilm formation. However, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharide was characterized to exert broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. In this study, we firstly reported that a bacterial exopolysaccharide (A101) not only inhibits biofilm formation of many bacteria but also disrupts established biofilm of some strains. A101 with an average molecular weight of up to 546 KDa, was isolated and purified from the culture supernatant of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101 by ethanol precipitation, iron-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides showed that A101 is primarily consisted of galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and glucosamine. A101 was demonstrated to inhibit biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without antibacterial activity. Furthermore, A101 displayed a significant disruption on the established biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not by Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, A101 increased the aminoglycosides antibiotics' capability of killing P. aeruginosa biofilm. Cell primary attachment to surfaces and intercellular aggregates assays suggested that A101 inhibited cell aggregates of both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, while the cell-surface interactions inhibition only occurred in S. aureus, and the pre-formed cell aggregates dispersion induced by A101 only occurred in P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these data identify the antibiofilm activity of A101, which may make it potential in the design of new therapeutic strategies for bacterial biofilm-associated infections and limiting biofilm formation on medical indwelling devices. The found of A101 antibiofilm activity may also promote a new recognition

  16. The Purine-Utilizing Bacterium Clostridium acidurici 9a: A Genome-Guided Metabolic Reconsideration

    PubMed Central

    Hartwich, Katrin; Poehlein, Anja; Daniel, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium acidurici is an anaerobic, homoacetogenic bacterium, which is able to use purines such as uric acid as sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. Together with the two other known purinolytic clostridia C. cylindrosporum and C. purinilyticum, C. acidurici serves as a model organism for investigation of purine fermentation. Here, we present the first complete sequence and analysis of a genome derived from a purinolytic Clostridium. The genome of C. acidurici 9a consists of one chromosome (3,105,335 bp) and one small circular plasmid (2,913 bp). The lack of candidate genes encoding glycine reductase indicates that C. acidurici 9a uses the energetically less favorable glycine-serine-pyruvate pathway for glycine degradation. In accordance with the specialized lifestyle and the corresponding narrow substrate spectrum of C. acidurici 9a, the number of genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism is significantly lower than in other clostridia such as C. acetobutylicum, C. saccharolyticum, and C. beijerinckii. The only amino acid that can be degraded by C. acidurici is glycine but growth on glycine only occurs in the presence of a fermentable purine. Nevertheless, the addition of glycine resulted in increased transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in the glycine-serine-pyruvate pathway such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase and acetate kinase, whereas the transcription levels of formate dehydrogenase-encoding genes decreased. Sugars could not be utilized by C. acidurici but the full genetic repertoire for glycolysis was detected. In addition, genes encoding enzymes that mediate resistance against several antimicrobials and metals were identified. High resistance of C. acidurici towards bacitracin, acriflavine and azaleucine was experimentally confirmed. PMID:23240052

  17. A Novel Eliminase from a Marine Bacterium That Degrades Hyaluronan and Chondroitin Sulfate*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenjun; Wang, Wenshuang; Zhao, Mei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2014-01-01

    Lyases cleave glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in an eliminative mechanism and are important tools for the structural analysis and oligosaccharide preparation of GAGs. Various GAG lyases have been identified from terrestrial but not marine organisms even though marine animals are rich in GAGs with unique structures and functions. Herein we isolated a novel GAG lyase for the first time from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. FC509 and then recombinantly expressed and characterized it. It showed strong lyase activity toward hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) and was designated as HA and CS lyase (HCLase). It exhibited the highest activities to both substrates at pH 8.0 and 0.5 m NaCl at 30 °C. Its activity toward HA was less sensitive to pH than its CS lyase activity. As with most other marine enzymes, HCLase is a halophilic enzyme and very stable at temperatures from 0 to 40 °C for up to 24 h, but its activity is independent of divalent metal ions. The specific activity of HCLase against HA and CS reached a markedly high level of hundreds of thousands units/mg of protein under optimum conditions. The HCLase-resistant tetrasaccharide Δ4,5HexUAα1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)β1-4GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)β1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) was isolated from CS-D, the structure of which indicated that HCLase could not cleave the galactosaminidic linkage bound to 2-O-sulfated d-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) in CS chains. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that HCLase may work via a catalytic mechanism in which Tyr-His acts as the Brønsted base and acid. Thus, the identification of HCLase provides a useful tool for HA- and CS-related research and applications. PMID:25122756

  18. Zooshikella marina sp. nov. a cycloprodigiosin- and prodigiosin-producing marine bacterium isolated from beach sand.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Bharti, Dave; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A red-pigmented bacterium producing a metallic green sheen, designated strain JC333T, was isolated from a sand sample collected from Shivrajpur-Kachigad beach, Gujarat, India. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC333T showed highest sequence similarity to Zooshikella ganghwensis JC2044T (99.24 %) and less than 91.94 % similarity with other members of the class Gammaproteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridizations between JC333T and Z. ganghwensis JC2044T showed low relatedness values of 19 ± 1.3 % (reciprocal 21 ± 2.2 %). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q9) and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The presence of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and C12 : 0 as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain JC333T to the genus Zooshikella. Prodigiosin, cycloprodigiosin and eight other prodigiosin analogues were the pigments of JC333T. Characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, physiological parameters, pigment analysis, ubiquinone, and polar lipid and fatty acid compositions revealed that JC333T represents a novel species of the genus Zooshikella, for which the name Zooshikella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC333T ( = KCTC 42659T = LMG 28823T). PMID:26409875

  19. Structure and anticancer activity of sulfated O-polysaccharide from marine bacterium Cobetia litoralis KMM 3880(T).

    PubMed

    Kokoulin, Maxim S; Kuzmich, Alexandra S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Tomshich, Svetlana V; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Mikhailov, Valery V; Komandrova, Nadezhda A

    2016-12-10

    We presented the structure of the polysaccharide moiety and anticancer activity in vitro of the sulfated lipopolysaccharide isolated from the marine bacterium Cobetia litoralis KMM 3880(T). The structure of O-polysaccharide was investigated by chemical methods along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The O-polysaccharide was built up of branched trisaccharide repeating units consist of D-glucose (D-Glcр), D-mannose (D-Manр) and sulfated 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo5S): →7-β-Kdoр4Ac5S-(2→4)-[β-d-Glcp-(1→2)-]-β-d-Manр6Ac-1→. We demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide and О-deacetylated O-polysaccharide from Cobetia litoralis KMM 3880(T) inhibited a colony formation of human melanoma SK-MEL-28 and colorectal carcinoma HTC-116 cells. PMID:27577896

  20. Larkinella insperata gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes' isolated from water of a steam generator.

    PubMed

    Vancanneyt, Marc; Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Snauwaert, Cindy; Mortier, Stefanie; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Dawyndt, Peter; Frolova, Galina M; Janssens, Danielle; Swings, Jean

    2006-01-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain LMG 22510T, was isolated from water of a pharmaceutical company steam generator. The cells had a ring-like and horseshoe-shaped morphology and possessed gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain was a member of the Flexibacter group within the phylum 'Bacteroidetes'; its nearest neighbour was Spirosoma linguale (88.8 % sequence similarity). DNA base content, fatty acid composition and biochemical characteristics were determined. Genotypic and phenotypic data indicated that strain LMG 22510T could not be assigned to any recognized genus; therefore, a novel genus and species is proposed, Larkinella insperata gen. nov., sp. nov., with LMG 22510T (= NCIMB 14103T) as the type strain. PMID:16403892

  1. Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Chen, C; Li, J; Xiang, W; Wu, H; Wu, J; Dai, S; Wu, H; Li, T; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, red, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain A4T, was isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium. Cells were flexible rods with gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain A4T formed a coherent cluster with members of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter, and represents a distinct lineage in the family Flammeovirgaceae. Thermotolerance and a distinctive cellular fatty acid profile could readily distinguish this isolate from any bacteria of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter with a validly published name. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain A4T is suggested to represent a novel species in a novel genus, for which the name Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A4T ( = KCTC 42507T = CGMCC 1.15111T). PMID:26652750

  2. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

    2010-05-13

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  3. Ecology and metabolism of the beneficial intestinal commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Sylvie; Martín, Rebeca; Bridonneau, Chantal; Robert, Véronique; Sokol, Harry; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Thomas, Muriel; Langella, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major commensal bacterium, and its prevalence is often decreased in conditions of intestinal dysbiosis. The phylogenic identity of this bacterium was described only recently. It is still poorly characterized, and its specific growth requirements in the human gastrointestinal tract are not known. In this review, we consider F. prausnitzii metabolism, its ecophysiology in both humans and animals, and the effects of drugs and nutrition on its population. We list important questions about this beneficial and ubiquitous commensal bacterium that it would be valuable to answer. PMID:24637606

  4. Biodiversity and γ-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus. PMID:25802859

  5. Biodiversity and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Alpine Raw Cow's Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M.

    2015-01-01

    “Nostrano-cheeses” are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of “Nostrano-cheeses” and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus. PMID:25802859

  6. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens gen nov, sp nov, a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-degrading denitrifying bacterium isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Hiraishi, Akira

    2002-12-01

    Three denitrifying strains of bacteria capable of degrading poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were isolated from activated sludge and characterized. All of the isolates had almost identical phenotypic characteristics. They were motile gram-negative rods with single polar flagella and grew well with simple organic compounds, as well as with PHB and PHBV, as carbon and energy sources under both aerobic and anaerobic denitrifying conditions. However, none of the sugars tested supported their growth. The cellular fatty acid profiles showed the presence of C16:1omega7cis and C16:0 as the major components and of 3-OH-C10:0 as the sole component of hydroxy fatty acids. Ubiquinone-8 was detected as the major respiratory quinone. A 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the family Comamonadaceae, a major group of beta-Proteobacteria, but formed no monophyletic cluster with any previously known species of this family. The closest relative to our strains was an unidentified bacterium strain LW1 (=DSM 13225) (99.9% similarity), reported previously as a 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene degrading bacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization levels among the new isolates were more than 60%, whereas those between our isolates and strain DSM 13225 were less than 50%. The G+C content of genomic DNA of the new strains was 64 to 65 mol%. Based on these results, we concluded that the PHBV-degrading denitrifying isolates should be classified as a new genus and a new species, for which we propose the name Diaphorobacter nitroreducens. The type strain is strain NA10B (=JCM 11421=CIP 107294). We also propose to classify strain DSM 13225 as a genospecies of Diaphorobacter. PMID:12682868

  7. Does S-Metolachlor Affect the Performance of Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP as Bioaugmentation Bacterium for Atrazine-Contaminated Soils?

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Cristina A.; Costa, Catarina; André, Sandra; Viana, Paula; Ribeiro, Rui; Moreira-Santos, Matilde

    2012-01-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) and S-metolachlor (S-MET) are two herbicides widely used, often as mixtures. The present work examined whether the presence of S-MET affects the ATZ-biodegradation activity of the bioaugmentation bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP in a crop soil. S-MET concentrations were selected for their relevance in worst-case scenarios of soil contamination by a commercial formulation containing both herbicides. At concentrations representative of application of high doses of the formulation (up to 50 µg g−1 of soil, corresponding to a dose approximately 50× higher than the recommended field dose (RD)), the presence of pure S-MET significantly affected neither bacteria survival (∼107 initial viable cells g−1 of soil) nor its ATZ-mineralization activity. Consistently, biodegradation experiments, in larger soil microcosms spiked with 20× or 50×RD of the double formulation and inoculated with the bacterium, revealed ATZ to be rapidly (in up to 5 days) and extensively (>96%) removed from the soil. During the 5 days, concentration of S-MET decreased moderately to about 60% of the initial, both in inoculated and non-inoculated microcosms. Concomitantly, an accumulation of the two metabolites S-MET ethanesulfonic acid and S-MET oxanilic acid was found. Despite the dissipation of almost all the ATZ from the treated soils, the respective eluates were still highly toxic to an aquatic microalgae species, being as toxic as those from the untreated soil. We suggest that this high toxicity may be due to the S-MET and/or its metabolites remaining in the soil. PMID:22615921

  8. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Leow, Thean Chor; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2007-01-01

    Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0) as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%). Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T). Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T). Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into

  9. Anoxybacillus calidus sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from soil near a thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Cokmus, Cumhur; Koc, Melih; Ozcan, Birgul

    2014-01-01

    A novel thermophilic, Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain C161ab(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected near Kizildere, Saraykoy-Buharkent power plant in Denizli. The isolate could grow at temperatures between 35 and 70 °C (optimum 55 °C), at pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum pH 8.0-8.5) and with 0-2.5 % NaCl (optimum 0.5 %, w/v). The strain formed cream-coloured, circular colonies and tolerated up to 70 mM boron. Its DNA G+C content was 37.8 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain C161ab(T) contained menaquinones MK-7 (96 %) and MK-6 (4 %). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-branched fatty acids: iso-C15 : 0 (52.2 %) and iso-C17 : 0 (28.0 %,) with small amounts of C16 : 0 (7.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed 94.6-96.8 % sequence similarity with all recognized species of the genus Anoxybacillus. Strain C161ab(T) showed the greatest sequence similarity to Anoxybacillus rupiensis DSM 17127(T) and Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 17075(T), both had 96.8 % similarity to strain C161ab(T), as well as to Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus DSM 15730(T) (96.6 %). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed low levels of relatedness with the closest relatives of strain C161ab(T), A. rupiensis (21.2 %) and A. voinovskiensis (16.5 %). On the basis of the results obtained from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genomic fingerprinting, phylogenetic and hybridization analyses, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel species, Anoxybacillus calidus sp. nov. (type strain C161ab(T) = DSM 25520(T) = NCIMB 14851(T)). PMID:24052627

  10. Fervidicella metallireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium from geothermal waters.

    PubMed

    Ogg, Christopher D; Patel, Bharat K C

    2010-06-01

    A strictly anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium, designated strain AeB(T), was isolated from microbial mats colonizing a run-off channel formed by free-flowing thermal water from a bore well (registered number 17263) of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Cells of strain AeB(T) were slightly curved rods (2.5-6.0x1.0 mum) that stained Gram-negative and formed spherical terminal to subterminal spores. The strain grew optimally in tryptone-yeast extract-Casamino acids medium at 50 degrees C (range 37-55 degrees C) and pH 7 (range pH 5-9). Strain AeB(T) grew poorly on yeast extract (0.2 %) and tryptone (0.2 %) as sole carbon sources, which were obligately required for growth on other energy sources. Growth of strain AeB(T) increased in the presence of various carbohydrates and amino acids, but not organic acids. End products detected from glucose fermentation were ethanol, acetate, CO2 and H2. In the presence of 0.2 % yeast extract, iron(III), manganese(IV), vanadium(V) and cobalt(III) were reduced, but not sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, elemental sulfur, nitrate or nitrite. Iron(III) was also reduced in the presence of tryptone, peptone, Casamino acids and amyl media (Research Achievement), but not starch, xylan, chitin, glycerol, ethanol, pyruvate, benzoate, lactate, acetate, propionate, succinate, glycine, serine, lysine, threonine, arginine, glutamate, valine, leucine, histidine, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine or methionine. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, penicillin, ampicillin and NaCl concentrations >2 %. The DNA G+C content was 35.4+/-1 mol%, as determined by the thermal denaturation method. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AeB(T) is a member of the family Clostridiaceae, class Clostridia, phylum 'Firmicutes', and is positioned approximately equidistantly between the genera Sarcina, Anaerobacter, Caloramator and Clostridium (16S rRNA gene similarity values of 87.8-90.9 %). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene

  11. Growth and Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during and after Malolactic Fermentation of Wines at Different pH

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C. R.; Wibowo, D. J.; Lee, T. H.; Fleet, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially produced red wines were adjusted to pH 3.0, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7, or 4.0 and examined during and after malolactic fermentation for growth of lactic acid bacteria and changes in the concentrations of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and acetaldehyde. With one exception, Leuconostoc oenos conducted the malolactic fermentation in all wines and was the only species to occur in wines at pH below 3.5. Malolactic fermentation by L. oenos was accompanied by degradation of malic, citric, and fumaric acids and production of lactic and acetic acids. The concentrations of arginine, histidine, and acetaldehyde also decreased at this stage, but the behavior of hexose and pentose sugars was complicated by other factors. Pediococcus parvulus conducted the malolactic fermentation in one wine containing 72 mg of total sulfur dioxide per liter. Fumaric and citric acids were not degraded during this malolactic fermentation, but hexose sugars were metabolized. P. parvulus and species of Lactobacillus grew after malolactic fermentation in wines with pH adjusted above 3.5. This growth was accompanied by the utilization of wine sugars and production of lactic and acetic acids. PMID:16347015

  12. Characterization of a novel integrative element, ICESt1, in the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Burrus, V; Roussel, Y; Decaris, B; Guédon, G

    2000-04-01

    The 35.5-kb ICESt1 element of Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ368 is bordered by a 27-bp repeat and integrated into the 3' end of a gene encoding a putative fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase. This element encodes site-specific integrase and excisionase enzymes related to those of conjugative transposons Tn5276 and Tn5252. The integrase was found to be involved in a site-specific excision of a circular form. ICESt1 also encodes putative conjugative transfer proteins related to those of the conjugative transposon Tn916. Therefore, ICESt1 could be or could be derived from an integrative conjugative element. PMID:10742276

  13. OXIDATION OF NITROPYRIN TO 6-CHOLORPICOLINIC ACID BY THE AMMONIA-OXIDIZING BACTERIUM NOSTROSOMAS EUROPAEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the oxidation of the commercial nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine]. apid oxidation of nitrapyrin (at a concentration of 10 uM) required the concomitant oxidation of ammonia, hydroxylamine, or h...

  14. Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433

    PubMed Central

    Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

  15. Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433.

    PubMed

    Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

  16. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; Codd, Rachel

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap{sub Sgel}) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap{sub Sput}) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap{sub Sgel} and Nap{sub Sput} occurred at 54.5 and 65 Degree-Sign C, respectively. When Nap{sub Sgel} was preincubated at 21-70 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 Degree-Sign C, which suggested that Nap{sub Sgel} was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap{sub Sput}, did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 Degree-Sign C, Nap{sub Sgel} reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap{sub Sput} did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap{sub Sgel} that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap{sub Sgel} cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap{sub Sgel} using a

  17. Anaerobic degradation of toluene by a denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P J; Mang, D T; Kim, K S; Young, L Y

    1991-01-01

    A denitrifying bacterium, designated strain T1, that grew with toluene as the sole source of carbon under anaerobic conditions was isolated. The type of agar used in solid media and the toxicity of toluene were determinative factors in the successful isolation of strain T1. Greater than 50% of the toluene carbon was oxidized to CO2, and 29% was assimilated into biomass. The oxidation of toluene to CO2 was stoichiometrically coupled to nitrate reduction and denitrification. Strain T1 was tolerant of and grew on 3 mM toluene after a lag phase. The rate of toluene degradation was 1.8 mumol min-1 liter-1 (56 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1) in a cell suspension. Strain T1 was distinct from other bacteria that oxidize toluene anaerobically, but it may utilize a similar biochemical pathway of oxidation. In addition, o-xylene was transformed to a metabolite in the presence of toluene but did not serve as the sole source of carbon for growth of strain T1. This transformation was dependent on the degradation of toluene. Images PMID:2059037

  18. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  19. Mechanisms of gold biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Etschmann, Barbara; Grosse, Cornelia; Moors, Hugo; Benotmane, Mohammed A; Monsieurs, Pieter; Grass, Gregor; Doonan, Christian; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Martinez-Criado, Gema; George, Graham N; Nies, Dietrich H; Mergeay, Max; Pring, Allan; Southam, Gordon; Brugger, Joël

    2009-10-20

    While the role of microorganisms as main drivers of metal mobility and mineral formation under Earth surface conditions is now widely accepted, the formation of secondary gold (Au) is commonly attributed to abiotic processes. Here we report that the biomineralization of Au nanoparticles in the metallophillic bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is the result of Au-regulated gene expression leading to the energy-dependent reductive precipitation of toxic Au(III)-complexes. C. metallidurans, which forms biofilms on Au grains, rapidly accumulates Au(III)-complexes from solution. Bulk and microbeam synchrotron X-ray analyses revealed that cellular Au accumulation is coupled to the formation of Au(I)-S complexes. This process promotes Au toxicity and C. metallidurans reacts by inducing oxidative stress and metal resistances gene clusters (including a Au-specific operon) to promote cellular defense. As a result, Au detoxification is mediated by a combination of efflux, reduction, and possibly methylation of Au-complexes, leading to the formation of Au(I)-C-compounds and nanoparticulate Au(0). Similar particles were observed in bacterial biofilms on Au grains, suggesting that bacteria actively contribute to the formation of Au grains in surface environments. The recognition of specific genetic responses to Au opens the way for the development of bioexploration and bioprocessing tools. PMID:19815503

  20. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  1. Novel Rickettsiella Bacterium in the Leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Weintraub, Phyllis G.; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Robinson, Wyatt E.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsiella (Coxiellaceae), which are mainly known as arthropod pathogens, are emerging as excellent models to study transitions between mutualism and pathogenicity. The current report characterizes a novel Rickettsiella found in the leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a major vector of phytoplasma diseases in Europe and Asia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to survey the main symbionts of O. albicinctus, revealing the obligate symbionts Sulcia and Nasuia, and the facultative symbionts Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, in addition to Rickettsiella. The leafhopper Rickettsiella is allied with bacteria found in ticks. Screening O. albicinctus from the field showed that Rickettsiella is highly prevalent, with over 60% of individuals infected. A stable Rickettsiella infection was maintained in a leafhopper laboratory colony for at least 10 generations, and fluorescence microscopy localized bacteria to accessory glands of the female reproductive tract, suggesting that the bacterium is vertically transmitted. Future studies will be needed to examine how Rickettsiella affects host fitess and its ability to vector phytopathogens. PMID:23645190

  2. High cell density cultivation of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Papp, Benedek; Török, Tibor; Sándor, Erzsébet; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-05-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic nitrifier, a gram-negative bacterium that can obtain all energy required for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and this may be beneficial for various biotechnological and environmental applications. However, compared to other bacteria, growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria is very slow. A prerequisite to produce high cell density N. europaea cultures is to minimize the concentrations of inhibitory metabolic by-products. During growth on ammonia nitrite accumulates, as a consequence, N. europaea cannot grow to high cell concentrations under conventional batch conditions. Here, we show that single-vessel dialysis membrane bioreactors can be used to obtain substantially increased N. europaea biomasses and substantially reduced nitrite levels in media initially containing high amounts of the substrate. Dialysis membrane bioreactor fermentations were run in batch as well as in continuous mode. Growth was monitored with cell concentration determinations, by assessing dry cell mass and by monitoring ammonium consumption as well as nitrite formation. In addition, metabolic activity was probed with in vivo acridine orange staining. Under continuous substrate feed, the maximal cell concentration (2.79 × 10(12)/L) and maximal dry cell mass (0.895 g/L) achieved more than doubled the highest values reported for N. europaea cultivations to date. PMID:26358065

  3. Bacterium organizes hierarchical amorphous structure in microbial cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, S.; Yue, Z.; Tomita, Y.; Kondo, T.; Iwase, H.; Yamaguchi, D.; Hashimoto, T.

    2008-05-01

    A pellicle, a gel film of microbial cellulose, is a supermolecular system containing 99% of water by weight, which is closely related to an amorphous structure in it. Using ultra-small-angle neutron scattering, in order to cover over a wide range of length scales from nm to 10μm, we examined the hierarchical amorphous structure in the microbial cellulose, which is synthesized by a bacterium (Acetobacter xylinum). The microbial cellulose swollen by water shows small-angle scattering that obeys a power law q -behavior according to q-α as a function of the magnitude of the scattering vector q . The power law, determined by scattering, is attributed to a mass fractal due to the distribution of the center of mass for the crystallite (microfibril) in amorphous cellulose swollen by water. As q increases, α takes the values of 2.5, 1, and 2.35, corresponding, respectively, to a gel network composed of bundles, a bundle composed of cellulose ribbons, and concentration fluctuations in a bundle. From the mass fractal q -behavior and its length scale limits, we evaluated a volume fraction of crystallite in microbial cellulose. It was found that 90% of the cellulose bundle is occupied by amorphous cellulose containing water.

  4. Fitness correlates with the extent of cheating in a bacterium.

    PubMed

    Jiricny, N; Diggle, S P; West, S A; Evans, B A; Ballantyne, G; Ross-Gillespie, A; Griffin, A S

    2010-04-01

    There is growing awareness of the importance of cooperative behaviours in microbial communities. Empirical support for this insight comes from experiments using mutant strains, termed 'cheats', which exploit the cooperative behaviour of wild-type strains. However, little detailed work has gone into characterising the competitive dynamics of cooperative and cheating strains. We test three specific predictions about the fitness consequences of cheating to different extents by examining the production of the iron-scavenging siderophore molecule, pyoverdin, in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We create a collection of mutants that differ in the amount of pyoverdin that they produce (from 1% to 96% of the production of paired wild types) and demonstrate that these production levels correlate with both gene activity and the ability to bind iron. Across these mutants, we found that (1) when grown in a mixed culture with a cooperative wild-type strain, the relative fitness of a mutant is negatively correlated with the amount of pyoverdin that it produces; (2) the absolute and relative fitness of the wild-type strain in the mixed culture is positively correlated with the amount of pyoverdin that the mutant produces; and (3) when grown in a monoculture, the absolute fitness of the mutant is positively correlated with the amount of pyoverdin that it produces. Overall, we demonstrate that cooperative pyoverdin production is exploitable and illustrate how variation in a social behaviour determines fitness differently, depending on the social environment. PMID:20210835

  5. P450 enzymes from the bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephen G; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2007-08-31

    Twelve of the fifteen potential P450 enzymes from the bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, which is known to degrade a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons, have been produced via heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The enzymes were tested for their ability to bind a range of substrates including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. While two of the enzymes were found to bind aromatic compounds (CYP108D1 and CYP203A2), the others show binding with a variety of compounds including linear alkanes (CYP153C1) and mono- and sesqui-terpenoid compounds (CYP101B1, CYP101C1, CYP101D1, CYP101D2, CYP111A1, and CYP219A1). A 2Fe-2S ferredoxin (Arx-A), which is associated with CYP101D2, was also produced. The activity of five of the P450 enzymes (CYP101B1, CYP101C1, CYP101D1, CYP101D2, and CYP111A2) was reconstituted with Arx-A and putidaredoxin reductase (of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida) in a Class I type electron transfer system. Preliminary characterisation of the majority of the substrate oxidation products is reported. PMID:17618912

  6. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  7. P450 enzymes from the bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Stephen G. . E-mail: stephen.bell@chem.ox.ac.uk; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2007-08-31

    Twelve of the fifteen potential P450 enzymes from the bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, which is known to degrade a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons, have been produced via heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The enzymes were tested for their ability to bind a range of substrates including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. While two of the enzymes were found to bind aromatic compounds (CYP108D1 and CYP203A2), the others show binding with a variety of compounds including linear alkanes (CYP153C1) and mono- and sesqui-terpenoid compounds (CYP101B1, CYP101C1, CYP101D1, CYP101D2, CYP111A1, and CYP219A1). A 2Fe-2S ferredoxin (Arx-A), which is associated with CYP101D2, was also produced. The activity of five of the P450 enzymes (CYP101B1, CYP101C1, CYP101D1, CYP101D2, and CYP111A2) was reconstituted with Arx-A and putidaredoxin reductase (of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida) in a Class I type electron transfer system. Preliminary characterisation of the majority of the substrate oxidation products is reported.

  8. The acetylproteome of Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dooil; Yu, Byung Jo; Kim, Jung Ae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Choi, Soo-Geun; Kang, Sunghyun; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2013-05-01

    N(ε) -lysine acetylation, a reversible and highly regulated PTM, has been shown to occur in the model Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Here, we extend this acetylproteome analysis to Bacillus subtilis, a model Gram-positive bacterium. Through anti-acetyllysine antibody-based immunoseparation of acetylpeptides followed by nano-HPLC/MS/MS analysis, we identified 332 unique lysine-acetylated sites on 185 proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in cellular housekeeping functions such as central metabolism and protein synthesis. Fifity-nine of the lysine-acetylated proteins showed homology with lysine-acetylated proteins previously identified in E. coli, suggesting that acetylated proteins are more conserved. Notably, acetylation was found at or near the active sites predicted by Prosite signature, including SdhA, RocA, Kbl, YwjH, and YfmT, indicating that lysine acetylation may affect their activities. In 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase Kbl, a class II aminotransferase, a lysine residue involved in pyridoxal phosphate attachment was found to be acetylated. This data set provides evidence for the generality of lysine acetylation in eubacteria and opens opportunities to explore the consequences of acetylation modification on the molecular physiology of B. subtilis. PMID:23468065

  9. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  10. Hydrodynamics and collective behavior of the tethered bacterium Thiovulum majus

    PubMed Central

    Petroff, Alexander; Libchaber, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The ecology and dynamics of many microbial systems, particularly in mats and soils, are shaped by how bacteria respond to evolving nutrient gradients and microenvironments. Here we show how the response of the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus to changing oxygen gradients causes cells to organize into large-scale fronts. To study this phenomenon, we develop a technique to isolate and enrich these bacteria from the environment. Using this enrichment culture, we observe the formation and dynamics of T. majus fronts in oxygen gradients. We show that these dynamics can be understood as occurring in two steps. First, chemotactic cells moving up the oxygen gradient form a front that propagates with constant velocity. We then show, through observation and mathematical analysis, that this front becomes unstable to changes in cell density. Random perturbations in cell density create oxygen gradients. The response of cells magnifies these gradients and leads to the formation of millimeter-scale fluid flows that actively pull oxygenated water through the front. We argue that this flow results from a nonlinear instability excited by stochastic fluctuations in the density of cells. Finally, we show that the dynamics by which these modes interact can be understood from the chemotactic response of cells. These results provide a mathematically tractable example of how collective phenomena in ecological systems can arise from the individual response of cells to a shared resource. PMID:24459183

  11. Molecular study on cloned endoglucanase gene from rumen bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ozkose, Emin; Akyol, Ismail; Ekinci, Mehmet Sait

    2004-01-01

    An endoglucanase gene was subcloned from anaerobic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens strain 17. To express endoglucanase gene in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus bovis JB1, an endoglucanase gene fragment was inserted into pVA838-based shuttle vectors. Removal of endoglucanase gene promoter and expression of endoglucanase by promoter of S. bovis JB1 alpha-amylase gene (pACMCS) was also achieved. Survival of constructs pVACMCI, pTACMC and pACMCS, which carry endoglucanase gene, and stability of endoglucanase gene in S. bovis JB1, were observed. Maximal endoglucanase activities from S. bovis JB1/pVACMCI were 2- to 3-fold higher than from E. coli/pVACMCI. Specific cell activity of E. coli/pACMCS was found to be approximately 2- to -3 fold higher than the both E. coli/pVACMCI and E. coli/pTACMC. Specific cell activity of S. bovis JB1/pACMCS was also found to be approximately 2-fold higher than the both S. bovis/pVACMCI and S. bovis JB1/pTACMC. PMID:15925902

  12. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Pienkos, Philip T; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to "green" chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  13. Mutation of bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for selective preparation of colorants.

    PubMed

    Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D; Sun, Gang

    2010-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced. Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants. Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da. One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well. The mutated bacteria strains increased the yield of pigment production by about 81% and produced prodigiosin in 97% purity. The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well. Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries. PMID:19902486

  14. Mechanisms of gold biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans

    PubMed Central

    Reith, Frank; Etschmann, Barbara; Grosse, Cornelia; Moors, Hugo; Benotmane, Mohammed A.; Monsieurs, Pieter; Grass, Gregor; Doonan, Christian; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Martinez-Criado, Gema; George, Graham N.; Nies, Dietrich H.; Mergeay, Max; Pring, Allan; Southam, Gordon; Brugger, Joël

    2009-01-01

    While the role of microorganisms as main drivers of metal mobility and mineral formation under Earth surface conditions is now widely accepted, the formation of secondary gold (Au) is commonly attributed to abiotic processes. Here we report that the biomineralization of Au nanoparticles in the metallophillic bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is the result of Au-regulated gene expression leading to the energy-dependent reductive precipitation of toxic Au(III)-complexes. C. metallidurans, which forms biofilms on Au grains, rapidly accumulates Au(III)-complexes from solution. Bulk and microbeam synchrotron X-ray analyses revealed that cellular Au accumulation is coupled to the formation of Au(I)-S complexes. This process promotes Au toxicity and C. metallidurans reacts by inducing oxidative stress and metal resistances gene clusters (including a Au-specific operon) to promote cellular defense. As a result, Au detoxification is mediated by a combination of efflux, reduction, and possibly methylation of Au-complexes, leading to the formation of Au(I)-C-compounds and nanoparticulate Au0. Similar particles were observed in bacterial biofilms on Au grains, suggesting that bacteria actively contribute to the formation of Au grains in surface environments. The recognition of specific genetic responses to Au opens the way for the development of bioexploration and bioprocessing tools. PMID:19815503

  15. Novel Trypanosomatid-Bacterium Association: Evolution of Endosymbiosis in Action

    PubMed Central

    Kostygov, Alexei Y.; Dobáková, Eva; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Váhala, Dalibor; Maslov, Dmitri A.; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe a novel symbiotic association between a kinetoplastid protist, Novymonas esmeraldas gen. nov., sp. nov., and an intracytoplasmic bacterium, “Candidatus Pandoraea novymonadis” sp. nov., discovered as a result of a broad-scale survey of insect trypanosomatid biodiversity in Ecuador. We characterize this association by describing the morphology of both organisms, as well as their interactions, and by establishing their phylogenetic affinities. Importantly, neither partner is closely related to other known organisms previously implicated in eukaryote-bacterial symbiosis. This symbiotic association seems to be relatively recent, as the host does not exert a stringent control over the number of bacteria harbored in its cytoplasm. We argue that this unique relationship may represent a suitable model for studying the initial stages of establishment of endosymbiosis between a single-cellular eukaryote and a prokaryote. Based on phylogenetic analyses, Novymonas could be considered a proxy for the insect-only ancestor of the dixenous genus Leishmania and shed light on the origin of the two-host life cycle within the subfamily Leishmaniinae. PMID:26980834

  16. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-02-23

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resultedmore » in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels.« less

  17. A new isolation method for labyrinthulids using a bacterium, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, T; Nakahara, T; Higashihara, T; Yamaoka, M; Kurane, R

    2001-01-01

    A new isolation method for labyrinthulids, marine microbes with spindle-shaped vegetative cells and gliding movement, is presented. The method for isolating labyrinthulids has been found to be more difficult and less reproducible than that for thraustochytrids, classified in the same order. So far serum seawater agar fortified with antibiotics has been proposed to be the best for isolation of labyrinthulids. The method presented here involves placing plant samples on an agar medium on which a marine bacterium, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, has been grown. The new method, which utilizes fallen mangrove leaves as source material, was more than twice as effective as isolation agar medium without the bacterium. The increased effectiveness appears to derive partly from the bacterial colonies' delaying extension of fungal mycelium. The bacterium was more effective for the isolation of labyrinthulids than either the bacterium Shewanella sp. or the yeast Rhodotorula rubra. PMID:14961392

  18. IN SITU RT-PCR WITH A SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM SEAGRASS ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria considered to be obligate anaerobes internally colonize roots of the submerged macrophyte Halodule wrightii. A sulfate reducing bacterium, Summer lac 1, was isolated on lactate from H. wrightii roots. The isolate has physiological characteristics typical of Desulfovibri...

  19. Characterization of a Neochlamydia-like bacterium associated with epitheliocystis in cultured Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of branchial epithelium by intracellular gram-negative bacteria, termed epitheliocystis, have limited culture of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). To characterize a bacterium associated with epitheliocystis in cultured char, gills were sampled for histopathologic examination, conventiona...

  20. Extracellular electron transfer of a highly adhesive and metabolically versatile bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Ishikawa, Masahito; Matsuda, Shoichi; Kimoto, Yuki; Hori, Katsutoshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial adhesion to a solid plays a predominant role in mediating the extracellular electron transfer for genus Acinetobactor, a metabolically versatile bacterium that can couple toluene degradation and electricity generation. PMID:23813865