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Sample records for acid based hydrogels

  1. Functional nucleic acid-based hydrogels for bioanalytical and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Liuting; Lu, Chun-Hua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are crosslinked hydrophilic polymers that can absorb a large amount of water. By their hydrophilic, biocompatible and highly tunable nature, hydrogels can be tailored for applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine. Of particular interest are DNA-based hydrogels owing to the unique features of nucleic acids. Since the discovery of DNA double helical structure, interest in DNA has expanded beyond its genetic role to applications in nanotechnology and materials science. In particular, DNA-based hydrogels present such remarkable features as stability, flexibility, precise programmability, stimuli-responsive DNA conformations, facile synthesis and modification. Moreover, functional nucleic acids (FNAs) have allowed the construction of hydrogels based on aptamers, DNAzymes, i-motif nanostructures, siRNAs and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to provide additional molecular recognition, catalytic activities and therapeutic potential, making them key players in biological analysis and biomedical applications. To date, a variety of applications have been demonstrated with FNA-based hydrogels, including biosensing, environmental analysis, controlled drug release, cell adhesion and targeted cancer therapy. In this review, we focus on advances in the development of FNA-based hydrogels, which have fully incorporated both the unique features of FNAs and DNA-based hydrogels. We first introduce different strategies for constructing DNA-based hydrogels. Subsequently, various types of FNAs and the most recent developments of FNA-based hydrogels for bioanalytical and biomedical applications are described with some selected examples. Finally, the review provides an insight into the remaining challenges and future perspectives of FNA-based hydrogels. PMID:26758955

  2. Injectable In Situ Forming Biodegradable Chitosan-Hyaluronic acid Based Hydrogels for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huaping; Chu, Constance R.; Payne, Karin; Marra, Kacey G.

    2009-01-01

    Injectable, biodegradable scaffolds are important biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Hydrogels derived from natural polysaccharides are ideal scaffolds as they resemble the extracellular matrices of tissues comprised of various glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Here, we report a new class of biocompatible and biodegradable composite hydrogels derived from water-soluble chitosan and oxidized hyaluronic acid upon mixing, without the addition of a chemical crosslinking agent. The gelation is attributed to the Schiff-base reaction between amino and aldehyde groups of polysaccharide derivatives. In the current work, N-succinyl-chitosan (S-CS) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (A-HA) were synthesized for preparation of the composite hydrogels. The polysaccharide derivatives and composite hydrogels were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of the ratio of S-CS and A-HA on the gelation time, microstructure, surface morphology, equilibrium swelling, compressive modulus, and in vitro degradation of composite hydrogels was examined. The potential of the composite hydrogel as an injectable scaffold was demonstrated by encapsulation of bovine articular chondrocytes within the composite hydrogel matrix in vitro. The results demonstrated that the composite hydrogel supported cell survival and the cells retained chondrocytic morphology. These characteristics provide a potential opportunity to use the injectable, composite hydrogels in tissue engineering applications. PMID:19167750

  3. Biodegradation and Osteosarcoma Cell Cultivation on Poly(aspartic acid) Based Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Juriga, Dávid; Nagy, Krisztina; Jedlovszky-Hajdú, Angéla; Perczel-Kovách, Katalin; Chen, Yong Mei; Varga, Gábor; Zrínyi, Miklós

    2016-09-14

    Development of novel biodegradable and biocompatible scaffold materials with optimal characteristics is important for both preclinical and clinical applications. The aim of the present study was to analyze the biodegradability of poly(aspartic acid)-based hydrogels, and to test their usability as scaffolds for MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Poly(aspartic acid) was fabricated from poly(succinimide) and hydrogels were prepared using natural amines as cross-linkers (diaminobutane and cystamine). Disulfide bridges were cleaved to thiol groups and the polymer backbone was further modified with RGD sequence. Biodegradability of the hydrogels was evaluated by experiments on the base of enzymes and cell culture medium. Poly(aspartic acid) hydrogels possessing only disulfide bridges as cross-links proved to be degradable by collagenase I. The MG-63 cells showed healthy, fibroblast-like morphology on the double cross-linked and RGD modified hydrogels. Thiolated poly(aspartic acid) based hydrogels provide ideal conditions for adhesion, survival, proliferation, and migration of osteoblast-like cells. The highest viability was found on the thiolated PASP gels while the RGD motif had influence on compacted cluster formation of the cells. These biodegradable and biocompatible poly(aspartic acid)-based hydrogels are promising scaffolds for cell cultivation.

  4. pH-sensitive Itaconic acid based polymeric hydrogels for dye removal applications.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, M; Franklin, D S; Guhanathan, S

    2016-12-01

    A series of Itaconic Acid (IA) based pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogels were synthesized by condensation polymerization of Itaconic Acid (IA) with Ethylene Glycol (EG) in the presence of an acid medium resulted into pre-polymer. Further, pre-polymer were co-polymerized with Acrylic Acid (AA) through free radical polymerization using Potassium persulphate (KPS). The structural and surface morphological characterizations of the synthesized hydrogels were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. The swelling and swelling equilibrium were performed at varies pH (4.0-10.0). Further, the effects of IA, EG and AA on swelling properties have also been investigated. Thermal stability of synthesized hydrogels have been investigated by TGA, DTA and DSC. The synthesized hydrogels have shown good ability to uptake a Cationic dye. The Methylene blue has been chosen as a model cationic dye. The results of dye removal using IA hydrogels found to have excellent dye removal capacity. Such kind of IA based hydrogels may be recommended for eco-friendly environmental application. viz., removal of dyes and metal ions and sewage water treatment, purification of water etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neovascularization Induced by the Hyaluronic Acid-Based Spongy-Like Hydrogels Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucília P da; Pirraco, Rogério P; Santos, Tírcia C; Novoa-Carballal, Ramon; Cerqueira, Mariana T; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vitor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2016-12-14

    Neovascularization has been a major challenge in many tissue regeneration strategies. Hyaluronic acid (HA) of 3-25 disaccharides is known to be angiogenic due to its interaction with endothelial cell receptors. This effect has been explored with HA-based structures but a transitory response is observed due to HA burst biodegradation. Herein we developed gellan gum (GG)-HA spongy-like hydrogels from semi-interpenetrating network hydrogels with different HA amounts. Enzymatic degradation was more evident in the GG-HA with high HA amount due to their lower mechanical stability, also resulting from the degradation itself, which facilitated the access of the enzyme to the HA in the bulk. GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels hyaluronidase-mediated degradation lead to the release of HA oligosaccharides of different amounts and sizes in a HA content-dependent manner which promoted in vitro proliferation of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) but not their migration. Although no effect was observed in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (hDMECs) in vitro, the implantation of GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels in an ischemic hind limb mice model promoted neovascularization in a material-dependent manner, consistent with the in vitro degradation profile. Overall, GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels with a sustained release of HA oligomers are valuable options to improve tissue vascularization, a critical issue in several applications in the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field.

  6. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lactic acid nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels for restoring the vaginal microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sujata Sundara; Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Singh, Yashveer; Chikindas, Michael L.; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) display reduced vaginal acidity, which make them susceptible to associated infections such as HIV. In the current study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels were developed for the controlled release of lactic acid in the vagina of BV-infected women. PEG-lactic acid (PEG-LA) nanocarriers were prepared by covalently attaching lactic acid to 8-arm PEG-SH via cleavable thioester bonds. PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4 copies of lactic acid per molecule provided controlled release of lactic acid with a maximum release of 23% and 47% bound lactic acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and acetate buffer (AB, pH 4.3), respectively. The PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels were formed by cross-linking the PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4-arm PEG-NHS via degradable thioester bonds. The nanocarrier-based hydrogels formed within 20 min under ambient conditions and exhibited an elastic modulus that was 100-fold higher than the viscous modulus. The nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels provided controlled release of lactic acid for several hours; however, a maximum release of only 10%–14% bound lactic acid was observed possibly due to steric hindrance of the polymer chains in the cross-linked hydrogel. In contrast, hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed burst release with complete release within 30 min. Lactic acid showed antimicrobial activity against the primary BV pathogen Gardnerella vaginalis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.6 mg/ml. In addition, the hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed retained antimicrobial activity with complete inhibition G. vaginalis growth within 48 h. The results of the current study collectively demonstrate the potential of PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels for vaginal administration of lactic acid for preventing and treating BV. PMID:25223229

  7. Glucose Sensing with Phenylboronic Acid Functionalized Hydrogel-Based Optical Diffusers

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Phenylboronic acids have emerged as synthetic receptors that can reversibly bind to cis-diols of glucose molecules. The incorporation of phenylboronic acids in hydrogels offers exclusive attributes; for example, the binding process with glucose induces Donnan osmotic pressure resulting in volumetric changes in the matrix. However, their practical applications are hindered because of complex readout approaches and their time-consuming fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a microimprinting method to fabricate densely packed concavities in phenylboronic acid functionalized hydrogel films. A microengineered optical diffuser structure was imprinted on a phenylboronic acid based cis-diol recognizing motif prepositioned in a hydrogel film. The diffuser structure engineered on the hydrogel was based on laser-inscribed arrays of imperfect microlenses that focused the incoming light at different focal lengths and direction resulting in a diffused profile of light in transmission and reflection readout modes. The signature of the dimensional modulation was detected in terms of changing focal lengths of the microlenses due to the volumetric expansion of the hydrogel that altered the diffusion spectra and transmitted beam profile. The transmitted optical light spread and intensity through the sensor was measured to determine variation in glucose concentrations at physiological conditions. The sensor was integrated in a contact lens and placed over an artificial eye. Artificial stimulation of variation in glucose concentration allowed quantitative measurements using a smartphone’s photodiode. A smartphone app was utilized to convert the received light intensity to quantitative glucose concentration values. The developed sensing platform offers low cost, rapid fabrication, and easy detection scheme as compared to other optical sensing counterparts. The presented detection scheme may have applications in wearable real-time biomarker monitoring devices at point

  8. Rheological study of in-situ crosslinkable hydrogels based on hyaluronanic acid, collagen and sericin.

    PubMed

    Vulpe, Raluca; Le Cerf, Didier; Dulong, Virginie; Popa, Marcel; Peptu, Catalina; Verestiuc, Liliana; Picton, Luc

    2016-12-01

    The elaboration of chemically crosslinked hydrogels based on collagen (C), hyaluronanic acid (HA) and sericin (S) with different polymer ratios was investigated by in-situ rheology. This reaction was performed via amide or ester bond reaction activated by carbodiimide, in pure water. Prior to molecule crosslinking, the rheological behaviour of the biopolymers (alone or in mixture) was characterized in a semi-dilute concentration regime. Both flow and dynamic measurements showed that uncrosslinked collagen alone appears to be rather elastic with yield stress properties, whereas uncrosslinked HA alone appears to be rather shear thinning and viscoelastic in agreement with entangled polymer behaviour. Sericin exhibited Newtonian low viscosity behaviour according to its very low molar mass. Before crosslinking, HA exhibited viscoelastic behaviour at concentrations above the critical entangled concentration (C*) in the mixtures, thus HA shows promise as a matrix for future crosslinked networks, whereas sericin did not significantly modify the rheology. During the reaction, followed by rheology, the kinetics were slower for pure HA systems compared with the mixtures (i.e., with added collagen and/or to a lesser extent sericin). At the same time, the final network of hydrogels (i.e., the elastic modulus) was more structured in the mixture based systems. This result is explained by ester bonds (the only possibility for pure HA systems), which are less favourable and reactive than amide bonds (possible with sericin and collagen). The presence of collagen in the HA matrix reinforced the hydrogel network. SEM studies confirmed the structure of the hydrogels, and in vitro degradability was globally consistent with the effect of the selected enzyme according to the hydrogel composition. All the elaborated hydrogels were non-cytotoxic in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thiol functionalized polymethacrylic acid-based hydrogel microparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Sajeesh, S; Vauthier, C; Gueutin, C; Ponchel, G; Sharma, Chandra P

    2010-08-01

    In the present study thiol functionalized polymethacrylic acid-polyethylene glycol-chitosan (PCP)-based hydrogel microparticles were utilized to develop an oral insulin delivery system. Thiol modification was achieved by grafting cysteine to the activated surface carboxyl groups of PCP hydrogels (Cys-PCP). Swelling and insulin loading/release experiments were conducted on these particles. The ability of these particles to inhibit protease enzymes was evaluated under in vitro experimental conditions. Insulin transport experiments were performed on Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised intestinal tissue with an Ussing chamber set-up. Finally, the efficacy of insulin-loaded particles in reducing the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Thiolated hydrogel microparticles showed less swelling and had a lower insulin encapsulation efficiency as compared with unmodified PCP particles. PCP and Cys-PCP microparticles were able to inhibit protease enzymes under in vitro conditions. Thiolation was an effective strategy to improve insulin absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers, however, the effect was reduced in the experiments using excised rat intestinal tissue. Nevertheless, functionalized microparticles were more effective in eliciting a pharmacological response in diabetic animal, as compared with unmodified PCP microparticles. From these studies thiolation of hydrogel microparticles seems to be a promising approach to improve oral delivery of proteins/peptides. Copyright 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stem Cell-Containing Hyaluronic Acid-Based Spongy Hydrogels for Integrated Diabetic Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lucília Pereira; Santos, Tírcia Carlos; Rodrigues, Daniel Barreira; Pirraco, Rogério Pedro; Cerqueira, Mariana Teixeira; Reis, Rui Luís; Correlo, Vitor Manuel; Marques, Alexandra Pinto

    2017-07-01

    The detailed pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulcers is yet to be established and improved treatments are still required. We propose a strategy that directs inflammation, neovascularization, and neoinnervation of diabetic wounds. Aiming to potentiate a relevant secretome for nerve regeneration, stem cells were precultured in hyaluronic acid-based spongy hydrogels under neurogenic/standard media before transplantation into diabetic mice full-thickness wounds. Acellular spongy hydrogels and empty wounds were used as controls. Re-epithelialization was attained 4 weeks after transplantation independently of the test groups, whereas a thicker and more differentiated epidermis was observed for the cellular spongy hydrogels. A switch from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase of wound healing was revealed for all the experimental groups 2 weeks after injury, but a significantly higher M2(CD163 + )/M1(CD86 + ) subtype ratio was observed in the neurogenic preconditioned group that also failed to promote neoinnervation. A higher number of intraepidermal nerve fibers were observed for the unconditioned group probably due to a more controlled transition from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase. Overall, stem cell-containing spongy hydrogels represent a promising approach to enhance diabetic wound healing by positively impacting re-epithelialization and by modulating the inflammatory response to promote a successful neoinnervation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyol and Amino Acid-Based Biosurfactants, Builders, and Hydrogels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews different detergent materials which have been synthesized from natural agricultural commodities. Background information, which gives reasons why the use of biobased materials may be advantageous, is presented. Detergent builders from L-aspartic acid, citric acid and D-sorbitol...

  12. Injectable and body temperature sensitive hydrogels based on chitosan and hyaluronic acid for pH sensitive drug release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jin, Xin; Li, Heng; Zhang, Run-Run; Wu, Cheng-Wei

    2018-04-15

    Hydrogels based on chitosan/hyaluronic acid/β-sodium glycerophosphate demonstrate injectability, body temperature sensitivity, pH sensitive drug release and adhesion to cancer cell. The drug (doxorubicin) loaded hydrogel precursor solutions are injectable and turn to hydrogels when the temperature is increased to body temperature. The acidic condition (pH 4.00) can trigger the release of drug and the cancer cell (Hela) can adhere to the surface of the hydrogels, which will be beneficial for tumor site-specific administration of drug. The mechanical strength, the gelation temperature, and the drug release behavior can be tuned by varying hyaluronic acid content. The mechanisms were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The carboxyl group in hyaluronic acid can form the hydrogen bondings with the protonated amine in chitosan, which promotes the increase of mechanical strength of the hydrogels and depresses the initial burst release of drug from the hydrogel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Osmotic Engine: Translating Osmotic Pressure into Macroscopic Mechanical Force via Poly(Acrylic Acid) Based Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Lukas; Weißenfeld, Felix; Klein, Christopher O.; Schlag, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid)‐based hydrogels can swell up to 100–1000 times their own weight in desalinated water due to osmotic forces. As the swelling is about a factor of 2–12 lower in seawater‐like saline solutions (4.3 wt% NaCl) than in deionized water, cyclic swelling, and shrinking can potentially be used to move a piston in an osmotic motor. Consequently, chemical energy is translated into mechanical energy. This conversion is driven by differences in chemical potential and by changes in entropy. This is special, as most thermodynamic engines rely instead on the conversion of heat into mechanical energy. To optimize the efficiency of this process, the degree of neutralization, the degree of crosslinking, and the particle size of the hydrogels are varied. Additionally, different osmotic engine prototypes are constructed. The maximum mean power of 0.23 W kg−1 dry hydrogel is found by using an external load of 6 kPa, a polymer with 1.7 mol% crosslinking, a degree of neutralization of 10 mol%, and a particle size of 370–670 µm. As this is achieved only in the first round of optimization, higher values of the maximum power average over one cycle seem realistic. PMID:28932675

  14. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels for sustained release of ferulic acid on corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tseng, Po-Chen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Sung, Yen-Jen; Liu, Kuan-Ting; Cheng, Yung-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cornea can be induced by alkaline chemical burn which may cause vision loss or blindness. Recent studies showed that exogenous application of natural antioxidants may be a potential treatment for corneal wound healing. However, low ocular bioavailability and short residence time are the limiting factors of topically administered antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural phenolic compound and an excellent antioxidant. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of FA in corneal epithelial cells (CECs) under oxidative stress and evaluate the feasibility of use the thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel containing FA for corneal wound healing. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of FA on CECs could decrease the inflammation-level and apoptosis. In the rabbit corneal alkali burn model, post-treatment FA-loaded hydrogel may promote the corneal wound healing. The results of study suggest that FA-loaded hydrogel may have the potential applications in treating corneal alkali burn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyaluronic acid based hydrogel system for soft tissue regeneration and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Amit Kumar

    We have developed hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, biomimetic hydrogel matrices that are hierarchically structured, mechanically robust and biologically active. Specifically, HA-based hydrogel particles (HGPs) with controlled sizes, defined porosity, and improved stability were synthesized using different inverse emulsion systems and crosslinking chemistries. The resultant particles either contained residual functional groups or were rendered reactive by subsequent chemical modifications. HA-based doubly crosslinked networks (DXNs) were synthesized via covalent crosslinking of HA HGPs with soluble HA macromers carrying mutually reactive functional groups. These hybrid matrices are hierarchical in nature, consisting of densely crosslinked HGPs integrated in a loosely connected secondary matrix. Their mechanical properties and degradation kinetics can be readily tuned by varying the particle size, functional group density, intra- and interparticle crosslinking. To improve the biological functions of HA HGPs, perlecan domain I (PlnDI), a basement membrane proteoglycan that has strong affinity for various heparin binding growth factors (HBGFs), was successfully conjugated to the particles through the core protein via a flexible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker. The immobilized PlnDI maintains its ability to bind bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) and modulates its in vitro release. A similar, sustained release of BMP-2 was achieved by encapsulating BMP-2-loaded HGPs within a photocrosslinked HA matrix. When encapsulated in HA DXNs, primary bovine chondrocytes were able to maintain their phenotype, proliferate readily and produce abundant glycosaminoglycan. Finally, cell-adhesive HA DXNs were fabricated by encapsulating gelatin-decorated HA HGPs in a secondary HA matrix. Human MSCs were shown to adhere to the composite matrix through the focal adhesion sites clustered on particle surface. The cell-adhesive composite matrices supported hMSC proliferation and migration into

  16. Surface-functionalized polymethacrylic acid based hydrogel microparticles for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sajeesh, S; Bouchemal, K; Sharma, C P; Vauthier, C

    2010-02-01

    Aim of the present work was to develop novel thiol-functionalized hydrogel microparticles based on poly(methacrylic acid)-chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCP) for oral drug delivery applications. PCP microparticles were prepared by a modified ionic gelation process in aqueous medium. Thiol modification of surface carboxylic acid groups of PCP micro particles was carried out by coupling l-cysteine with a water-soluble carbodiimide. Ellman's method was adopted to quantify the sulfhydryl groups, and dynamic light-scattering technique was used to measure the average particle size. Cytotoxicity of the modified particles was evaluated on Caco 2 cells by MTT assay. Effect of thiol modification on permeability of paracellular marker fluorescence dextran (FD4) was evaluated on Caco 2 cell monolayers and freshly excised rat intestinal tissue with an Ussing chamber set-up. Mucoadhesion experiments were carried out by an ex vivo bioadhesion method with excised rat intestinal tissue. The average size of the PCP microparticles was increased after thiol modification. Thiolated microparticles significantly improved the paracellular permeability of FD4 across Caco 2 cell monolayers, with no sign of toxicity. However, the efficacy of thiolated system remained low when permeation experiments were carried out across excised intestinal membrane. This was attributed to the high adhesion of the thiolated particles on the gut mucosa. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that surface thiolation is an interesting strategy to improve paracellular permeability of hydrophilic macromolecules. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanocarrier-based hydrogel of betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid for treatment of psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Sanjula; Alam, Md Sarfaraz; Sharma, Shrestha; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Kumar, Anil; Ali, Javed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Betamethasone dipropionate (BD) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the current work was to test the hypothesis that the addition of corticosteroid such as BD and a keratolytic agent such as salicylic acid in nanocarrier based microemulsions formulation would result in enhancement and sustaining of corticosteroid delivery rate leading to better anti-psoriatic activity. Clinical use of BD is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. So to increase its permeation across the skin, microemulsion-based gel formulations were prepared and characterised. Materials and Methods: Microemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using oleic acid:sefsol (1.5:1), Tween 20, isopropyl alcohol, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, cosurfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. Surface studies of optimized formulation were done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was done by carageenan-induced raw paw edema method. Results: The droplet size of microemulsions ranged from 60 to 190 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 28.55 ± 2.03 mP, refractive index 1.409, pH 6.4, and conductivity 10-4 scm-1. The optimized microemulsion was converted into hydrogel using carbopol 934, and salicylic acid was incorporated into it. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 29.73 μg/mg. Assessment of skin permeation was done by histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 72.11% and 43.96% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed microemulsion gel and marketed gel, respectively. Conclusions: The developed microemulsion gel containing BD and salicylic acid provided sustained and good anti-inflammatory activity for the

  18. Optimization and translation of MSC-based hyaluronic acid hydrogels for cartilage repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Isaac E.

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic injury and disease disrupt the ability of cartilage to carry joint stresses and, without an innate regenerative response, often lead to degenerative changes towards the premature development of osteoarthritis. Surgical interventions have yet to restore long-term mechanical function. Towards this end, tissue engineering has been explored for the de novo formation of engineered cartilage as a biologic approach to cartilage repair. Research utilizing autologous chondrocytes has been promising, but clinical limitations in their yield have motivated research into the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source. MSCs are multipotent cells that can differentiate towards a chondrocyte phenotype in a number of biomaterials, but no combination has successfully recapitulated the native mechanical function of healthy articular cartilage. The broad objective of this thesis was to establish an MSC-based tissue engineering approach worthy of clinical translation. Hydrogels are a common class of biomaterial used for cartilage tissue engineering and our initial work demonstrated the potential of a photo-polymerizable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel to promote MSC chondrogenesis and improved construct maturation by optimizing macromer and MSC seeding density. The beneficial effects of dynamic compressive loading, high MSC density, and continuous mixing (orbital shaker) resulted in equilibrium modulus values over 1 MPa, well in range of native tissue. While compressive properties are crucial, clinical translation also demands that constructs stably integrate within a defect. We utilized a push-out testing modality to assess the in vitro integration of HA constructs within artificial cartilage defects. We established the necessity for in vitro pre-maturation of constructs before repair to achieve greater integration strength and compressive properties in situ. Combining high MSC density and gentle mixing resulted in integration strength over 500 k

  19. Release of Cyclic Phosphatidic Acid from Gelatin-based Hydrogels Inhibit Colon Cancer Cell Growth and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    Microparticle and nanoparticle formulations are widely used to improve the bioavailability of low-solubility drugs and as vehicles for organ- and tissue-specific targeted drug delivery. We investigated the effect of a novel, controlled-release form of a bioactive lipid, cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), on human colon cancer cell line functions. We encapsulated cPA in gelatin-based hydrogels and examined its ability to inhibit the viability and migration of HT-29 and DLD-1 cells in vitro and the LPA-induced activity of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The hydrogel delivery system prolonged cPA release into the culture medium. Accordingly, cPA-hydrogel microspheres substantially inhibited LPA-induced PPARγ activity and cell growth and migration compared with that of cells cultured with cPA alone. Thus, hydrogel microspheres are a potential system for stable and efficient delivery of bioactive lipids such as cPA and may offer a new strategy for targeted colon cancer treatment. PMID:23008752

  20. Co-delivery of evodiamine and rutaecarpine in a microemulsion-based hyaluronic acid hydrogel for enhanced analgesic effects on mouse pain models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Hong-Yu; He, Ze-Hui; Xia, Qing; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2017-08-07

    The aim of this study was to improve the analgesic effect of evodiamine and rutaecarpine, using a microemulsion-based hydrogel (ME-Gel) as the transdermal co-delivery vehicle, and to assess hyaluronic acid as a hydrogel matrix for microemulsion entrapment. A microemulsion was formulated with ethyl oleate as the oil core to improve the solubility of the alkaloids and was loaded into a hyaluronic acid-structured hydrogel. Permeation-enhancing effects of the microemulsion enabled evodiamine and rutaecarpine in ME-Gel to achieve 2.60- and 2.59-fold higher transdermal fluxes compared with hydrogel control (p<0.01). The hyaluronic acid hydrogel-containing microemulsion exhibited good skin biocompatibility, whereas effective ME-Gel co-delivery of evodiamine and rutaecarpine through the skin enhanced the analgesic effect in mouse pain models compared with hydrogel. Notably, evodiamine and rutaecarpine administered using ME-Gel effectively down-regulated serum levels of prostaglandin E 2 , interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α in formaldehyde-induced mouse pain models, possibly reflecting the improved transdermal permeability of ME-Gel co-delivered evodiamine and rutaecarpine, particularly with hyaluronic acid as the hydrogel matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Supramolecular Amino Acid Based Hydrogels: Probing the Contribution of Additive Molecules using NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramalhete, Susana M.; Nartowski, Karol P.; Sarathchandra, Nichola; Foster, Jamie S.; Round, Andrew N.; Angulo, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Supramolecular hydrogels are composed of self‐assembled solid networks that restrict the flow of water. l‐Phenylalanine is the smallest molecule reported to date to form gel networks in water, and it is of particular interest due to its crystalline gel state. Single and multi‐component hydrogels of l‐phenylalanine are used herein as model materials to develop an NMR‐based analytical approach to gain insight into the mechanisms of supramolecular gelation. Structure and composition of the gel fibres were probed using PXRD, solid‐state NMR experiments and microscopic techniques. Solution‐state NMR studies probed the properties of free gelator molecules in an equilibrium with bound molecules. The dynamics of exchange at the gel/solution interfaces was investigated further using high‐resolution magic angle spinning (HR‐MAS) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. This approach allowed the identification of which additive molecules contributed in modifying the material properties. PMID:28401991

  2. Gamma ray-induced synthesis of hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Linlin; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, So Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel systems were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation without the use of additional initiators or crosslinking agents to achieve a biocompatible hydrogel system for skin tissue engineering. HA and CS derivatives with polymerizable residues were synthesized. Then, the hydrogels composed of glycosaminoglycans, HA, CS, and a synthetic ionic polymer, PAAc, were prepared using gamma-ray irradiation through simultaneous free radical copolymerization and crosslinking. The physicochemical properties of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels having various compositions were investigated to evaluate their feasibility as artificial skin substitutes. The gel fractions of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels increased in absorbed doses up to 15 kGy, and they exhibited 91-93% gel fractions under 15 kGy radiation. All of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited relatively high water contents of over 90% and reached an equilibrium swelling state within 24 h. The enzymatic degradation kinetics of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels depended on both the concentration of the hyaluronidase solution and the ratio of HA/CS/PAAc. The in vitro drug release profiles of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels were significantly influenced by the interaction between the ionic groups in the hydrogels and the ionic drug molecules as well as the swelling of the hydrogels. From the cytotoxicity results of human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells cultured with extracts of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels, all of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogel samples tested showed relatively high cell viabilities of more than 82%, and did not induce any significant adverse effects on cell viability.

  3. Cytotoxicity and metal ions removal using antibacterial biodegradable hydrogels based on N-quaternized chitosan/poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Riham R; Elella, Mahmoud H Abu; Sabaa, Magdy W

    2017-05-01

    Physically crosslinked hydrogels resulted from interaction between N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (N-Quaternized Chitosan) (NQC) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were synthesized in different weight ratios (3:1), (1:1) and (1:3) taking the following codes Q3P1, Q1P1 and Q1P3, respectively. Characterization of the mentioned hydrogels was done using several analysis tools including; FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA, biodegradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cytotoxicity against HepG-2 liver cancer cells. FTIR results proved that the prepared hydrogels were formed via electrostatic and H-bonding interactions, while XRD patterns proved that the prepared hydrogels -irrespective to their ratios- were more crystalline than both matrices NQC and PAA. TGA results, on the other hand, revealed that Q1P3 hydrogel was the most thermally stable compared to the other two hydrogels (Q3P1 and Q1P1). Biodegradation tests in SBF proved that these hydrogels were more biodegradable than the native chitosan. Examination of the prepared hydrogels for their potency in heavy metal ions removal revealed that they adsorbed Fe (III) and Cd (II) ions more than chitosan, while they adsorbed Cr (III), Ni (II) and Cu (II) ions less than chitosan. Moreover, testing the prepared hydrogels as antibacterial agents towards several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria revealed their higher antibacterial activity as compared with NQC when used alone. Evaluating the cytotoxic effect of these hydrogels on an in vitro human liver cancer cell model (HepG-2) showed their good cytotoxic activity towards HepG-2. Moreover, the inhibition rate increased with increasing the hydrogels concentration in the culture medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Based on MPEG, Poly(ε-caprolactone), and Itaconic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Liwei; Song, Jia; Luo, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A kind of chemically cross-linked pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone)-acryloyl chloride (MPEG-PCL-AC, PECA), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA, MEG), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), and itaconic acid (IA) were prepared without using any organic solvent by heat-initiated free radical method. The obtained macromonomers and hydrogels were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR, respectively. Morphology study of hydrogels was also investigated in this paper, and it showed that the hydrogels had good pH-sensitivity. The acute toxicity test and histopathological study were conducted in BALB/c mice. The results indicated that the maximum tolerance dose of the hydrogel was higher than 10000 mg/kg body weight. No morality or signs of toxicity were observed during the whole 7-day observation period. Compared to the control groups, there were no important adverse effects in the variables of hematology routine test and serum chemistry analysis both in male or female treatment group. Histopathological study also did not show any significant lesions, including heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, stomach, intestine, and testis. All the results demonstrated that this hydrogel was nontoxic after gavage. Thus, the hydrogel might be the biocompatible potential candidate for oral drug delivery system. PMID:24364030

  5. An injectable and biodegradable hydrogel based on poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivatives for localized drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Caicai; Wang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Guolin; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Yinong; Gao, Hui; Ma, Jianbiao

    2014-03-01

    An injectable hydrogel via hydrazone cross-linking was prepared under mild conditions without addition of cross-linker or catalyst. Hydrazine and aldehyde modified poly(aspartic acid)s were used as two gel precursors. Both of them are water-soluble and biodegradable polymers with a protein-like structure, and obtained by aminolysis reaction of polysuccinimide. The latter can be prepared by thermal polycondensation of aspartic acid. Hydrogels were prepared in PBS solution and characterized by different methods including gel content and swelling, Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy, and in vitro degradation experiment. A scanning electron microscope viewed the interior morphology of the obtained hydrogels, which showed porous three-dimensional structures. Different porous sizes were present, which could be well controlled by the degree of aldehyde substitution in precursor poly(aspartic acid) derivatives. The doxorubicin-loaded hydrogels were prepared and showed a pH-sensitive release profile. The release rate can be accelerated by decreasing the environmental pH from a physiological to a weak acidic condition. Moreover, the cell adhesion and growth behaviors on the hydrogel were studied and the polymeric hydrogel showed good biocompatibility. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dextran hydrogels by crosslinking with amino acid diamines and their viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Naphtali A; Jitianu, Mihaela; Nunez, Greisly; Picard, Quentin; Wong, Madeline; Akpatsu, David; Negrin, Adam; Gharbaran, Rajendra; Lugo, Daniel; Shaker, Sundus; Jitianu, Andrei; Redenti, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Amine functionalized polysaccharide hydrogels such as those based on chitosan are widely examined as biomaterials. Here we set out to develop a facile procedure for developing such hydrogels by crosslinking dextran with amino acid diamines. The dextran-amino acid gels were formed by the addition of the amino acid diamines to a dextran and epichlorohydrin solution once it became homogeneous. This was demonstrated with three amino acid diamines, lysine, lysine methyl ester, and cystine dimethyl ester. Hydrogel networks with albumin entrapped were also demonstrated. These hydrogels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, rotational rheometry, swelling studies and cell biocompatibility analysis. These hydrogels showed the unexpected pH-responsive behavior of greater swelling at more basic pH, similar to that of an anionic hydrogel. This is uncharacteristic for amine functionalized gels as they typically exhibit cationic hydrogel behavior. All hydrogels showed similar biocompatibility to that of dextran crosslinked without amino acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of immobilizing of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid within gelatin-based hydrogel through enzymatic reaction on behavior of enclosed endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Mehdi; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogels having the ability to promote migration and morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) are useful for fabricating vascularized dense tissues in vitro. The present study explores the immobilization of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA) derivative within gelatin-based hydrogel to stimulate migration of ECs. The LMWHA derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (LMWHA-Ph) was bound to gelatin-based derivative hydrogel through the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. The motility of ECs was analyzed by scratch migration assay and microparticle-based cell migration assay. The incorporated LMWHA-Ph molecules within hydrogel was found to be preserved stably through covalent bonds during incubation. The free and immobilized LMWHA-Ph did not lose an inherent stimulatory effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The immobilized LMWHA-Ph within gelatin-based hydrogel induced the high motility of HUVECs, accompanied by robust cytoskeleton extension, and cell subpopulation expressing CD44 cell receptor. In the presence of immobilized LMWHA-Ph, the migration distance and the number of existing HUVECs were demonstrated to be encouraged in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that the enzymatic immobilization of LMWHA-Ph within gelatin-based hydrogel represents a promising approach to promote ECs' motility and further exploitation for vascular tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiplex Immunoassay Platforms Based on Shape-Coded Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogel Microparticles Incorporating Acrylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Park, Saemi; Lee, Hyun Jong; Koh, Won-Gun

    2012-01-01

    A suspension protein microarray was developed using shape-coded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microparticles for potential applications in multiplex and high-throughput immunoassays. A simple photopatterning process produced various shapes of hydrogel micropatterns that were weakly bound to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated substrates. These micropatterns were easily detached from substrates during the washing process and were collected as non-spherical microparticles. Acrylic acids were incorporated into hydrogels, which could covalently immobilize proteins onto their surfaces due to the presence of carboxyl groups. The amount of immobilized protein increased with the amount of acrylic acid due to more available carboxyl groups. Saturation was reached at 25% v/v of acrylic acid. Immunoassays with IgG and IgM immobilized onto hydrogel microparticles were successfully performed with a linear concentration range from 0 to 500 ng/mL of anti-IgG and anti-IgM, respectively. Finally, a mixture of two different shapes of hydrogel microparticles immobilizing IgG (circle) and IgM (square) was prepared and it was demonstrated that simultaneous detection of two different target proteins was possible without cross-talk using same fluorescence indicator because each immunoassay was easily identified by the shapes of hydrogel microparticles. PMID:22969408

  9. Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Jason A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), an immunoneutral polysaccharide that is ubiquitous in the human body, is crucial for many cellular and tissue functions and has been in clinical use for over thirty years. When chemically modified, HA can be transformed into many physical forms -- viscoelastic solutions, soft or stiff hydrogels, electrospun fibers, non-woven meshes, macroporous and fibrillar sponges, flexible sheets, and nanoparticulate fluids -- for use in a range of preclinical and clinical settings. Many of these forms are derived from the chemical crosslinking of pendant reactive groups by addition/condensation chemistry or by radical polymerization. Clinical products for cell therapy and regenerative medicine require crosslinking chemistry that is compatible with the encapsulation of cells and injection into tissues. Moreover, an injectable clinical biomaterial must meet marketing, regulatory, and financial constraints to provide affordable products that can be approved, deployed to the clinic, and used by physicians. Many HA-derived hydrogels meet these criteria, and can deliver cells and therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. This progress report covers both basic concepts and recent advances in the development of HA-based hydrogels for biomedical applications. PMID:21394792

  10. Multifunctional Tannic Acid/Silver Nanoparticle-Based Mucoadhesive Hydrogel for Improved Local Treatment of HSV Infection: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Emilia; Orłowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Bąska, Piotr; Grobelny, Jarosław; Basa, Anna; Krzyżowska, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Mucoadhesive gelling systems with tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles were developed for effective treatment of herpes virus infections. To increase nanoparticle residence time after local application, semi solid formulations designed from generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients were investigated for their rheological and mechanical properties followed with ex vivo mucoadhesive behavior to the porcine vaginal mucosa. Particular effort was made to evaluate the activity of nanoparticle-based hydrogels toward herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 infection in vitro in immortal human keratinocyte cell line and in vivo using murine model of HSV-2 genital infection. The effect of infectivity was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, plaque assay, inactivation, attachment, penetration and cell-to-cell assessments. All analyzed nanoparticle-based hydrogels exhibited pseudoplastic and thixotropic properties. Viscosity and mechanical measurements of hydrogels were found to correlate with the mucoadhesive properties. The results confirmed the ability of nanoparticle-based hydrogels to affect viral attachment, impede penetration and cell-to-cell transmission, although profound differences in the activity evoked by tested preparations toward HSV-1 and HSV-2 were noted. In addition, these findings demonstrated the in vivo potential of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticle-based hydrogels for vaginal treatment of HSV-2 genital infection. PMID:29382085

  11. Enzymatically crosslinked silk-hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Raia, Nicole R; Partlow, Benjamin P; McGill, Meghan; Kimmerling, Erica Palma; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Kaplan, David L

    2017-07-01

    In this study, silk fibroin and hyaluronic acid (HA) were enzymatically crosslinked to form biocompatible composite hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties similar to that of native tissues. The formation of di-tyrosine crosslinks between silk fibroin proteins via horseradish peroxidase has resulted in a highly elastic hydrogel but exhibits time-dependent stiffening related to silk self-assembly and crystallization. Utilizing the same method of crosslinking, tyramine-substituted HA forms hydrophilic and bioactive hydrogels that tend to have limited mechanics and degrade rapidly. To address the limitations of these singular component scaffolds, HA was covalently crosslinked with silk, forming a composite hydrogel that exhibited both mechanical integrity and hydrophilicity. The composite hydrogels were assessed using unconfined compression and infrared spectroscopy to reveal of the physical properties over time in relation to polymer concentration. In addition, the hydrogels were characterized by enzymatic degradation and for cytotoxicity. Results showed that increasing HA concentration, decreased gelation time, increased degradation rate, and reduced changes that were observed over time in mechanics, water retention, and crystallization. These hydrogel composites provide a biologically relevant system with controllable temporal stiffening and elasticity, thus offering enhanced tunable scaffolds for short or long term applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photothermal-modulated drug delivery and magnetic relaxation based on collagen/poly(γ-glutamic acid) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ahreum; Shin, Woojung; Heo, Min Beom; Noh, Hyun Jong; Hong, Kwan Soo; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Lim, Yong Taik

    2017-01-01

    Injectable and stimuli-responsive hydrogels have attracted attention in molecular imaging and drug delivery because encapsulated diagnostic or therapeutic components in the hydrogel can be used to image or change the microenvironment of the injection site by controlling various stimuli such as enzymes, temperature, pH, and photonic energy. In this study, we developed a novel injectable and photoresponsive composite hydrogel composed of anticancer drugs, imaging contrast agents, bio-derived collagen, and multifaceted anionic polypeptide, poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). By the introduction of γ-PGA, the intrinsic temperature-dependent phase transition behavior of collagen was modified to a low viscous sol state at room temperature and nonflowing gel state around body temperature. The modified temperature-dependent phase transition behavior of collagen/γ-PGA hydrogels was also evaluated after loading of near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore, indocyanine green (ICG), which could transform absorbed NIR photonic energy into thermal energy. By taking advantage of the abundant carboxylate groups in γ-PGA, cationic-charged doxorubicin (Dox) and hydrophobic MnFe 2 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles were also incorporated successfully into the collagen/γ-PGA hydrogels. By illumination of NIR light on the collagen/γ-PGA/Dox/ICG/MnFe 2 O 4 hydrogels, the release kinetics of Dox and magnetic relaxation of MnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles could be modulated. The experimental results suggest that the novel injectable and NIR-responsive collagen/γ-PGA hydrogels developed in this study can be used as a theranostic platform after loading of various molecular imaging probes and therapeutic components.

  13. Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants investigated using a hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue surrogate and UV-vis imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Larsen, Susan W; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-10-25

    Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) implants with agarose hydrogels as the provider of nonsolvent (water) mimicking subcutaneous tissue was investigated using a novel UV-vis imaging-based analytical platform. In situ forming implants of PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PLGA-triacetin representing fast and slow phase separating systems, respectively, were evaluated using this platform. Upon contact with the agarose hydrogel, the phase separation of the systems was followed by the study of changes in light transmission and absorbance as a function of time and position. For the PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone system, the rate of spatial phase separation was determined and found to decrease with increasing the PLGA concentration from 20% to 40% (w/w). Hydrogels with different agarose concentrations (1% and 10% (w/v)) were prepared for providing the nonsolvent, water, to the in situ forming PLGA implants simulating the injection site environment. The resulting implant morphology depended on the stiffness of hydrogel matrix, indicating that the matrix in which implants are formed is of importance. Overall, the work showed that the UV-vis imaging-based platform with an agarose hydrogel mimicking the subcutaneous tissue holds potential in providing bio-relevant and mechanistic information on the phase separation processes of in situ forming implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A study on the effect of the concentration of N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and acrylic acid toward the properties of Dioscorea hispida-starch-based hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashri, Airul; Lazim, Azwan

    2014-09-01

    The research investigated the effects of acrylic acid (monomer) and N,N,-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA (crosslinker) toward the percentage of gel content, swelling ratio and ionic strength of a starch-based hydrogel. Starch grafted on poly (sodium acrylate), St-g-PAANa hydrogel was prepared by incorporating starch extracted from Dioscorea hispida in NaOH/aqueous solution using different composition of acrylic acid (AA) and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in the presence of potassium persulfate (KPS) as chemical initiator. The highest gel content was observed at 1:30 ratio of starch to AA and 0.10 M of MBA. Results showed the highest swelling ratio was observed at 1:15 ratio of starch to acrylic acid and 0.02 M of MBA solution. The same results also gave the highest swelling ratio for the ionic strength study. The FTIR analysis was also conducted in order to confirm the grafting of AA onto starch backbone.

  15. Amphiphilic Polyurethane Hydrogels as Smart Carriers for Acidic Hydrophobic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Lucas P; Trinca, Rafael B; Isabel Felisberti, Maria

    2018-05-14

    Amphiphilic hydrogels are widely reported as systems with great potential for controlled drug release. Nevertheless, the majority of studies make use of functionalization or attachment of drugs to the polymer chains. In this study, we propose a strategy of combining amphiphilic polyurethanes with pH-responsive drugs to develop smart drug carriers. While the amphiphilic character of the polymer imparts an efficient load of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, the drug's characteristics determine the selectivity of the medium delivery. Drug loading and release behavior as well as hydrolytic degradation of chemically crosslinked polyurethane hydrogels based on PEG and PCL-triol (PU (polyurethane) hydrogels) synthesized by an easy one-pot route were studied. PU hydrogels have been shown to successfully load the hydrophobic acidic drug sodium diclofenac, reaching a partition coefficient of 8 between the most hydrophobic PU and diclofenac/ethanol solutions. Moreover, an oral administration simulation was conducted by changing the environment from an acidic to a neutral medium. PU hydrogels release less than 5 % of the drug in an acidic medium; however, in a PBS pH 7.4 solution, diclofenac is delivered in a sustained fashion for up to 40 hours, achieving 80% of cumulative release. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Study of the effect of mixing approach on cross-linking efficiency of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel cross-linked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether.

    PubMed

    Al-Sibani, Mohammed; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2016-08-25

    Regardless of various strategies reported for cross-linking hyaluronic acid (HA) with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE), seeking new strategies that enhance cross-linking efficiency with a low level of cross-linker is essential. In this work, we studied the influence of mixing approach on two cross-linked BDDE-HA hydrogels prepared by two different mixing approaches; the large-batch mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were all mixed as a single lump in one container (hydrogel 1), and the small-batches mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were divided into smaller batches, mixed separately at various HA/BDDE ratios then combined in one reaction mixture (hydrogel 2). The result showed that the cross-linking reaction was mixing process-dependent. Degradation tests proved that, in relation to hydrogel 1, hydrogel 2 was more stable, and exhibited a higher resistance towards hyaluronidase activity. The swelling ratio of hydrogel 1 was significantly higher than that of hydrogel 2 in distilled water; however, in phosphate buffer saline, both hydrogels showed no significant difference. SEM images demonstrated that hydrogel 2 composite showed a denser network structure and smaller pore-size than hydrogel 1. In comparison to native HA, the occurrence of chemical modification in the cross-linked hydrogels was confirmed by FTIR and NMR distinctive peaks. These peaks also provided evidence that hydrogel 2 exhibited a higher degree of modification than hydrogel 1. In conclusion, the small-batches mixing approach proved to be more effective than large-batch mixing in promoting HA-HA entanglement and increasing the probability of BDDE molecules for binding with HA chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Supramolecular Hydrogels Based on DNA Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu; Jia, Haoyang; Cao, Tianyang; Liu, Dongsheng

    2017-04-18

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides essential supports three dimensionally to the cells in living organs, including mechanical support and signal, nutrition, oxygen, and waste transportation. Thus, using hydrogels to mimic its function has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in tissue engineering, cell biology, and drug screening. However, a hydrogel system that can merit all parameters of the natural ECM is still a challenge. In the past decade, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has arisen as an outstanding building material for the hydrogels, as it has unique properties compared to most synthetic or natural polymers, such as sequence designability, precise recognition, structural rigidity, and minimal toxicity. By simple attachment to polymers as a side chain, DNA has been widely used as cross-links in hydrogel preparation. The formed secondary structures could confer on the hydrogel designable responsiveness, such as response to temperature, pH, metal ions, proteins, DNA, RNA, and small signal molecules like ATP. Moreover, single or multiple DNA restriction enzyme sites could be incorporated into the hydrogels by sequence design and greatly expand the latitude of their responses. Compared with most supramolecular hydrogels, these DNA cross-linked hydrogels could be relatively strong and easily adjustable via sequence variation, but it is noteworthy that these hydrogels still have excellent thixotropic properties and could be easily injected through a needle. In addition, the quick formation of duplex has also enabled the multilayer three-dimensional injection printing of living cells with the hydrogel as matrix. When the matrix is built purely by DNA assembly structures, the hydrogel inherits all the previously described characteristics; however, the long persistence length of DNA structures excluded the small size meshes of the network and made the hydrogel permeable to nutrition for cell proliferation. This unique property greatly expands the cell

  18. Retention of heavy metal ions on comb-type hydrogels based on acrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine, synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gómez, Roberto; Ortega, Alejandra; Lazo, Luz M.; Burillo, Guillermina

    2014-09-01

    Two novel comb-type hydrogels based on pH-sensitive monomers (acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) were synthesized by gamma radiation. The systems were as follows: a) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network followed by grafting of 4VP ((net-PAAc)-g-4VP) and b) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network grafted onto polypropylene (PP) followed by grafting of 4VP (net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP). The equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were evaluated for copper and zinc ions in aqueous solutions. The Zn(II) retention obtained was 480 mg g-1 and 1086 mg g-1 for (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP, respectively. At concentrations as low as ppm, retention efficiencies of approximately 90% were achieved for Cu(II) on (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and for Zn(II) on net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Desorption of the hydrogels was also studied, and the results indicated that they can be used repeatedly in aqueous solutions. For both systems, the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) obeyed the Freundlich model, indicating heterogeneous sorption, and the retention process occurred by chemisorption. The sorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model.

  19. Efficacy of a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel as a tear film supplement: a masked controlled study.

    PubMed

    Williams, David L; Mann, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness.

  20. Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of pH-Sensitive Semi-IPN Superabsorbent Hydrogels Based on Poly(acrylic acid) Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lim Sze; Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Mat Lazim, Azwan; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA) was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content. It was found that the hydrogel reached maximum swelling at pH 7. The potential of the resulting hydrogels to act as drug carriers was then evaluated by means of the drug encapsulation efficiency test using theophylline as a model drug. It was observed that 15% CNC/PAA hydrogel showed the potential to be used as drug carrier system. PMID:29156613

  1. Photonic crystal fiber interferometric pH sensor based on polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid hydrogel coating.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengbing; Dong, Xinyong; Wong, Wei Chang; Chen, Li Han; Ni, Kai; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2015-04-01

    We present a simple photonic crystal fiber interferometer (PCFI) that operates in reflection mode for pH measurement. The sensor is made by coating polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid (PVA/PAA) hydrogel onto the surface of the PCFI, constructed by splicing a stub of PCF at the distal end of a single-mode fiber with its free end airhole collapsed. The experimental results demonstrate a high average sensitivity of 0.9 nm/pH unit for the 11 wt.% PVA/PAA coated sensor in the pH range from 2.5 to 6.5. The sensor also displays high repeatability and stability and low cross-sensitivity to temperature. Fast, reversible rise and fall times of 12 s and 18 s, respectively, are achieved for the sensor time response.

  2. Preparation and physico-chemical properties of hydrogels from carboxymethyl cassava starch crosslinked with citric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonkham, Sasikan; Sangseethong, Kunruedee; Chatakanon, Pathama; Niamnuy, Chalida; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, environmentally friendly hydrogels prepared from renewable bio-based resources have drawn significant attention from both industrial and academic sectors. In this study, chemically crosslinked hydrogels have been developed from cassava starch which is a bio-based polymer using a non-toxic citric acid as a crosslinking agent. Cassava starch was first modified by carboxymethylation to improve its water absorbency property. The carboxymethyl cassava starch (CMCS) obtained was then crosslinked with citric acid at different concentrations and reaction times. The gel fraction of hydrogels increased progressively with increasing citric acid concentration. Free swelling capacity of hydrogels in de-ionized water, saline solution and buffers at various pHs as well as absorption under load were investigated. The results revealed that swelling behavior and mechanical characteristic of hydrogels depended on the citric acid concentration used in reaction. Increasing citric acid concentration resulted in hydrogels with stronger network but lower swelling and absorption capacity. The cassava starch hydrogels developed were sensitive to ionic strength and pH of surrounding medium, showing much reduced swelling capacity in saline salt solution and acidic buffers.

  3. Chitosan based hydrogels: characteristics and pharmaceutical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, F.; Oveisi, Z.; Samani, S. Mohammadi; Amoozgar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel scaffolds serve as semi synthetic or synthetic extra cellular matrix to provide an amenable environment for cellular adherence and cellular remodeling in three dimensional structures mimicking that of natural cellular environment. Additionally, hydrogels have the capacity to carry small molecule drugs and/or proteins, growth factors and other necessary components for cell growth and differentiation. In the context of drug delivery, hydrogels can be utilized to localize drugs, increase drugs concentration at the site of action and consequently reduce off-targeted side effects. The current review aims to describe and classify hydrogels and their methods of production. The main highlight is chitosan-based hydrogels as biocompatible and medically relevant hydrogels for drug delivery. PMID:26430453

  4. Mucoadhesive hydrogel microparticles based on poly (methacrylic acid-vinyl pyrrolidone)-chitosan for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2011-05-01

    The study was aimed at the evaluation of N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) incorporated polymethacrylic acid-chitosan microparticles for oral drug delivery applications. Poly (methacrylic acid)-chitosan (PMC) and poly(methacrylic acid-vinyl pyrrolidone)-chitosan (PMVC) microparticles were prepared by an ionic-gelation method. Mucoadhesion behaviour of these particles was evaluated by ex-vivo adhesion method using freshly excised rat intestinal tissue. Cytotoxicity and absorption enhancing property of PMC and PMVC particles were evaluated on Caco 2 cell monolayers. Protease enzyme inhibition capability and insulin loading/release properties of these hydrogel particles was evaluated under in vitro experimental conditions. Addition of NVP units enhanced the mucoadhesion behavior of PMC particles on isolated rat intestinal tissue. Both PMC and PMVC particles were found non-toxic on Caco 2 cell monolayers and PMC particles was more effective in improving paracellular transport of fluorescent dextran across Caco 2 cell monolayers as compared to PMVC particles. However, protease inhibition efficacy of PMC particles was not significantly affected with NVP addition. NVP incorporation improved the insulin release properties of PMC microparticles at acidic pH. Hydrophilic modification seems to be an interesting approach in improving mucoadhesion capability of PMC microparticles.

  5. [PREPARATION AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF IN SITU CROSSLINKING HYALURONIC ACID HYDROGEL].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiabi; Li, Jun; Wang, Ting; Liang, Yuhong; Zou, Xuenong; Zhou, Guangqian; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2016-06-08

    To fabricate in situ crosslinking hyaluronic acid hydrogel and evaluate its biocompatibility in vitro. The acrylic acid chloride and polyethylene glycol were added to prepare crosslinking agent polyethylene glycol acrylate (PEGDA), and the molecular structure of PEGDA was analyzed by Flourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hyaluronic acid hydrogel was chemically modified to prepare hyaluronic acid thiolation (HA-SH). And the degree of HA-SH was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Ellman method. HA-SH solution in concentrations ( W/V ) of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% and PEGDA solution in concentrations ( W/V ) of 2%, 4%, and 6% were prepared with PBS. The two solutions were mixed in different ratios, and in situ crosslinking hyaluronic acid hydrogel was obtained; the crosslinking time was recorded. The cellular toxicity of in situ crosslinking hyaluronic acid hydrogel (1.5% HA-SH and 4% PEGDA mixed) was tested by L929 cells. Meanwhile, the biocompatibility of hydrogel was tested by co-cultured with human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Flourier transformation infrared spectroscopy showed that most hydroxyl groups were replaced by acrylate groups; 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed 3 characteristic peaks of hydrogen representing acrylate and olefinic bond at 5-7 ppm. The thiolation yield of HA-SH was 65.4%. In situ crosslinking time of hyaluronic acid hydrogel was 2 to 70 minutes in the PEGDA concentrations of 2%-6% and HA-SH concentrations of 0.5%-1.5%. The hyaluronic acid hydrogel appeared to be transparent. The toxicity grade of leaching solution of hydrogel was grade 1. hBMSCs grew well and distributed evenly in hydrogel with a very high viability. In situ crosslinking hyaluronic acid hydrogel has low cytotoxicity, good biocompatibility, and controllable crosslinking time, so it could be used as a potential tissue engineered scaffold or repairing material for tissue regeneration.

  6. Viscoelastic Properties and Morphology of Mumio-based Medicated Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandraa, Oyunchimeg; Jelínková, Lenka; Roy, Niladri; Sáha, Tomáš; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Nabanita

    2011-07-01

    Novel medicated hydrogels were prepared (by moist heat treatment) with PVA, agar, mumio, mare's milk (MM), seabuckthorn oil (SB oil) and salicylic acid (SA) for wound dressing/healing application. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) show highly porous structure of these hydrogels. The swelling behaviour of the hydrogels in physiological solution displays remarkable liquid absorption property. The knowledge obtained from rheological investigations of these-systems may be highly useful for the characterization of the newly developed topical formulations. In the present study, an oscillation frequency sweep test was used for the evaluation of storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), and complex viscosity (η*) of five different formulations, over an angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad.s-1. The influence of healing agents and swelling effect on the rheological properties of mumio-based medicated hydrogels was investigated to judge its application on uneven surface of body.

  7. Hydrogels from Amorphous Calcium Carbonate and Polyacrylic Acid: Bio-Inspired Materials for "Mineral Plastics".

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengtong; Mao, Li-Bo; Lei, Zhouyue; Yu, Shu-Hong; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-09-19

    Given increasing environmental issues due to the large usage of non-biodegradable plastics based on petroleum, new plastic materials, which are economic, environmentally friendly, and recyclable are in high demand. One feasible strategy is the bio-inspired synthesis of mineral-based hybrid materials. Herein we report a facile route for an amorphous CaCO3 (ACC)-based hydrogel consisting of very small ACC nanoparticles physically cross-linked by poly(acrylic acid). The hydrogel is shapeable, stretchable, and self-healable. Upon drying, the hydrogel forms free-standing, rigid, and transparent objects with remarkable mechanical performance. By swelling in water, the material can completely recover the initial hydrogel state. As a matrix, thermochromism can also be easily introduced. The present hybrid hydrogel may represent a new class of plastic materials, the "mineral plastics". © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of pH and Thermo Dual-Responsive Hydrogels with a Semi-IPN Structure Based on N-Isopropylacrylamide and Itaconamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Rwei, Syang-Peng; Tuan, Huynh Nguyen Anh; Chiang, Whe-Yi; Way, Tun-Fun

    2018-04-28

    A series of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogels were synthesized and investigated in this study. Linear copolymer poly( N -isopropylacrylamide-co-itaconamic acid) p(NIPAM-co-IAM), which is formed by copolymerization of N -isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and itaconamic acid (IAM, 4-amino-2-ethylene-4-oxobutanoic acid), was introduced into a solution of NIPAM to form a series of pH and thermo dual-responsive p(NIPAM-co-IAM)/pNIPAM semi-IPN hydrogels by free radical polymerization. The structural, morphological, chemical, and physical properties of the linear copolymer and semi-IPN hydrogels were investigated. The semi-IPN hydrogel showed high thermal stability according to thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images showed that the pore size was in the range of 119~297 µm and could be controlled by the addition ratio of the linear copolymer in the semi-IPN structure. The addition of linear copolymer increased the fracture strain from 57.5 ± 2.9% to 91.1 ± 4.9% depending on the added amount, while the compressive modulus decreased as the addition increased. Moreover, the pH and thermo dual-responsive properties were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and monitoring the swelling behavior of the hydrogels. In deionized (DI) water, the equilibrium swelling ratio of the hydrogels decreased as the temperature increased from 20 °C to 50 °C, while it varied in various pH buffer solutions. In addition, the swelling and deswelling rates of the hydrogels also significantly increased. The results indicate that the novel pH-thermo dual-responsive semi-IPN hydrogels were synthesized successfully and may be a potential material for biomedical, drug delivery, or absorption application.

  9. Three-dimensional prostate tumor model based on a hyaluronic acid-alginate hydrogel for evaluation of anti-cancer drug efficacy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yadong; Huang, Boxin; Dong, Yuqin; Wang, Wenlong; Zheng, Xi; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Kun; Du, Zhiyun

    2017-10-01

    In vitro cell-based assays are widely applied to evaluate anti-cancer drug efficacy. However, the conventional approaches are mostly based on two-dimensional (2D) culture systems, making it difficult to recapitulate the in vivo tumor scenario because of spatial limitations. Here, we develop an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) prostate tumor model based on a hyaluronic acid (HA)-alginate hybrid hydrogel to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo anticancer drug evaluations. In situ encapsulation of PCa cells was achieved by mixing HA and alginate aqueous solutions in the presence of cells and then crosslinking with calcium ions. Unlike in 2D culture, cells were found to aggregate into spheroids in a 3D matrix. The expression of epithelial to mesenchyme transition (EMT) biomarkers was found to be largely enhanced, indicating an increased invasion and metastasis potential in the hydrogel matrix. A significant up-regulation of proangiogenic growth factors (IL-8, VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was observed in 3D-cultured PCa cells. The results of anti-cancer drug evaluation suggested a higher drug tolerance within the 3D tumor model compared to conventional 2D-cultured cells. Finally, we found that the drug effect within the in vitro 3D cancer model based on HA-alginate matrix exhibited better predictability for in vivo drug efficacy.

  10. Protein-based hydrogels for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, Ashley C.; Williams, Danielle M.; Regan, Lynne J.

    2017-01-01

    The tunable mechanical and structural properties of protein-based hydrogels make them excellent scaffolds for tissue engineering and repair. Moreover, using protein-based components provides the option to insert sequences associated with the promoting both cellular adhesion to the substrate and overall cell growth. Protein-based hydrogel components are appealing for their structural designability, specific biological functionality, and stimuli-responsiveness. Here we present highlights in the field of protein-based hydrogels for tissue engineering applications including design requirements, components, and gel types. PMID:27677513

  11. Chemical hydrogels based on a hyaluronic acid-graft-α-elastin derivative as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Fiorica, Calogero; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    In this work hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA) has been employed to graft α-elastin. In particular a HA-EDA derivative bearing 50 mol% of pendant amino groups has been successfully employed to produce the copolymer HA-EDA-g-α-elastin containing 32% w/w of protein. After grafting with α-elastin, remaining free amino groups reacted with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE) for producing chemical hydrogels, proposed as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Swelling degree, resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as preliminary biological properties of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold have been evaluated and compared with a HA-EDA/EGDGE scaffold. The presence of α-elastin grafted to HA-EDA improves attachment, viability and proliferation of primary rat dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells. Biological performance of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold resulted comparable to that of a commercial collagen type I sponge (Antema®), chosen as a positive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-healing pH-sensitive poly[(methyl vinyl ether)-alt-(maleic acid)]-based supramolecular hydrogels formed by inclusion complexation between cyclodextrin and adamantane.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoe; Zhou, Naizhen; Zhang, Tianzhu; Hu, Wanjun; Gu, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Self-healing materials are of interest for drug delivery, cell and gene therapy, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications. In this work, on the base of biocompatible polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) (P(MVE-alt-MA)), host polymer β-cyclodextrin-grafted P(MVE-alt-MA) (P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-β-CD) and guest polymer adamantane-grafted P(MVE-alt-MA) (P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-Ad) were first prepared. Then through taking advantage of the traditional host-guest interaction of β-cyclodextrin and adamantane, a novel self-healing pH-sensitive physical P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-β-CD/P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-Ad supramolecular hydrogels were obtained after simply mixing the aqueous solution of host polymer and guest polymer. This kind of supramolecular hydrogels not only possess pH-sensitivity, but also possess the ability to repair themselves after being damaged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Glucose-Sensitive Hydrogel Optical Fibers Functionalized with Phenylboronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Jiang, Nan; Fallahi, Afsoon; Montelongo, Yunuen; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U; Tamayol, Ali; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Mahmood, Iram; Yang, Su-A; Kim, Ki Su; Butt, Haider; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogel optical fibers are utilized for continuous glucose sensing in real time. The hydrogel fibers consist of poly(acrylamide-co-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) cores functionalized with phenylboronic acid. The complexation of the phenylboronic acid and cis-diol groups of glucose enables reversible changes of the hydrogel fiber diameter. The analyses of light propagation loss allow for quantitative glucose measurements within the physiological range. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 3D bioprinting of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogel with intrinsic osteogenicity.

    PubMed

    Poldervaart, Michelle T; Goversen, Birgit; de Ruijter, Mylene; Abbadessa, Anna; Melchels, Ferry P W; Öner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Vermonden, Tina; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    In bone regenerative medicine there is a need for suitable bone substitutes. Hydrogels have excellent biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics, but their visco-elastic properties limit their applicability, especially with respect to 3D bioprinting. In this study, we modified the naturally occurring extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA), in order to yield photo-crosslinkable hydrogels with increased mechanical stiffness and long-term stability, and with minimal decrease in cytocompatibility. Application of these tailor-made methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) gels for bone tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting was the subject of investigation. Visco-elastic properties of MeHA gels, measured by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, showed that irradiation of the hydrogels with UV light led to increased storage moduli and elastic moduli, indicating increasing gel rigidity. Subsequently, human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were incorporated into MeHA hydrogels, and cell viability remained 64.4% after 21 days of culture. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs occurred spontaneously in hydrogels with high concentrations of MeHA polymer, in absence of additional osteogenic stimuli. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to the culture medium further increased osteogenic differentiation, as evidenced by increased matrix mineralisation. MeHA hydrogels demonstrated to be suitable for 3D bioprinting, and were printed into porous and anatomically shaped scaffolds. Taken together, photosensitive MeHA-based hydrogels fulfilled our criteria for cellular bioprinted bone constructs within a narrow window of concentration.

  15. 3D bioprinting of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogel with intrinsic osteogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Poldervaart, Michelle T.; Goversen, Birgit; de Ruijter, Mylene; Abbadessa, Anna; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Öner, F. Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Vermonden, Tina

    2017-01-01

    In bone regenerative medicine there is a need for suitable bone substitutes. Hydrogels have excellent biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics, but their visco-elastic properties limit their applicability, especially with respect to 3D bioprinting. In this study, we modified the naturally occurring extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA), in order to yield photo-crosslinkable hydrogels with increased mechanical stiffness and long-term stability, and with minimal decrease in cytocompatibility. Application of these tailor-made methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) gels for bone tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting was the subject of investigation. Visco-elastic properties of MeHA gels, measured by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, showed that irradiation of the hydrogels with UV light led to increased storage moduli and elastic moduli, indicating increasing gel rigidity. Subsequently, human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were incorporated into MeHA hydrogels, and cell viability remained 64.4% after 21 days of culture. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs occurred spontaneously in hydrogels with high concentrations of MeHA polymer, in absence of additional osteogenic stimuli. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to the culture medium further increased osteogenic differentiation, as evidenced by increased matrix mineralisation. MeHA hydrogels demonstrated to be suitable for 3D bioprinting, and were printed into porous and anatomically shaped scaffolds. Taken together, photosensitive MeHA-based hydrogels fulfilled our criteria for cellular bioprinted bone constructs within a narrow window of concentration. PMID:28586346

  16. Chemical Sintering Generates Uniform Porous Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Cynthia; Segura, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Implantation of scaffolds for tissue repair has been met with limited success primarily due to the inability to achieve vascularization within the construct. Many strategies have shifted to incorporate pores into these scaffolds to encourage rapid cellular infiltration and subsequent vascular ingrowth. We utilized an efficient chemical sintering technique to create a uniform network of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres for porous hyaluronic acid hydrogel formation. The porous hydrogels generated from chemical sintering possessed comparable pore uniformity and interconnectivity as the commonly used non- and heat sintering techniques. Moreover, similar cell response to the porous hydrogels generated from each sintering approach was observed in cell viability, spreading, proliferation in vitro, as well as, cellular invasion in vivo. We propose chemical sintering of PMMA microspheres using a dilute acetone solution as an alternative method to generating porous hyaluronic acid hydrogels since it requires equal or ten-fold less processing time as the currently used non-sintering or heat sintering technique, respectively. PMID:24120847

  17. Bacterial cellulose based hydrogel (BC-g-AA) and preliminary result of swelling behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hakam, Adil; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Abdul Rahman, I. Irman

    2013-11-27

    In this study, hydrogel based on Bacterial cellulose (BC) or local known as Nata de Coco, which grafted with monomer: Acrylic acid (AA) is synthesis by using gamma radiation technique. These hydrogel (BC-g-AA) has unique characteristic whereby responsive to pH buffer solution.

  18. Iron-Based Redox Polymerization of Acrylic Acid for Direct Synthesis of Hydrogel/Membranes, and Metal Nanoparticles for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sebastián; Papp, Joseph K.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized polymer materials with ion exchange groups and integration of nano-structured materials is an emerging area for catalytic and water pollution control applications. The polymerization of materials such as acrylic acid often requires persulfate initiator and a high temperature start. However, is generally known that metal ions accelerate such polymerizations starting from room temperature. If the metal is properly selected, it can be used in environmental applications adding two advantages simultaneously. This paper deals with this by polymerizing acrylic acid using iron as accelerant and its subsequent use for nanoparticle synthesis in hydrogel and PVDF membranes. Characterizations of hydrogel, membranes and nanoparticles were carried out with different techniques. Nanoparticles sizes of 30–60 nm were synthesized. Permeability and swelling measurements demonstrate an inverse relationship between hydrogel mesh size (6.30 to 8.34 nm) and membrane pores (222 to 110 nm). Quantitative reduction of trichloroethylene/chloride generation by Fe/Pd nanoparticles in hydrogel/membrane platforms was also performed. PMID:24954975

  19. Lysozyme adsorption in pH-responsive hydrogel thin-films: the non-trivial role of acid-base equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Narambuena, Claudio F; Longo, Gabriel S; Szleifer, Igal

    2015-09-07

    We develop and apply a molecular theory to study the adsorption of lysozyme on weak polyacid hydrogel films. The theory explicitly accounts for the conformation of the network, the structure of the proteins, the size and shape of all the molecular species, their interactions as well as the chemical equilibrium of each titratable unit of both the protein and the polymer network. The driving forces for adsorption are the electrostatic attractions between the negatively charged network and the positively charged protein. The adsorption is a non-monotonic function of the solution pH, with a maximum in the region between pH 8 and 9 depending on the salt concentration of the solution. The non-monotonic adsorption is the result of increasing negative charge of the network with pH, while the positive charge of the protein decreases. At low pH the network is roughly electroneutral, while at sufficiently high pH the protein is negatively charged. Upon adsorption, the acid-base equilibrium of the different amino acids of the protein shifts in a nontrivial fashion that depends critically on the particular kind of residue and solution composition. Thus, the proteins regulate their charge and enhance adsorption under a wide range of conditions. In particular, adsorption is predicted above the protein isoelectric point where both the solution lysozyme and the polymer network are negatively charged. This behavior occurs because the pH in the interior of the gel is significantly lower than that in the bulk solution and it is also regulated by the adsorption of the protein in order to optimize protein-gel interactions. Under high pH conditions we predict that the protein changes its charge from negative in the solution to positive within the gel. The change occurs within a few nanometers at the interface of the hydrogel film. Our predictions show the non-trivial interplay between acid-base equilibrium, physical interactions and molecular organization under nanoconfined conditions

  20. Electrochemical immunoassay for tumor markers based on hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang; Ma, Zhanfang

    2018-05-08

    Hydrogel-based electrochemical immunoassays exhibit a large surface-to-volume ratio, excellent biocompatibility, unique stimuli-responsive behavior, high permeability and hydrophilicity and, thus, have shown great potential in the sensitive and accurate detection of tumor markers. Electrochemical immunosensing techniques for tumor markers based on hydrogels have greatly progressed in recent years. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the recent advances of hydrogel-based electrochemical immunosensing interface of tumor markers based on the different functions of hydrogels including conductive, catalytic, redox, stimuli-responsive and antifouling hydrogels. Expert commentary: Hydrogels have been successfully employed in electrochemical immunoassay of tumor markers, which is accountable to their unique properties. For further exploitation of hydrogel-based electrochemical biosensors, more variety of hydrogels need be fabricated with improved functionality.

  1. Preparation of the chitosan/poly(glutamic acid)/alginate polyelectrolyte complexing hydrogel and study on its drug releasing property.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yan, Xiaoting; Zhao, Jian; Feng, Huaiyu; Li, Puwang; Tong, Zongrui; Yang, Ziming; Li, Sidong; Yang, Jueying; Jin, Shaohua

    2018-07-01

    In the current study, a novel semi-dissolution/acidification/sol-gel transition (SD-A-SGT) method was explored for the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexing (PEC) composite hydrogels with natural polymers only. A chitosan (CS) powder was uniformly dispersed in a solution of poly(glutamic acid) (PGA) and alginate (SA) to form a semi-dissolved slurry mixture that was then exposed to an gaseous acidic atmosphere. CS was gradually dissolved and interacted with PGA and SA to form a CS/PGA/SA PEC composite hydrogel with a homogeneous structure. The SD-A-SGT procedure was able to overcome the shortcomings of direct mixing method via the PEC interaction. The effects of the hydrogel composition on its structure and properties were investigated by FTIR, XRD, rheology study, XPS, SEM, and swelling kinetics. The drug delivery performance of the CS/PGA/SA hydrogel was explored using piroxicam (PXC) as a model drug. PXC was in situ embedded in the hydrogel by the SD-A-SGT method. The hydrogel exhibited pH responsive drug release behaviors that were affected by the hydrogel composition. In all, the SD-A-SGT method for preparing PEC composite hydrogels has a great application potential in constructing the CS based hydrogels as medical materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A glucose-sensitive block glycopolymer hydrogel based on dynamic boronic ester bonds for insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Cai, Baoqi; Luo, Yanping; Guo, Qianqian; Zhang, Xinge; Wu, Zhongming

    2017-06-05

    Hydrogels are good candidates to satisfy many needs for functional and tunable biomaterials. How to precisely control the gel structure and functions is crucial for the construction of sophisticated soft biomaterials comprising the hydrogels, which facilitates the impact of the surrounding environment on a unique biological function occurring. Here, glucose-responsive hydrogels comprised of 3-acrylamidophenyl boronic acid copolymerized with 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate (p(APBA-b-LAMA)) were synthesized, and further evaluated as carriers for insulin delivery. The formation of (p(APBA-b-LAMA)) hydrogel was based on dynamic covalent bond using the association of boronic acid with diols. P(APBA-b-LAMA) hydrogel with the typical porous structure showed a rapid increase in equilibrium of swelling, which was up to 1856% after incubation with aqueous solution. Using insulin as a model protein therapeutic, p(APBA-b-LAMA) hydrogel exhibited high drug loading capability up to 15.6%, and also displayed glucose-dependent insulin release under physiological conditions. Additionally, the viability of NIH3T3 cells was more than 90% after treated with p(APBA-b-LAMA) hydrogel, indicating that the hydrogel had no cytotoxicity. Consequently, the novel p(APBA-b-LAMA) hydrogel has a practical application for diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyaluronic Acid and Polyethylene Glycol Hybrid Hydrogel Encapsulating Nanogel with Hemostasis and Sustainable Antibacterial Property for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Faxue; Wang, Xueli; Yu, Jianyong; Wu, Dequn

    2018-04-25

    Immediate hemorrhage control and anti-infection play important roles in the wound management. Besides, a moist environment is also beneficial for wound healing. Hydrogels are promising materials in urgent hemostasis and drug release. However, hydrogels have the disadvantage of rapid release profiles, leading to the exposure to high drug concentrations. In this study, we constructed hybrid hydrogels with rapid hemostasis and sustainable antibacterial property combining aminoethyl methacrylate hyaluronic acid (HA-AEMA) and methacrylated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG-MA) hybrid hydrogels and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHX)-loaded nanogels. The CHX-loaded nanogels (CLNs) were prepared by the enzyme degradation of CHX-loaded lysine-based hydrogels. The HA-AEMA and mPEG-MA hybrid hydrogel loaded with CLNs (labeled as Gel@CLN) displayed a three-dimensional microporous structure and exhibited excellent swelling, mechanical property, and low cytotoxicity. The Gel@CLN hydrogel showed a prolonged release period of CHX over 240 h and the antibacterial property over 10 days. The hemostasis and wound-healing properties were evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. The results showed that hydrogel had the rapid hemostasis capacity and accelerated wound healing. In summary, CLN-loaded hydrogels may be excellent candidates as hemostasis and anti-infection materials for the wound dressing application.

  5. A Supramolecular Hydrogel Based on Polyglycerol Dendrimer-Specific Amino Group Recognition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ik Sung; Ooya, Tooru

    2018-05-24

    Dendrimer-based supramolecular hydrogels have gained attention in biomedical fields. While biocompatible dendrimers were used to prepare hydrogels via physical and/or chemical crosslinking, smart functions such as pH and molecular control remain undeveloped. Here, we present polyglycerol dendrimer-based supramolecular hydrogel formation induced by a specific interaction between the polyglycerol dendrimer and an amino group of glycol chitosan. Gelation was achieved by mixing the two aqueous solutions. Hydrogel formation was controlled by varying the polyglycerol dendrimer generation. The hydrogel showed pH-dependent swelling; strongly acidic conditions induced degradation via dissociation of the specific interaction. It also showed unique L-arginine-responsive degradation capability due to competitive exchange of the amino groups of glycol chitosan and L-arginine. These polyglycerol dendrimer-based supramolecular characteristics allow multimodal application in smart biomaterials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ultrasound stimulated release of gallic acid from chitin hydrogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huixin; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) stimulated drug release was examined in this study using a chitin hydrogel matrix loaded with gallic acid (GA), a drug used for wound healing and anticancer. Using phase inversion, GA-chitin hydrogels were prepared from chitin-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/lithium chloride (LiCl) solution in the presence of GA, with 24h exposure of the solution to water vapor. The GA release from the GA-chitin hydrogel was examined under different US powers of 0-30W at 43kHz. The effects of GA loading amounts in the hydrogels (0.54, 0.43, and 0.25mg/cm 3 ) and chitin concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1wt%) on the release behaviors were recorded under 43kHz US exposure at 30W. Results show that US accelerated the release efficiencies for all samples. Furthermore, the release efficiency increased concomitantly with increasing US power, GA loading amount, and decrease of the chitin concentration. The highest release rate of 0.74μg/mL·min was obtained from 0.54mg/cm 3 of GA-loaded hydrogel fabricated from a 0.1wt% chitin mixture solution under 43kHz US exposure at 30W: nine times higher than that of the sample without US exposure. The hydrogel viscoelasticity demonstrated that the US irradiation rigidified the material. FT-IR showed that US can break the hydrogen bonds in the GA-chitin hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of a combination delivery system based on hyaluronic acid/jeffamine hydrogel loaded with PHBV/PLGA blend nanoparticles for prolonged delivery of Teriparatide.

    PubMed

    Bahari Javan, Nika; Montazeri, Hamed; Rezaie Shirmard, Leila; Jafary Omid, Nersi; Barbari, Ghullam Reza; Amini, Mohsen; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Abedin Dorkoosh, Farid

    2017-04-01

    In the current study, biodegradable PHBV/PLGA blend nanoparticles (NPs) containing Teriparatide were loaded in hyaluronic acid/jeffamine (HA-JEF ED-600) hydrogel to prepare a combination delivery system (CDS) for prolonged delivery of Teriparatide. The principal purpose of the present study was to formulate an effective and prolonged Teriparatide delivery system in order to reduce the frequency of injection and thus enhance patient's compliance. Morphological properties, swelling behaviour, crosslinking efficiency and rheological characterization of HA-JEF ED-600 hydrogel were evaluated. The CDS was acquired by adding PHBV/PLGA NPs to HA-JEF ED-600 hydrogel simultaneously with crosslinking reaction. The percentage of NPs incorporation within the hydrogel as well as the loading capacity and morphology of Teriparatide loaded CDS were examined. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy proved that Teriparatide remains stable after processing. The release profile represented 63% Teriparatide release from CDS within 50days with lower burst release compared to NPs and hydrogel. MTT assay was conducted by using NIH3T3 cell line and no sign of reduction in cell viability was observed. Based on Miller and Tainter method, LD 50 of Teriparatide loaded CDS was 131.8mg/kg. In vivo studies demonstrated that Teriparatide loaded CDS could effectively increase serum calcium level after subcutaneous injection in mice. Favourable results in the current study introduced CDS as a promising candidate for controlled delivery of Teriparatide and pave the way for future investigations in the field of designing prolonged delivery systems for other peptides and proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogel based approaches for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Saludas, Laura; Pascual-Gil, Simon; Prósper, Felipe; Garbayo, Elisa; Blanco-Prieto, María

    2017-05-25

    Heart failure still represents the leading cause of death worldwide. Novel strategies using stem cells and growth factors have been investigated for effective cardiac tissue regeneration and heart function recovery. However, some major challenges limit their translation to the clinic. Recently, biomaterials have emerged as a promising approach to improve delivery and viability of therapeutic cells and proteins for the regeneration of the damaged heart. In particular, hydrogels are considered one of the most promising vehicles. They can be administered through minimally invasive techniques while maintaining all the desirable characteristics of drug delivery systems. This review discusses recent advances made in the field of hydrogels for cardiac tissue regeneration in detail, focusing on the type of hydrogel (conventional, injectable, smart or nano- and micro-gel), the biomaterials used for its manufacture (natural, synthetic or hybrid) and the therapeutic agent encapsulated (stem cells or proteins). We expect that these novel hydrogel-based approaches will open up new possibilities in drug delivery and cell therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-delivery of a laminin-111 supplemented hyaluronic acid based hydrogel with minced muscle graft in the treatment of volumetric muscle loss injury

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Stephen M.; Henderson, Beth E. P.; Walters, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Minced muscle autografting mediates de novo myofiber regeneration and promotes partial recovery of neuromuscular strength after volumetric muscle loss injury (VML). A major limitation of this approach is the availability of sufficient donor tissue for the treatment of relatively large VMLs without inducing donor site morbidity. This study evaluated a laminin-111 supplemented hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (HA+LMN) as a putative myoconductive scaffolding to be co-delivered with minced muscle grafts. In a rat tibialis anterior muscle VML model, delivery of a reduced dose of minced muscle graft (50% of VML defect) within HA+LMN resulted in a 42% improvement of peak tetanic torque production over unrepaired VML affected limbs. However, the improvement in strength was not improved compared to a 50% minced graft-only control group. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that the improvement in in vivo functional capacity mediated by minced grafts in HA+LMN was not accompanied by a particularly robust graft mediated regenerative response as determined through donor cell tracking of the GFP+ grafting material. Characterization of the spatial distribution and density of macrophage and satellite cell populations indicated that the combination therapy damps the heightened macrophage response while re-establishing satellite content 14 days after VML to a level consistent with an endogenously healing ischemia-reperfusion induced muscle injury. Moreover, regional analysis revealed that the combination therapy increased satellite cell density mostly in the remaining musculature, as opposed to the defect area. Based on the results, the following salient conclusions were drawn: 1) functional recovery mediated by the combination therapy is likely due to a superposition of de novo muscle fiber regeneration and augmented repair of muscle fibers within the remaining musculature, and 2) The capacity for VML therapies to augment regeneration and repair within the remaining musculature

  10. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate. PMID:27869192

  11. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate.

  12. Multiphoton imaging of myogenic differentiation in gelatin-based hydrogels as tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jong Ho; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Yunki; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Soo-Hong; Park, Ki Dong; Han, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels can serve as three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for cell culture and be readily injected into the body. Recent advances in the image technology for 3D scaffolds like hydrogels have attracted considerable attention to overcome the drawbacks of ordinary imaging technologies such as optical and fluorescence microscopy. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is an effective method based on the excitation of two-photons. In the present study, C2C12 myoblasts differentiated in 3D gelatin hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (GHPA) hydrogels were imaged by using a custom-built multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy to compare the difference in the imaging capacity between conventional microscopy and MPM. The physicochemical properties of GHPA hydrogels were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the cell viability and proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts cultured in the GHPA hydrogels were analyzed by using Live/Dead Cell and CCK-8 assays, respectively. It was found that C2C12 cells were well grown and normally proliferated in the hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogels were shown to be suitable to facilitate the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells incubated in differentiation media, which had been corroborated by MPM. It was very hard to get clear images from a fluorescence microscope. Our findings suggest that the gelatin-based hydrogels can be beneficially utilized as 3D scaffolds for skeletal muscle engineering and that MPM can be effectively applied to imaging technology for tissue regeneration.

  13. An injectable oxidated hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel as a vitreous substitute.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Tseng, Ching-Li; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Vitrectomy is a common procedure for treating ocular-related diseases. The surgery involves removing the vitreous humor from the center of the eye, and vitreous substitutes are needed to replace the vitreous humor after vitrectomy. In the present study, we developed a colorless, transparent and injectable hydrogel with appropriate refractive index as a vitreous substitute. The hydrogel is formed by oxidated hyaluronic acid (oxi-HA) cross-linked with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH). Hyaluronic acid (HA) was oxidized by sodium periodate to create aldehyde functional groups, which could be cross-linked by ADH. The refractive index of this hydrogel ranged between 1.3420 and 1.3442, which is quite similar to human vitreous humor (1.3345). The degradation tests demonstrated that the hydrogel could maintain the gel matrix over 35 days, depending on the ADH concentration. In addition, the cytotoxicity was evaluated on retina pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells cultivated following the ISO standard (tests for in vitro cytotoxicity), and the hydrogel was found to be non-toxic. In a preliminary animal study, the oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel was injected into the vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes. The evaluations of slit-lamp observation, intraocular pressure, cornea thickness and histological examination showed no significant abnormal biological reactions for 3 weeks. This study suggests that the injectable oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel should be a potential vitreous substitute. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011

  14. Hydrogel based QCM aptasensor for detection of avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) aptasensor based on ssDNA crosslinked polymeric hydrogel for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1. A selected aptamer with high affinity and specificity against AIV H5N1 surface protein was used, and hybridization between the aptamer and ssDNA formed the crosslinker in the polymer hydrogel. The aptamer hydrogel was immobilized on the gold surface of QCM sensor using a self-assembled monolayer method. The hydrogel remained in the state of shrink if no H5N1 virus was present in the sample because of the crosslinking between the aptamer and ssDNA in the polymer network. When it exposed to target virus, the binding reaction between the aptamer and H5N1 virus caused the dissolution of the linkage between the aptamer and ssDNA, resulting in the abrupt swelling of the hydrogel. The swollen hydrogel was monitored by the QCM sensor in terms of decreased frequency. Three polymeric hydrogels with different ratio (100:1 hydrogel I, 10:1 hydrogel II, 1:1 hydrogel III) of acrylamide and the aptamer monomer were synthesized, respectively, and then were used as the QCM sensor coating material. The results showed that the developed hydrogel QCM aptasensor was capable of detecting target H5N1 virus, and among the three developed aptamer hydrogels, hydrogel III coated QCM aptasensor achieved the highest sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.0128 HAU (HA unit). The total detection time from sampling to detection was only 30 min. In comparison with the anti-H5 antibody coated QCM immunosensor, the hydrogel QCM aptasensor lowered the detection limit and reduced the detection time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a novel hyaluronic acid hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X

    2006-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, HA) has many medical applications as a biomaterial. To enhance its biostability, a novel hydrogel of cross-linked hyaluronic acid was prepared using a double cross-linking process, which involves building cross-linkages between hydroxyl group pairs and carboxyl group pairs. The present study explored a number of cross-linking processes in order to obtain different degrees of cross-linking, which were evaluated by the measurement of water absorption capacity as an index of the gel network density. To gain a better understanding of the stability of the gel, the chemical structure and particularly the rheological behaviour of the cross-linked HA, which included the influences of factors, such as degree of cross-linking, HA concentration and gel particle size, were investigated. The in vitro biostability against hyaluronidase and free radical degradation was tested to show that the cross-linked hydrogel had improved resistance to in vitro hyaluronidase and free radical degradation.

  16. Injectable dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel as bioadhesive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chu; Lu, Caicai; Li, Bingqiang; Shan, Meng; Wu, Guolin

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials with adhesive properties in wet environments have been considered as promising candidates for tissue adhesives. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is believed to be responsible for the water-resistant adhesive characteristics of mussel adhesive proteins. Under the inspiration of DOPA containing adhesive proteins, a dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative (PDAEA) was successfully synthesized by successive ring-opening reactions of polysuccinimide (PSI) with dopamine and ethanolamine, and an injectable bioadhesive hydrogel was prepared via simply mixing PDAEA and FeCl 3 solutions. The formation mechanism of the hydrogel was investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic, Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic, visual colorimetric measurements and EDTA immersion methods. The study demonstrated that the PDAEA-Fe 3+ hydrogel is a dual cross-linking system composed of covalent and coordination crosslinks. The PDAEA-Fe 3+ hydrogel is suitable to serve as a bioadhesive agent according to the rheological behaviors and the observed significant shear adhesive strength. The slow and sustained release of the model drug curcumin from the hydrogel in vitro demonstrated the hydrogel could also be potentially used for drug delivery. Moreover, the cytotoxicity tests in vitro suggested the prepared polymer and hydrogel possessed excellent cytocompatibility. All the results indicated that the dopamine modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative based hydrogel was a promising candidate for bioadhesive drug delivery system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1000-1008, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hydrogel films of carboxymethyl tamarind gum using citric acid.

    PubMed

    Mali, Kailas K; Dhawale, Shashikant C; Dias, Remeth J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize citric acid crosslinked carboxymethyl tamarind gum (CMTG) hydrogels films. The hydrogel films were characterized by Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, solid state 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The prepared hydrogel films were evaluated for the carboxyl content and swelling ratio. The model drug moxifloxacin hydrochloride was loaded into hydrogels films and drug release was studied at pH 7.4. The hemolysis assay was used to study the biocompatibility of hydrogel films. The results of ATR-FTIR, solid state 13 C NMR and DSC confirmed the formation of ester crosslinks between citric acid and CMTG. The total carboxyl content of hydrogel film was found to be decreased when amount of CMTG was increased. The swelling of hydrogel film was found to be decreased with increase in curing temperature and time. CMTG hydrogel films showed high drug loading with non-Fickian release mechanism suggesting controlled release of drug. The hydrogel films were found to be biocompatible. It can be concluded that the citric acid can be used for the preparation of CMTG hydrogel films. Further, CMTG hydrogel film can be used potentially for controlled release of drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels for vocal fold wound healing.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Joel; Thibeault, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    The unique vibrational properties inherent to the human vocal fold have a significant detrimental impact on wound healing and scar formation. Hydrogels have taken prominence as a tissue engineered strategy to restore normal vocal structure and function as cellularity is low. The frequent vibrational and shear forces applied to, and present in this connective tissue make mechanical properties of such hydrogels a priority in this active area of research. Hyaluronic acid has been chemically modified in a variety of ways to address cell function while maintaining desirable tissue mechanical properties. These various modifications have had mixed results when injected in vivo typically resulting in better biomechanical function but not necessarily with a concomitant decrease in tissue fibrosis. Recent work has focused on seeding mesenchymal progenitor cells within 3D architecture of crosslinked hydrogels. The data from these studies demonstrate that this approach has a positive effect on cells in both early and late wound healing, but little work has been done regarding the biomechanical effects of these treatments. This paper provides an overview of the various hyaluronic acid derivatives, their crosslinking agents, and their effect when implanted into the vocal folds of various animal models.

  19. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels for vocal fold wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Joel; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    The unique vibrational properties inherent to the human vocal fold have a significant detrimental impact on wound healing and scar formation. Hydrogels have taken prominence as a tissue engineered strategy to restore normal vocal structure and function as cellularity is low. The frequent vibrational and shear forces applied to, and present in this connective tissue make mechanical properties of such hydrogels a priority in this active area of research. Hyaluronic acid has been chemically modified in a variety of ways to address cell function while maintaining desirable tissue mechanical properties. These various modifications have had mixed results when injected in vivo typically resulting in better biomechanical function but not necessarily with a concomitant decrease in tissue fibrosis. Recent work has focused on seeding mesenchymal progenitor cells within 3D architecture of crosslinked hydrogels. The data from these studies demonstrate that this approach has a positive effect on cells in both early and late wound healing, but little work has been done regarding the biomechanical effects of these treatments. This paper provides an overview of the various hyaluronic acid derivatives, their crosslinking agents, and their effect when implanted into the vocal folds of various animal models. PMID:23507923

  20. Stimuli-Responsive DNA-Based Hydrogels: From Basic Principles to Applications.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jason S; Hu, Yuwei; Willner, Itamar

    2017-04-18

    The base sequence of nucleic acids encodes structural and functional information into the DNA biopolymer. External stimuli such as metal ions, pH, light, or added nucleic acid fuel strands provide triggers to reversibly switch nucleic acid structures such as metal-ion-bridged duplexes, i-motifs, triplex nucleic acids, G-quadruplexes, or programmed double-stranded hybrids of oligonucleotides (DNA). The signal-triggered oligonucleotide structures have been broadly applied to develop switchable DNA nanostructures and DNA machines, and these stimuli-responsive assemblies provide functional scaffolds for the rapidly developing area of DNA nanotechnology. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels undergoing signal-triggered hydrogel-to-solution transitions or signal-controlled stiffness changes attract substantial interest as functional matrices for controlled drug delivery, materials exhibiting switchable mechanical properties, acting as valves or actuators, and "smart" materials for sensing and information processing. The integration of stimuli-responsive oligonucleotides with hydrogel-forming polymers provides versatile means to exploit the functional information encoded in the nucleic acid sequences to yield stimuli-responsive hydrogels exhibiting switchable physical, structural, and chemical properties. Stimuli-responsive DNA-based nucleic acid structures are integrated in acrylamide polymer chains and reversible, switchable hydrogel-to-solution transitions of the systems are demonstrated by applying external triggers, such as metal ions, pH-responsive strands, G-quadruplex, and appropriate counter triggers that bridge and dissociate the polymer chains. By combining stimuli-responsive nucleic acid bridges with thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) chains, systems undergoing reversible solution ↔ hydrogel ↔ solid transitions are demonstrated. Specifically, by bridging acrylamide polymer chains by two nucleic acid functionalities, where one type of bridging unit

  1. Elastin-like Protein-Hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) Hydrogels with Decoupled Mechanical and Biochemical cues for Cartilage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Danqing; Wang, Huiyuan; Trinh, Pavin; Heilshorn, Sarah C.; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix and is an attractive material for use as 3D injectable matrices for cartilage regeneration. While previous studies have shown the promise of HA-based hydrogels to support cell-based cartilage formation, varying HA concentration generally led to simultaneous changes in both biochemical cues and stiffness. How cells respond to the change of biochemical content of HA remains largely unknown. Here we report an adaptable elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogel platform using dynamic covalent chemistry, which allows varyiation of HA concentration without affecting matrix stiffness. ELP-HA hydrogels were created through dynamic hydrazone bonds via the reaction between hydrazine-modified ELP (ELP-HYD) and aldehyde-modified HA (HA-ALD). By tuning the stoichiometric ratio of aldehyde groups to hydrazine groups while maintaining ELP-HYD concentration constant, hydrogels with variable HA concentration (1.5%, 3%, or 5%) (w/v) were fabricated with comparable stiffness. To evaluate the effects of HA concentration on cell-based cartilage regeneration, chondrocytes were encapsulated within ELP-HA hydrogels with varying HA concentration. Increasing HA concentration led to a dose-dependent increase in cartilage-marker gene expression and enhanced sGAG deposition while minimizing undesirable fibrocartilage phenotype. The use of adaptable protein hydrogels formed via dynamic covalent chemistry may be broadly applicable as 3D scaffolds with decoupled niche properties to guide other desirable cell fates and tissue repair. PMID:28268018

  2. Glycol chitosan/oxidized hyaluronic acid hydrogels functionalized with cartilage extracellular matrix particles and incorporating BMSCs for cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Liu, Deshuai; Wang, Yingying; Li, Yun; Li, Tao; Zhou, Zhiyou; Yang, Zhijian; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Qiqing

    2018-02-05

    In this article, we fabricated a bioactive hydrogel composed of glycol chitosan (G-CS) and oxidized hyaluronic acid (OHA) via Schiff base reaction. Cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) particles with different concentrations were used to functionalize G-CS/OHA (S1) hydrogel. The results demonstrated that S3 (G-CS/OHA/ECM 2% w/v) hydrogel exhibited the most suitable compression strength and provided the optimal environment for proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To assess the chondroinductivity of ECM in vitro, we compared the chondrogenesis of BMSCs in S1 (G-CS/OHA) and S3 (G-CS/OHA/ECM 2% w/v) hydrogels. The results confirmed that the higher levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen type II (COL II) were accumulated in S3 hydrogel. In vivo, cartilage defects of rats generated most mature tissue within BMSCs-laden S3 hydrogel (S3/BMSCs group). The tissues were more integrative and contained higher levels of COL II and GAGs compared to the other groups. All these results suggested that the G-CS/OHA hydrogel functionalized with ECM particles is a good candidate biomaterial to be applied in cartilage tissue engineering.

  3. Properties and in vitro drug release of hyaluronic acid-hydroxyethyl cellulose hydrogels for transdermal delivery of isoliquiritigenin.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bong Ju; Kim, Ayoung; Park, Soo Nam

    2016-08-20

    In the present study, the properties of hydrogel systems based on hyaluronic acid (HA)-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) were investigated for effective transdermal delivery of isoliquiritigenin (ILTG). Hydrogels were synthesized by chemical cross-linking, and network structures were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analyser. Texture properties and swelling of HA-HEC hydrogels were found to be closely linked to cross-linker concentration and swelling medium. Water in HA-HEC hydrogels was found to exist mostly in the form of free water. The viscoelasticity and the network stabilization of the hydrogels were analysed via rheological studies. The release kinetics of the hydrogel followed Fickian diffusion mechanism. In an in vitro skin penetration study, the system substantially improved the delivery of ILTG into the skin. These results indicate that the hydrogel system composed of HA and HEC has potential as a transdermal delivery system, with cross-linking density and the swelling medium influencing the properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective adsorption of carbohydrates and glycoproteins via molecularly imprinted hydrogels: application to visible detection by a boronic acid monomer.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takuya; Furuta, Hayato; Naito, Toyohiro; Sano, Tomoharu; Otsuka, Koji

    2017-06-29

    Selective adsorption of carbohydrates and glycoproteins was effectively achieved by molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based crosslinker and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid. In addition, an MIH with a novel boronic acid monomer provided selective adsorption and enabled visible detection of fructose.

  5. Mineral-Enhanced Polyacrylic Acid Hydrogel as an Oyster-Inspired Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Adhesive.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Jia, Yunfei; Sun, Shengtong; Xu, Yisheng; Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Stuart, M A Cohen; Cölfen, Helmut; von Klitzing, Regine; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-03-28

    Underwater adhesion is crucial to many marine life forms living a sedentary lifestyle. Amongst them, mussel adhesion has been mostly studied, which inspires numerous investigations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-based organic adhesives. In contrast, reef-building oysters represent another important "inorganic" strategy of marine molluscs for adhesion by generating biomineralized organic-inorganic adhesives, which is still rarely studied and no synthetic analogues have ever been reported so far. Here, a novel type of oyster-inspired organic-inorganic adhesive based on a biomineralized polyelectrolyte hydrogel is reported, which consists of polyacrylic acid physically cross-linked by very small amorphous calcium carbonate nanoparticles (<3 nm). The mineral-enhanced polyelectrolyte hydrogel adhesive is shown to be injectable, reusable, and optically clear upon curing in air. Moreover, comparable adhesion performance to DOPA-based adhesives is found for the hydrogel adhesive in both dry and wet conditions, which can even be further enhanced by introducing a small amount of second large cross-linker such as negatively charged nanoparticles. The present mineral hydrogel represents a new type of bio-inspired organic-inorganic adhesive that may find a variety of potential applications in adhesive chemistry.

  6. Structure and applications of a temperature responsive recombinant protein hydrogel based on silk- and elastin-like amino acid motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummy, Lawrence; Tomczak, Melanie; Macauliffe, Joseph; Vaia, Richard; Naik, Rajesh

    2008-03-01

    Proteins form the main components of many natural materials, and they can be designed to offer tailored functionality and material properties. Silk elastin-like proteins (SELP)s come from a family of repeat sequence protein polymers based on Bombyx mori silk and mammalian elastin that are recombinantly expressed in E. coli. SELP gels are formed by heating the protein solutions in order to induce physical crosslinking of the silk β-sheet regions, they contain approximately 80-90% water by weight and they can be used for encapsulation of enzymes or nanoparticles. For example, horseradish peroxidase demonstrates added resistance to drying and heat treatment when encapsulated in the gel matrix. During gel formation, small angle X-ray scattering shows intensity increases in two distinct regions of reciprocal space, one reversible with temperature and one irreversible. By fitting the scattering data to a unified power-law/Gunier model, morphological parameters are extracted. The thermally reversible intensity changes are attributed to a hydrophilic/hydrophobic transition in the elastin segments, while the irreversible intensity change is due to the crystalline regions formed by the silk blocks.

  7. Biodegradable HEMA-based hydrogels with enhanced mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mohamadreza Nassajian; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogels are widely used in the biomedical field. Their main purposes are either to deliver biological active agents or to temporarily fill a defect until they degrade and are followed by new host tissue formation. However, for this latter application, biodegradable hydrogels are usually not capable to sustain any significant load. The development of biodegradable hydrogels presenting load-bearing capabilities would open new possibilities to utilize this class of material in the biomedical field. In this work, an original formulation of biodegradable photo-crosslinked hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) is presented. The hydrogels consist of short-length poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) chains in a star shape structure, obtained by introducing a tetra-functional chain transfer agent in the backbone of the hydrogels. They are cross-linked with a biodegradable N,O-dimethacryloyl hydroxylamine (DMHA) molecule sensitive to hydrolytic cleavage. We characterized the degradation properties of these hydrogels submitted to mechanical loadings. We showed that the developed hydrogels undergo long-term degradation and specially meet the two essential requirements of a biodegradable hydrogel suitable for load bearing applications: enhanced mechanical properties and low molecular weight degradation products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1161-1169, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Supermacroporous chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gyarmati, Benjámin; Mészár, E Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Lóránd; Deli, Mária A; László, Krisztina; Szilágyi, András

    2015-08-01

    Chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) gels were prepared by a solid-liquid phase separation technique, cryogelation, to achieve a supermacroporous interconnected pore structure. The precursor polymer of PASP, polysuccinimide (PSI) was cross-linked below the freezing point of the solvent and the forming crystals acted as templates for the pores. Dimethyl sulfoxide was chosen as solvent instead of the more commonly used water. Thus larger temperatures could be utilized for the preparation and the drawback of increase in specific volume of water upon freezing could be eliminated. The morphology of the hydrogels was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and interconnectivity of the pores was proven by the small flow resistance of the gels. Compression tests also confirmed the interconnected porous structure and the complete re-swelling and shape recovery of the supermacroporous PASP hydrogels. The prepared hydrogels are of interest for several biomedical applications as scaffolding materials because of their cytocompatibility, controllable morphology and pH-responsive character. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Xylan-Modified-Based Hydrogels with Temperature/pH Dual Sensitivity and Controllable Drug Delivery Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei-Qing; Gao, Cun-Dian; Hu, Shu-Feng; Ren, Jun-Li; Zhao, Li-Hong; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Among the natural macromolecules potentially used as the scaffold material in hydrogels, xylan has aroused great interest in many fields because of its biocompatibility, low toxicity, and biodegradability. In this work, new pH and thermoresponsive hydrogels were prepared by the cross-linking polymerization of maleic anhydride-modified xylan (MAHX) with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and acrylic acid (AA) under UV irradiation to form MAHX-g-P(NIPAm-co-AA) hydrogels. The pore volume, the mechanical properties, and the release rate for drugs of hydrogels could be controlled by the degree of substitution of MAHX. These hydrogels were characterized by swelling ability, lower critical solution temperature (LCST), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and SEM. Furthermore, the cumulative release rate was investigated for acetylsalicylic acid and theophylline, as well as the cytocompatibility MAHX-based hydrogels. Results showed that MAHX-based hydrogels exhibited excellent swelling–deswelling properties, uniform porous structure, and the temperature/pH dual sensitivity. In vitro, the cumulative release rate of acetylsalicylic acid for MAHX-based hydrogels was higher than that for theophylline, and in the gastrointestinal sustained drug release study, the acetylsalicylic acid release rate was extremely slow during the initial 3 h in the gastric fluid (24.26%), and then the cumulative release rate reached to 90.5% after sustained release for 5 h in simulated intestinal fluid. The cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that MAHX-based hydrogels could promote cell proliferation and had satisfactory biocompatibility with NIH3T3 cells. These results indicated that MAHX-based hydrogels, as new drug carriers, had favorable behavior for intestinal-targeted drug delivery. PMID:28772664

  10. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-10-25

    Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Design of Cell-Matrix Interactions in Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    The design of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel scaffolds to elicit highly controlled and tunable cell response and behavior is a major field of interest in developing tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. This review will begin with an overview of the biological context of hyaluronic acid, knowledge needed to better understand how to engineer cell-matrix interactions in the scaffolds via the incorporation of different types of signals in order to direct and control cell behavior. Specifically, recent methods of incorporating various bioactive, mechanical, and spatial signals are reviewed, as well as novel hyaluronic acid modifications and crosslinking schemes with a focus on specificity. PMID:23899481

  12. Biocompatibility of hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Logan, Megan; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Yongfang; Bae, Hojae; Dixon, Brian; Chen, P

    2017-09-01

    Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Due to their increasing use, their biocompatibility has been questioned since the use of these biomaterials needs to be effective and safe. It is not surprising then that the evaluation of biocompatibility of these types of biomaterials for regenerative and tissue engineering applications has been expanded from being primarily investigated in a laboratory setting to being applied in the multi-billion dollar medicinal industry. This review will aid in the improvement of design of non-invasive, smart hydrogels that can be utilized for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. In this review, the biocompatibility of hydrogels and design criteria for fabricating effective scaffolds are examined. Examples of natural and synthetic hydrogels, their biocompatibility and use in tissue engineering are discussed. The merits and clinical complications of hydrogel scaffold use are also reviewed. The article concludes with a future outlook of the field of biocompatibility within the context of hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergistically enhanced selective intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carrier comprising folic acid-conjugated hydrogels containing magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Haneul; Jo, Ara; Baek, Seulgi; Lim, Daeun; Park, Soon-Yong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Chung, Jin Woong; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2017-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery has long been extensively researched since drug delivery and release at the diseased site with minimum dosage realizes the effective therapy without adverse side effects. In this work, to achieve enhanced intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carriers for efficient chemo-therapy, we have designed targeted multifunctional anticancer drug carrier hydrogels. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel core containing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were prepared using precipitation polymerization, and further polymerized with amine-functionalized copolymer shell to facilitate the conjugation of targeting ligand. Then, folic acid, specific targeting ligand for cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), was conjugated on the hydrogel surface, yielding the ligand conjugated hybrid hydrogels. We revealed that enhanced intracellular uptake by HeLa cells in vitro was enabled by both magnetic attraction and receptor-mediated endocytosis, which were contributed by MNP and folic acid, respectively. Furthermore, site-specific uptake of the developed carrier was confirmed by incubating with several other cell lines. Based on synergistically enhanced intracellular uptake, efficient cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of HeLa cells incubated with anticancer drug loaded hybrid hydrogels were successfully achieved. The developed dual-targeted hybrid hydrogels are expected to provide a platform for the next generation intelligent drug delivery systems.

  14. Preparation, properties and biological application of pH-sensitive poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrogels grafted with acrylic acid(AAc) using gamma-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Young Chang; Mook Lim, Youn; Moo Lee, Young

    2004-09-01

    pH-sensitive hydrogels were studied as a drug carrier for the protection of insulin from the acidic environment of the stomach before releasing it in the small intestine. In this study, hydrogels based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) networks grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) were prepared via a two-step process. PEO hydrogels were prepared by γ-ray irradiation, and then grafting by AAc monomer onto the PEO hydrogels with the subsequent irradiation (radiation dose: 5-20 kGy, dose rate: 2.15 kGy/h). These grafted hydrogels showed a pH-sensitive swelling behavior. The grafted hydrogels were used as a carrier for the drug delivery systems for the controlled release of insulin. The in vitro drug release behaviors of these hydrogels were examined by quantification analysis with a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Insulin was loaded into freeze-dried hydrogels (7 mm×3 mm×2.5 mm) and administrated orally to healthy and diabetic Wistar rats. The oral administration of insulin-loaded hydrogels to Wistar rats decreased the blood glucose levels obviously for at least 4 h due to the absorption of insulin in the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Extracellular-Matrix-Based and Arg-Gly-Asp–Modified Photopolymerizing Hydrogels for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan D.; Heo, Jiseung; Hwang, Yongsung; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Park, Ok Kyu; Kim, Hyunbum; Varghese, Shyni

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage is a persistent and increasing problem with the aging population. Strategies to achieve complete repair or functional restoration remain a challenge. Photopolymerizing-based hydrogels have long received an attention in the cartilage tissue engineering, due to their unique bioactivities, flexible method of synthesis, range of constituents, and desirable physical characteristics. In the present study, we have introduced unique bioactivity within the photopolymerizing-based hydrogels by copolymerizing polyethylene glycol (PEG) macromers with methacrylated extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate [CS]) and integrin binding peptides (RGD peptide). Results indicate that cellular morphology, as observed by the actin cytoskeleton structures, was strongly dependent on the type of ECM component as well as the presence of integrin binding moieties. Further, CS-based hydrogel with integrin binding RGD moieties increased the lubricin (or known as superficial zone protein [SZP]) gene expression of the encapsulated chondrocytes. Additionally, CS-based hydrogel displayed cell-responsive degradation and resulted in increased DNA, GAG, and collagen accumulation compared with other hydrogels. This study demonstrates that integrin-mediated interactions within CS microenvironment provide an optimal hydrogel scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering application. PMID:25266634

  16. Nicotine-selective radiation-induced poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraydin, D.; Karadağ, E.; Çaldiran, Y.; Güven, O.

    2001-02-01

    Nicotine-selective poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) (AAm/MA) hydrogels prepared by γ-irradiation were used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and interactions of the pharmaceuticals nicotine, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nikethamide. For AAm/MA hydrogel containing 60 mg maleic acid and irradiated at 5.2 kGy, the studies indicated that swelling increased in the following order; nicotine>nicotinamide>nikethamide>nicotinic acid>water. Diffusions of water and the pharmaceuticals within the hydrogels were found to be non-Fickian in character. AAm/MA hydrogel sorbed only nicotine and did not sorb nicotinamide, nikethamide and nicotinic acid in the binding experiments. S-type adsorption in Giles's classification system was observed. Some binding and thermodynamic parameters for AAm/MA hydrogel-nicotine system were calculated using the Scatchard method. The values of adsorption heat and free energy of this system were found to be negative whereas adsorption entropy was found to be positive.

  17. Formulation and evaluation of microemulsion-based hydrogel for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Vidya; Vora, Sejal

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop microemulsion-based hydrogel formulation for topical delivery of bifonazole with an objective to increase the solubility and skin permeability of the drug. Oleic acid was screened as the oil phase of microemulsions, due to a good solubilizing capacity of the microemulison systems. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for microemulsion regions were constructed using oleic acid as the oil, Tween 80 as the surfactant and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the cosurfactant. Various microemulsion formulations were prepared and optimized by 3(2) factorial design on the basis of percentage (%) transmittance, globule size, zeta potential, drug release, and skin permeability. The abilities of various microemulsions to deliver bifonazole through the skin were evaluated ex vivo using Franz diffusion cells fitted with rat skins. The Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) K100 M as a gel matrix was used to construct the microemulsion-based hydrogel for improving the viscosity of microemulsion for topical administration. The optimized microemulsion-based hydrogel was evaluated for viscosity, spreadability, skin irritancy, skin permeability, stability, and antifungal activity by comparing it with marketed bifonazole cream. The mechanism of drug release from microemulsion-based hydrogel was observed to follow zero order kinetics. The studied optimized microemulsion-based hydrogel showed a good stability over the period of 3 months. Average globule size of optimized microemulsion (F5) was found to be 18.98 nm, zeta potential was found to be -5.56 mv, and permeability of drug from microemulsion within 8 h was observed 84%. The antifungal activity of microemulsion-based hydrogel was found to be comparable with marketed cream. The results indicate that the studied microemulsion-based hydrogel (F5) has a potential for sustained action of drug release and it may act as promising vehicle for topical delivery of ibuprofen.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of microemulsion-based hydrogel for topical delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Vora, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop microemulsion-based hydrogel formulation for topical delivery of bifonazole with an objective to increase the solubility and skin permeability of the drug. Materials and Methods: Oleic acid was screened as the oil phase of microemulsions, due to a good solubilizing capacity of the microemulison systems. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for microemulsion regions were constructed using oleic acid as the oil, Tween 80 as the surfactant and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the cosurfactant. Various microemulsion formulations were prepared and optimized by 32 factorial design on the basis of percentage (%) transmittance, globule size, zeta potential, drug release, and skin permeability. The abilities of various microemulsions to deliver bifonazole through the skin were evaluated ex vivo using Franz diffusion cells fitted with rat skins. The Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) K100 M as a gel matrix was used to construct the microemulsion-based hydrogel for improving the viscosity of microemulsion for topical administration. The optimized microemulsion-based hydrogel was evaluated for viscosity, spreadability, skin irritancy, skin permeability, stability, and antifungal activity by comparing it with marketed bifonazole cream. Results: The mechanism of drug release from microemulsion-based hydrogel was observed to follow zero order kinetics. The studied optimized microemulsion-based hydrogel showed a good stability over the period of 3 months. Average globule size of optimized microemulsion (F5) was found to be 18.98 nm, zeta potential was found to be -5.56 mv, and permeability of drug from microemulsion within 8 h was observed 84%. The antifungal activity of microemulsion-based hydrogel was found to be comparable with marketed cream. Conclusion: The results indicate that the studied microemulsion-based hydrogel (F5) has a potential for sustained action of drug release and it may act as promising vehicle for topical

  19. Glycerophosphate-based chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels and their biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui Yun; Jiang, Ling Juan; Cao, Pei Pei; Li, Jun Bo; Chen, Xi Guang

    2015-03-06

    Chitosan is non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide composed of glucosamine and derived by deacetylation of chitin. Chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel has been developed to form a gel in situ, precluding the need for surgical implantation. In this review, the recent advances in chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels based on different glycerophosphate are summarized. The hydrogel is prepared with chitosan and β-glycerophosphate or αβ-glycerophosphate which is liquid at room temperature and transits into gel as temperature increases. The gelation mechanism may involve multiple interactions between chitosan, glycerophosphate, and water. The solution behavior, rheological and physicochemical properties, and gelation process of the hydrogel are affected not only by the molecule weight, deacetylation degree, and concentration of chitosan, but also by the kind and concentration of glycerophosphate. The properties and the three-dimensional networks of the hydrogel offer them wide applications in biomedical field including local drug delivery and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface-modified silk hydrogel containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticle with hyaluronic acid-dopamine conjugate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Hwan; Park, Jong Bo; Kang, Min Ji; Park, Young Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (SF/HAp) composite hydrogels were fabricated in this study, having different HAp contents (0-33 wt%) in SF matrix hydrogel. Surface modification of HAp nanoparticle with hyaluronic acid (HA)-dopamine (DA) conjugate improved a dispersibility of HAp in aqueous SF solution due to its negatively charged surface and therefore, fabrication of the SF composite hydrogel having HAp nanoparticles inside could be possible. Zeta potential of surface-modified HAP was examined by ELS. It demonstrates that surface of HAp was well modified to a negative charge with HA-DA. Morphological structure of SF hydrogel containing surface-modified HAp was examined by FE-SEM for analyzing pore structure of hydrogel and deposition of HAp nanoparticle in SF hydrogel. It was found that HAp nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on the pore wall of SF hydrogel. Structural characteristics of SF/HAp composite hydrogel was performed using X-ray diffraction and FT-IR analysis. It was found that β-sheet crystal conformation of SF was significantly influenced by the HAp content during gelation of a mixture of SF and HAp. As a result of MTT assay, the SF/HAp composite hydrogel showed excellent cell proliferation ability. Therefore, it is expected that SF hydrogel containing HAp nanoparticles has a high potential as bone regeneration scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of crosslinked methylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue augmentation using an ammonium persulfate-ascorbic acid redox system.

    PubMed

    Gold, Gittel T; Varma, Devika M; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2015-12-10

    Hydrogels composed of methylcellulose are candidate materials for soft tissue reconstruction. Although photocrosslinked methylcellulose hydrogels have shown promise for such applications, gels crosslinked using reduction-oxidation (redox) initiators may be more clinically viable. In this study, methylcellulose modified with functional methacrylate groups was polymerized using an ammonium persulfate (APS)-ascorbic acid (AA) redox initiation system to produce injectable hydrogels with tunable properties. By varying macromer concentration from 2% to 4% (w/v), the equilibrium moduli of the hydrogels ranged from 1.47 ± 0.33 to 5.31 ± 0.71 kPa, on par with human adipose tissue. Gelation time was found to conform to the ISO standard for injectable materials. Cellulase treatment resulted in complete degradation of the hydrogels within 24h, providing a reversible corrective feature. Co-culture with human dermal fibroblasts confirmed the cytocompatibility of the gels based on DNA measurements and Live/Dead imaging. Taken together, this evidence indicates that APS-AA redox-polymerized methylcellulose hydrogels possess properties beneficial for use as soft tissue fillers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Gelatin-Based Crosslinkers for the Fabrication of Superabsorbent Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Amonpattaratkit, Penphitcha; Khunmanee, Sureerat; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Hansoo

    2017-01-01

    In this work, crosslinkers were prepared by conjugating high- and low-molecular-weight gelatin with different mole ratios of itaconic acid (IA) with double bonds. Then, the gelatin-itaconic acid (gelatin-IA) crosslinkers were compared with the gelatin-methacrylate (gelatin-MA) crosslinkers. The molecular weights and structures of gelatin-MA and gelatin-IA were confirmed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Additionally, the swelling ratio and biodegradation properties of the hydrogels using IA as starting monomers and gelatin-IA and gelatin-MA as crosslinkers were investigated. Both hydrogels prepared with high and low molecular weights of gelatin-IA showed higher swelling ratios than those prepared with the gelatin-MA. The results also showed that absorbent hydrogels with different biodegradabilities and swelling ratios could be prepared by changing the ratio of the gelatin-based crosslinkers. PMID:28773186

  3. Controlled Transdermal Iontophoresis by Polypyrrole/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chansai, Phithupha; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-03-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system delivers a drug into a body at desired site and rate. The conductive polymer-hydrogel blend between polypyrrole (PPy) doped with anionic drug and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were developed as a matrix/carrier of drug for the transdermal drug delivery in which the characteristic releases depend on the electrical field applied. The PAA films and their blend films were prepared by solution casting using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinking agent. A mechanical blending of PPy particles and PAA matrix was then carried out. Drug diffusions in the blended PPy/PAA hydrogel and the non-blended one were investigated and determined by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell with an acetate buffer, pH 5.5, at 37 0C, for a period of 48 hours to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. Amounts of the released drug were measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The diffusion coefficient of drug was determined through the Higuchi equation via different conditions, with and without an electric field. Moreover, thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the polypyrrole and drug-loaded polypyrrole were investigated by means of the thermogravimetric analysis and by using a two-point probe meter, respectively.

  4. Poly(amido-amine)-based hydrogels with tailored mechanical properties and degradation rates for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Tamplenizza, Margherita; Gerges, Irini; Pistis, Valentina; Recenti, Rossella; Bortolin, Monica; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Argentiere, Simona; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Poly(amido-amine) (PAA) hydrogels containing the 2,2-bisacrylamidoacetic acid-4-amminobutyl guanidine monomeric unit have a known ability to enhance cellular adhesion by interacting with the arginin-glycin-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding αVβ3 integrin, expressed by a wide number of cell types. Scientific interest in this class of materials has traditionally been hampered by their poor mechanical properties and restricted range of degradation rate. Here we present the design of novel biocompatible, RGD-mimic PAA-based hydrogels with wide and tunable degradation rates as well as improved mechanical and biological properties for biomedical applications. This is achieved by radical polymerization of acrylamide-terminated PAA oligomers in both the presence and absence of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate. The degradation rate is found to be precisely tunable by adjusting the PAA oligomer molecular weight and acrylic co-monomer concentration in the starting reaction mixture. Cell adhesion and proliferation tests on Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells show that PAA-based hydrogels have the capacity to promote cell adhesion up to 200% compared to the control. Mechanical tests show higher compressive strength of acrylic chain containing hydrogels compared to traditional PAA hydrogels. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogels to control release of dexamethasone through aqueous Diels-Alder chemistry for adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Zhang, Ziwei; Mao, Jiahui; Tan, Huaping; Hu, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    A robust synthetic strategy of biopolymer-based hydrogels has been developed where hyaluronic acid derivatives reacted through aqueous Diels-Alder chemistry without the involvement of chemical catalysts, allowing for control and sustain release of dexamethasone. To conjugate the hydrogel, furan and maleimide functionalized hyaluronic acid were synthesized, respectively, as well as furan functionalized dexamethasone, for the covalent immobilization. Chemical structure, gelation time, morphologies, swelling kinetics, weight loss, compressive modulus and dexamethasone release of the hydrogel system in PBS at 37°C were studied. The results demonstrated that the aqueous Diels-Alder chemistry provides an extremely selective reaction and proceeds with high efficiency for hydrogel conjugation and covalent immobilization of dexamethasone. Cell culture results showed that the dexamethasone immobilized hydrogel was noncytotoxic and preserved proliferation of entrapped human adipose-derived stem cells. This synthetic approach uniquely allows for the direct fabrication of biologically functionalized gel scaffolds with ideal structures for adipose tissue engineering, which provides a competitive alternative to conventional conjugation techniques such as copper mediated click chemistry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Toxicity associated with ingestion of a polyacrylic acid hydrogel dog pad.

    PubMed

    Dorman, David C; Foster, Melanie L; Olesnevich, Brooke; Bolon, Brad; Castel, Aude; Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Mariani, Christopher L

    2018-06-01

    Superabsorbent sodium polyacrylate polymeric hydrogels that retain large amounts of liquids are used in disposable diapers, sanitary napkins, and other applications. These polymers are generally considered "nontoxic" with acute oral median lethal doses (LD 50 ) >5 g/kg. Despite this favorable toxicity profile, we identified a novel toxic syndrome in dogs and rats following the ingestion of a commercial dog pad composed primarily of a polyacrylic acid hydrogel. Inappropriate mentation, cerebellar ataxia, vomiting, and intention tremors were observed within 24 h after the ingestion of up to 15.7 g/kg of the hydrogel by an adult, castrated male Australian Shepherd mix. These observations prompted an experimental study in rats to further characterize the toxicity of the hydrogel. Adult, female Sprague Dawley rats ( n = 9) were assessed before and after hydrogel ingestion (2.6-19.2 g/kg over 4 h) using a functional observation battery and spontaneous motor activity. Clinical signs consistent with neurotoxicity emerged in rats as early as 2 h after the end of hydrogel exposure, including decreased activity in an open field, hunched posture, gait changes, reduced reaction to handling, decreased muscle tone, and abnormal surface righting. Hydrogel-exposed rats also had reduced motor activity when compared with pre-exposure baseline data. Rats that ingested the hydrogel did not develop nervous system lesions. These findings support the conclusion that some pet pad hydrogel products can induce acute neurotoxicity in animals under high-dose exposure conditions.

  7. Modulation of biomechanical properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels by crosslinking agents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Chul; Yoo, Mi Ae; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Hyun Ji; Son, Dong Hoon; Jung, Jessica; Noh, Insup; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2015-09-01

    Modulation of both mechanical properties and biocompatibilities of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels is very importance for their applications in biomaterials. Pure HA solution was converted into a hydrogel by using butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) as a crosslinking agent. Mechanical properties of the HA hydrogels have been evaluated by adding up different amount of BDDEs. While the mechanical properties of the obtained HA hydrogels were evaluated by measuring their crosslinking degrees, elastic modulus and viscosity, their in vitro biocompatibilities were done by measuring the degrees of anti-inflammatory reactions, cell viabilities and cytotoxicity. The degrees of anti-inflammatory reactions were determined by measuring the amount of nitric oxides (NOs) released from lipopolysaccharide(LPS)(+)-induced macrophages; cell viability was evaluated by observing differences in the behaviors of fibroblasts covered with the HA hydrogels, compared with those covered with the films of Teflon and Latex. Cytotoxicity of the HA hydrogels was also evaluated by measuring the degrees of viability of the cells exposed on the extracts of the HA hydrogels over those of Teflon, Latex and pure HA solutions by the assays of thiazoly blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral reds, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The results showed that employment of BDDEs beyond critical amounts showed lower biocompatibility of the crosslinked HA hydrogels but higher crosslinking degrees and mechanical properties, indicating the importance of controlling the HA concentrations, BDDE amounts and their reaction times for the synthesis of the crosslinked HA hydrogels for their clinical applications as biomaterials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Crosslinking method of hyaluronic-based hydrogel for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Khunmanee, Sureerat; Jeong, Younghyen; Park, Hansoo

    2017-01-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, there is a need for advancement beyond conventional scaffolds and preformed hydrogels. Injectable hydrogels have gained wider admiration among researchers as they can be used in minimally invasive surgical procedures. Injectable gels completely fill the defect area and have good permeability and hence are promising biomaterials. The technique can be effectively applied to deliver a wide range of bioactive agents, such as drugs, proteins, growth factors, and even living cells. Hyaluronic acid is a promising candidate for the tissue engineering field because of its unique physicochemical and biological properties. Thus, this review provides an overview of various methods of chemical and physical crosslinking using different linkers that have been investigated to develop the mechanical properties, biodegradation, and biocompatibility of hyaluronic acid as an injectable hydrogel in cell scaffolds, drug delivery systems, and wound healing applications. PMID:28912946

  9. Biodegradable Cellulose-based Hydrogels: Design and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sannino, Alessandro; Demitri, Christian; Madaghiele, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels are macromolecular networks able to absorb and release water solutions in a reversible manner, in response to specific environmental stimuli. Such stimuli-sensitive behaviour makes hydrogels appealing for the design of ‘smart’ devices, applicable in a variety of technological fields. In particular, in cases where either ecological or biocompatibility issues are concerned, the biodegradability of the hydrogel network, together with the control of the degradation rate, may provide additional value to the developed device. This review surveys the design and the applications of cellulose-based hydrogels, which are extensively investigated due to the large availability of cellulose in nature, the intrinsic degradability of cellulose and the smart behaviour displayed by some cellulose derivatives.

  10. Transient Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Resilin-based Elastomeric Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linqing; Kiick, Kristi

    2014-04-01

    The outstanding high-frequency properties of emerging resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) have motivated their development for vocal fold tissue regeneration and other applications. Recombinant RLP hydrogels show efficient gelation, tunable mechanical properties, and display excellent extensibility, but little has been reported about their transient mechanical properties. In this manuscript, we describe the transient mechanical behavior of new RLP hydrogels investigated via both sinusoidal oscillatory shear deformation and uniaxial tensile testing. Oscillatory stress relaxation and creep experiments confirm that RLP-based hydrogels display significantly reduced stress relaxation and improved strain recovery compared to PEG-based control hydrogels. Uniaxial tensile testing confirms the negligible hysteresis, reversible elasticity and superior resilience (up to 98%) of hydrated RLP hydrogels, with Young’s modulus values that compare favorably with those previously reported for resilin and that mimic the tensile properties of the vocal fold ligament at low strain (< 15%). These studies expand our understanding of the properties of these RLP materials under a variety of conditions, and confirm the unique applicability, for mechanically demanding tissue engineering applications, of a range of RLP hydrogels.

  11. pH-responsive self-healing injectable hydrogel based on N-carboxyethyl chitosan for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jin; Zhao, Xin; Ma, Peter X; Guo, Baolin

    2017-08-01

    Injectable hydrogels with pH-responsiveness and self-healing ability have great potential for anti-cancer drug delivery. Herein, we developed a series of polysaccharide-based self-healing hydrogels with pH-sensitivity as drug delivery vehicles for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. The hydrogels were prepared by using N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) synthesized via Michael reaction in aqueous solution and dibenzaldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDA). Doxorubicin (Dox), as a model of water-soluble small molecule anti-cancer drug was encapsulated into the hydrogel in situ. Self-healing behavior of the hydrogels was investigated at microscopic and macroscopic levels, and the hydrogels showed rapid self-healing performance without any external stimulus owing to the dynamic covalent Schiff-base linkage between amine groups from CEC and benzaldehyde groups from PEGDA. The chemical structures, rheological property, in vitro gel degradation, morphology, gelation time and in vitro Dox release behavior from the hydrogels were characterized. Injectability was verified by in vitro injection and in vivo subcutaneous injection in a rat. pH-responsive behavior was verified by in vitro Dox release from hydrogels in PBS solutions with different pH values. Furthermore, the activity of Dox released from hydrogel matrix was evaluated by employing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2). Cytotoxicity test of the hydrogels using L929 cells confirmed their good cytocompatibility. Together, these pH-responsive self-healing injectable hydrogels are excellent candidates as drug delivery vehicles for liver cancer treatment. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: pH-responsive drug delivery system could release drug efficiently in targeted acid environment and minimalize the amount of drug release in normal physiological environment. pH-sensitive injectable hydrogels as smart anti-cancer drug delivery carriers show great potential application for cancer therapy. The hydrogels with self

  12. Supramolecular Hydrogels Based on Minimalist Amphiphilic Squaramide-Squaramates for Controlled Release of Zwitterionic Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    López, Carlos; Ximenis, Marta; Orvay, Francisca; Rotger, Carmen; Costa, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels with tunable properties have innovative applications in biomedicine, catalysis, and materials chemistry. Minimalist low-molecular-weight hydrogelators based on squaramide and squaramic acid motifs have been designed. This approach benefits from the high acidity of squaramic acids and the aromaticity of squaramides. Moreover, substituents on the aryl ring tune the π density of the arylsquaramide motif. Thus, materials featuring distinct thermal and mechanical properties have been successfully prepared. The hydrogel (G'≈400 Pa, G''≈57 Pa; at 1.0 % w/v; 1 Hz) obtained from 4-nitrophenylsquaramide motif 1 is thermoreversible (T=57 °C at 0.2 % w/v), thixotropic, self-healable, and undergoes irreversible shrinking in response to saline stress. Furthermore, the hydrogel is injectable and can be loaded with substantial amounts (5:1 excess molar ratio) of zwitterionic biomolecules, such as l-carnitine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), or d,l-Ala-d,l-Ala, without any loss of structural integrity. Then, the release of these molecules can be modulated by saline solutions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Antibody loaded collapsible hyaluronic acid hydrogels for intraocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Egbu, Raphael; Brocchini, Steve; Khaw, Peng T; Awwad, Sahar

    2018-03-01

    Injectable gels have the potential to encapsulate drugs for sustained release of protein therapeutics for use in the eye. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biodegradable clinically used material and poly N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAAM) is a stimuli responsive polymer that can display a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at physiological conditions. Two gel systems incorporating HA were prepared in the presence of the antibody infliximab (INF): i) 1% and 5% tyramine-substituted HA (HA-Tyr) was enzymatically crosslinked in the presence of INF to form HA-Tyr-INF and ii) NIPAAM was chemically crosslinked in the presence of HA and INF with 1 and 3% poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) to form PEGDA-pNIPAAM-HA-INF. The PEGDA-pNIPAAM-HA-INF hydrogels displayed LCSTs at temperatures ranging from 31.4 ± 0.2 to 35.7 ± 0.3 °C. Although all the gels prepared were injectable, INF-loaded gels with lower crosslinking density (1% PEGDA-pNIPAAM-HA and 1% HA-Tyr) showed lower elastic (G') and viscous (G″) moduli compared to higher crosslinked gels (3% PEGDA-pNIPAAM-HA-INF and 5% HA-Tyr-INF) resulting in differences in swelling ratio (SR). Moduli may be correlated with overall stiffness of the gel. All hydrogels demonstrated sustained release of INF in a two-compartment in vitro outflow model of the human eye called the PK-Eye. The 1% PEGDA-pNIPAAM-HA-INF hydrogel displayed the slowest release (24.9 ± 0.4% INF release by day 9) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), which is a better release profile than the free drug alone (tested under the same conditions). These results suggest that PEGDA-pNIPAAM-HA has potential for the continued development of formulations to prolong the intraocular release of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogels for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells in 3D.

    PubMed

    Xu, Keming; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Lee, Fan; Bae, Ki Hyun; Gao, Shujun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds facilitates the cell expansion process and supplies pluripotent cells of high quality for broad-spectrum applications in regenerative medicine. Herein, we report an enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. HA-Tyr hydrogels were formed by crosslinking the tyramine moieties with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). By changing the HRP and H2O2 concentration, we prepared HA-Tyr hydrogels of different mechanical strength and studied the self-renewal properties of hESCs in these scaffolds. We observed that both the chemical composition and mechanical strength of substrates were important factors affecting cell proliferation and pluripotency. The HA-Tyr hydrogel with a compressive modulus of ∼350Pa supported the proliferation of hESCs at the pluripotent state in both mTeSR1 medium and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-conditioned medium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that hESCs proliferated well and formed spheroid structures in 3D, without undergoing apoptosis. The hESCs cultured in HA-Tyr hydrogels showed high expression of CD44 and pluripotency markers. These cells exhibited the capability to form cell derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the genetic integrity of the hESCs was unaffected in the 3D cultivation system. The scope of this study is to provide a stable 3D cultivation system for the expansion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards clinical applications. We report an enzyme mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. Unlike other HA-based photo-crosslinked hydrogel systems reported, we investigated the effects of mechanical strength of hydrogels on the self-renewal properties of hESCs in 3D. Then, we characterized hESCs cultured in hydrogels with lower mechanical strength

  15. Thiolated hyaluronan-based hydrogels crosslinked using oxidized glutathione: an injectable matrix designed for ophthalmic applications.

    PubMed

    Zarembinski, Thomas I; Doty, Nathaniel J; Erickson, Isaac E; Srinivas, Ramya; Wirostko, Barbara M; Tew, William P

    2014-01-01

    Future ophthalmic therapeutics will require the sustained delivery of bioactive proteins and nucleic acid-based macromolecules and/or provide a suitable microenvironment for the localization and sustenance of reparative progenitor cells after transplantation into or onto the eye. Water-rich hydrogels are ideal vehicles for such cargo, but few have all the qualities desired for novel ophthalmic use, namely in situ gelation speed, cytocompatibility, biocompatibility and capacity to functionalize. We describe here the development of an ophthalmic-compatible crosslinking system using oxidized glutathione (GSSG), a physiologically relevant molecule with a history of safe use in humans. When GSSG is used in conjunction with an existing hyaluronate-based, in situ crosslinkable hydrogel platform, gels form in less than 5 min using the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction. This GSSG hydrogel supports the 3-D culture of adipose-derived stem cells in vitro and shows biocompatibility in preliminary intracutaneous and subconjunctival experiments in vivo. In addition, the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction can also be used in conjunction with other thiol-compatible chemistries to covalently link peptides for more complex formulations. These data suggest that this hydrogel could be well suited for local ocular delivery, focusing initially on front of the eye therapies. Subsequent uses of the hydrogel include delivery of back of the eye treatments and eventually into other soft, hyaluronan-rich tissues such as those from the liver and brain. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogels with decoupled mechanical and biochemical cues for cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Danqing; Wang, Huiyuan; Trinh, Pavin; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Yang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix and is an attractive material for use as 3D injectable matrices for cartilage regeneration. While previous studies have shown the promise of HA-based hydrogels to support cell-based cartilage formation, varying HA concentration generally led to simultaneous changes in both biochemical cues and stiffness. How cells respond to the change of biochemical content of HA remains largely unknown. Here we report an adaptable elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogel platform using dynamic covalent chemistry, which allows variation of HA concentration without affecting matrix stiffness. ELP-HA hydrogels were created through dynamic hydrazone bonds via the reaction between hydrazine-modified ELP (ELP-HYD) and aldehyde-modified HA (HA-ALD). By tuning the stoichiometric ratio of aldehyde groups to hydrazine groups while maintaining ELP-HYD concentration constant, hydrogels with variable HA concentration (1.5%, 3%, or 5%) (w/v) were fabricated with comparable stiffness. To evaluate the effects of HA concentration on cell-based cartilage regeneration, chondrocytes were encapsulated within ELP-HA hydrogels with varying HA concentration. Increasing HA concentration led to a dose-dependent increase in cartilage-marker gene expression and enhanced sGAG deposition while minimizing undesirable fibrocartilage phenotype. The use of adaptable protein hydrogels formed via dynamic covalent chemistry may be broadly applicable as 3D scaffolds with decoupled niche properties to guide other desirable cell fates and tissue repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel thermoresponsive hydrogel based on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Yannic B; Gurny, Robert; Jordan, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Injectable thermosetting chitosan hydrogels are attractive systems for drug delivery and tissue engineering that combine biodegradability, biocompatibility and the ability to form in situ gel-like implants. Thermally-induced gelation relies advantageously on biopolymer secondary interactions, avoiding potentially toxic polymerization reactions that may occur with in situ polymerizing formulations. In view of a biomedical use, such formulations have to be sterilizable and storable on extended periods without losing their thermosetting properties. These two key features have been studied in the present paper. Chitosans from two different sources were added with several phosphate-free polyols or polyoses as gelling agents. Despite a reduction in chitosan molecular weight following autoclaving, the hydrogels prepared with autoclaved chitosan showed the desired thermosetting properties. Hence, chitosan steam sterilization combined with aseptic preparation of the hydrogel allows a sterile formulation to be obtained. Whereas thermosetting hydrogels were shown to be unstable when refrigerated, freezing was shown to be conceivable as a storage method. When trehalose or mannitol was used as stabilizing agent, the formulation reconstituted from a lyophilizate displayed thermosetting properties and was still injectable, paving the way to the development of a clinically utilizable, novel chitosan thermosetting hydrogel.

  18. Preparation and characterization of a new gellan gum and sulphated hyaluronic acid hydrogel designed for epidural scar prevention.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Claudia; Bellini, Davide; Longinotti, Cristina; Martinelli, Andrea; Matricardi, Pietro

    2011-02-01

    Postsurgical adhesions are a common problem in clinical practice, causing nerve compression, pain and discomfort. A new hydrogel based on gellan gum and sulphated hyaluronic acid was synthesized, with the aim to create an effective barrier for epidural scar formation. Physico-chemical properties of the gel were analyzed, and preliminary biocompatibility data (i.e. cytotoxicity) have been collected in view of its potential clinical use. The characterization of the new material demonstrated that the hydrogel, due to its high-viscosity, could effectively act as a barrier with a long in situ residence time. In addition, the hydrogel can be easily extruded from a syringe and its structure exhibits excellent stabilizing properties. Furthermore, biological assays showed that this gel is suitable for further preclinical development.

  19. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent CMC based hydrogels for agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raafat, Amany I.; Eid, Mona; El-Arnaouty, Magda B.

    2012-07-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) crosslinked with gamma irradiation have been proposed for agriculture application. The effect of preparation conditions such as feed solution composition and absorbed irradiation dose on the gelation and swelling degree was evaluated. The structure and the morphology of the superabsorbent CMC/PVP hydrogel were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Effect of ionic strength and cationic and anionic kinds on the swelling behavior of the obtained hydrogel was investigated. Urea as an agrochemical model was loaded onto the obtained hydrogel to provide nitrogen (N) nutrients. The water retention capability and the urea release behavior of the CMC/PVP hydrogels were investigated. It was found that, the obtained CMC/PVP hydrogels have good swelling degree that greatly affected by its composition and absorbed dose. The swelling was also extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cationic kind. Owing to its considerable slow urea release, good water retention capacity, being economical, and environment-friendly, it might be useful for its application in agriculture field.

  20. A composite hydrogels-based photonic crystal multi-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiangrong; Yu, Wei; Liu, Mingju; Ge, Qiaoqiao; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-04-01

    A facile route to prepare stimuli-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) gelated crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal material was developed. PVA was physically gelated by utilizing an ethanol-assisted method, the resulting hydrogel/crystal composite film was then functionalized with PAA to form an interpenetrating hydrogel film. This sensor film is able to efficiently diffract the visible light and rapidly respond to various environmental stimuli such as solvent, pH and strain, and the accompanying structural color shift can be repeatedly changed and easily distinguished by naked eye.

  1. Dynamic compressive loading enhances cartilage matrix synthesis and distribution and suppresses hypertrophy in hMSC-laden hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liming; Zhai, David Y; Zhang, Emily C; Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A

    2012-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being recognized as a viable cell source for cartilage repair, and there is growing evidence that mechanical signals play a critical role in the regulation of stem cell chondrogenesis and in cartilage development. In this study we investigated the effect of dynamic compressive loading on chondrogenesis, the production and distribution of cartilage specific matrix, and the hypertrophic differentiation of human MSCs encapsulated in hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels during long term culture. After 70 days of culture, dynamic compressive loading increased the mechanical properties, as well as the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen contents of HA hydrogel constructs in a seeding density dependent manner. The impact of loading on HA hydrogel construct properties was delayed when applied to lower density (20 million MSCs/ml) compared to higher seeding density (60 million MSCs/ml) constructs. Furthermore, loading promoted a more uniform spatial distribution of cartilage matrix in HA hydrogels with both seeding densities, leading to significantly improved mechanical properties as compared to free swelling constructs. Using a previously developed in vitro hypertrophy model, dynamic compressive loading was also shown to significantly reduce the expression of hypertrophic markers by human MSCs and to suppress the degree of calcification in MSC-seeded HA hydrogels. Findings from this study highlight the importance of mechanical loading in stem cell based therapy for cartilage repair in improving neocartilage properties and in potentially maintaining the cartilage phenotype.

  2. Novel Injectable Pentablock Copolymer Based Thermoresponsive Hydrogels for Sustained Release Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bobbala, Sharan; Tamboli, Viral; McDowell, Arlene; Mitra, Ashim K; Hook, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need for multiple vaccinations to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines may be reduced by delivering the vaccine over an extended period of time. Here, we report two novel injectable pentablock copolymer based thermoresponsive hydrogels made of polyethyleneglycol-polycaprolactone-polylactide-polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PEG-PCL-PLA-PCL-PEG) with varying ratios of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactide (PLA), as single shot sustained release vaccines. Pentablock copolymer hydrogels were loaded with vaccine-encapsulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NP) or with the soluble vaccine components. Incorporation of PLGA-NP into the thermoresponsive hydrogels increased the complex viscosity of the gels, lowered the gelation temperature, and minimized the burst release of antigen and adjuvants. The two pentablock hydrogels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The addition of PLGA-NP to the hydrogels sustained immune responses for up to 49 days. The polymer with a higher ratio of PCL to PLA formed a more rigid gel, induced stronger immune responses, and stimulated effective anti-tumor responses in a prophylactic melanoma tumor model.

  3. Physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of hydrogels based on Beetosan® containing sage and bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Tyliszczak, Bożena; Drabczyk, Anna; Kudłacik-Kramarczyk, Sonia; Grabowska, Beata; Kędzierska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Currently, increasing attention is being paid to issues related to environmental protection, waste management, as well as to the development of polymers with useful properties. The research presented here involved preparation of hydrogels based on Beetosan® - a chitosan derived from the multi-stage processing of dead bees. Moreover, hydrogels were additionally modified with natural substances - i.e. bee pollen and extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) that are well known for the presence of many compounds with beneficial properties from a medical point of view. Materials have been first obtained by photopolymerization. Then, their surface morphology, wettability and cytotoxicity to selected cell lines have been determined. It can be stated that such combination of Beetosan® hydrogel matrix and the mentioned additives resulted in a preparation of polymers characterized by negative impact on cancer cells. Impact of hydrogels with sage is slightly more intense due to the presence of substances such as ursalic or rosmaric acid that are characterized to have anticancer activity. Such negative impact has not been observed in case of studies using fibroblasts. Furthermore, addition of natural substances into hydrogels resulted in a more homogeneous surface and in the decrease of wettability angle of the tested polymers. It can be concluded that the use of natural-derived reagents and synthesis of polymers using these reagents (as a result of environmentally friendly photopolymerization) yields materials with interesting properties for medical purposes, with particular emphasis on antitumor activity, and without significant negative impact on fibroblasts.

  4. Lignin-based hydrogels with "super-swelling" capacities for dye removal.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Peresin, María Soledad; Tamminen, Tarja; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Larrañeta, Eneko; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina

    2018-04-12

    Lignin is a complex natural polymer and it is one of the main constituent of the lignocellulosic biomass. Moreover, it is a bio-renewable material and it is available in large amounts as by-product from the forest industry. Lignin-based hydrogels with high swelling capabilities were prepared by crosslinking poly (methyl vinyl ether co-maleic acid) and different technical lignins in ammonium and sodium hydroxide solutions. The produced hydrogels showed a wide range of water absorption capacities varying from 13 to 130 g of water per 1 g of sample. It was observed that the higher the water uptake the poorer mechanical performance, as evaluated in terms of storage and loss modulus (G' and G″, respectively) of the materials. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model dye to evaluate the adsorption and release capabilities of the lignin hydrogels. Results suggested that these hydrogels showed a high MB removal efficiency, which ranged from 12 to 96%. On the contrary, the percentages of MB released depended on the negative surface charge of the hydrogels, showing values which ranged from 0.06 to 0.35%. Thus, these materials have potential to be used as adsorbents for the removal of organic dyes from waste water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biocompatible nanomaterials based on dendrimers, hydrogels and hydrogel nanocomposites for use in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoa Nguyen, Cuu; Quyen Tran, Ngoc; Phuong Nguyen, Thi; Hai Nguyen, Dai

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, biopolymer-based nanomaterials have been developed to overcome the limitations of other macro- and micro- synthetic materials as well as the ever increasing demand for the new materials in nanotechnology, biotechnology, biomedicine and others. Owning to their high stability, biodegradability, low toxicity, and biocompatibility, biopolymer-based nanomaterials hold great promise for various biomedical applications. The pursuit of this review is to briefly describe our recent studies regarding biocompatible biopolymer-based nanomaterials, particularly in the form of dendrimers, hydrogels, and hydrogel composites along with the synthetic and modification approaches for the utilization in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biomedical implants. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies for the toxicity evaluation are also discussed.

  6. Spatiotemporal Programing for the On-Demand Release of Bupivacaine Based on an Injectable Composite Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Van Vuong; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yang, Han-Kwang; Lim, Yong Taik

    2016-12-01

    We report a programed drug delivery system that can tailor the release of anesthetic bupivacaine in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. The drug delivery system was developed through the combination of a collagen-based injectable hydrogel and 2 types of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles. As a rapid-release platform (90% release after 24 h), bupivacaine hydrochloride was incorporated into collagen/poly(γ-glutamic acid) hydrogel, which exhibited gel formation at body temperature. PLGA microparticles (diameter 1-3 μm) containing bupivacaine base showed a very slow release of bupivacaine (95% after 240 h), whereas PLGA nanoparticles (124 ± 30 nm) containing bupivacaine base demonstrated an intermediate release rate (95% after 160 h). By changing the relative composition ratio between the 3 components in these injectable composite hydrogels, the release of bupivacaine could be easily controlled from very rapid (within 1 day) to very delayed (up to 9 days). The experimental results on the release data (cumulative release, time point release, average release rate) were coincident with the release profile generated by computer simulation. These injectable composite hydrogels with systematically tunable mixing ratios are expected to serve as a promising technology for the on-demand release of bupivacaine in pain management. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of hyaluronic acid hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties on neural progenitor cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seidlits, Stephanie K; Khaing, Zin Z; Petersen, Rebecca R; Nickels, Jonathan D; Vanscoy, Jennifer E; Shear, Jason B; Schmidt, Christine E

    2010-05-01

    We report the ability to direct the differentiation pathway of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) within hydrogels having tunable mechanical properties. By modifying the polymeric sugar hyaluronic acid (HA), a major extracellular matrix component in the fetal mammalian brain, with varying numbers of photocrosslinkable methacrylate groups, hydrogels could be prepared with bulk compressive moduli spanning the threefold range measured for neonatal brain and adult spinal cord. Ventral midbrain-derived NPCs were photoencapsulated into HA hydrogels and remained viable after encapsulation. After three weeks, the majority of NPCs cultured in hydrogels with mechanical properties comparable to those of neonatal brain had differentiated into neurons (ss-III tubulin-positive), many of which had extended long, branched processes, indicative of a relatively mature phenotype. In contrast, NPCs within stiffer hydrogels, with mechanical properties comparable to those of adult brain, had differentiated into mostly astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive). Primary spinal astrocytes cultured in the hydrogel variants for two weeks acquired a spread and elongated morphology only in the stiffest hydrogels evaluated, with mechanical properties similar to adult tissue. Results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of these scaffolds can assert a defining influence on the differentiation of ventral midbrain-derived NPCs, which have strong clinical relevance because of their ability to mature into dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, cells that idiopathically degenerate in individuals suffering from Parkinson's disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D Polymer Hydrogel for High-Performance Atomic Fe and Mn Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Challenging Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhi

    Current platinum group metal (PGM)-free carbon nanocomposite catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic electrolyte often suffer from rapid degradation associated with carbon corrosion due to the use of large amount of the amorphoous carbon black supports. Here, we developed a new concept of using freestanding 3D hydrogel to design support-free Fe-N-C catalysts. A 3D polyaniline (PANI)-based hydrogel approach was used for preparing a new type of single atomic iron site-rich catalyst, which has exhibited exceptionally enhanced activity and stability compared to conventional Fe-N-C catalysts supported on amorphous carbon blacks. The achieved performance metric on the hydrogel PANI-Fe catalysts is one of the best ever reported PGM-free catalysts, reaching a half-wave potential up to 0.83 V vs. RHE and only leaving 30 mV gap with Pt/C catalysts (60mugPt/cm 2) in challenging acidic media. Remarkable ORR stability was accomplished as well on the same catalyst evidenced by using harsh potential cycling tests. The well dispersion of atomic iron into partially graphitized carbon, featured with dominance of micropores and porous network structures, is capable of accommodating increased number of active sites, strengthening local bonding among iron, nitrogen and carbon, and facilitating mass transfer. On the other hand, in order to decrease the produced Fenton reagent, which will oxidize the proton exchange membrane and ionomer in membrane electrode assembly (MEA), we produce Mn-based catalysts by this novel hydrogel method. This is the first time that Mn-based catalysts can show such outstanding performance in acid media, whose half-wave potential is up to 0.80 V vs. RHE. The work related to the performance improvement is still in processing. We believe the 3D polymer hydrogel approach would be a new pathway to advance PGM-free catalysts.

  9. Hydrogel based cartilaginous tissue regeneration: recent insights and technologies.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Peck, Yvonne; Lau, Jia En Josias; Hee, Hwan Tak; Wang, Dong-An

    2017-03-28

    Hydrogels have been extensively employed as an attractive biomaterial to address numerous existing challenges in the fields of regenerative medicine and research because of their unique properties such as the capability to encapsulate cells, high water content, ease of modification, low toxicity, injectability, in situ spatial fit and biocompatibility. These inherent properties have created many opportunities for hydrogels as a scaffold or a cell/drug carrier in tissue regeneration, especially in the field of cartilaginous tissue such as articular cartilage and intervertebral discs. A concise overview of the anatomy/physiology of these cartilaginous tissues and their pathophysiology, epidemiology and existing clinical treatments will be briefly described. This review article will discuss the current state-of-the-art of various polymers and developing strategies that are explored in establishing different technologies for cartilaginous tissue regeneration. In particular, an innovative approach to generate scaffold-free cartilaginous tissue via a transient hydrogel scaffolding system for disease modeling to pre-clinical trials will be examined. Following that, the article reviews numerous hydrogel-based medical implants used in clinical treatment of osteoarthritis and degenerated discs. Last but not least, the challenges and future directions of hydrogel based medical implants in the regeneration of cartilaginous tissue are also discussed.

  10. Gelatin- and starch-based hydrogels. Part B: In vitro mesenchymal stem cell behavior on the hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Peters, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    Tissue regeneration often occurs only to a limited extent. By providing a three-dimensional matrix serving as a surrogate extracellular matrix that promotes adult stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, scaffold-guided tissue regeneration aims at overcoming this limitation. In this study, we applied hydrogels made from crosslinkable gelatin, the hydrolyzed form of collagen, and functionalized starch which were characterized in depth and optimized as described in Van Nieuwenhove et al., 2016. "Gelatin- and Starch-Based Hydrogels. Part A: Hydrogel Development, Characterization and Coating", Carbohydrate Polymers 152:129-39. Collagen is the main structural protein in animal connective tissue and the most abundant protein in mammals. Starch is a carbohydrate consisting of a mixture of amylose and amylopectin. Hydrogels were developed with varying chemical composition (ratio of starch to gelatin applied) and different degrees of methacrylation of the applied gelatin phase. The hydrogels used exhibited no adverse effect on viability of the stem cells cultured on them. Moreover, initial cell adhesion did not differ significantly between them, while the strongest proliferation was observed on the hydrogel with the highest degree of cross-linking. On the least crosslinked and thus most flexible hydrogels, the highest degree of adipogenic differentiation was found, while osteogenic differentiation was the strongest on the most rigid, starch-blended hydrogels. Hydrogel coating with extracellular matrix compounds aggrecan or fibronectin prior to cell seeding exhibited no significant effects. Thus, gelatin-based hydrogels can be optimized regarding maximum promotion of either adipogenic or osteogenic stem cell differentiation in vitro, which makes them promising candidates for in vivo evaluation in clinical studies aiming at either soft or hard tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D polymer hydrogel for high-performance atomic iron-rich catalysts for oxygen reduction in acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Zhi; Zhang, Hanguang; Karakalos, Stavros

    Current platinum group metal (PGM)-free carbon nanocomposite catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic electrolyte often suffer from rapid degradation associated with carbon corrosion due to the use of large amount of amorphoous carbon black supports. Here, we developed a new concept of using freestanding 3D hydrogel to design support-free Fe-N-C catalysts. A 3D polyaniline (PANI)-based hydrogel was used for preparing a new type of single atomic iron site-rich catalyst, which has exhibited exceptionally enhanced activity and stability compared to conventional Fe-N-C catalysts supported on amorphous carbon blacks. The achieved performance metric on the hydrogel PANI-Fe catalysts ismore » one of the best ever reported PGM-free catalysts, reaching a half-wave potential up to 0.83 V vs. RHE and only leaving 30 mV gap with Pt/C catalysts (60 μgPt/cm2) in challenging acidic media. Remarkable ORR stability was accomplished as well on the same catalyst evidenced by using harsh potential cycling tests. The well dispersion of atomic iron into partially graphitized carbon, featured with dominance of micropores and porous network structures, is capable of accommodating increased number of active sites, strengthening local bonding among iron, nitrogen and carbon, and facilitating mass transfer. The 3D polymer hydrogel approach would be a new pathway to advance PGM-free catalysts.« less

  12. 3D polymer hydrogel for high-performance atomic iron-rich catalysts for oxygen reduction in acidic media

    DOE PAGES

    Qiao, Zhi; Zhang, Hanguang; Karakalos, Stavros; ...

    2017-08-03

    Current platinum group metal (PGM)-free carbon nanocomposite catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic electrolyte often suffer from rapid degradation associated with carbon corrosion due to the use of large amount of amorphoous carbon black supports. Here, we developed a new concept of using freestanding 3D hydrogel to design support-free Fe-N-C catalysts. A 3D polyaniline (PANI)-based hydrogel was used for preparing a new type of single atomic iron site-rich catalyst, which has exhibited exceptionally enhanced activity and stability compared to conventional Fe-N-C catalysts supported on amorphous carbon blacks. The achieved performance metric on the hydrogel PANI-Fe catalysts ismore » one of the best ever reported PGM-free catalysts, reaching a half-wave potential up to 0.83 V vs. RHE and only leaving 30 mV gap with Pt/C catalysts (60 μgPt/cm2) in challenging acidic media. Remarkable ORR stability was accomplished as well on the same catalyst evidenced by using harsh potential cycling tests. The well dispersion of atomic iron into partially graphitized carbon, featured with dominance of micropores and porous network structures, is capable of accommodating increased number of active sites, strengthening local bonding among iron, nitrogen and carbon, and facilitating mass transfer. The 3D polymer hydrogel approach would be a new pathway to advance PGM-free catalysts.« less

  13. Evaluation of gelatin-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels for accelerating wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Deng, Liang; Hsia, Hanson; Xu, Kai; He, Yu; Huang, Qiangru; Peng, Yi; Zhou, Zhihua; Peng, Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Excellent wound dressings maintain a warm and moist environment, thus accelerating wound healing. In this study, we cross-linked gelatin and hyaluronic acid with ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride in different ratios (gelatin/hyaluronic acid = 8:2, gelatin/hyaluronic acid = 5:5, gelatin/hyaluronic acid = 2:8), and explored the effects and mechanisms of gelatinhyaluronic acid hydrogels on wound healing. This was done by examining dressing properties, such as fluid uptake ability, water vapor transmission rate, and the rate of water evaporation. We further verified biological function by using in vitro and in vivo wound models. The hydrogels display appropriate fluid uptake ability and good water vapor transmission rate and rate of water evaporation all of which can provide an adequate moisture environment for wound healing. Cell cytotoxicity and proliferation tests show that the hydrogels have no cytotoxicity, furthermore, gelatin/hyaluronic acid = 8:2 hydrogels have the potential to promote cell proliferation. Animal wound models demonstrate that the hydrogels can effectively promote wound healing in vivo, in particular, the gelatin/hyaluronic acid = 8:2 group which promoted the most rapid healing. Accordingly, gelatin-hyaluronic acid dressings, especially the gelatin/hyaluronic acid = 8:2 hydrogels, have a promising outlook for clinical applications in wound healing.

  14. Hydrogel Film-Immobilized Lactobacillus brevis RK03 for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Liaw, Wen-Chang; Kuo, Jen-Min; Deng, Chi-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (HEMA/PEGDA) have been extensively studied for their use in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their nontoxic and highly hydrophilic characteristics. Recently, cells immobilized by HEMA/PEGDA hydrogels have also been studied for enhanced production in fermentation. Hydrogel films of HEMA/PEGDA copolymer were generated by Ultraviolet (UV)-initiated photopolymerization. The hydrogel films were used to immobilize viable Lactobacillus brevis RK03 cells for the bioconversion of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The mechanical properties and fermentation yields of the L. brevis RK03 cells immobilized on polyacrylate hydrogel films with different monomeric formulations were investigated. Fermentation was carried out in 75 mL de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium containing various concentrations of MSG. We found that HEMA (93%)/PEGDA (3%) hydrogels (sample H) maximized GABA production. The conversion rate of MSG to GABA reached a maximum value of 98.4% after 240 h. Bioconversion activity gradually declined after 420 h to 83.8% after five cycles of semi-continuous fermentation. Our results suggest that HEMA (93%)/PEGDA (3%) hydrogels have great potential for use in GABA production via semi-continuous fermentation. PMID:29099794

  15. A PEG-Based Hydrogel for Effective Wound Care Management

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sen-Lu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Liao, Shih-Fei; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Wang, Yu-Chi

    2018-01-01

    It is extremely challenging to achieve strong adhesion in soft tissues while minimizing toxicity, tissue damage, and other side effects caused by wound sealing materials. In this study, flexible synthetic hydrogel sealants were prepared based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) materials. PEG is a synthetic material that is nontoxic and inert and, thus, suitable for use in medical products. We evaluated the in vitro biocompatibility tests of the dressings to assess cytotoxicity and irritation, sensitization, pyrogen toxicity, and systemic toxicity following the International Organization for Standardization 10993 standards and the in vivo effects of the hydrogel samples using Coloskin liquid bandages as control samples for potential in wound closure. PMID:29637814

  16. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of graphene oxide-reinforced poly (acrylic acid)/gelatin composite hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, Shahab; Gheysour, Mahsa; Karimi, Alireza; Salarian, Reza

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels have found many practical uses in drug release, wound dressing, and tissue engineering. However, their applications are restricted due to their weak mechanical properties. The role of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONS) as reinforcement agent in poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)/Gelatin (Gel) composite hydrogels is investigated. Composite hydrogels are synthesized by thermal initiated redox polymerization method. Samples are then prepared with 20 and 40 wt. % of PAA, an increasing amount of GONS (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt. %), and a constant amount of Gel. Subsequently, cylindrical hydrogel samples are subjected to a series of compression tests in order to measure their elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The results exhibit that the addition of GONS increases the Young's modulus and maximum stress of hydrogels significantly as compared with control (0.0 wt. % GONS). The highest Young's modulus is observed for hydrogel with GO (0.2 wt. %)/PAA (20 wt. %), whereas the highest maximum stress is detected for GO (0.2 wt. %)/PAA (40 wt. %) specimen. The addition of higher amounts of GONS leads to a decrease in the maximum stress of the hydrogel GO (0.3 wt. %)/PAA (40 wt. %). No significant differences are detected for the maximum strain among the hydrogel samples, as the amount of GONS increased. These results suggest that the application of GONS could be used to improve mechanical properties of hydrogel materials. This study may provide an alternative for the fabrication of low-cost graphene/polymer composites with enhanced mechanical properties beneficial for tissue engineering applications.

  17. Hydrogel microparticles for biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Gaelle C.; Srinivas, Rathi L.; Hill, W. Adam; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their hydrophilic, biocompatible, and highly tunable nature, hydrogel materials have attracted strong interest in the recent years for numerous biotechnological applications. In particular, their solution-like environment and non-fouling nature in complex biological samples render hydrogels as ideal substrates for biosensing applications. Hydrogel coatings, and later, gel dot surface microarrays, were successfully used in sensitive nucleic acid assays and immunoassays. More recently, new microfabrication techniques for synthesizing encoded particles from hydrogel materials have enabled the development of hydrogel-based suspension arrays. Lithography processes and droplet-based microfluidic techniques enable generation of libraries of particles with unique spectral or graphical codes, for multiplexed sensing in biological samples. In this review, we discuss the key questions arising when designing hydrogel particles dedicated to biosensing. How can the hydrogel material be engineered in order to tune its properties and immobilize bioprobes inside? What are the strategies to fabricate and encode gel particles, and how can particles be processed and decoded after the assay? Finally, we review the bioassays reported so far in the literature that have used hydrogel particle arrays and give an outlook of further developments of the field. PMID:26594056

  18. Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Kuang, Jia; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Seob Khil, Myung; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV-vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity.

  19. Biodegradable and thermosensitive monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) hydrogel as a barrier for prevention of post-operative abdominal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shao Zhi; Li, Zhi; Fan, Jun Ming; Meng, Xiao Hang; Shi, Kun; Qu, Ying; Yang, Ling Lin; Wu, Jing Bo; Fan, Juan; Luot, Feng; Qian, Zhi Yong

    2014-03-01

    Post-operative peritoneal adhesions are serious consequences of abdominal or pelvic surgery and cause severe bowel obstruction, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. In this study, a novel nano-hydrogel system based on a monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (MPEG-PLA) di-block copolymer was studied for its ability to prevent abdominal adhesion in rats. The MPEG-PLA hydrogel at a concentration of 40% (w/v) was injected and was able to adhere to defect sites at body temperature. The ability of the hydrogel to inhibit adhesion of post-operative tissues was evaluated by utilizing a rat model of abdominal sidewall-cecum abrasion. It was possible to heal wounded tissue through regeneration of neo-peritoneal tissues ten days after surgery. Our data showed that this hydrogel system is equally as effective as current commercialized anti-adhesive products.

  20. Alginate/hyaluronic acid hydrogel delivery system characteristics regulate the differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells toward chondrogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sahar; Diniz, Ivana M; Chen, Chider; Aghaloo, Tara; Wu, Benjamin M; Shi, Songtao; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2017-09-15

    Cartilage tissue regeneration often presents a challenging clinical situation. Recently, it has been shown that Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) possess high chondrogenic differentiation capacity. In this study, we developed a stem cell delivery system based on alginate/hyaluronic acid (HA) loaded with TGF-β1 ligand, encapsulating PDLSCs; and investigated the chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated cells in alginate/HA hydrogel microspheres in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that PDLSCs, as well as human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs), as the positive control, were stained positive for both toluidine blue and alcian blue staining, while exhibiting high levels of gene expression related to chondrogenesis (Col II, Aggrecan and Sox-9), as assessed via qPCR. The quantitative PCR analyses exhibited that the chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated MSCs can be regulated by the modulus of elasticity of hydrogel delivery system, confirming the vital role of the microenvironment, and the presence of inductive signals for viability and differentiation of MSCs. In vivo, histological and immunofluorescence staining for chondrogenic specific protein markers confirmed ectopic cartilage-like tissue regeneration inside transplanted hydrogels. PDLSCs presented significantly greater capability for chondrogenic differentiation than hBMMSCs (P < 0.05). Altogether, our findings confirmed that alginate/HA hydrogels encapsulating PDLSCs are a promising candidate for cartilage regeneration.

  1. Heparin-based hydrogels induce human renal tubulogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weber, Heather M; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Magno, Valentina; Freudenberg, Uwe; Werner, Carsten

    2017-07-15

    Dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only therapeutic option for end stage renal disease. Accordingly, there is a large unmet clinical need for new causative therapeutic treatments. Obtaining robust models that mimic the complex nature of the human kidney is a critical step in the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we establish a synthetic in vitro human renal tubulogenesis model based on a tunable glycosaminoglycan-hydrogel platform. In this system, renal tubulogenesis can be modulated by the adjustment of hydrogel mechanics and degradability, growth factor signaling, and the presence of insoluble adhesion cues, potentially providing new insights for regenerative therapy. Different hydrogel properties were systematically investigated for their ability to regulate renal tubulogenesis. Hydrogels based on heparin and matrix metalloproteinase cleavable peptide linker units were found to induce the morphogenesis of single human proximal tubule epithelial cells into physiologically sized tubule structures. The generated tubules display polarization markers, extracellular matrix components, and organic anion transport functions of the in vivo renal proximal tubule and respond to nephrotoxins comparable to the human clinical response. The established hydrogel-based human renal tubulogenesis model is thus considered highly valuable for renal regenerative medicine and personalized nephrotoxicity studies. The only cure for end stage kidney disease is kidney transplantation. Hence, there is a huge need for reliable human kidney models to study renal regeneration and establish alternative treatments. Here we show the development and application of an in vitro human renal tubulogenesis model using heparin-based hydrogels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first system where human renal tubulogenesis can be monitored from single cells to physiologically sized tubule structures in a tunable hydrogel system. To validate the efficacy of our model as a drug

  2. Production of lignin based insoluble polymers (anionic hydrogels) by C. versicolor.

    PubMed

    Brzonova, Ivana; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Andrianova, Anastasia A; LaVallie, Audrey; Kubátová, Alena; Ji, Yun

    2017-12-13

    Unlike previous lignin biodegradation studies, white rot fungi were used to produce functional biopolymers from Kraft lignin. Lignin-based polymers (hydrogel precursors) partially soluble in both aqueous and organic solvents were produced employing a relatively fast (6 days) enzymation of Kraft lignin with basidiomycetes, primarily Coriolus versicolor, pre-grown on kenaf/lignin agar followed by either vacuum evaporation or acid precipitation. After drying followed by a treatment with alkaline water, this intermediate polymer became a pH-sensitive anionic hydrogel insoluble in either aqueous or organic solvents. The yield of this polymer increased from 20 to 72 wt% with the addition of 2% dimethylsulfoxide to distilled water used as a medium. The mechanical stability and buffering capacity of this hydrogel can be adjusted by washing the intermediate polymer/hydrogel precursor prior to drying with solvents of different polarity (water, methanol or ethanol). Any of these polymers featured a significant thermal resilience assessed as a high thermostable "coked" fraction in thermal carbon analysis, apparently resulting from significant covalent cross-linking that occurs during the treatment of their intermediate precursors.

  3. Formulation Changes Affect Material Properties and Cell Behavior in HA-Based Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lawyer, Thomas; McIntosh, Kristen; Clavijo, Cristian; Potekhina, Lydia; Mann, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    To develop and optimize new scaffold materials for tissue engineering applications, it is important to understand how changes to the scaffold affect the cells that will interact with that scaffold. In this study, we used a hyaluronic acid- (HA-) based hydrogel as a synthetic extracellular matrix, containing modified HA (CMHA-S), modified gelatin (Gtn-S), and a crosslinker (PEGda). By varying the concentrations of these components, we were able to change the gelation time, enzymatic degradation, and compressive modulus of the hydrogel. These changes also affected fibroblast spreading within the hydrogels and differentially affected the proliferation and metabolic activity of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In particular, PEGda concentration had the greatest influence on gelation time, compressive modulus, and cell spreading. MSCs appeared to require a longer period of adjustment to the new microenvironment of the hydrogels than fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were able to proliferate in all formulations over the course of two weeks, but MSCs did not. Metabolic activity changed for each cell type during the two weeks depending on the formulation. These results highlight the importance of determining the effect of matrix composition changes on a particular cell type of interest in order to optimize the formulation for a given application.

  4. Tough Supramolecular Hydrogel Based on Strong Hydrophobic Interactions in a Multiblock Segmented Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We report the preparation and structural and mechanical characterization of a tough supramolecular hydrogel, based exclusively on hydrophobic association. The system consists of a multiblock, segmented copolymer of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic dimer fatty acid (DFA) building blocks. A series of copolymers containing 2K, 4K, and 8K PEG were prepared. Upon swelling in water, a network is formed by self-assembly of hydrophobic DFA units in micellar domains, which act as stable physical cross-link points. The resulting hydrogels are noneroding and contain 75–92 wt % of water at swelling equilibrium. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements showed that the aggregation number of micelles ranges from 2 × 102 to 6 × 102 DFA units, increasing with PEG molecular weight. Mechanical characterization indicated that the hydrogel containing PEG 2000 is mechanically very stable and tough, possessing a tensile toughness of 4.12 MJ/m3. The high toughness, processability, and ease of preparation make these hydrogels very attractive for applications where mechanical stability and load bearing features of soft materials are required. PMID:28469284

  5. The effect of methylcellulose on metronidazole release from polyacrylic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Musial, Witold

    2007-08-01

    Topical treatment of acne rosacea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent course for many years, is primarily based on metronidazole preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various acrylic acid polymers, in composition with methylcellulose on metronidazole release rate from hydrogels proposed for the treatment of acne rosacea. Viscosity and release studies using "Paddle over Disk" system with semipermeable membrane of MWCO 3500 were performed. Compositions of Carbopol 971P and methylcellulose revealed an increase in viscosity with increasing concentration of methylcellulose in the range of 17200-26166 mPa.s. In all the examined formulations, the release process was characterized by a two-stage course. Among bipolymeric formulations, the highest first-stage release rate of 9.18 x 10(-3) min(-1) was determined for the gel consisting of 2.00% Carbopol 980NF with 1.00% methylcellulose. The second-stage release rates ranged between 2.88 x 10(-3) and 8.00 x 10(-3) min(-1). Two-stage release course can thus be attributed to metronidazole distribution into two compartments of hydrogel matrix. Proposed gels, with similar rheological properties, may be used for ex vivo and in vivo studies to obtain a suitable drug activity of metronidazole in the treatment of acne rosacea.

  6. 3-Dimensional functionalized polycaprolactone-hyaluronic acid hydrogel constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Stephen M; Vaquette, Cedryck; Shah, Amit; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Ivanovski, Saso

    2017-04-01

    Alveolar bone regeneration remains a significant clinical challenge in periodontology and dental implantology. This study assessed the mineralized tissue forming potential of 3-D printed medical grade polycaprolactone (mPCL) constructs containing osteoblasts (OB) encapsulated in a hyaluronic acid (HA)-hydrogel incorporating bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7). HA-hydrogels containing human OB ± BMP-7 were prepared. Cell viability, osteogenic gene expression, mineralized tissue formation and BMP-7 release in vitro, were assessed by fluorescence staining, RT-PCR, histological/μ-CT examination and ELISA respectively. In an athymic rat model, subcutaneous ectopic mineralized tissue formation in mPCL-hydrogel constructs was assessed by μ-CT and histology. Osteoblast encapsulation in HA-hydrogels did not detrimentally effect cell viability, and 3-D culture in osteogenic media showed mineralized collagenous matrix formation after 6 weeks. BMP-7 release from the hydrogel was biphasic, sustained and increased osteogenic gene expression in vitro. After 4 weeks in vivo, mPCL-hydrogel constructs containing BMP-7 formed significantly more volume (mm 3 ) of vascularized bone-like tissue. Functionalized mPCL-HA hydrogel constructs provide a favourable environment for bone tissue engineering. Although encapsulated cells contributed to mineralized tissue formation within the hydrogel in vitro and in vivo, their addition did not result in an improved outcome compared to BMP-7 alone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Selectivity Enhancement Obtained by Using Smart Hydrogels That Are Zwitterionic When Detecting Glucose With Boronic Acid Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Horkay, F.; Cho, S. H.; Tathireddy, P.; Rieth, L.; Solzbacher, F.; Magda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Because the boronic acid moiety reversibly binds to sugar molecules and has low cytotoxicity, boronic acid-containing hydrogels are being used in a variety of implantable glucose sensors under development, including sensors based on optical, fluorescence, and swelling pressure measurements. However, some method of glucose selectivity enhancement is often necessary, because isolated boronic acid molecules have a binding constant with glucose that is some forty times smaller than their binding constant with fructose, the second most abundant sugar in the human body. In many cases, glucose selectivity enhancement is obtained by incorporating pendant tertiary amines into the hydrogel network, thereby giving rise to a hydrogel that is zwitterionic at physiological pH. However, the mechanism by which incorporation of tertiary amines confers selectivity enhancement is poorly understood. In order to clarify this mechanism, we use the osmotic deswelling technique to compare the thermodynamic interactions of glucose and fructose with a zwitterionic smart hydrogel containing boronic acid moieties. We also investigate the change in the structure of the hydrogel that occurs when it binds to glucose or to fructose using the technique of small angle neutron scattering. PMID:22190765

  8. Semi-Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on aspen hemicellulose and chitosan: Effect of crosslinking sequence on hydrogel properties

    Treesearch

    Muzaffer Ahmet Karaaslan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2012-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel films were prepared using hemicellulose and chemically crosslinked chitosan. Hemicellulose was extracted from aspen by using a novel alkaline treatment and characterized by HPSEC, and consisted of a mixture of high and low molecular weight polymeric fractions. HPLC analysis of the acid hydrolysate of the hemicellulose showed that...

  9. Rheological characterization of cataplasm bases composed of cross-linked partially neutralized polyacrylate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hongqin; An, Dianyun; Yu, Jian; Li, Wei; Shen, Teng; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    Viscoelasticity is a useful parameter for characterizing the intrinsic properties of the cross-linked polyacrylate hydrogel used in cataplasm bases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various formulation parameters on the rheological characteristics of polyacrylate hydrogel. The hydrogel layers were formed using a partially neutralized polyacrylate (Viscomate(™)), which contained acrylic acid and sodium acrylate in different copolymerization ratios, as the cross-linked gel framework. Dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate (DAAA), which produces aluminum ions, was used as the cross-linking agent. Rheological analyses were performed using a "stress amplitude sweep" and a "frequency sweep". The results showed that greater amounts of acrylic acid in the structure of Viscomate as well as higher concentrations of DAAA and Viscomate led to an increase in the elastic modulus (G'). However, greater amounts of acrylic acid in the structure of Viscomate and higher concentrations of DAAA had an opposite on the viscous modulus (G″); this might be owing to higher steric hindrance. The results of this study can serve as guidelines for the optimization of formulations for cataplasms.

  10. A potential bioactive wound dressing based on carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO impregnated MCM-41 nanocomposite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Rakhshaei, Rasul; Namazi, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Lack of antibacterial activity, deficient water vapor and oxygen permeability, and insufficient mechanical properties are disadvantages of existing wound dressings. Hydrogels could absorb wound exudates due to their strong swelling ratio and give a cooling sensation and a wet environment. To overcome these shortcomings, flexible nanocomposite hydrogel films was prepared through combination of zinc oxide impregnated mesoporous silica (ZnO-MCM-41) as a nano drug carrier with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel. Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid the cytotoxicity of conventional cross linkers. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogel was characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential and UV-vis spectroscopy. Results of swelling and erosion tests showed CMC/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel disintegrated during the first hours of the test. Using MCM-41 as a substrate for ZnO nanoparticles solved this problem and the CMC/ZnO-MCM-41 showed a great improvement in tensile strength (12%), swelling (100%), erosion (53%) and gas permeability (500%) properties. Drug delivery and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel films studied using tetracycline (TC) as a broad spectrum antibiotic and showed a sustained TC release. This could efficiently decrease bandage exchange. Cytocompatibility of the nanocomposite hydrogel films has been analyzed in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and results showed cytocompatibility of CMC/ZnO-MCM-41. Based on these results the prepared CMC nanocomposite hydrogel containing ZnO impregnated MCM-41, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing with sustained drug delivery properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulfated hyaluronic acid hydrogels with retarded degradation and enhanced growth factor retention promote hMSC chondrogenesis and articular cartilage integrity with reduced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qian; Lin, Sien; Zhang, Kunyu; Dong, Chaoqun; Wu, Tianyi; Huang, Heqin; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Li; Li, Gang; Bian, Liming

    2017-04-15

    Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels have been extensively researched for delivering cells and drugs to repair damaged tissues, particularly articular cartilage. However, the in vivo degradation of HA is fast, thus limiting the clinical translation of HA hydrogels. Furthermore, HA cannot bind proteins with high affinity because of the lack of negatively charged sulfate groups. In this study, we conjugated tunable amount of sulfate groups to HA. The sulfated HA exhibits significantly slower degradation by hyaluronidase compared to the wild type HA. We hypothesize that the sulfation reduces the available HA octasaccharide substrate needed for the effective catalytic action of hyaluronidase. Moreover, the sulfated HA hydrogels significantly improve the protein sequestration, thereby effectively extending the availability of the proteinaceous drugs in the hydrogels. In the following in vitro study, we demonstrate that the HA hydrogel sulfation exerts no negative effect on the viability of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Furthermore, the sulfated HA hydrogels promote the chondrogenesis and suppresses the hypertrophy of encapsulated hMSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, intra-articular injections of the sulfated HA hydrogels avert the cartilage abrasion and hypertrophy in the animal osteoarthritic joints. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the sulfated HA is a promising biomaterial for the delivery of therapeutic agents to aid the regeneration of injured or diseased tissues and organs. In this paper, we conjugated sulfate groups to hyaluronic acid (HA) and demonstrated the slow degradation and growth factor delivery of sulfated HA. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo culture of hMSCs laden HA hydrogels proved that the sulfation of HA hydrogels not only promotes the chondrogenesis of hMSCs but also suppresses hypertrophic differentiation of the chondrogenically induced hMSCs. The animal OA model study showed that the injected

  12. Glycerin-Based Hydrogel for Infection Control.

    PubMed

    Stout, Edward I; McKessor, Angie

    2012-02-01

    area upon dressing removal. Because of the thickness, the product provides excellent cushion and padding support. It has been also proven to be bacteriostatic/fungistatic. (Bacteriostatic is the ability to restrain the development or reproduction of bacteria. 3 ). Glycerin is a huamectant by definition and has been recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Humectants attract, bind, and hold moisture to the site of application. The actual concentration of glycerin in a wound dressing is indicative of the ability to absorb excess moisture. Exudate management is an important function of topical treatment. The ability to absorb drainage and prevent pooling of exudate in the wound or on the surrounding skin are attributes specific to high glycerin content. Perhaps, the most significant advantage of the glycerin-based hydrogel sheet is its impact on wound bioburden and pathogenic organisms. 4 Glycerin is a simple three-carbon tri-alcohol and is a natural humectant. It is used as a carrier in many medicines and as plasticizer in gelatin gel capsules. Glycerin is a component of cosmetics, conditioners, soaps, foods, and other common products. It is a component of mono-, di-, and triglycerides naturally occurring in the body. These glycerides and glycerin are constantly reacted with each other by the natural enzymes and reversed with the natural metabolic processes already present in the body. Any glycerin that may be absorbed into the body fluid is rapidly diluted in these fluids and is no longer toxic but is metabolized as another component of the food chain. It is well known that glycerin in high concentration will exhibit dehydrating effect on many systems including living cells by the commonly known process of osmosis. (Osmosis: the flow or diffusion that takes place through a semipermable membrane, as of living cell, typically separating a solvent such as water, thus bringing about equilibrium conditions. 5 ) It has been shown that glycerin at high

  13. Study of the contribution of the state of water to the gel properties of a photocrosslinked polyacrylic acid hydrogel using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Hasegawa, Naoki; Kida, Chihiro; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2014-11-01

    Photocrosslinked polyacrylic acid (PAA-HEMA) hydrogels are a promising candidate for use in dermatological patch adhesives. To gain further knowledge about the properties of this gel, we investigated the T1 relaxation time and the diffusion coefficient (D) of water in the hydrogels using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hydrogels with different formulations and process factors were prepared and tested. The observed data were analyzed by ANOVA, which clarified the mode of action of the formulation and process factors based on these MR parameters. Various gel properties (i.e., gel fraction, swelling capacity, gel strength, and water-retention ability) were also measured, followed by a Bayesian network (BN) analysis. The BN allowed us to summarize well the relationships between the formulation and process factors, MR parameters, and gel properties. T1 was associated with the swelling and water-retention properties of the hydrogel, whereas D was associated with gel formation and gel strength. Furthermore, this study clarified that T1 and D mostly represented the hydration and water-compartmentalization effects of the hydrogel, respectively. In conclusion, the state of water seems to play an important role in the properties of the PAA-HEMA hydrogel. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Enabling Surgical Placement of Hydrogels through Achieving Paste-Like Rheological Behavior in Hydrogel Precursor Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Emily C.; Lohman, Brooke L.; Tabakh, Daniel B.; Kieweg, Sarah L.; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels are a promising class of materials for tissue regeneration, but they lack the ability to be molded into a defect site by a surgeon because hydrogel precursors are liquid solutions that are prone to leaking during placement. Therefore, although the main focus of hydrogel technology and developments are on hydrogels in their crosslinked form, our primary focus is on improving the fluid behavior of hydrogel precursor solutions. In this work, we introduce a method to achieve paste-like hydrogel precursor solutions by combining hyaluronic acid nanoparticles with traditional crosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels. Prior to crosslinking, the samples underwent rheological testing to assess yield stress and recovery using linear hyaluronic acid as a control. The experimental groups containing nanoparticles were the only solutions that exhibited a yield stress, demonstrating that the nanoparticulate rather than the linear form of hyaluronic acid was necessary to achieve paste-like behavior. The gels were also photocrosslinked and further characterized as solids, where it was demonstrated that the inclusion of nanoparticles did not adversely affect the compressive modulus and that encapsulated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells remained viable. Overall, this nanoparticle-based approach provides a platform hydrogel system that exhibits a yield stress prior to crosslinking, and can then be crosslinked into a hydrogel that is capable of encapsulating cells that remain viable. This behavior may hold significant impact for hydrogel applications where a paste-like behavior is desired in the hydrogel precursor solution. PMID:25691398

  15. Preparation of Chitosan-based Injectable Hydrogels and Its Application in 3D Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongsan; Zhang, Yaling; Wei, Yen; Tao, Lei

    2017-09-29

    The protocol presents a facile, efficient, and versatile method to prepare chitosan-based hydrogels using dynamic imine chemistry. The hydrogel is prepared by mixing solutions of glycol chitosan with a synthesized benzaldehyde terminated polymer gelator, and hydrogels are efficiently obtained in several minutes at room temperature. By varying ratios between glycol chitosan, polymer gelator, and water contents, versatile hydrogels with different gelation times and stiffness are obtained. When damaged, the hydrogel can recover its appearances and modulus, due to the reversibility of the dynamic imine bonds as crosslinkages. This self-healable property enables the hydrogel to be injectable since it can be self-healed from squeezed pieces to an integral bulk hydrogel after the injection process. The hydrogel is also multi-responsive to many bio-active stimuli due to different equilibration statuses of the dynamic imine bonds. This hydrogel was confirmed as bio-compatible, and L929 mouse fibroblast cells were embedded following standard procedures and the cell proliferation was easily assessed by a 3D cell cultivation process. The hydrogel can offer an adjustable platform for different research where a physiological mimic of a 3D environment for cells is profited. Along with its multi-responsive, self-healable, and injectable properties, the hydrogels can potentially be applied as multiple carriers for drugs and cells in future bio-medical applications.

  16. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied.more » The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.« less

  17. Development of smart delivery system for ascorbic acid using pH-responsive P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunmi; Kim, Kyusik; Choi, Moonjae; Lee, Youngmoo; Park, Jin-Won; Kim, Bumsang

    2010-11-01

    pH-Responsive P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles were prepared and their feasibility as intelligent delivery carriers was evaluated. P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles were synthesized via dispersion photopolymerization. There was a drastic change in the swelling ratio of P(MAA-co-EGMA) microparticles at a pH of ~ 5 and, as the amount of MAA in the hydrogel increased, the swelling ratio increased at a pH above 5. The loading efficiency of the ascorbic acid into the hydrogel was affected more by the degree of swelling of the hydrogel than the electrostatic interaction between the hydrogel and the loaded ascorbic acid. The P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles showed a pH-sensitive release behavior. Thus, at pH 4 almost none of the ascorbic acid permeated through the skin while at pH 6 relatively high skin permeability was obtained. The ascorbic acid loaded in the hydrogel particles was hardly degraded and its stability was maintained at high temperature.

  18. Timolol maleate release from hyaluronic acid-containing model silicone hydrogel contact lens materials.

    PubMed

    Korogiannaki, Myrto; Guidi, Giuliano; Jones, Lyndon; Sheardown, Heather

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a releasable wetting agent, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), on the release profile of timolol maleate (TM) from model silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as an alternative wetting agent for comparison. The model lenses consisted of a hydrophilic monomer, either 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or N,N-dimethylacrylamide and a hydrophobic silicone monomer of methacryloxypropyltris (trimethylsiloxy) silane. The loading of the wetting and the therapeutic agent occurred during the synthesis of the silicone hydrogels through the method of direct entrapment. The developed materials were characterized by minimal changes in the water uptake, while lower molecular weight of HA improved their surface wettability. The transparency of the examined silicone hydrogels was found to be affected by the miscibility of the wetting agent in the prepolymer mixture as well as the composition of the developed silicone hydrogels. Sustained release of TM from 4 to 14 days was observed, with the drug transport occurring presumably through the hydrophilic domains of the silicone hydrogels. The release profile was strongly dependent on the hydrophilic monomer composition, the distribution of hydrophobic (silane) domains, and the affinity of the therapeutic agent for the silicone hydrogel matrix. Noncovalent entrapment of the wetting agent did not change the in vitro release duration and kinetics of TM, however the drug release profile was found to be controlled by the simultaneous release of TM and HA or PVP. In the case of HA, depending on the HA:drug ratio, the release rate was decreased and controlled by the release of HA, likely due to electrostatic interactions between protonated TM and anionic HA. Overall, partitioning of the drug within the hydrophilic domains of the silicone hydrogels as well as interactions with the wetting agent determined the drug release profile. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. PNIPAAm-based biohybrid injectable hydrogel for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Navaei, Ali; Truong, Danh; Heffernan, John; Cutts, Josh; Brafman, David; Sirianni, Rachael W; Vernon, Brent; Nikkhah, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Injectable biomaterials offer a non-invasive approach to deliver cells into the myocardial infarct region to maintain a high level of cell retention and viability and initiate the regeneration process. However, previously developed injectable matrices often suffer from low bioactivity or poor mechanical properties. To address this need, we introduced a biohybrid temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAAm-Gelatin-based injectable hydrogel with excellent bioactivity as well as mechanical robustness for cardiac tissue engineering. A unique feature of our work was that we performed extensive in vitro biological analyses to assess the functionalities of cardiomyocytes (CMs) alone and in co-culture with cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) (2:1 ratio) within the hydrogel matrix. The synthesized hydrogel exhibited viscoelastic behavior (storage modulus: 1260 Pa) and necessary water content (75%) to properly accommodate the cardiac cells. The encapsulated cells demonstrated a high level of cell survival (90% for co-culture condition, day 7) and spreading throughout the hydrogel matrix in both culture conditions. A dense network of stained F-actin fibers (∼ 6 × 10(4) μm(2) area coverage, co-culture condition) illustrated the formation of an intact and three dimensional (3D) cell-embedded matrix. Furthermore, immunostaining and gene expression analyses revealed mature phenotypic characteristics of cardiac cells. Notably, the co-culture group exhibited superior structural organization and cell-cell coupling, as well as beating behavior (average ∼ 45 beats per min, co-culture condition, day 7). The outcome of this study is envisioned to open a new avenue for extensive in vitro characterization of injectable matrices embedded with 3D mono- and co-culture of cardiac cells prior to in vivo experiments. In this work, we synthesized a new class of biohybrid temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAAm-Gelatin-based injectable hydrogel with suitable

  20. Flavonoid-based pH-responsive hydrogels as carrier of unstable drugs in oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Curcio, Manuela; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2015-05-01

    In this study, pH-responsive hydrogels, synthesized by the coupling reaction of polyacrylic acid and catechin, are proposed as carriers of oxidable drugs toward the GI tract. The presence of polyphenolic moieties in the network gives the polymers properties suitable for the release of unstable drugs in oxidative conditions. The characterization of the hydrogels is obtained by means of morphological and physico-chemical analyses, antioxidant assays and evaluation of the swelling behavior in media simulating the gastric (pH 1.0) and the intestinal (pH 7.4) tracts. The hydrogels are tested as pH-responsive carriers in in vitro release studies of folic acid and thiamine, two model drugs easily degraded by oxidative conditions simulated by UV irradiation and t-butyl hydroperoxide treatment, respectively. Results show that catechin-based carriers are able to control the release of drugs at different pH values, giving a remarkable improvement in the stability of the therapeutics.

  1. Characterization of protein release from photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid-polyethylene glycol hydrogel tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Leach, Jennie B; Schmidt, Christine E

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work was to utilize the naturally derived bioactive polymer hyaluronic acid (HA) to create a combination tissue engineering scaffold and protein delivery device. HA is a non-immunogenic, non-adhesive glycosaminoglycan that plays significant roles in several cellular processes, including angiogenesis and the regulation of inflammation. In previous work, we created photopolymerizable glycidyl methacrylate-hyaluronic acid (GMHA) hydrogels that had controlled degradation rates, were cytocompatible, and were able to be modified with peptide moieties. In the present studies, we characterized the release of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from GMHA and GMHA-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels. Although BSA could be released rapidly (> 60% within 6 h) from 1% GMHA hydrogels, we found that increasing either the GMHA or the PEG concentrations could lengthen the duration of protein delivery. Preliminary size exclusion chromatography studies indicated that the released BSA was almost entirely in its native monomeric form. Lastly, protein release was extended to several weeks by suspending BSA-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres within the hydrogel bulk. These initial studies indicate that the naturally derived biopolymer HA can be employed to design novel photopolymerizable composites that are suitable for delivering stable proteins from scaffolding in tissue engineering applications.

  2. 3D-Hydrogel Based Polymeric Nanoreactors for Silver Nano-Antimicrobial Composites Generation

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Quintero, Albanelly; Romo-Uribe, Ángel; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor H.; Quijada-Garrido, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This study underscores the development of Ag hydrogel nanocomposites, as smart substrates for antibacterial uses, via innovative in situ reactive and reduction pathways. To this end, two different synthetic strategies were used. Firstly thiol-acrylate (PSA) based hydrogels were attained via thiol-ene and radical polymerization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL). As a second approach, polyurethane (PU) based hydrogels were achieved by condensation polymerization from diisocyanates and PCL and PEG diols. In fact, these syntheses rendered active three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel matrices which were used as nanoreactors for in situ reduction of AgNO3 to silver nanoparticles. A redox chemistry of stannous catalyst in PU hydrogel yielded spherical AgNPs formation, even at 4 °C in the absence of external reductant; and an appropriate thiol-functionalized polymeric network promoted spherical AgNPs well dispersed through PSA hydrogel network, after heating up the swollen hydrogel at 103 °C in the presence of citrate-reductant. Optical and swelling behaviors of both series of hydrogel nanocomposites were investigated as key factors involved in their antimicrobial efficacy over time. Lastly, in vitro antibacterial activity of Ag loaded hydrogels exposed to Pseudomona aeruginosa and Escherichia coli strains indicated a noticeable sustained inhibitory effect, especially for Ag–PU hydrogel nanocomposites with bacterial inhibition growth capabilities up to 120 h cultivation. PMID:28763050

  3. 3D-Hydrogel Based Polymeric Nanoreactors for Silver Nano-Antimicrobial Composites Generation.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quintero, Albanelly; Romo-Uribe, Ángel; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor H; Quijada-Garrido, Isabel; Guarrotxena, Nekane

    2017-08-01

    This study underscores the development of Ag hydrogel nanocomposites, as smart substrates for antibacterial uses, via innovative in situ reactive and reduction pathways. To this end, two different synthetic strategies were used. Firstly thiol-acrylate (PSA) based hydrogels were attained via thiol-ene and radical polymerization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL). As a second approach, polyurethane (PU) based hydrogels were achieved by condensation polymerization from diisocyanates and PCL and PEG diols. In fact, these syntheses rendered active three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel matrices which were used as nanoreactors for in situ reduction of AgNO₃ to silver nanoparticles. A redox chemistry of stannous catalyst in PU hydrogel yielded spherical AgNPs formation, even at 4 °C in the absence of external reductant; and an appropriate thiol-functionalized polymeric network promoted spherical AgNPs well dispersed through PSA hydrogel network, after heating up the swollen hydrogel at 103 °C in the presence of citrate-reductant. Optical and swelling behaviors of both series of hydrogel nanocomposites were investigated as key factors involved in their antimicrobial efficacy over time. Lastly, in vitro antibacterial activity of Ag loaded hydrogels exposed to Pseudomona aeruginosa and Escherichia coli strains indicated a noticeable sustained inhibitory effect, especially for Ag-PU hydrogel nanocomposites with bacterial inhibition growth capabilities up to 120 h cultivation.

  4. The synthesis and characterization of hydrogel chitosan-alginate with the addition of plasticizer lauric acid for wound dressing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izak Rudyardjo, Djony; Wijayanto, Setiawan

    2017-05-01

    The writers conducted a study about the synthesis and characterization of hydrogel chitosan-alginate by addition plasticizer lauric acid for wound dressing application. The purpose was to find out the impact of lauric acid concentration variation on hydrogel chitosan-alginate to get the best mechanical and physical properties to be applied as wound dressing in accordance with existing standards. This study used commercially chitosan from extract of shells crab, commercially-available alginate from the extract of sargassum sp, and commercial lauric acid from palm starch. The addition of lauric acid was aimed to repair mechanical properties of hydrogel. The composition of chitosan-alginate is 4:1 (v/v), while the lauric acid concentration variations are 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v. The characterization of mechanical properties test (Tensile strength and Elongation at break) at hydrogel showed the hydrogel chitosan-alginate-lauric acid have the characteristic which meets the standard of mechanical properties for human skin. The best performance of hydrogel chitosan-alginate-lauric acid was obtained by increasing luric acid concentration by 4%, which has a thickness value of 125.46±0.63 µm, elongation 28.89±1.01 %, tensile strength (9.01±0.65) MPa, and ability to absorb liquids (601.45 ±1.24) %.

  5. Versatile hydrogel-based nanocrystal microreactors towards uniform fluorescent photonic crystal supraballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yu; Ling, Lu-Ting; Yin, Su-Na; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Su

    2014-12-01

    Versatile hydrogel-based nanocrystal (NC) microreactors were designed in this work for the construction of uniform fluorescence colloidal photonic crystal (CPC) supraballs. The hydrogel-based microspheres with sizes ranging from 150 to 300 nm were prepared by seeded copolymerization of acrylic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with micrometer-sized PS seed particles. As an independent NC microreactor, the as-synthesized hydrogel microsphere can effectively capture the guest cadmium ions due to the abundant carboxyl groups inside. Followed by the introduction of chalcogenides, in situ generation of higher-uptake NCs with sizes less than 5 nm was finally realized. Additionally, with the aid of the microfluidic device, the as-obtained NC-latex hybrids can be further self-assembled to bi-functional CPC supraballs bearing brilliant structural colors and uniform fluorescence. This research offers an alternative way to finely bind CPCs with NCs, which will facilitate progress in fields of self-assembled functional colloids and photonic materials.

  6. The self-crosslinking smart hyaluronic acid hydrogels as injectable three-dimensional scaffolds for cells culture.

    PubMed

    Bian, Shaoquan; He, Mengmeng; Sui, Junhui; Cai, Hanxu; Sun, Yong; Liang, Jie; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-04-01

    Although the disulfide bond crosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels have been reported by many research groups, the major researches were focused on effectively forming hydrogels. However, few researchers paid attention to the potential significance of controlling the hydrogel formation and degradation, improving biocompatibility, reducing the toxicity of exogenous and providing convenience to the clinical operations later on. In this research, the novel controllable self-crosslinking smart hydrogels with in-situ gelation property was prepared by a single component, the thiolated hyaluronic acid derivative (HA-SH), and applied as a three-dimensional scaffold to mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM) for the culture of fibroblasts cells (L929) and chondrocytes. A series of HA-SH hydrogels were prepared depending on different degrees of thiol substitution (ranging from 10 to 60%) and molecule weights of HA (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 MDa). The gelation time, swelling property and smart degradation behavior of HA-SH hydrogel were evaluated. The results showed that the gelation and degradation time of hydrogels could be controlled by adjusting the component of HA-SH polymers. The storage modulus of HA-SH hydrogels obtained by dynamic modulus analysis (DMA) could be up to 44.6 kPa. In addition, HA-SH hydrogels were investigated as a three-dimensional scaffold for the culture of fibroblasts cells (L929) and chondrocytes cells in vitro and as an injectable hydrogel for delivering chondrocytes cells in vivo. These results illustrated that HA-SH hydrogels with controllable gelation process, intelligent degradation behavior, excellent biocompatibility and convenient operational characteristics supplied potential clinical application capacity for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of self-assembling beta-hairpin pepide-based hydrogels for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterick, Lisa Ann

    secondary target sites while maintaining cellular homogeneity, viability and remain fixed at the site of introduction. Additionally, preliminary in vitro based studies employing mouse peritoneal macrophages suggest the MAX8 gels are non-inflammatory in nature and may not elicit an in vivo immune response upon implantation. It has been demonstrated throughout this thesis that by employing amino acids as fundamental building blocks, peptide sequences can be designed to undergo molecular recognition, resulting in hydrogel material for use in tissue engineering applications.

  8. Investigation of the surface morphology of biocompatible chitosan-based hydrogels and xerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, Yulia Yu.; Malinkina, Olga N.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.

    2018-04-01

    Our biocompatible hydrogel systems obtained by the sol-gel technqiue and based on chitosan and silicon polyolates are promising for medical and biological applications. The surface microrelief of these sol-gel materials (hydrogels and xerogels) based on chitosan and silicon tetraglycerolate was explored by AFM and SEM. A significant influence of the component ratio in the mixed system on the morphology and surface profile of the hydrogels and xerogels prepared therefrom was established. An increased content of the structure-forming component (chitosan) in the system was shown to increase the roughness scale of the hydrogel surface and to promote the porosity of the xerogel structure.

  9. pH-responsive poly(aspartic acid) hydrogel-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vega-Chacón, Jaime; Arbeláez, María Isabel Amaya; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Marques, Rodrigo Fernando C; Jafelicci, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    A novel multifunctional nanosystem formed by magnetite nanoparticles coated with pH-responsive poly(aspartic acid) hydrogel was developed. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ) have been intensively investigated for biomedical applications due to their magnetic properties and dimensions similar to the biostructures. Poly(aspartic acid) is a water-soluble, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, which features makes it a potential candidate for biomedical applications. The nanoparticles surface modification was carried out by crosslinking polysuccinimide on the magnetite nanoparticles surface and hydrolyzing the succinimide units in mild alkaline medium to obtain the magnetic poly(aspartic acid) hydrogel. The surface modification in each step was confirmed by DRIFTS, TEM and zeta potential measurements. The hydrodynamic diameter of the nanosystems decreases as the pH value decreases. The nanosystems showed high colloidal stability in water and no cytotoxicity was detected, which make these nanosystems suitable for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Directing three-dimensional multicellular morphogenesis by self-organization of vascular mesenchymal cells in hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolu; Gojgini, Shiva; Chen, Ting-Hsuan; Fei, Peng; Dong, Siyan; Ho, Chih-Ming; Segura, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Physical scaffolds are useful for supporting cells to form three-dimensional (3D) tissue. However, it is non-trivial to develop a scheme that can robustly guide cells to self-organize into a tissue with the desired 3D spatial structures. To achieve this goal, the rational regulation of cellular self-organization in 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) such as hydrogel is needed. In this study, we integrated the Turing reaction-diffusion mechanism with the self-organization process of cells and produced multicellular 3D structures with the desired configurations in a rational manner. By optimizing the components of the hydrogel and applying exogenous morphogens, a variety of multicellular 3D architectures composed of multipotent vascular mesenchymal cells (VMCs) were formed inside hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels. These 3D architectures could mimic the features of trabecular bones and multicellular nodules. Based on the Turing reaction-diffusion instability of morphogens and cells, a theoretical model was proposed to predict the variations observed in 3D multicellular structures in response to exogenous factors. It enabled the feasibility to obtain diverse types of 3D multicellular structures by addition of Noggin and/or BMP2. The morphological consistency between the simulation prediction and experimental results probably revealed a Turing-type mechanism underlying the 3D self-organization of VMCs in HA hydrogels. Our study has provided new ways to create a variety of self-organized 3D multicellular architectures for regenerating biomaterial and tissues in a Turing mechanism-based approach.

  11. Silk protein-based hydrogels: Promising advanced materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Sonia; Kundu, Subhas C

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogels are a class of advanced material forms that closely mimic properties of the soft biological tissues. Several polymers have been explored for preparing hydrogels with structural and functional features resembling that of the extracellular matrix. Favourable material properties, biocompatibility and easy processing of silk protein fibers into several forms make it a suitable material for biomedical applications. Hydrogels made from silk proteins have shown a potential in overcoming limitations of hydrogels prepared from conventional polymers. A great deal of effort has been made to control the properties and to integrate novel topographical and functional characteristics in the hydrogel composed from silk proteins. This review provides overview of the advances in silk protein-based hydrogels with a primary emphasis on hydrogels of fibroin. It describes the approaches used to fabricate fibroin hydrogels. Attempts to improve the existing properties or to incorporate new features in the hydrogels by making composites and by improving fibroin properties by genetic engineering approaches are also described. Applications of the fibroin hydrogels in the realms of tissue engineering and controlled release are reviewed and their future potentials are discussed. This review describes the potentiality of silk fibroin hydrogel. Silk Fibroin has been widely recognized as an interesting biomaterial. Due to its properties including high mechanical strength and excellent biocompatibility, it has gained wide attention. Several groups are exploring silk-based materials including films, hydrogels, nanofibers and nanoparticles for different biomedical applications. Although there is a good amount of literature available on general properties and applications of silk based biomaterials, there is an inadequacy of extensive review articles that specifically focus on silk based hydrogels. Silk-based hydrogels have a strong potential to be utilized in biomedical applications. Our

  12. The effect of lysophosphatidic acid using a hydrogel or collagen sponge carrier on bone healing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Might, Kelly R; Martinez, Steven A; Karin, Norman; Lin, Genyao; Tarasevich, Barbara; Pool, Roy R

    2016-07-19

    The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) the efficacy of polycaprolactone-g-polyethylene glycol (PCL-g-PEG) and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-g-PEG) hydrogels and an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as carriers for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), 2) the effect of LPA on bone healing in dogs, and 3) the ideal dose of LPA to maximally stimulate bone healing. Bilateral ulnar ostectomies were performed on purpose bred dogs. Control defects were filled with a PCL-g-PEG or PLGA-g-PEG hydrogel, or a saline soaked ACS. Contralateral defects were filled with a PCL-g-PEG or PLGA-g-PEG hydrogel, or an ACS with each carrying differing concentrations of an LPA solution. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed. Total bone area (TBA), mineral density (BMD), and mineral content (BMC) were determined at each time point. Relationships between the effect of treatment over time on TBA, BMC and BMD were determined. Phase 1 - There was no significant difference in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.09), BMC (p = 0.33), or BMD (p = 0.74) over time between LPA treatments, or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.95), BMC (p = 0.99), or BMD (p = 0.46). Phase 2 - There was no significant difference over time between LPA treatments in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.33), BMC (p = 0.45), or BMD (p = 0.43), or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.94), BMC (p = 0.38), or BMD (p = 0.17). Phase 3 - There was no significant difference over time between LPA treatments in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.78), BMC (p = 0.88), or BMD (p = 0.35), or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.07), BMC (p = 0.85), or BMD (p = 0.06). There was a significant increase in TBA (p <0.0001) and BMC (p = 0.0014), but a significant decrease in BMD (p <0.0001) was noted over time when all groups were combined. Although LPA has shown promise as an osteoinductive agent in research, its performance as a bone graft substitute, as utilized in this study, is unsupported. Further studies are

  13. Evaluation of CO2-based cold sterilization of a model hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, A; Zhang, J; Matthews, M A

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of the present work is to evaluate a novel CO(2)-based cold sterilization process in terms of both its killing efficiency and its effects on the physical properties of a model hydrogel, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) potassium salt. Suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were prepared for hydration and inoculation of the gel. The hydrogels were treated with supercritical CO(2) (40 degrees C, 27.6 MPa). The amount of bacteria was quantified before and after treatment. With pure CO(2), complete killing of S. aureus and E. coli was achieved for treatment times as low as 60 min. After treatment with CO(2) plus trace amounts of H(2)O(2) at the same experimental conditions, complete bacteria kill was also achieved. For times less than 30 min, incomplete kill was noted. Several physical properties of the gel were evaluated before and after SC-CO(2) treatment. These were largely unaffected by the CO(2) process. Drying curves showed no significant change between treated (pure CO(2) and CO(2) plus 30% H(2)O(2)) and untreated samples. The average equilibrium swelling ratios were also very similar. No changes in the dry hydrogel particle structure were evident from SEM micrographs.

  14. Gellan gum-based hydrogels for intervertebral disc tissue-engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Silva-Correia, J; Oliveira, J M; Caridade, S G; Oliveira, J T; Sousa, R A; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2011-06-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a challenging clinical problem that urgently demands viable nucleus pulposus (NP) implant materials. The best suited biomaterial for NP regeneration has yet to be identified, but it is believed that biodegradable hydrogel-based materials are promising candidates. In this work, we have developed ionic- and photo-crosslinked methacrylated gellan gum (GG-MA) hydrogels to be used in acellular and cellular tissue-engineering strategies for the regeneration of IVDs. The physicochemical properties of the developed hydrogels were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. The swelling ability and degradation rate of hydrogels were also analysed in phosphate-buffered saline solution at physiological pH for a period of 30 days. Additionally, the morphology and mechanical properties of the hydrogels were assessed under a scanning electron microscope and dynamic compression, respectively. An in vitro study was carried out to screen possible cytotoxicity of the gellan gum-based hydrogels by culturing rat lung fibroblasts (L929 cells) with hydrogel leachables up to 7 days. The results demonstrated that gellan gum was successfully methacrylated. We observed that the produced GG-MA hydrogels possess improved mechanical properties and lower water uptake ability and degradation rate as compared to gellan gum. This work also revealed that GG-MA hydrogels are non-cytotoxic in vitro, thus being promising biomaterials to be used in IVD tissue-engineering strategies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Methacrylated gelatin/hyaluronan-based hydrogels for soft tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Lukas; Gehrke, Sandra; Winnefeld, Marc; Huber, Birgit; Hoch, Eva; Walter, Torsten; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Schmidt, Malte; Kückelhaus, Maximilian; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Hirsch, Tobias; Jacobsen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In vitro–generated soft tissue could provide alternate therapies for soft tissue defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate methacrylated gelatin/hyaluronan as scaffolds for soft tissue engineering and their interaction with human adipose–derived stem cells (hASCs). ASCs were incorporated into methacrylated gelatin/hyaluronan hydrogels. The gels were photocrosslinked with a lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate photoinitiator and analyzed for cell viability and adipogenic differentiation of ASCs over a period of 30 days. Additionally, an angiogenesis assay was performed to assess their angiogenic potential. After 24 h, ASCs showed increased viability on composite hydrogels. These results were consistent over 21 days of culture. By induction of adipogenic differentiation, the mature adipocytes were observed after 7 days of culture, their number significantly increased until day 28 as well as expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and adiponectin. Our scaffolds are promising as building blocks for adipose tissue engineering and allowed long viability, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs. PMID:29318000

  16. Hydrogel ionotronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Canhui; Suo, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    An ionotronic device functions by a hybrid circuit of mobile ions and mobile electrons. Hydrogels are stretchable, transparent, ionic conductors that can transmit electrical signals of high frequency over long distance, enabling ionotronic devices such as artificial muscles, skins and axons. Moreover, ionotronic luminescent devices, ionotronic liquid crystal devices, touchpads, triboelectric generators, artificial eels and gel-elastomer-oil devices can be designed based on hydrogels. In this Review, we discuss first-generation hydrogel ionotronic devices and the challenges associated with the mechanical properties and the chemistry of the materials. We examine how strong and stretchable adhesion between hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer networks can be achieved, how water can be retained in hydrogels and how to design hydrogels that resist fatigue under cyclic loads. Finally, we highlight applications of hydrogel ionotronic devices and discuss the future of the field.

  17. The Combined Influence of Hydrogel Stiffness and Matrix-Bound Hyaluronic Acid Content on Glioblastoma Invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jee-Wei Emily; Pedron, Sara; Harley, Brendan A C

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of brain cancer. Its high mortality is associated with its aggressive invasion throughout the brain. The heterogeneity of stiffness and hyaluronic acid (HA) content within the brain makes it difficult to study invasion in vivo. A dextran-bead assay is employed to quantify GBM invasion within HA-functionalized gelatin hydrogels. Using a library of stiffness-matched hydrogels with variable levels of matrix-bound HA, it is reported that U251 GBM invasion is enhanced in softer hydrogels but reduced in the presence of matrix-bound HA. Inhibiting HA-CD44 interactions reduces invasion, even in hydrogels lacking matrix-bound HA. Analysis of HA biosynthesis suggests that GBM cells compensate for a lack of matrix-bound HA by producing soluble HA to stimulate invasion. Together, a robust method is showed to quantify GBM invasion over long culture times to reveal the coordinated effect of matrix stiffness, immobilized HA, and compensatory HA production on GBM invasion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flocculation and adsorption properties of biodegradable gum-ghatti-grafted poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mittal, H; Jindal, R; Kaith, B S; Maity, A; Ray, S S

    2015-01-22

    This study reports the microwave-assisted synthesis of gum-ghatti (Gg)-grafted poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (AAm-co-MAA) hydrogels for the development of biodegradable flocculants and adsorbents. The synthesized hydrogels were characterized using TGA, FTIR and SEM. TGA studies revealed that the synthesized hydrogels were thermally more stable than pristine Gg and exhibited maximum swelling capacity of 1959% at 60°C in neutral pH. The optimal Gg-cl-P(AAm-co-MAA) hydrogel was successfully employed for the removal of saline water from various petroleum fraction-saline emulsions. The maximum flocculation efficiency was achieved in an acidic clay suspension with a 15 mg polymer dose at 40°C. Moreover, the synthesized hydrogel adsorbed 94% and 75% of Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively, from aqueous solutions. Finally, the Gg-cl-P(AAm-co-MAA) hydrogel could be degraded completely within 50 days. In summary, the Gg-cl-P(AAm-co-MAA) hydrogel was demonstrated to have potential for use as flocculants and heavy metal absorbents for industrial waste water treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gelatin- and starch-based hydrogels. Part A: Hydrogel development, characterization and coating.

    PubMed

    Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Salamon, Achim; Peters, Kirsten; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Martins, José C; Frankel, Daniel; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-05

    The present work aims at constructing the ideal scaffold matrix of which the physico-chemical properties can be altered according to the targeted tissue regeneration application. Ideally, this scaffold should resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as close as possible both in terms of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Therefore, hydrogel films were developed consisting of methacrylamide-modified gelatin and starch-pentenoate building blocks because the ECM can be considered as a crosslinked hydrogel network consisting of both polysaccharides and structural, signaling and cell-adhesive proteins. For the gelatin hydrogels, three different substitution degrees were evaluated including 31%, 72% and 95%. A substitution degree of 32% was applied for the starch-pentenoate building block. Pure gelatin hydrogels films as well as interpenetrating networks with gelatin and starch were developed. Subsequently, these films were characterized using gel fraction and swelling experiments, high resolution-magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy, rheology, infrared mapping and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that both the mechanical properties and the swelling extent of the developed hydrogel films can be controlled by varying the chemical composition and the degree of substitution of the methacrylamide-modified gelatin applied. The storage moduli of the developed materials ranged between 14 and 63kPa. Phase separation was observed for the IPNs for which separated starch domains could be distinguished located in the surrounding gelatin matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the affinity of aggrecan for gelatin by atomic force microscopy and radiolabeling experiments. We found that aggrecan can be applied as a bioactive coating for gelatin hydrogels by a straightforward physisorption procedure. Thus, we achieved distinct fine-tuning of the physico-chemical properties of these hydrogels which render them promising candidates for tissue engineering

  1. DNA hydrogel-based supercapacitors operating in physiological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jaehyun; Im, Kyuhyun; Hwang, Sekyu; Choi, ByoungLyong; Kim, Sungjee; Hwang, Sungwoo; Park, Nokyoung; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    DNA nanostructures have been attractive due to their structural properties resulting in many important breakthroughs especially in controlled assemblies and many biological applications. Here, we report a unique energy storage device which is a supercapacitor that uses nanostructured DNA hydrogel (Dgel) as a template and layer-by-layer (LBL)-deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as conductors. Our device, named as PEM-Dgel supercapacitor, showed excellent performance in direct contact with physiological fluids such as artificial urine and phosphate buffered saline without any need of additional electrolytes, and exhibited almost no cytotoxicity during cycling tests in cell culture medium. Moreover, we demonstrated that the PEM-Dgel supercapacitor has greater charge-discharge cycling stability in physiological fluids than highly concentrated acid electrolyte solution which is normally used for supercapacitor operation. These conceptually new supercapacitors have the potential to be a platform technology for the creation of implantable energy storage devices for packageless applications directly utilizing biofluids. PMID:23412432

  2. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  3. Polysaccharide-based hydrogels with tunable composition as 3D cell culture systems.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Roberta; Munarin, Fabiola; Bloise, Nora; Secchi, Eleonora; Visai, Livia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Petrini, Paola

    2018-04-01

    To date, cell cultures have been created either on 2-dimensional (2D) polystyrene surfaces or in 3-dimensional (3D) systems, which do not offer a controlled chemical composition, and which lack the soft environment encountered in vivo and the chemical stimuli that promote cell proliferation and allow complex cellular behavior. In this study, pectin-based hydrogels were developed and are proposed as versatile cell culture systems. Pectin-based hydrogels were produced by internally crosslinking pectin with calcium carbonate at different initial pH, aiming to control crosslinking kinetics and degree. Additionally, glucose and glutamine were added as additives, and their effects on the viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels and on cell viability were investigated. Pectin hydrogels showed in high cell viability and shear-thinning behavior. Independently of hydrogel composition, an initial swelling was observed, followed by a low percentage of weight variation and a steady-state stage. The addition of glucose and glutamine to pectin-based hydrogels rendered higher cell viability up to 90%-98% after 1 hour of incubation, and these hydrogels were maintained for up to 7 days of culture, yet no effect on viscoelastic properties was detected. Pectin-based hydrogels that offer tunable composition were developed successfully. They are envisioned as synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) either to study complex cellular behaviors or to be applied as tissue engineering substitutes.

  4. Hyaluronic acid-based scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chircov, Cristina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard

    2018-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix of most connective tissues. Due to its chemical structure, HA is a hydrophilic polymer and it is characterized by a fast degradation rate. HA-based scaffolds for tissue engineering are intensively studied due to their increased biocompatibility, biodegradability and chemical modification. Depending on the processing technique, scaffolds can be prepared in the form of hydrogels, sponges, cryogels, and injectable hydrogels, all discussed in this review.

  5. Hydrogel-based three-dimensional cell culture for organ-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Shim, Kyu Young; Kim, Bumsang; Sung, Jong Hwan

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have reported that three-dimensionally cultured cells have more physiologically relevant functions than two-dimensionally cultured cells. Cells are three-dimensionally surrounded by the extracellular matrix (ECM) in complex in vivo microenvironments and interact with the ECM and neighboring cells. Therefore, replicating the ECM environment is key to the successful cell culture models. Various natural and synthetic hydrogels have been used to mimic ECM environments based on their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and biochemical functional groups. Because of these characteristics, hydrogels have been combined with microtechnologies and used in organ-on-a-chip applications to more closely recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment. Therefore, appropriate hydrogels should be selected depending on the cell types and applications. The porosity of the selected hydrogel should be controlled to facilitate the movement of nutrients and oxygen. In this review, we describe various types of hydrogels, external stimulation-based gelation of hydrogels, and control of their porosity. Then, we introduce applications of hydrogels for organ-on-a-chip. Last, we also discuss the challenges of hydrogel-based three-dimensional cell culture techniques and propose future directions. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:580-589, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Polymeric hydrogels for novel contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Xinming, Li; Yingde, Cui; Lloyd, Andrew W; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Sandeman, Susan R; Howel, Carol A; Liewen, Liao

    2008-04-01

    Only about 5% of drugs administrated by eye drops are bioavailable, and currently eye drops account for more than 90% of all ophthalmic formulations. The bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs can be improved by a soft contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery system. Several polymeric hydrogels have been investigated for soft contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery systems: (i) polymeric hydrogels for conventional contact lens to absorb and release ophthalmic drugs; (ii) polymeric hydrogels for piggyback contact lens combining with a drug plate or drug solution; (iii) surface-modified polymeric hydrogels to immobilize drugs on the surface of contact lenses; (iv) polymeric hydrogels for inclusion of drugs in a colloidal structure dispersed in the lens; (v) ion ligand-containing polymeric hydrogels; (vi) molecularly imprinted polymeric hydrogels which provide the contact lens with a high affinity and selectivity for a given drug. Polymeric hydrogels for these contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery systems, their advantages and drawbacks are critically analyzed in this review.

  7. Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Seonghoon; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Polymer hydrogels are widely used as cell scaffolds for biomedical applications. Although the biochemical and biophysical properties of hydrogels have been investigated extensively, little attention has been paid to their potential photonic functionalities. Here, we report cell-integrated polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels for in vivo optical-sensing and therapy applications. Hydrogel patches containing cells were implanted in awake, freely moving mice for several days and shown to offer long-term transparency, biocompatibility, cell viability and light-guiding properties (loss of <1 dB cm-1). Using optogenetic, glucagon-like peptide-1 secreting cells, we conducted light-controlled therapy using the hydrogel in a mouse model with diabetes and obtained improved glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, real-time optical readout of encapsulated heat-shock-protein-coupled fluorescent reporter cells made it possible to measure the nanotoxicity of cadmium-based bare and shelled quantum dots (CdTe; CdSe/ZnS) in vivo.

  8. Biocompatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogels prepared by porous hyaluronic acid microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Lee, Deuk Yong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Song, Yo-Seung; Cho, Nam-Ihn

    2014-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid hydrogels (HAHs) were synthesized by immersing HA microbeads crosslinked with divinyl sulfone in a phosphate buffered saline solution to evaluate the biocompatibility of the gels by means of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity ( in vitro chromosome aberration test, reverse mutation assay, and in vivo micronucleus test), skin sensitization, and intradermal reactivity. The HAHs induced no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. In guinea pigs treated with grafts and prostheses, no animals died and there were no abnormal clinical signs. The sensitization scores were zero in all guinea pigs after 24 h and 48 h challenge, suggesting that the HAHs had no contact allergic sensitization in the guinea pig maximization test. No abnormal signs were found in New Zealand White rabbits during the 72 h observation period after the injection. There was no difference between the HAHs and negative control mean scores because skin reaction such as erythema or oedema was not observed after injection. Experimental results suggest that the HAHs would be suitable for soft tissue augmentation due to the absence of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, skin sensitization, and intradermal reactivity.

  9. Biofunctionalized peptide-based hydrogels provide permissive scaffolds to attract neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Frick, Claudia; Müller, Marcus; Wank, Ute; Tropitzsch, Anke; Kramer, Benedikt; Senn, Pascal; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Löwenheim, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) allow for hearing rehabilitation in patients with sensorineural hearing loss or deafness. Restricted CI performance results from the spatial gap between spiral ganglion neurons and the CI, causing current spread that limits spatially restricted stimulation and impairs frequency resolution. This may be substantially improved by guiding peripheral processes of spiral ganglion neurons towards and onto the CI electrode contacts. An injectable, peptide-based hydrogel was developed which may provide a permissive scaffold to facilitate neurite growth towards the CI. To test hydrogel capacity to attract spiral ganglion neurites, neurite outgrowth was quantified in an in vitro model using a custom-designed hydrogel scaffold and PuraMatrix ® . Neurite attachment to native hydrogels is poor, but significantly improved by incorporation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), covalent coupling of the bioactive laminin epitope IKVAV and the incorporation a full length laminin to hydrogel scaffolds. Incorporation of full length laminin protein into a novel custom-designed biofunctionalized hydrogel (IKVAV-GGG-SIINFEKL) allows for neurite outgrowth into the hydrogel scaffold. The study demonstrates that peptide-based hydrogels can be specifically biofunctionalized to provide a permissive scaffold to attract neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neurons. Such biomaterials appear suitable to bridge the spatial gap between neurons and the CI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of RGD amount in dextran-based hydrogels for cell delivery.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Nesrine; Liberelle, Benoît; Henry, Olivier; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Dextran is one of the hydrophilic polymers that is used for hydrogel preparation. As any polysaccharide, it presents a high density of hydroxyl groups, which make possible several types of derivatization and crosslinking reactions. Furthermore, dextran is an excellent candidate for hydrogel fabrication with controlled cell/scaffold interactions as it is resistant to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. RGD peptide can be grafted to the dextran in order to promote selected cell adhesion and proliferation. Altogether, we have developed a novel strategy to graft the RGD peptide sequence to dextran-based hydrogel using divinyl sulfone as a linker. The resulting RGD functionalized dextran-based hydrogels were transparent, presented a smooth surface and were easy to handle. The impact of varying RGD peptide amounts, hydrogel porosity and topology upon human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesion, proliferation and infiltration was investigated. Our results demonstrated that 0.1% of RGD-modified dextran within the gel was sufficient to support HUVEC cells adhesion to the hydrogel surface. Sodium chloride was added (i) to the original hydrogel mix in order to form a macroporous structure presenting interconnected pores and (ii) to the hydrogel surface to create small orifices essential for cells migration inside the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Degradation Behaviour of Gamma Irradiated Poly(Acrylic Acid)-graft-Chitosan Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ria Barleany, Dhena; Ilhami, Alpin; Yusuf Yudanto, Dea; Erizal

    2018-03-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from chitosan and partially neutralized acrylic acid at room temperature by gamma irradiation technique. The effect of irradiation and chitosan addition to the degradation behaviour of polymer were investigated. The gel content, swelling capacity, Equillibrium Degree of Swelling (EDS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study were also performed. Natural degradation in soil and thermal degradation by using of TGA analysis were observed. The variation of chitosan compositions were 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 g and the total irradiation doses were 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The highest water capacity of 583.3 g water/g dry hydrogel was resulted from 5 kGy total irradiation dose and 0,5 g addition of chitosan. From the thermal degradation evaluation by using of TGA analysis showed that irradiation dose did not give a significant influence to the degradation rate. The rate of thermal degradation was ranged between 2.42 to 2.55 mg/min. In the natural test of degradation behaviour by using of soil medium, the hydrogel product with chitosan addition was found to have better degradability compared with the poly(acrylic acid) polymer without chitosan.

  12. Lamellar Biogels: Fluid-Membrane-Based Hydrogels Containing Polymer Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warriner, Heidi E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.; Slack, Nelle L.; Davidson, Patrick; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    1996-02-01

    A class of lamellar biological hydrogels comprised of fluid membranes of lipids and surfactants with small amounts of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol)-derived polymer lipids (PEG-lipids) were studied by x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and rheometry. In contrast to isotropic hydrogels of polymer networks, these membrane-based birefringent liquid crystalline biogels, labeled Lα,g, form the gel phase when water is added to the liquid-like lamellar L_α phase, which reenters a liquid-like mixed phase upon further dilution. Furthermore, gels with larger water content require less PEG-lipid to remain stable. Although concentrated (~50 weight percent) mixtures of free PEG (molecular weight, 5000) and water do not gel, gelation does occur in mixtures containing as little as 0.5 weight percent PEG-lipid. A defining signature of the Lα,g regime as it sets in from the fluid lamellar L_α phase is the proliferation of layer-dislocation-type defects, which are stabilized by the segregation of PEG-lipids to the defect regions of high membrane curvature that connect the membranes.

  13. Use of Methacrylic Acid-Containing Hydrogels to Increase Protein Transport Across the Intestinal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, James; Lopez, Jennifer; Park, Kinam; Peppas, Nicholas

    2002-03-01

    Oral protein delivery requires protection from the harsh environment of the stomach, release in the small intestine and passage from the intestinal lumen into the circulation. Hydrogels that swell in response to the pH change when passing from the stomach to the small intestine can accomplish the first two points. The ability to enhance the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells is currently under investigation. Methacrylic acid-containing hydrogels have shown the ability to bind calcium ions that decreases the concentration of free extracellular calcium for these epithelial cells. This change triggers a number of intracellular events including rearrangement of the cytoskeleton leading to increased permeability. Studies done on Caco-2 cells (human colon adenocarcinoma) measuring changes in transepithelial resistance are used to assess the effect of the polymer-cell interactions on the integrity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers.

  14. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid functional branched semi-interpenetrating hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Plenderleith, Richard A; Pateman, Christopher J; Rodenburg, Cornelia; Haycock, John W; Claeyssens, Frederik; Sammon, Chris; Rimmer, Stephen

    2015-10-14

    For the first time a series of functional hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating networks with both branched and crosslinked polymer components have been prepared and we show the successful use of these materials as substrates for cell culture. The materials consist of highly branched poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)s with peptide functionalised end groups in a continuous phase of crosslinked poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). Functionalisation of the end groups of the branched polymer component with the GRGDS peptide produces a hydrogel that supports cell adhesion and proliferation. The materials provide a new synthetic functional biomaterial that has many of the features of extracellular matrix, and as such can be used to support tissue regeneration and cell culture. This class of high water content hydrogel material has important advantages over other functional hydrogels in its synthesis and does not require post-processing modifications nor are functional-monomers, which change the polymerisation process, required. Thus, the systems are amenable to large scale and bespoke manufacturing using conventional moulding or additive manufacturing techniques. Processing using additive manufacturing is exemplified by producing tubes using microstereolithography.

  15. Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Functionalized with Self-Assembled Micelles of Amphiphilic PEGylated Kartogenin for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mi-Lan; Jeong, Se-Young; Im, Gun-Il

    2017-07-01

    Synthetic hyaluronic acid (HA) containing a covalently integrated drug is capable of releasing therapeutic molecules and is an attractive candidate for the intra-articular treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Herein, self-assembled PEGylated kartogenin (PEG/KGN) micelles consisting of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hydrophobic KGN, which has been shown to induce chondrogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells, were prepared by covalent crosslinking. HA hydrogels containing PEG/KGN micelles (HA/PEG/KGN) were prepared by covalently bonding PEG chains to HA. The physicochemical properties of the HA/PEG/KGN conjugate gels were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1 H NMR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HA/PEG/KGN gels exhibited larger micelles in aqueous solution than PEG/KGN. SEM images of PEG/KGN micelles showed a dark core and a bright shell, whereas PEG/KGN micelles covalently integrated into HA had an irregular oval shape. Covalent integration of PEG/KGN micelles in HA hydrogels significantly reduced drug release rates and provided sustained release over a prolonged period of time. HA/PEG/KGN hydrogels were degradable enzymatically by collagenase and hyaluronidase in vitro. Injection of HA/PEG/KGN hydrogels into articular cartilage significantly suppressed the progression of OA in rats compared with free-HA hydrogel injection. These results suggest that the HA/PEG/KGN hydrogels have greater potency than free-HA hydrogels against OA as biodegradable synthetic therapeutics.

  16. Reversible Modulation of DNA-Based Hydrogel Shapes by Internal Stress Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuwei; Kahn, Jason S; Guo, Weiwei; Huang, Fujian; Fadeev, Michael; Harries, Daniel; Willner, Itamar

    2016-12-14

    We present the assembly of asymmetric two-layer hybrid DNA-based hydrogels revealing stimuli-triggered reversibly modulated shape transitions. Asymmetric, linear hydrogels that include layer-selective switchable stimuli-responsive elements that control the hydrogel stiffness are designed. Trigger-induced stress in one of the layers results in the bending of the linear hybrid structure, thereby minimizing the elastic free energy of the systems. The removal of the stress by a counter-trigger restores the original linear bilayer hydrogel. The stiffness of the DNA hydrogel layers is controlled by thermal, pH (i-motif), K + ion/crown ether (G-quadruplexes), chemical (pH-doped polyaniline), or biocatalytic (glucose oxidase/urease) triggers. A theoretical model relating the experimental bending radius of curvatures of the hydrogels with the Young's moduli and geometrical parameters of the hydrogels is provided. Promising applications of shape-regulated stimuli-responsive asymmetric hydrogels include their use as valves, actuators, sensors, and drug delivery devices.

  17. Gene Therapy Vectors with Enhanced Transfection Based on Hydrogels Modified with Affinity Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Wesson, Paul J.; Wang, Christine E.; Stevans, Alyson C.; Holland, Samantha J.; Shikanov, Ariella; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative strategies for damaged tissue aim to present biochemical cues that recruit and direct progenitor cell migration and differentiation. Hydrogels capable of localized gene delivery are being developed to provide a support for tissue growth, and as a versatile method to induce the expression of inductive proteins; however, the duration, level, and localization of expression isoften insufficient for regeneration. We thus investigated the modification of hydrogels with affinity peptides to enhance vector retention and increase transfection within the matrix. PEG hydrogels were modified with lysine-based repeats (K4, K8), which retained approximately 25% more vector than control peptides. Transfection increased 5- to 15-fold with K8 and K4 respectively, over the RDG control peptide. K8- and K4-modified hydrogels bound similar quantities of vector, yet the vector dissociation rate was reduced for K8, suggesting excessive binding that limited transfection. These hydrogels were subsequently applied to an in vitro co-culture model to induce NGF expression and promote neurite outgrowth. K4-modified hydrogels promoted maximal neurite outgrowth, likely due to retention of both the vector and the NGF. Thus, hydrogels modified with affinity peptides enhanced vector retention and increased gene delivery, and these hydrogels may provide a versatile scaffold for numerous regenerative medicine applications. PMID:21514659

  18. Self-healing polysaccharide-based hydrogels as injectable carriers for neural stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Zhao, Jingyi; Chen, Yong Mei; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-11-01

    Self-healing injectable hydrogels can be formulated as three-dimensional carriers for the treatment of neurological diseases with desirable advantages, such as avoiding the potential risks of cell loss during injection, protecting cells from the shearing force of injection. However, the demands for biocompatible self-healing injectable hydrogels to meet above requirements and to promote the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons remain a challenge. Herein, we developed a biocompatible self-healing polysaccharide-based hydrogel system as a novel injectable carrier for the delivery of NSCs. N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) and oxidized sodium alginate (OSA) are the main backbones of the hydrogel networks, denoted as CEC-l-OSA hydrogel (“l” means “linked-by”). Owing to the dynamic imine cross-links formed by a Schiff reaction between amino groups on CEC and aldehyde groups on OSA, the hydrogel possesses the ability to self-heal into a integrity after being injected from needles under physiological conditions. The CEC-l-OSA hydrogel in which the stiffness mimicking nature brain tissues (100~1000 Pa) can be finely tuned to support the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. The multi-functional, injectable, and self-healing CEC-l-OSA hydrogels hold great promises for NSC transplantation and further treatment of neurological diseases.

  19. Self-healing polysaccharide-based hydrogels as injectable carriers for neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhao; Zhao, Jingyi; Chen, Yong Mei; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-01-01

    Self-healing injectable hydrogels can be formulated as three-dimensional carriers for the treatment of neurological diseases with desirable advantages, such as avoiding the potential risks of cell loss during injection, protecting cells from the shearing force of injection. However, the demands for biocompatible self-healing injectable hydrogels to meet above requirements and to promote the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons remain a challenge. Herein, we developed a biocompatible self-healing polysaccharide-based hydrogel system as a novel injectable carrier for the delivery of NSCs. N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) and oxidized sodium alginate (OSA) are the main backbones of the hydrogel networks, denoted as CEC-l-OSA hydrogel (“l” means “linked-by”). Owing to the dynamic imine cross-links formed by a Schiff reaction between amino groups on CEC and aldehyde groups on OSA, the hydrogel possesses the ability to self-heal into a integrity after being injected from needles under physiological conditions. The CEC-l-OSA hydrogel in which the stiffness mimicking nature brain tissues (100~1000 Pa) can be finely tuned to support the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. The multi-functional, injectable, and self-healing CEC-l-OSA hydrogels hold great promises for NSC transplantation and further treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:27897217

  20. Superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on copolymer cellulose/poly (vinyl alcohol)/CNT

    SciTech Connect

    Khoerunnisa, Fitri, E-mail: fitri.khoerunnisa@gmail.com; Hendrawan,; Sonjaya, Yaya

    2016-04-19

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are cross-linked hydrophilic polymers that can absorb and retain a large volume of water, saline solution, or physiological fluids. A distinctive superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on cellulose/ poly (vinyl alcohol)/ carbon nanotubes was successfully synthesized via the graft bio-copolymerization in an aqueous medium with glutaraldehide as a crosslinking agent. The effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on water absorption capacity and mechanical properties of superabsorbent composite were particularly investigated. The Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the evidence of copolymerization of hydrogel precursors as well as the interaction of CNT filler with the hydrogel matrices, as indicated by the shiftingmore » of peak intensity and position of several functional groups (O-H, C-H sp{sup 3}, C=O, C-N, C-O). The modification of hydrogel surface morphology and porosity owing to CNT insertion was also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. The CNT insertion improved the mechanical strength of superabsorbent hydrogel composites. Moreover, insertion of CNT into hydrogel matrix remarkably increased the swelling capacity of superabsorbent composites up to 840%. This huge water absorption capacity of hydrogel composites offers promising applications in development of superabsorbent polymers.« less

  1. Xanthan and κ-carrageenan based alkaline hydrogels as electrolytes for Al/air batteries.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, T M; Migliardini, F; Caputo, D; Corbo, P

    2017-02-10

    Xanthan and κ-carrageenan were used to prepare alkaline hydrogels to be used as electrolytes in aluminium air primary batteries. Two pasty gels were obtained starting from xanthan and KOH solutions (1M and 8M), while only the 8M KOH solution permitted the formation of a stable, elastic and gumminess hydrogel with κ-carrageenan. Discharge tests, performed on three Al/air cells assembled with Al anodes, electrolyte gels and Pt based cathodes, evidenced that all hydrogels exhibited appreciable properties of Al ion conductivities, according to the following performance order: xanthan with KOH 1Mhydrogels and galvanic cells to explain the behaviour differences detected between the hydrogels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of Hydrogels Based on Their Source: A Review and Application in Stem Cell Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansari, Maziyar M.; Sorokina, Lioudmila V.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Mukhtar, Farrukh; Shirdar, Mostafa Rezazadeh; Shahidi, Mahnaz; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells are recognized by their self-renewal ability and can give rise to specialized progeny. Hydrogels are an established class of biomaterials with the ability to control stem cell fate via mechanotransduction. They can mimic various physiological conditions to influence the fate of stem cells and are an ideal platform to support stem cell regulation. This review article provides a summary of recent advances in the application of different classes of hydrogels based on their source (e.g., natural, synthetic, or hybrid). This classification is important because the chemistry of substrate affects stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Natural and synthetic hydrogels have been widely used in stem cell regulation. Nevertheless, they have limitations that necessitate a new class of material. Hybrid hydrogels obtained by manipulation of the natural and synthetic ones can potentially overcome these limitations and shape the future of research in application of hydrogels in stem cell regulation.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose-Based Hydrogels to Be Used as Gel Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Maria Assunta; Dal Bosco, Chiara; Serra Moreno, Judith; Vitucci, Francesco Maria; Paolone, Annalisa; Panero, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose-based hydrogels, obtained by tuned, low-cost synthetic routes, are proposed as convenient gel electrolyte membranes. Hydrogels have been prepared from different types of cellulose by optimized solubilization and crosslinking steps. The obtained gel membranes have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical tests in order to investigate the crosslinking occurrence and modifications of cellulose resulting from the synthetic process, morphology of the hydrogels, their thermal stability, and viscoelastic-extensional properties, respectively. Hydrogels liquid uptake capability and ionic conductivity, derived from absorption of aqueous electrolytic solutions, have been evaluated, to assess the successful applicability of the proposed membranes as gel electrolytes for electrochemical devices. To this purpose, the redox behavior of electroactive species entrapped into the hydrogels has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry tests, revealing very high reversibility and ion diffusivity. PMID:26633528

  4. Photoresponsive Passive Micromixers Based on Spiropyran Size-Tunable Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ter Schiphorst, Jeroen; Melpignano, Giuseppe G; Amirabadi, Hossein Eslami; Houben, Menno H J M; Bakker, Sterre; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidic devices allow the manipulation of fluids down to the micrometer scale and are receiving a lot of attention for applications where low volumes and high throughputs are required. In these micro channels, laminar flow usually dominates, which requires long residence times of the fluids, limiting the flow speed and throughput. Here a switchable passive mixer has been developed to control mixing and to easily clean microchannels. The mixer is based on a photoresponsive spiropyran based hydrogel of which the dimensions can be tuned by changing the intensity of the light. The size-tunable gels have been used to fabricate a passive slanted groove mixer that can be switched off by light allowing to change mixing of microfluidics to non-mixed flows. These findings open new possibilities for multi-purpose microfluidic devices where mixers and valves can be tuned by light. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Morphological, electrical & antibacterial properties of trilayered Cs/PAA/PPy bionanocomposites hydrogel based on Fe3O4-NPs.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A M; Abdel-Aziz, M E; El-Sayed, E S A; Abdel-Aziz, M S; Abd El-Hakim, A A; Kamel, S; Turky, G

    2018-09-15

    Bionanocomposites hydrogel based on conducting polymers were successfully fabricated from chitosan/polyacrylic acid/polypyrrole (CS/PAA/PPy) as well as the magnetite nanoparticle (Fe 3 O 4 -NPs) was prepared via co-precipitation method. In addition, different ratios of Fe 3 O 4 -NPs were added to the prepared bionanocomposites to enhance the antimicrobial and the electrical conductivity of the prepared conductive hydrogel. Furthermore, the morphology, the swelling percent, antimicrobial activity and the dielectric properties of the prepared conducting bionanocomposites hydrogel were investigated. The antibacterial activities of the experienced microbes were improved with the increasing the loading of Fe 3 O 4 -NPs in conducting Bio-nanocomposites hydrogel. Moreover, the DC-conductivity was examined and our resulted indicated that the DC-conductivity was enhanced by increasing the loadings of Fe 3 O 4 -NPs compared to that of the pure CS/PAA as well as CS/PAA/PPy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Facile construction of terpridine-based metallo-polymers in hydrogels, crystals and solutions directed by metal ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajuan; Guo, Jiangbo; Dai, Bo; Geng, Lijun; Shen, Fengjuan; Zhang, Yajun; Yu, Xudong

    2018-07-01

    Driven by tunable metal-ligand interactions, a polydentate ligand TC containing terpyridine and carboxylic acid units was developed to construct metallo-polymers that showed multiple aggregation modes with controlled macroscopic properties. In the presence of different kind of Zn 2+ ions or NaOH, TC could form metallo-polymers via π-π stacking and metal-ligand interaction that further trapped water molecules, resulting in hydrogels and crystals. Moreover, these TC/Zn 2+ hydrogels could transform to soluble and fluorescent aggregates in the presence of NaOH due to the formation of binuclear metallo-polymers with enhanced ICT emission. The metal-ligand interactions tuned by different metal salts in gels, crystals, and sols were also studied and illustrated in detail, it was also proved that water was an essential linker for constructing Na + -based metallo-polymers from the TC/NaOH crystal data. This work demonstrated the engineered coordination pathways in generating controllable hydrogels and metallo-polymers for the first time, which led to novel approach for facilely constructing a number of hydrogels with tailorable macroscopic properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study on the swelling behavior of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels obtained by electron beam crosslinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, N.; Jalili, L.; Anvari, F.

    2010-06-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels were prepared by using electron beam (EB) crosslinking of PAA homopolymer from its aqueous solutions. The swelling behavior of the hydrogels was studied as a function of the concentration of PAA solution, radiation dose, pH of the swelling medium and swelling time. Also the environmental pH effect on the water diffusion mode into hydrogels was investigated. These hydrogels clearly showed pH-sensitive swelling behavior with Fickian type of diffusion in the stomach-like pH medium (pH 1.3) and non-Fickian type in the intestine-like pH medium (pH 6.8).

  8. Hyaluronic Acid (HA)-Polyethylene glycol (PEG) as injectable hydrogel for intervertebral disc degeneration patients therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri Kwarta, Cityta; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Siswanto

    2017-05-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is one health problem that is often encountered in a community. Inject-able hydrogels are the newest way to restore the disc thickness and hydration caused by disc degeneration by means of minimally invasive surgery. Thus, polymers can be combined to improve the characteristic properties of inject-able hydrogels, leading to use of Hyaluronic Acid (a natural polymer) and Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with Horse Radish Peroxide (HRP) cross linker enzymes. The swelling test results, which approaches were the ideal disc values, were sampled with variation of enzyme concentrations of 0.25 µmol/min/mL. The enzyme concentrations were 33.95%. The degradation test proved that the sample degradation increased along with the decrease of the HRP enzyme concentration. The results of the cytotoxicity assay with MTT assay method showed that all samples resulted in the 90% of living cells are not toxic. In vitro injection, models demonstrated that higher concentration of the enzymes was less state of gel which would rupture when released from the agarose gel. The functional group characterization shows the cross linking bonding in sample with enzyme adding. The conclusion of this study is PEG-HA-HRP enzyme are safe polymer composites which have a potential to be applied as an injectable hydrogel for intervertebral disc degeneration.

  9. Thermosensitive hydrogel made of ferulic acid-gelatin and chitosan glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Liu, Chia-Ching; Gefen, Amit; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2013-02-15

    Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress is involved in apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells that can alter cellular phenotype and accelerate disc degeneration. Ferulic acid (FA) possesses an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the study, we developed the thermosensitive FA-gelatin/chitosan/glycerol phosphate (FA-G/C/GP) hydrogel which was applied as a sustained release system of FA to treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress. The gelation temperature of the FA-G/C/GP hydrogel was 32.17 °C. NP cells submitted to oxidative stress promoted by H(2)O(2), and post-treated with FA-G/C/GP exhibited down-regulation of MMP-3 and up-regulation aggrecan and type II collagen in mRNA level. The sulfated-glycosaminoglycan production was increased and the apoptosis was inhibited in the post-treatment group. The results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-G/C/GP hydrogel can treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress and may apply in minimally invasive surgery for NP regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peptide-Based Molecular Hydrogels as Supramolecular Protein Mimics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishant; Kumar, Mohit; Miravet, Juan F; Ulijn, Rein V; Escuder, Beatriu

    2017-01-23

    This Minireview concerns recent advances in the design, synthesis, and application of low molecular-weight peptidic hydrogelators. The sequence-specific combinations of amino acid side chain functionalities combined with hydrogen bonding of amide backbones and hydrophobic (aromatic) capping groups give these peptidic molecules the intrinsic tendency to self-assemble. The most prevalent designs include N-capped amino acid residues, bolamphiphilic peptides, and amphipathic peptides. Factors such as hydrophobic effects, the Hofmeister effect, and tunable ionization influence their aggregation properties. The self-assembly of simple bio-inspired building blocks into higher organized structures allows comparisons to be drawn with proteins and their complex functionalities, providing preliminary insights into complex biological functions and also enabling their application in a wide range of fields including catalysis, biomedical applications, and mimicry of natural dissipative systems. The Minireview is concluded by a short summary and outlook, highlighting the advances and steps required to bridge the gaps in the understanding of such systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. pH-responsive hydrogel coated fiber Bragg grating-based chemo mechanical sensor bioreactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, P. V. N.; Sai Shankar, M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a fiber optics based pH sensor by using wavelength modulated techniques. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is functionalized with a stimulus responsive hydrogel which induces a strain on FBG due to mechanical expansion of the gel in response to ambient pH changes. The gel is synthesized from the blends of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Poly (acrylic acid). The induced strain results in a shift of FBG reflected peak which is monitored by an interrogator. The sensor system shows a good linearity in acidic pH range of 3 to 7 with a sensitivity of 12.16pm/pH. Besides that it shows good repeatability which proves it to be fit for pH sensing applications.

  12. Design and development of guar gum based novel, superabsorbent and moisture retaining hydrogels for agricultural applications.

    PubMed

    Thombare, Nandkishore; Mishra, Sumit; Siddiqui, M Z; Jha, Usha; Singh, Deodhari; Mahajan, Gopal R

    2018-04-01

    The novel hydrogels were synthesized by grafting guar gum with acrylic acid and cross-linking with ethylene glycol di methacrylic acid (EGDMA). The synthesis of hydrogel was confirmed by characterization through 13 C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM micrography, thermo-gravimetric analysis and water absorption studies under different solutions. Synthesized hydrogel (GG-AA-EGDMA) was confirmed to be biodegradable with half-life period of 77 days through soil burial biodegradation studies. The effects of hydrogel treatment on soil were evaluated by studying various physico-chemical properties of soil like bulk density, porosity, water absorption and retention capacity etc. The hydrogel which could absorb up to 800 ml water per gram, after addition to soil, improved its porosity, moisture absorption and retention capacity significantly. Water holding capacity of water increased up to 54% of its original and porosity also increased up to 9% of its original. The synthesized hydrogel revealed tremendous potential as soil conditioning material for agricultural applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alginate-polyester comacromer based hydrogels as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh G; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological responses of tissue engineering hydrogels are crucial in determining their desired performance. A hybrid comacromer was synthesized by copolymerizing alginate and poly(mannitol fumarate-co-sebacate) (pFMSA). Three bimodal hydrogels pFMSA-AA, pFMSA-MA and pFMSA-NMBA were synthesized by crosslinking with Ca(2+) and vinyl monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA), respectively. Though all the hydrogels were cytocompatible and exhibited a normal cell cycle profile, pFMSA-AA exhibited superior physiochemical properties viz non-freezable water content (58.34%) and water absorption per unit mass (0.97 g water/g gel) and pore length (19.92±3.91 μm) in comparing with other two hydrogels. The increased non-freezable water content and water absorption of pFMSA-AA hydrogels greatly influenced its biological performance, which was evident from long-term viability assay and cell cycle proliferation. The physiochemical and biological favorability of pFMSA-AA hydrogels signifies its suitability for cardiac tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlling Internal Organization of Multilayer Poly(methacrylic acid) Hydrogels with Polymer Molecular Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Ankner, John F.

    Here, we report on tailoring the internal architecture of multilayer-derived poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) hydrogels by controlling the molecular weight of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) in hydrogen-bonded (PMAA/PVPON) layer-by-layer precursor films. The hydrogels are produced by cross-linking PMAA in the spin-assisted multilayers followed by PVPON release. We found that the thickness, morphology, and architecture of hydrogen-bonded films and the corresponding hydrogels are significantly affected by PVPON chain length. For all systems, an increase in PVPON molecular weight from M w = 2.5 to 1300 kDa resulted in increased total film thickness. We also show that increasing polymer M w smooths the hydrogen-bonded filmmore » surfaces but roughens those of the hydrogels. Using deuterated dPMAA marker layers in neutron reflectometry measurements, we found that hydrogen-bonded films reveal a high degree of stratification which is preserved in the cross-linked films. We observed dPMAA to be distributed more widely in the hydrogen-bonded films prepared with small M w PVPON due to the greater mobility of short-chain PVPON. Furthermore, these variations in the distribution of PMAA are erased after cross-linking, resulting in a distribution of dPMAA over about two bilayers for all M w but being somewhat more widely distributed in the films templated with higher M w PVPON. Finally, our results yield new insights into controlling the organization of nanostructured polymer networks using polymer molecular weight and open opportunities for fabrication of thin films with well-organized architecture and controllable function.« less

  15. Controlling Internal Organization of Multilayer Poly(methacrylic acid) Hydrogels with Polymer Molecular Weight

    DOE PAGES

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Ankner, John F.; ...

    2015-11-16

    Here, we report on tailoring the internal architecture of multilayer-derived poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) hydrogels by controlling the molecular weight of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) in hydrogen-bonded (PMAA/PVPON) layer-by-layer precursor films. The hydrogels are produced by cross-linking PMAA in the spin-assisted multilayers followed by PVPON release. We found that the thickness, morphology, and architecture of hydrogen-bonded films and the corresponding hydrogels are significantly affected by PVPON chain length. For all systems, an increase in PVPON molecular weight from M w = 2.5 to 1300 kDa resulted in increased total film thickness. We also show that increasing polymer M w smooths the hydrogen-bonded filmmore » surfaces but roughens those of the hydrogels. Using deuterated dPMAA marker layers in neutron reflectometry measurements, we found that hydrogen-bonded films reveal a high degree of stratification which is preserved in the cross-linked films. We observed dPMAA to be distributed more widely in the hydrogen-bonded films prepared with small M w PVPON due to the greater mobility of short-chain PVPON. Furthermore, these variations in the distribution of PMAA are erased after cross-linking, resulting in a distribution of dPMAA over about two bilayers for all M w but being somewhat more widely distributed in the films templated with higher M w PVPON. Finally, our results yield new insights into controlling the organization of nanostructured polymer networks using polymer molecular weight and open opportunities for fabrication of thin films with well-organized architecture and controllable function.« less

  16. Cationic hemicellulose-based hydrogels for arsenic and chromium removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dax, Daniel; Chávez, María Soledad; Xu, Chunlin; Willför, Stefan; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira; Sánchez, Julio

    2014-10-13

    In this work the synthesis of hemicellulose-based hydrogels and their application for the removal of arsenic and chromium ions is described. In a first step O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) was subjected to a transesterification applying glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) for the synthesis of novel GGM macromonomers. Two distinguished and purified GGM fractions with molar mass of 7.1 and 28 kDa were used as starting materials. The resulting GGM macromonomers (GGM-MA) contained well-defined amounts of methacrylate groups as determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Selected GGM-MA derivatives were consecutively applied as a crosslinker in the synthesis of tailored hydrogels using [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MeDMA) as monomer. The swelling rate of the hydrogels was determined and the coherence between the swelling rate and the hydrogel composition was examined. The morphology of the GGM-based hydrogels was analysed by SEM and the hydrogels revealed a high surface area and were assessed in respect to their ability to remove arsenate and chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The presented bio-based hydrogels are of high interest especially for the mining industries as a sustainable material for the treatment of their highly contaminated wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogel Based Biosensors for In Vitro Diagnostics of Biochemicals, Proteins, and Genes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Il Young; Kim, Ji Su; Choi, Bo Ram; Lee, Kyuri; Lee, Hyukjin

    2017-06-01

    Hydrogel-based biosensors have drawn considerable attention due to their various advantages over conventional detection systems. Recent studies have shown that hydrogel biosensors can be excellent alternative systems to detect a wide range of biomolecules, including small biochemicals, pathogenic proteins, and disease specific genes. Due to the excellent physical properties of hydrogels such as the high water content and stimuli-responsive behavior of cross-linked network structures, this system can offer substantial improvement for the design of novel detection systems for various diagnostic applications. The other main advantage of hydrogels is the role of biomimetic three-dimensional (3D) matrix immobilizing enzymes and aptamers within the detection systems, which enhances their stability. This provides ideal reaction conditions for enzymes and aptamers to interact with substrates within the aqueous environment of the hydrogel. In this review, we have highlighted various novel detection approaches utilizing the outstanding properties of the hydrogel. This review summarizes the recent progress of hydrogel-based biosensors and discusses their future perspectives and clinical limitations to overcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel for site specific delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jisha Jayadevan; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar Theralikattu; Anto, Ruby John; Chithralekha, Devika Nandan; Narayanan, Ashwanikumar; Kumar, Gopalakrishnapillai Sankaramangalam Vinod

    2014-07-15

    The hydrogel based system is found to be rarely reported for the delivery of hydrophobic drug due to the incompatibility of hydrophilicity of the polymer network and the hydrophobicity of drug. This problem can be solved by preparing semi-interpenetrating network of cross-linked polymer for tuning the hydrophilicity so as to entrap the hydrophobic drugs. The current study is to develop a folic acid conjugated cross-linked pH sensitive, biocompatible polymeric hydrogel to achieve a site specific drug delivery. For that, we have synthesized a folic acid conjugated PEG cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel and investigated its loading and release of curcumin. The formed polymer hydrogel was then conjugated with folic acid for the site specific delivery of curcumin to cancer cells and then further characterized and conducted the cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies on human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). In this study, we synthesized folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs to the cancer site. Poly (ethyleneglycol) (PEG) diacrylate cross-linked acrylic polymer (PAA) was prepared via inverse emulsion polymerization technique and later conjugated it with folic acid (FA-CLAP). Hydrophobic drug curcumin is entrapped into it and investigated the entrapment efficiency. Characterization of synthesized hydogel was done by using Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Polymerization and folate conjugation was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The release kinetics of drug from the entrapped form was studied which showed initial burst release followed by sustained release due to swelling and increased cross-linking. In vitro cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were conducted in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Results showed that curcumin entrapped folate conjugated cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel showed

  19. A hydrogel-mediated scalable strategy toward core-shell polyaniline/poly(acrylic acid)-modified carbon nanotube hybrids as efficient electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingqing; Bai, Zhengyu; Fan, Jingbiao; Sun, Zhipeng; Mi, Hongyu; Zhang, Qing; Qiu, Jieshan

    2018-04-01

    Structural failure of polyaniline (PANI) stemmed from repeated swelling-shrinkage during Faradic process represents an imminent issue hindering the real application of this material for advanced energy storage. Herein, we explore a clean and facile hydrogel-mediated layer-by-layer strategy to conformally coat a layer of oriented PANI nanofibers on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) where a layer of UV-polymerized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel is first formed in between as electrodes for supercapacitors. Such an intriguing core-shell tri-component structure perfectly alleviates the drawbacks of PANI as well as combines the advantages of MWCNTs. Especially, the hydrogel used increases the adhesion between PANI and MWCNTs, buffers the structural variation of PANI during cycling, and provide extra driving force accelerating electrolyte penetration throughout active materials. Therefore, the well-intergrown hybrids (PANI/P-MWCNT) display high electrochemical performance as compared to PANI and PANI/MWCNT, i.e., an improved capacitance of 612.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, and excellent cycling behavior of 81.5% capacitance retention at 5 A g-1 over 1500 cycles. Also, the maximum energy density of the PANI/P-MWCNT based symmetric configuration reaches 8.2 Wh kg-1. Significantly, such a hydrogel-bridged design concept may find the important application for the synthesis of competitive candidates for energy storage.

  20. CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor using glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Uejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Keita; Kawamura, Toshikazu; Ohta, Yasumi; Motoyama, Mayumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Okitsu, Teru; Takeuchi, Shoji; Ohta, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor based on an optical-sensing scheme is proposed and experimentally verified. A glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel is used as the mediator in the measurement scheme. The wired implantable glucose sensor was realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor, hydrogel, UV light emitting diodes, and an optical filter on a flexible polyimide substrate. Feasibility of the glucose sensor was verified by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. PMID:25426316

  1. CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor using glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Uejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Keita; Kawamura, Toshikazu; Ohta, Yasumi; Motoyama, Mayumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Okitsu, Teru; Takeuchi, Shoji; Ohta, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor based on an optical-sensing scheme is proposed and experimentally verified. A glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel is used as the mediator in the measurement scheme. The wired implantable glucose sensor was realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor, hydrogel, UV light emitting diodes, and an optical filter on a flexible polyimide substrate. Feasibility of the glucose sensor was verified by both in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  2. Development and characterization of novel alginate-based hydrogels as vehicles for bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Morais, D S; Rodrigues, M A; Silva, T I; Lopes, M A; Santos, M; Santos, J D; Botelho, C M

    2013-06-05

    In this work three different hydrogels were developed to associate, as vehicles, with the synthetic bone substitute GR-HAP. One based on an alginate matrix (Alg); a second on a mixture of alginate and chitosan (Alg/Ch); and a third on alginate and hyaluronate (Alg/HA), using Ca(2+) ions as cross-linking agents. The hydrogels, as well as the respective injectable bone substitutes (IBSs), were fully characterized from the physical-chemical point of view. Weight change studies proved that all hydrogels were able to swell and degrade within 72 h at pH 7.4 and 4.0, being Alg/HA the hydrogel with the highest degradation rate (80%). Rheology studies demonstrated that all hydrogels are non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids, and injectability tests showed that IBSs presented low maximum extrusion forces, as well as quite stable average forces. In conclusion, the studied hydrogels present the necessary features to be successfully used as vehicles of GR-HAP, particularly the hydrogel Alg/HA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and colon-specific drug delivery of a poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/MBA nanosized hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debajyoti; Mohapatra, Dillip K; Mohapatra, Ranjit K; Mohanta, Guru P; Sahoo, Prafulla K

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon cancer therapy produces severe systemic side-effects due to its cytotoxic effect on normal cells. The main objective of the present study was to develop novel oral site-specific delivery of 5-FU to the colon with less drug being released in the stomach or small intestine using biodegradable hydrogel, hydrogel nanoparticles and comparing the targeting efficiency of 5-FU to colon from both. Poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (P(AA-co-Am)) normal hydrogel and hydrogel nanoparticles (HN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker, potassium persulfate as reaction initiator and 5-FU was loaded. HN were found to be degradable in physiological medium and showed comparatively higher swelling in rat caecal medium (RCM). 5-FU entrapment was increased by increasing Am (wt%) monomer feed. In vitro release of 5-FU from normal hydrogel and HN in pH progressive medium, it was found that a AA/Am ratio of 25:75 showed higher release in RCM. The Higuchi model yielded good adjustment of in vitro release kinetics. A higher amount of 5-FU reached the colon in HN (61 +/- 2.1%) than normal hydrogel (40 +/- 3.6%) by organ biodistribution studies in albino rats.

  4. Preparation of hyaluronic acid micro-hydrogel by biotin-avidin-specific bonding for doxorubicin-targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan; Li, Yanhui; Duan, Qian; Kakuchi, Toyoji

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a naturally ionic polysaccharide with cancer cell selectivity. It is an ideal candidate material for delivery of anticancer agents. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) micro-hydrogel loaded with anticancer drugs was prepared by the biotin-avidin system approach. Firstly, carboxyl groups on HA were changed into amino groups with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) to graft with biotin by 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride named as HA-biotin. When HA-biotin solution mixed with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl) was blended with neutravidin, the micro-hydrogels would be formed with DOX loading. If excess biotin was added into the microgel, it would be disjointed, and DOX will be released quickly. The results of the synthesis procedure were characterized by (1)H-NMR and FTIR; ADH and biotin have been demonstrated to graft on the HA molecule. A field emission scanning electron microscope was used to observe morphologies of HA micro-hydrogels. Furthermore, the in vitro DOX release results revealed that the release behaviors can be adjusted by adding biotin. Therefore, the HA micro-hydrogel can deliver anticancer drugs efficiently, and the rate of release can be controlled by biotin-specific bonding with the neutravidin. Consequently, the micro-hydrogel will perform the promising property of switching in the specific site in cancer therapy.

  5. Gellan gum-hyaluronic acid spongy-like hydrogels and cells from adipose tissue synergize promoting neoskin vascularization.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Mariana Teixeira; da Silva, Lucília Pereira; Santos, Tírcia Carlos; Pirraco, Rogério Pedro; Correlo, Vítor Manuel; Reis, Rui Luís; Marques, Alexandra Pinto

    2014-11-26

    Currently available substitutes for skin wound healing often result in the formation of nonfunctional neotissue. Thus, urgent care is still needed to promote an effective and complete regeneration. To meet this need, we proposed the assembling of a construct that takes advantage of cell-adhesive gellan gum-hyaluronic acid (GG-HA) spongy-like hydrogels and a powerful cell-machinery obtained from adipose tissue, human adipose stem cells (hASCs), and microvascular endothelial cells (hAMECs). In addition to a cell-adhesive character, GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels overpass limitations of traditional hydrogels, such as reduced physical stability and limited manipulation, due to improved microstructural arrangement characterized by pore wall thickening and increased mean pore size. The proposed constructs combining cellular mediators of the healing process within the spongy-like hydrogels that intend to recapitulate skin matrix aim to promote neoskin vascularization. Stable and off-the-shelf dried GG-HA polymeric networks, rapidly rehydrated at the time of cell seeding then depicting features of both sponges and hydrogels, enabled the natural cell entrapment/encapsulation and attachment supported by cell-polymer interactions. Upon transplantation into mice full-thickness excisional wounds, GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels absorbed the early inflammatory cell infiltrate and led to the formation of a dense granulation tissue. Consequently, spongy-like hydrogel degradation was observed, and progressive wound closure, re-epithelialization, and matrix remodelling was improved in relation to the control condition. More importantly, GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels promoted a superior neovascularization, which was enhanced in the presence of human hAMECs, also found in the formed neovessels. These observations highlight the successful integration of a valuable matrix and prevascularization cues to target angiogenesis/neovascularization in skin full-thickness excisional wounds.

  6. Elastin Based Cell-laden Injectable Hydrogels with Tunable Gelation, Mechanical and Biodegradation Properties

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Ali; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Wei, Hua; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Valtchev, Peter; Weiss, Anthony S.; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels made from extracellular matrix proteins such as elastin show great promise for various biomedical applications. Use of cytotoxic reagents, fixed gelling behavior, and lack of mechanical strength in these hydrogels are the main associated drawbacks. The aim of this study was to develop highly cytocompatible and injectable elastin-based hydrogels with alterable gelation characteristics, favorable mechanical properties and structural stability for load bearing applications. A thermoresponsive copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-polylactide-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether methacrylate, was functionalized with succinimide ester groups by incorporating N-acryloxysuccinimide monomer. These ester groups were exploited to covalently bond this polymer, denoted as PNPHO, to different proteins with primary amine groups such as α-elastin in aqueous media. The incorporation of elastin through covalent bond formation with PNPHO promotes the structural stability, mechanical properties and live cell proliferation within the structure of hydrogels. Our results demonstrated that elastin-co-PNPHO solutions were injectable through fine gauge needles and converted to hydrogels in situ at 37 °C in the absence of any crosslinking reagent. By altering PNPHO content, the gelling time of these hydrogels can be finely tuned within the range of 2 to 15 min to ensure compatibility with surgical requirements. In addition, these hydrogels exhibited compression moduli in the range of 40 to 145 kPa, which are substantially higher than those of previously developed elastin-based hydrogels. These hydrogels were highly stable in the physiological environment with the evidence of 10 wt% mass loss in 30 days of incubation in a simulated environment. This class of hydrogels is in vivo bioabsorbable due to the gradual increase of the lower critical solution temperature of the copolymer to above 37 °C due to the cleavage of polylactide from

  7. Hydrogels based on cellulose and chitin: fabrication, properties, and applications

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Xiaoping; Shamshina, Julia L.; Berton, Paula; ...

    2015-11-16

    A review of the synthesis and applications of renewable, biocompatible, and biodegradable hydrogels made from cellulose, chitin, and some of their derivatives indicates increased attention due to their excellent processability, high absorbency, porosity, bioactivity, and abundant active groups.

  8. Hydrogels based on cellulose and chitin: fabrication, properties, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xiaoping; Shamshina, Julia L.; Berton, Paula

    A review of the synthesis and applications of renewable, biocompatible, and biodegradable hydrogels made from cellulose, chitin, and some of their derivatives indicates increased attention due to their excellent processability, high absorbency, porosity, bioactivity, and abundant active groups.

  9. Thermoresponsive, in situ crosslinkable hydrogels based on N-isopropylacrylamide: Fabrication, characterization and mesenchymal stem cell encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Klouda, Leda; Perkins, Kevin R.; Watson, Brendan M.; Hacker, Michael C.; Bryant, Stephanie J.; Raphael, Robert M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels that solidify in response to a dual, physical and chemical, mechanism upon temperature increase were fabricated and characterized. The hydrogels were based on N-isopropylacrylamide, which renders them thermoresponsive, and contained covalently crosslinkable moieties in the macromers. The effects of the macromer end group, namely acrylate or methacrylate, and the fabrication conditions were investigated on the degradative and swelling properties of the hydrogels. The hydrogels exhibited higher swelling below their lower critical solution temperature (LCST). When immersed in cell culture media at physiological temperature, which was above their LCST, hydrogels showed constant swelling and no degradation over eight weeks, with methacrylated hydrogels having higher swelling than their acrylated analogs. In addition, hydrogels immersed in cell culture media under the same conditions showed lower swelling as compared to phosphate buffered saline. The interplay between chemical crosslinking and thermally induced phase separation affected the swelling characteristics of hydrogels in different media. Mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in the hydrogels in vitro were viable over three weeks and markers of osteogenic differentiation were detected when the cells were cultured with osteogenic supplements. Hydrogel mineralization in the absence of cells was observed in cell culture medium with the addition of fetal bovine serum and β-glycerol phosphate. The results suggest that these hydrogels may be suitable as carriers for cell delivery in tissue engineering. PMID:21187170

  10. Hydrogel tissue construct-based high-content compound screening.

    PubMed

    Lam, Vy; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Current pharmaceutical compound screening systems rely on cell-based assays to identify therapeutic candidates and potential toxicities. However, cells grown on 2D substrata or in suspension do not exhibit the mechanical or physiological properties of cells in vivo. To address this limitation, the authors developed an in vitro, high-throughput, 3D hydrogel tissue construct (HTC)-based assay system to quantify cell and tissue mechanical properties and multiple parameters of physiology. HTC mechanics was quantified using an automated device, and physiological status was assessed using spectroscopy-based indicators that were read on microplate readers. To demonstrate the application of this system, the authors screened 4 test compounds--rotenone (ROT), cytochalasin D (CD), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and Rho kinase inhibitor (H-1152)--for their ability to modulate HTC contractility without affecting actin integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), or viability. All 4 compounds dose-dependently reduced HTC contractility. However, ROT was toxic, DNP dissipated MMP, and CD reduced both intracellular F-actin and viability. H-1152 was found to be the best candidate compound since it reduced HTC contractility with minimal side effects. The authors propose that their HTC-based assay system can be used to screen for compounds that modulate HTC contractility and assess the underlying physiological mechanism(s) of compound activity and toxicity.

  11. Tuning the Mechanical Properties of a DNA Hydrogel in Three Phases Based on ATP Aptamer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hengyuan; Cao, Tianyang; Xu, Yun; Dong, Yuanchen; Liu, Dongsheng

    2018-05-31

    By integrating ATP aptamer into the linker DNA, a novel DNA hydrogel was designed, with mechanical properties that could be tuned into three phases. Based on the unique interaction between ATP and its aptamer, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel increased from 204 Pa to 380 Pa after adding ATP. Furthermore, with the addition of the complementary sequence to the ATP aptamer, the mechanical strength could be increased to 570 Pa.

  12. Mechanically Robust 3D Nanostructure Chitosan-Based Hydrogels with Autonomic Self-Healing Properties.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali Reza; Khodadadi, Azam

    2016-10-12

    Fabrication of hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) with superb self-healing behavior and high mechanical and electrical properties has become a challenging and fascinating topic. Most of the conventional hydrogels lack these properties at the same time. Our objectives in this research were to synthesize, characterize, and evaluate the general properties of chitosan covalently cross-linked with zinc phthalocyanine tetra-aldehyde (ZnPcTa) framework. Our hope was to access an unprecedented self-healable three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure that would harvest the superior mechanical and electrical properties associated with chitosan. The properties of cross-linker such as the structure, steric effect, and rigidity of the molecule played important roles in determining the microstructure and properties of the resulting hydrogels. The tetra-functionalized phthalocyanines favor a dynamic Schiff-base linkage with chitosan to form a 3D porous nanostructure. Based on this strategy, the self-healing ability, as demonstrated by rheological recovery and macroscopic and microscopic observations, is introduced through dynamic covalent Schiff-base linkage between NH 2 groups in CS and benzaldehyde groups at cross-linker ends. The hydrogel was characterized using FT-IR, NMR, UV/vis, and rheological measurements. In addition, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed as a technique to visualize the internal morphology of the hydrogels. Study of the surface morphology of the hydrogel showed a 3D porous nanostructure with uniform morphology. Furthermore, incorporating the conductive nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), into the structure can modulate the mechanical and electrical properties of the obtained hydrogels. Interestingly, these hydrogel nanocomposites proved to have very good film-forming properties, high modulus and strength, acceptable electrical conductivity, and excellent self-healing properties at neutral pH. Such properties can be finely tuned

  13. Rheology and adhesion of poly(acrylic acid)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels as biocompatible adhesives.

    PubMed

    Shen, Muxian; Li, Li; Sun, Yimin; Xu, Jun; Guo, Xuhong; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2014-02-18

    Biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) consisting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and nanosized clay (Laponite) were successfully synthesized by in situ free-radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solutions of Laponite. The obtained NC gels were uniform and transparent. Their viscosity, storage modulus G', and loss modulus G″ increased significantly upon increasing the content of Laponite and the dose of AA, while exhibiting a maximum with increasing the neutralization degree of AA. They showed tunable adhesion by changing the dose of Laponite and monomer as well as the neutralization degree of AA, as determined by 180° peel strength measurement. The maximal adhesion was shown when reaching a balance between cohesion and fluidity. A homemade Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) instrument was employed to study the surface adhesion behavior of the NC gels. The combination of peel strength, rheology, and JKR measurements offers the opportunity of insight into the mechanism of adhesion of hydrogels. The NC gels with tunable adhesion should be ideal candidates for dental adhesive, wound dressing, and tissue engineering.

  14. Bioorthogonal in Situ Hydrogels Based on Polyether Polyols for New Biosensor Materials with High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Anna; Kaufmann, Lena; Dey, Pradip; Haag, Rainer; Schedler, Uwe

    2018-04-04

    Both noncovalent and covalent encapsulations of active biomolecules, for example, proteins and oligonucleotides, for a new biosensor matrix in an in situ bioorthogonal hydrogel formation via a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction were investigated. Unspecific interaction between the gel and the biomolecules as well as protein denaturation was prevented by the bioorthogonal gel components, which ensure a uniform aqueous environment in the hydrogel network. No leaching of the active biomolecules was observed. Additionally, a much higher and also adjustable loading of biomolecules in the hydrogel matrix was achieved compared to conventional biosensor surfaces, where the sensor molecules are immobilized on monolayers (2D surfaces) or brushlike structures (3D surfaces). Spotting experiments of the hydrogel confirm the possibility to use this new surface for microarray-based multiplex applications which require very high signal-to-noise ratios.

  15. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhudesai, S. A., E-mail: swapnil@barc.gov.in; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2015-06-24

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D{sub 2}O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by amore » model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/sec.« less

  16. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhudesai, S. A.; Lawrence, Mathias B.; Mitra, S.; Desa, J. A. E.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2015-06-01

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D2O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10-5 cm2/sec.

  17. Glutathione-Triggered Formation of a Fmoc-Protected Short Peptide-Based Supramolecular Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yang; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Huaimin; Hu, Yanhui; Chen, Xuemei; Yang, Zhimou

    2014-01-01

    A biocompatible method of glutathione (GSH) catalyzed disulfide bond reduction was used to form Fmoc-short peptide-based supramolecular hydrogels. The hydrogels could form in both buffer solution and cell culture medium containing 10% of Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) within minutes. The hydrogel was characterized by rheology, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence emission spectra. Their potential in three dimensional (3D) cell culture was evaluated and the results indicated that the gel with a low concentration of the peptide (0.1 wt%) was suitable for 3D cell culture of 3T3 cells. This study provides an alternative candidate of supramolecular hydrogel for 3D cell culture and cell delivery. PMID:25222132

  18. pH responsive N-succinyl chitosan/Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels and in vitro release of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Shahid; Teo, Yin Yin; Naeem, Sumaira; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2017-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the last few decades in addressing the biomedical applications of polymer hydrogels. Particularly, stimuli responsive hydrogels have been inspected as elegant drug delivery systems capable to deliver at the appropriate site of action within the specific time. The present work describes the synthesis of pH responsive semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels of N-succinyl-chitosan (NSC) via Schiff base mechanism using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent and Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)(Poly (AAm-co-AA)) was embedded within the N-succinyl chitosan network. The physico-chemical interactions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The synthesized hydrogels constitute porous structure. The swelling ability was analyzed in physiological mediums of pH 7.4 and pH 1.2 at 37°C. Swelling properties of formulations with various amounts of NSC/ Poly (AAm-co-AA) and crosslinking agent at pH 7.4 and pH 1.2 were investigated. Hydrogels showed higher swelling ratios at pH 7.4 while lower at pH 1.2. Swelling kinetics and diffusion parameters were also determined. Drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from the synthesized hydrogels were observed. In vitro release profile revealed the significant influence of pH, amount of NSC, Poly (AAm-co-AA), and crosslinking agent on the release of 5-FU. Accordingly, rapid and large release of drug was observed at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.2. The maximum encapsulation efficiency and release of 5-FU from SP2 were found to be 72.45% and 85.99%, respectively. Kinetics of drug release suggested controlled release mechanism of 5-FU is according to trend of non-Fickian. From the above results, it can be concluded that the synthesized hydrogels have capability to adapt their potential exploitation as targeted oral drug

  19. pH responsive N-succinyl chitosan/Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels and in vitro release of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Shahid; Teo, Yin Yin; Naeem, Sumaira; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2017-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the last few decades in addressing the biomedical applications of polymer hydrogels. Particularly, stimuli responsive hydrogels have been inspected as elegant drug delivery systems capable to deliver at the appropriate site of action within the specific time. The present work describes the synthesis of pH responsive semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels of N-succinyl-chitosan (NSC) via Schiff base mechanism using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent and Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)(Poly (AAm-co-AA)) was embedded within the N-succinyl chitosan network. The physico-chemical interactions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The synthesized hydrogels constitute porous structure. The swelling ability was analyzed in physiological mediums of pH 7.4 and pH 1.2 at 37°C. Swelling properties of formulations with various amounts of NSC/ Poly (AAm-co-AA) and crosslinking agent at pH 7.4 and pH 1.2 were investigated. Hydrogels showed higher swelling ratios at pH 7.4 while lower at pH 1.2. Swelling kinetics and diffusion parameters were also determined. Drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from the synthesized hydrogels were observed. In vitro release profile revealed the significant influence of pH, amount of NSC, Poly (AAm-co-AA), and crosslinking agent on the release of 5-FU. Accordingly, rapid and large release of drug was observed at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.2. The maximum encapsulation efficiency and release of 5-FU from SP2 were found to be 72.45% and 85.99%, respectively. Kinetics of drug release suggested controlled release mechanism of 5-FU is according to trend of non-Fickian. From the above results, it can be concluded that the synthesized hydrogels have capability to adapt their potential exploitation as targeted oral drug

  20. SAM-based cell transfer to photopatterned hydrogels for microengineering vascular-like structures.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Nasser; Zhu, Mojun; Osaki, Tatsuya; Kakegawa, Takahiro; Yang, Yunzhi; Moretti, Matteo; Fukuda, Junji; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-10-01

    A major challenge in tissue engineering is to reproduce the native 3D microvascular architecture fundamental for in vivo functions. Current approaches still lack a network of perfusable vessels with native 3D structural organization. Here we present a new method combining self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based cell transfer and gelatin methacrylate hydrogel photopatterning techniques for microengineering vascular structures. Human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC) transfer from oligopeptide SAM-coated surfaces to the hydrogel revealed two SAM desorption mechanisms: photoinduced and electrochemically triggered. The former, occurs concomitantly to hydrogel photocrosslinking, and resulted in efficient (>97%) monolayer transfer. The latter, prompted by additional potential application, preserved cell morphology and maintained high transfer efficiency of VE-cadherin positive monolayers over longer culture periods. This approach was also applied to transfer HUVECs to 3D geometrically defined vascular-like structures in hydrogels, which were then maintained in perfusion culture for 15 days. As a step toward more complex constructs, a cell-laden hydrogel layer was photopatterned around the endothelialized channel to mimic the vascular smooth muscle structure of distal arterioles. This study shows that the coupling of the SAM-based cell transfer and hydrogel photocrosslinking could potentially open up new avenues in engineering more complex, vascularized tissue constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SAM-based Cell Transfer to Photopatterned Hydrogels for Microengineering Vascular-Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Sadr, Nasser; Zhu, Mojun; Osaki, Tatsuya; Kakegawa, Takahiro; Yang, Yunzhi; Moretti, Matteo; Fukuda, Junji; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in tissue engineering is to reproduce the native 3D microvascular architecture fundamental for in vivo functions. Current approaches still lack a network of perfusable vessels with native 3D structural organization. Here we present a new method combining self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based cell transfer and gelatin methacrylate hydrogel photopatterning techniques for microengineering vascular structures. Human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC) transfer from oligopeptide SAM-coated surfaces to the hydrogel revealed two SAM desorption mechanisms: photoinduced and electrochemically triggered. The former, occurs concomitantly to hydrogel photocrosslinking, and resulted in efficient (>97%) monolayer transfer. The latter, prompted by additional potential application, preserved cell morphology and maintained high transfer efficiency of VE-cadherin positive monolayers over longer culture periods. This approach was also applied to transfer HUVECs to 3D geometrically defined vascular-like structures in hydrogels, which were then maintained in perfusion culture for 15 days. As a step toward more complex constructs, a cell-laden hydrogel layer was photopatterned around the endothelialized channel to mimic the vascular smooth muscle structure of distal arterioles. This study shows that the coupling of the SAM-based cell transfer and hydrogel photocrosslinking could potentially open up new avenues in engineering more complex, vascularized tissue constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. PMID:21802723

  2. Tailoring drug release rates in hydrogel-based therapeutic delivery applications using graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Z. L.; Craster, R. V.

    2018-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is increasingly used for controlling mass diffusion in hydrogel-based drug delivery applications. On the macro-scale, the density of GO in the hydrogel is a critical parameter for modulating drug release. Here, we investigate the diffusion of a peptide drug through a network of GO membranes and GO-embedded hydrogels, modelled as porous matrices resembling both laminated and ‘house of cards’ structures. Our experiments use a therapeutic peptide and show a tunable nonlinear dependence of the peptide concentration upon time. We establish models using numerical simulations with a diffusion equation accounting for the photo-thermal degradation of fluorophores and an effective percolation model to simulate the experimental data. The modelling yields an interpretation of the control of drug diffusion through GO membranes, which is extended to the diffusion of the peptide in GO-embedded agarose hydrogels. Varying the density of micron-sized GO flakes allows for fine control of the drug diffusion. We further show that both GO density and size influence the drug release rate. The ability to tune the density of hydrogel-like GO membranes to control drug release rates has exciting implications to offer guidelines for tailoring drug release rates in hydrogel-based therapeutic delivery applications. PMID:29445040

  3. Development, characterization, and applications of self-assembling, photocrosslinkable collagen-based hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, Ian Daniel

    Development of functional soft-tissue engineered constructs for use in regenerative medicine is currently limited by homogeneity within scaffolds that fails to recapitulate the complex architecture that supports normal function in healthy tissues. Additionally, recent breakthroughs in our understanding the biomechanical cell-matrix interface have provided insight into the role of substrate compliance during development and in the pathophysiological environment. This thesis is the result of investigation into using type-I collagen as a base material for creating dynamic, self-assembling, mechanically and biochemically tunable 3D hydrogel scaffolds into which instructive cellular cues can be imparted anisotropically via the directed application of light. This overarching goal was approached by (1) evaluating extant methods for photonically manipulating type I collagen mechanical properties, which led us to the conclusion that published methods were inadequate for our purposes. Following this realization, we (2) developed a novel process for derivatizing free amines on collagen amino acid residues to reactive methacrylamide moieties, allowing robust spatiotemporal control of mechanical properties through photocrosslinking with long-wave UV light and the water-soluble photoinitiator Irgacure 2959. Thorough characterization of this material, collagen methacrylamide (CMA), provided the basis for multiple applications in the field of soft tissue engineering. Additionally, (3) CMA was used in conjunction with synthetic photopolymers in an effort to create a hybrid natural/synthetic hydrogel material. CMA was also (4) employed as a dynamic hydrogel scaffold which we showed could be used to culture a number of neurogenic stem and progenitor cell types with a focus on using photomodulation to impart instructive heterogeneity to the mechanical and biochemical microenvironment. Finally, (5) we used a computational modeling approach to explain interesting yet poorly understood

  4. Effects of Mechanical Constraint on the Performance of Fluorescent Hydrogel-based Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukl, Jennifer Marie

    Although biosensor technology is a broad and well-studied field, the progress of many novel sensor technologies faces challenges. These challenges range from simple design considerations to fundamental issues with the concept or approach. One of the most active fields of sensor research integrates fiber optics with specially engineered fluorescent molecules. This type of sensor typically utilizes a porous polymer or porous glass substrate to entrap the fluorescent (or fluorescently-tagged) molecule. Porous polymer hydrogels are generally favored due to their ease of fabrication, low cost, adaptability, and biocompatibility. While hydrogels are ideal for both functional molecule suspension and fluid diffusion, their porosity and hydrophilicity are not always advantageous. The largest drawback of these properties is the hydrogel swelling they produce and the resulting geometric changes. This project investigated the limitations of fluorescent hydrogel-based sensors and the effects of unpredictable structural changes hydrogels undergo during typical, unrestrained swelling. The significance of covalent incorporation of the sensing fluorophore into the hydrogel matrix is also explored. Leaching tests were conducted using polyacrylamide (PAm) hydrogels which were impregnated with one of two pH sensitive fluorophores, one which bonded covalently with the hydrogel matrix during polymerization (fluorescein o-acrylate), and one which did not (fluorescein sodium). Once determined to be effective, the covalently bonding fluorophore was used to create constrained-dimension fluorescent pH sensors. These sensors were tested for effectiveness and reproducibility. All data was collected using a laboratory grade optical fibers, a USB spectrometer, and SpectraSuite software (Ocean Optics, 2010) unless otherwise specified.

  5. Gellan Gum-Based Hydrogels for Osteochondral Repair.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lígia; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, J Miguel; Reis, Rui L

    2018-01-01

    Gellan gum (GG) is a widely explored natural polysaccharide that has been gaining attention in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine field, and more recently in osteochondral TE approaches. Taking advantage of its inherent features such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, similarity with the extracellular matrix and easy functionalization, GG-based hydrogels have been studied for their potential for cartilage and bone tissue regeneration. Several preclinical studies describe the successful outcome of GG in cartilage tissue engineering. By its turn, GG composites have also been proposed in several strategies to guide bone formation. The big challenge in osteochondral TE approaches is still to achieve cartilage and bone regeneration simultaneously through a unique integrated bifunctional construct. The potential of GG to be used as polymeric support to reach both bone and cartilage regeneration has been demonstrated. This chapter provides an overview of GG properties and the functionalization strategies employed to tailor its behaviour to a particular application. The use of GG in soft and hard tissues regeneration approaches, as well in osteochondral integrated TE strategies is also revised.

  6. Microfluidic bioassay system based on microarrays of hydrogel sensing elements entrapping quantum dot-enzyme conjugates.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunji; Kim, Sinyoung; Koh, Won-Gun

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a simple method to fabricate a microfluidic biosensor that is able to detect substrates for H(2)O(2)-generating oxidase. The biosensor consists of three components (quantum dot-enzyme conjugates, hydrogel microstructures, and a set of microchannels) that were hierarchically integrated into a microfluidic device. The quantum dot (QD)-enzyme conjugates were entrapped within the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel microstructures that were fabricated within the microchannels by a photopatterning process. Glucose oxidase (GOX) and alcohol oxidase (AOX) were chosen as the model oxidase enzymes, conjugated to carboxyl-terminated CdSe/ZnS QDs, and entrapped within the hydrogel microstructures, which resulted in a fluorescent hydrogel microarray that was responsive to glucose or alcohol. The hydrogel-entrapped GOX and AOX were able to perform enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of glucose and alcohol, respectively, to produce H(2)O(2), which subsequently quenched the fluorescence of the conjugated QDs. The fluorescence intensity of the hydrogel microstructures decreased as the glucose and alcohol concentrations increased, and the detection limits of this system were found to be 50 μM of glucose and 70 μM of alcohol. Because each microchannel was able to carry out different assays independently, the simultaneous detection of glucose and alcohol was possible using our novel microfluidic device composed of multiple microchannels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzyme-Regulated Fast Self-Healing of a Pillararene-Based Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Jiayun; Lang, Chao; Qiao, Shanpeng; An, Guo; Fan, Xiaotong; Zhao, Linlu; Hou, Chunxi; Liu, Junqiu

    2017-06-12

    Self-healing, one of the exciting properties of materials, is frequently used to repair the damage of biological and artificial systems. Here we have used enzymatic catalysis approaches to develop a fast self-healing hydrogel, which has been constructed by dynamic aldimine cross-linking of pillar[5]arene-derivant and dialdehyde-functionalized PEG followed by encapsulation of glucose oxidase (GOx) and catalase (CAT). In specific, the two hydroxyl groups at terminal of PEG 4000 are functionalized with benzaldehydes that can interact with amino-containing pillar[5]arene-derivant through dynamic aldimine cross-links, resulting in reversible dynamic hydrogels. Modulus analysis indicated that storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of the hydrogel increased obviously as the concentration of dialdehyde-functionalized PEG 4000 (DF-PEG 4000 ) increased or the pH values decreased. Once glucose oxidase (GOx) and catalase (CAT) are located, the hydrogel could be fast repaired, with self-healing efficiency up to 100%. Notably tensile test showed that the repair process of pillararene-based hydrogel can finish in several minutes upon enzyme catalysis, while it needed more than 24 h to achieve this recovery without enzymes. This enzyme-regulated self-healing hydrogel would hold promise for delivering drugs and for soft tissue regeneration in the future.

  8. Boron removal by a composite sorbent: Polyethylenimine/tannic acid derivative immobilized in alginate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Caroline; Grishin, Andrey; Vincent, Thierry; Guibal, Eric

    2017-03-21

    A novel composite material was prepared by the grafting of tannic acid on polyethylenimine (PEI), which allows an efficient sorption of boron (sorption capacity close to 0.89 mmol B g -1 ). The encapsulation of this chelating sorbent (finely crushed) facilitates its use (readily solid/liquid separation, use in fixed-bed columns) at the expense of a loss in sorption capacity (proportionally decreased by the introduction of alginate having poor efficiency for boron uptake). Sorption isotherms are modeled using the Langmuir equation, while the kinetic profiles are presented a good fit by pseudo-second order rate equation. In addition, the encapsulating matrix introduces supplementary resistance to intraparticle diffusion, especially when the resin is dried without control: freeze-drying partially limits this effect. The stability (at long-term storage) of the sorbent is improved when the sorbent is stored under nitrogen atmosphere. The presence of an excess of NaCl was investigated. The degradation of the hydrogel (by ion-exchange of Ca(II) with Na(I)) leads to a decrease in the sorption performance of composite material but the action of Ca(II) ions in the solutions re-stabilizes the hydrogel.

  9. A novel pH-responsive hydrogel-based on calcium alginate engineered by the previous formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) intended to vaginal administration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Natália Noronha; Perez, Taciane Alvarenga; Pedreiro, Liliane Neves; Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Cardoso, Valéria Maria de Oliveira; Venâncio, Tiago; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to develop a calcium alginate hydrogel as a pH responsive delivery system for polymyxin B (PMX) sustained-release through the vaginal route. Two samples of sodium alginate from different suppliers were characterized. The molecular weight and M/G ratio determined were, approximately, 107 KDa and 1.93 for alginate_S and 32 KDa and 1.36 for alginate_V. Polymer rheological investigations were further performed through the preparation of hydrogels. Alginate_V was selected for subsequent incorporation of PMX due to the acquisition of pseudoplastic viscous system able to acquiring a differential structure in simulated vaginal microenvironment (pH 4.5). The PMX-loaded hydrogel (hydrogel_PMX) was engineered based on polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formation between alginate and PMX followed by crosslinking with calcium chloride. This system exhibited a morphology with variable pore sizes, ranging from 100 to 200 μm and adequate syringeability. The hydrogel liquid uptake ability in an acid environment was minimized by the previous PECs formation. In vitro tests evidenced the hydrogels mucoadhesiveness. PMX release was pH-dependent and the system was able to sustain the release up to 6 days. A burst release was observed at pH 7.4 and drug release was driven by an anomalous transport, as determined by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. At pH 4.5, drug release correlated with Weibull model and drug transport was driven by Fickian diffusion. The calcium alginate hydrogels engineered by the previous formation of PECs showed to be a promising platform for sustained release of cationic drugs through vaginal administration.

  10. Implantation of hyaluronic acid hydrogel prevents the pain phenotype in a rat model of intervertebral disc injury

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dockery, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Painful intervertebral disc degeneration is mediated by inflammation that modulates glycosylation and induces hyperinnervation and sensory sensitization, which result in discogenic pain. Hyaluronic acid (HA) used as a therapeutic biomaterial can reduce inflammation and pain, but the effects of HA therapy on glycosylation and pain associated with disc degeneration have not been previously determined. We describe a novel rat model of pain induced by intervertebral disc injury, with validation of the pain phenotype by morphine treatment. Using this model, we assessed the efficacy of HA hydrogel for the alleviation of pain, demonstrating that it reduced nociceptive behavior, an effect associated with down-regulation of nociception markers and inhibition of hyperinnervation. Furthermore, HA hydrogel altered glycosylation and modulated key inflammatory and regulatory signaling pathways, resulting in attenuation of inflammation and regulation of matrix components. Our results suggest that HA hydrogel is a promising clinical candidate for the treatment of back pain caused by degenerated discs. PMID:29632893

  11. Structure and properties of semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel based on starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baodong; Ma, Dongzhuo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-11-20

    Starch-g-P(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/PVA semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels were prepared by aqueous solution polymerization method. Starch grafting copolymerization reaction, semi-IPN structure and crystal morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PVA in the form of partial crystallization distributing in the gel matrix uniformly were observed by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The space network structure, finer microstructure and pore size in the interior of hydrogel were presented by biomicroscope. The results demonstrated that absorption ratio of water and salt generated different degree changes with the effect of PVA. In addition, the mechanical strength of hydrogel was improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel dextran hydrogel linking trans-ferulic acid for the stabilization and transdermal delivery of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Roberta; Trombino, Sonia; Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; Picci, Nevio

    2009-05-01

    Long-term exposure of the skin to UV light causes degenerative effects, which can be minimized by using antioxidant formulations. The major challenge in this regard is that a significant amount of antioxidant should reach at the site for effective photoprotection. However, barrier properties of the skin limit their use. In the present study, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) was loaded into a dextran hydrogel containing ferulic moieties, covalently linked, to improve its topical delivery, and also to increase its relative poor stability, which is due to direct exposure to UV light. Methacrylic groups were first introduced onto the dextran polymer backbones, then the obtained methacrylated dextran was copolymerized with aminoethyl methacrylate, and subsequently esterificated with trans-ferulic acid. The new biopolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The values of content of phenolic groups were determined. Its ability in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes induced in vitro by a source of free radicals, that is tert-butyl hydroperoxide, was studied. Hydrogel was also characterized for swelling behaviour, vitamin E loading efficiency, release, and deposition on the rabbit skin. Additionally, vitamin E deposition was compared through hydrogels, respectively, containing and not containing trans-ferulic acid. The results showed that ferulate hydrogel was a more effective carrier in protecting vitamin E from photodegradation than hydrogel without antioxidant moieties. Then antioxidant hydrogel could be of potential use for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes as carrier of vitamin E that is an antioxidant that reduces erythema, photoaging, photocarcinogenesis, edema, and skin hypersensitivity associated with exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, because of its protective effects.

  13. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid)/Poly(vinyl alcohol) IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingqiong; Li, Yinhui; Hu, Deng; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    Modified poly(aspartic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN) hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid) grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid) and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid), respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery.

  14. Rheological performance of bacterial cellulose based nonmineralized and mineralized hydrogel scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Probal; Saha, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Smarak; Saha, Petr

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) based hydrogels (BC-PVP and BC-CMC) are modified with β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve the structural and functional properties of the existing hydrogel scaffolds. The modified hydrogels are then biomineralized with CaCO3 following liquid diffusion technique, where salt solutions of Na2CO3 (5.25 g/100 mL) and CaCl2 (7.35 g/100 mL) were involved. The BC-PVP and BC-CMC are being compared with the non-mineralized (BC-PVP-β-TCP/HA and BC-CMC-β-TCP/HA) and biomineralized (BC-PVP-β-TCP/HA-CaCO3 and BC-CMC-β-TCP/HA-CaCO3) hydrogels on the basis of their structural and rheological properties. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis demonstrated the presence of BC, CMC, PVP, β-TCP, HA in the non-mineralized and BC, CMC, PVP, β-TCP, HA and CaCO3 in the biomineralized samples. Interestingly, the morphological property of non-mineralized and biomineralized, hydrogels are different than that of BC-PVP and BC-CMC based novel biomaterials. The Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images of the before mentioned samples reveal the denser structures than BC-PVP and BC-CMC, which exhibits the changes in their pore sizes. Concerning rheological analysis point of view, all the non-mineralized and biomineralized hydrogel scaffolds have shown significant elastic property. Additionally, the complex viscosity (η*) values have also found in decreasing order with the increase of angular frequency (ω) 0.1 rad.sec-1 to 100 rad.sec-1. All these BC based hydrogel scaffolds are elastic in nature, can be recommended for their application as an implant for bone tissue engineering.

  15. In vitro BMP-2 peptide release from thiolated chitosan based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xujie; Yu, Bo; Huang, Qianli; Liu, Rui; Feng, Qingling; Cai, Qiang; Mi, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    Thiolated chitosan based thermo-sensitive hydrogel is a water soluble system and the existing thiol groups are beneficial for the delivery of cysteine-rich peptides. In the present study, a kind of thiolated chitosan, i.e. chitosan-4-thio-butylamidine (CS-TBA) conjugate was characterized and used to prepare CS-TBA/hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-glycerophosphate disodium (β-GP) thermo-sensitive hydrogel. The cysteine terminated peptide 24 (P24) containing residues 73-92 of the knuckle epitope of BMP-2 (N→C: KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYLSGGC) was synthesized and characterized. The release behavior of P24 from CS-TBA based hydrogel was investigated in vitro. The thiol groups in CS-TBA may react with thiol groups in P24, thus decreases the P24 release rate and maintains the peptide release for a longer time compared with unmodified chitosan based hydrogel. Moreover, the bioactivity of P24 is preserved during release process. These results indicate that P24 loaded CS-TBA based thermosensitive hydrogel is a potential material for minimally invasive surgery of bone repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Superporous hybrid hydrogels based on polyacrylamide and chitosan: Characterization and in vitro drug release

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Manju; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Dinanath

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Current research was aimed at the development of the drug delivery systems based on the superporous hydrogels (SPH) with the desired swelling and the mechanical properties. Materials and Methods: Superporous hydrogel composites (SPHCs) and superporous hybrid hydrogels (SPHHs) based on the chitosan and the polyacrylamide were synthesized using the gas blowing technique. The prepared hydrogels were evaluated for swelling studies, mechanical strength and scanning electron microscopy. The selected hydrogels were loaded with the drug (verapamil hydrochloride) by aqueous loading method. Drug integrity with in polymeric network was evaluated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) studies. In vitro drug release studies were carried out using the united state pharmacopoeial (USP) dissolution apparatus (type II). Results and Discussion: The mechanical strength was observed to be higher in SPH hybrids in comparison to that in SPHCs while no significant difference was observed in swelling behavior. In situ crosslinking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde (GA) may be responsible for high mechanical strength. The equilibrium swelling time was slight higher in SPHH than in SPHCs. The integrity of pores was maintained in ethanol treated hydrogels as observed in scanning electron micrographs. Whereas, freeze dried SPH samples showed non-uniform pores. No drug polymer interaction was observed as indicated by DSC, FTIR, X-RD and NMR studies. However, the crosslinking of chitosan with GA was clearly indicated by these studies. The in vitro drug release studies from SPH hybrids indicated initial fast release (65%) with in first 2 h and then sustained release at the end of 24 h (95%). The addition of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose with drug; however, leads to a significant decrease in drug release (56% at the end of 24 h). Conclusion: Superporous hybrid

  17. Induction of neurite outgrowth in 3D hydrogel-based environments.

    PubMed

    Assunção-Silva, Rita C; Oliveira, Cátia Costa; Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Gomes, Eduardo D; Sahar, Abraham; Sousa, Nuno; Silva, Nuno A; Salgado, António J

    2015-10-20

    The ability of peripheral nervous system (PNS) axons to regenerate and re-innervate their targets after an injury has been widely recognized. However, despite the considerable advances made in microsurgical techniques, complete functional recovery is rarely achieved, especially for severe peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs). Therefore, alternative therapies that can successfully repair peripheral nerves are still essential. In recent years the use of biodegradable hydrogels enriched with growth-supporting and guidance cues, cell transplantation, and biomolecular therapies have been explored for the treatment of PNIs. Bearing this in mind, the aim of this study was to assess whether Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser synthetic peptide (GRGDS)-modified gellan gum (GG) based hydrogels could foster an amenable environment for neurite/axonal growth. Additionally, strategies to further improve the rate of neurite outgrowth were also tested, namely the use of adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs), as well as the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In order to increase its stability and enhance its bioactivity, the GDNF was conjugated covalently to iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The impact of hydrogel modification as well as the effect of the GDNF-IONPs on ASC behavior was also screened. The results revealed that the GRGDS-GG hydrogel was able to support dorsal root ganglia (DRG)-based neurite outgrowth, which was not observed for non-modified hydrogels. Moreover, the modified hydrogels were also able to support ASCs attachment. In contrast, the presence of the GDNF-IONPs had no positive or negative impact on ASC behavior. Further experiments revealed that the presence of ASCs in the hydrogel improved axonal growth. On the other hand, GDNF-IONPs alone or combined with ASCs significantly increased neurite outgrowth from DRGs, suggesting a beneficial role of the proposed strategy for future applications in PNI regenerative medicine.

  18. On the structural stability of guanosine-based supramolecular hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Federica; Yoneda, Juliana S; Itri, Rosangela; Mariani, Paolo

    2018-04-18

    Supramolecular hydrogels formed from the self-assembly of low molecular weight derivatives are very attractive systems, because of their potential applications in nano- and bio-technology. In this paper, the stable and transparent hydrogels observed in binary mixtures of guanosine derivatives (G), namely guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and guanosine (Gua), dissolved in water (at volume fractions larger than 0.95), were investigated by microscopy techniques and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). The results confirm the presence of G-quadruplexes, chiral cylindrical rods obtained by the regular stacking of self-assembled planar cyclic guanosine quartets. However, the addition of Gua determines the formation of very stable hydrogels able to trap large amounts of water (up to a volume fraction of 0.99) and characterised by an unusual anisotropic order. A modified lateral helix-to-helix interaction pattern, tuned by Gua, is suggested to be responsible for the supramolecular gelation and the stability of the hydrogels during swelling.

  19. A smart membrane based on an antigen-responsive hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongsheng; Bowyer, Adrian; Eisenthal, Robert; Hubble, John

    2007-07-01

    Hydrogel membranes have been fabricated that incorporate antibody/antigen moieties. The permeability of large solutes through these membranes is dependent on the presence of soluble antigen that can compete with the internal interactions between antibody and antigen leading to an increase in gel mesh size. Specifically, the membrane's structure is based on a dextran backbone grafted with a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antigen and a sheep anti-FITC IgG antibody. The backbone is covalently cross-linked by conjugated divinyl sulfone (DVS) groups. The gel structure is additionally stabilized by affinity crosslinks formed by biospecific interactions between the bound IgG and FITC. FTIR spectra of the gel are consistent with formation of covalent bonds between cysteine groups in the IgG and DVS groups in the dextran. Results obtained using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) confirmed the competitive interaction binding between IgG-FITC-dextran and free sodium fluorescein at pH 5.0. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples prepared using cryofixation and cryofracturing techniques showed that observed changes in permeability correlate with free fluorescein-dependent structural changes in the gel. Three-dimensional images obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy show that these changes occur throughout the gel and indicate that SEM results are not artifacts of sample preparation. The permeability of these gels, as shown by blue-dextran (12 kDa) diffusion, increases in response to the presence of free fluorescein of the external medium, which causes competitive displacement of the affinity cross-links. Sequential addition and removal of sodium fluorescein showed that these permeability changes are reversible. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Recent Advances in Edible Polymer Based Hydrogels as a Sustainable Alternative to Conventional Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akbar; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2018-06-26

    The over increasing demand of eco-friendly materials to counter various problems, such as environmental issues, economics, sustainability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, open up new fields of research highly focusing on nature-based products. Edible polymer based materials mainly consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids could be a prospective contender to handle such problems. Hydrogels based on edible polymer offer many valuable properties compared to their synthetic counterparts. Edible polymers can contribute to the reduction of environmental contamination, advance recyclability, provide sustainability, and thereby increase its applicability along with providing environmentally benign products. This review is highly emphasizing on toward the development of hydrogels from edible polymer, their classification, properties, chemical modification, and their potential applications. The application of edible polymer hydrogels covers many areas including the food industry, agricultural applications, drug delivery to tissue engineering in the biomedical field and provide more safe and attractive products in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and environmental fields, etc.

  1. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Chen; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-08-28

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two "legs" for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated "on/off" electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers can move their two "legs" to achieve one-directional walking motion on a rough surface via repeated "on/off" electro-triggering cycles. Moreover, the hydrogel walkers loaded with very heavy cargo also exhibit excellent walking motion for cargo transport. Such hydrogel systems create new opportunities for developing electro-controlled soft systems with simple design/fabrication strategies in the soft robotic field for remote manipulation and transportation.

  2. Degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in dilute carboxylic acids by solution plasma and evaluation of anticancer activity of degraded products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokradjaroen, Chayanaphat; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Theeramunkong, Sewan; Saito, Nagahiro

    2018-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide that has been extensively studied in the field of biomedicine, especially its water-soluble degraded products called chitooligosaccharides (COS). In this study, COS were produced by the degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in a dilute solution (i.e., 1.55 mM) of various kinds of carboxylic acids using a non-thermal plasma technology called solution plasma (SP). The degradation rates of chitosan were influenced by the type of carboxylic acids, depending on the interaction between chitosan and each carboxylic acid. After SP treatment, the water-soluble degraded products containing COS could be easily separated from the water-insoluble residue of chitosan hydrogel by centrifugation. The production yields of the COS were mostly higher than 55%. Furthermore, the obtained COS products were evaluated for their inhibitory effect as well as their selectivity against human lung cancer cells (H460) and human lung normal cells (MRC-5).

  3. The preparations of novel cellulose/phenylboronic acid composite intelligent bio-hydrogel and its glucose, pH-responsive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huafeng; Ning, Xiaoyu; Wei, Gang; Wang, Shaopeng; Dai, Guoliang; Ju, Anqi

    2018-09-01

    Novel intelligent cellulose/4-vinyl-phenylboronic acid (VPBA) composite bio-hydrogels with glucose and pH-responsiveness were successfully prepared via electron beam irradiation technology at room temperature. The composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electron beam irradiation results in the appearance of carbonyl in the polymerization of 4-ethenyl-phenylboronic acid, grafting and cross linking reaction in composites, and a novel composite hydrogel was formed between the poly-4-ethenyl-phenylboronic acid and cellulose matrix. By means of the incorporation of phenylboronic acid groups, the composite hydrogels with pH and glucose responsive properties was produced, and glucose responsive properties were investigated by the self-regulation of insulin release of composite hydrogel through a serial glucose solution with different concentrations, which is having great potential applications in many fields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The type and composition of alginate and hyaluronic-based hydrogels influence the viability of stem cells of the apical papilla.

    PubMed

    Lambricht, Laure; De Berdt, Pauline; Vanacker, Julie; Leprince, Julian; Diogenes, Anibal; Goldansaz, Hadi; Bouzin, Caroline; Préat, Véronique; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; des Rieux, Anne

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the present work was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the influence of various types and compositions of natural hydrogels on the viability and metabolic activity of SCAPs. Two alginate, three hyaluronic-based (Corgel™) hydrogel formulations and Matrigel were characterized for their mechanical, surface and microstructure properties using rheology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A characterized SCAP cell line (RP89 cells) was encapsulated in the different experimental hydrogel formulations. Cells were cultured in vitro, or implanted in cyclosporine treated mice. In vitro cell viability was evaluated using a Live/Dead assay and in vitro cellular metabolic activity was evaluated with a MTS assay. In vivo cell apoptosis was evaluated by a TUNEL test and RP89 cells were identified by human mitochondria immunostaining. Hydrogel composition influenced their mechanical and surface properties, and their microstructure. In vitro cell viability was above 80% after 2 days but decreased significantly after 7 days (60-40%). Viability at day 7 was the highest in Matrigel (70%) and then in Corgel 1.5 (60%). Metabolic activity increased over time in all the hydrogels, excepted in alginate SLM. SCAPs survived after 1 week in vivo with low apoptosis (<1%). The highest number of RP89 cells was found in Corgel 5.5 (140cells/mm(2)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that SCAP viability was directly modulated by hydrogel composition and suggest that a commercially available hyaluronic acid-based formulation might be a suitable delivery vehicle for SCAP-based dental pulp regeneration strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gelatin-based hydrogel for vascular endothelial growth factor release in peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gnavi, S; di Blasio, L; Tonda-Turo, C; Mancardi, A; Primo, L; Ciardelli, G; Gambarotta, G; Geuna, S; Perroteau, I

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogels are promising materials in regenerative medicine applications, due to their hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and capacity to release drugs and growth factors in a controlled manner. In this study, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels based on blends of natural polymers were used in in vitro and ex vivo experiments as a tool for VEGF-controlled release to accelerate the nerve regeneration process. Among different candidates, the angiogenic factor VEGF was selected, since angiogenesis has been long recognized as an important and necessary step during tissue repair. Recent studies have pointed out that VEGF has a beneficial effect on motor neuron survival and Schwann cell vitality and proliferation. Moreover, VEGF administration can sustain and enhance the growth of regenerating peripheral nerve fibres. The hydrogel preparation process was optimized to allow functional incorporation of VEGF, while preventing its degradation and denaturation. VEGF release was quantified through ELISA assay, whereas released VEGF bioactivity was validated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in a Schwann cell line (RT4-D6P2T) by assessing VEGFR-2 and downstream effectors Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia explants cultured on VEGF-releasing hydrogels displayed increased neurite outgrowth, providing confirmation that released VEGF maintained its effect, as also confirmed in a tubulogenesis assay. In conclusion, a gelatin-based hydrogel system for bioactive VEGF delivery was developed and characterized for its applicability in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Biological performance of cell-encapsulated methacrylated gellan gum-based hydrogels for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, Roman; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Unger, Ronald E; Landes, Constantin; Brochhausen, Christoph; Ghanaati, Shahram; Reis, Rui L; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2017-03-01

    Limitations of current treatments for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration have promoted interest in the development of tissue-engineering approaches. Injectable hydrogels loaded with cells can be used as a substitute material for the inner IVD part, the nucleus pulposus (NP), and provide an opportunity for minimally invasive treatment of IVD degeneration. The NP is populated by chondrocyte-like cells; therefore, chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), stimulated to differentiate along the chondrogenic lineage, could be used to promote NP regeneration. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo response of human bone marrow-derived MSCs and nasal chondrocytes (NCs) to modified gellan gum-based hydrogels was investigated. Both ionic- (iGG-MA) and photo-crosslinked (phGG-MA) methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels show no cytotoxicity in extraction assays with MSCs and NCs. Furthermore, the materials do not induce pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. Moreover, MSCs and NCs can be encapsulated into the hydrogels and remain viable for at least 2 weeks, although apoptosis is observed in phGG-MA. Importantly, encapsulated MSCs and NCs show signs of in vivo chondrogenesis in a subcutaneous implantation of iGG-MA. Altogether, the data endorse the potential use of modified gellan gum-based hydrogel as a suitable material in NP tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. In Vivo Imaging of the Stability and Sustained Cargo Release of an Injectable Amphipathic Peptide-Based Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Oyen, Edith; Martin, Charlotte; Caveliers, Vicky; Madder, Annemieke; Van Mele, Bruno; Hoogenboom, Richard; Hernot, Sophie; Ballet, Steven

    2017-03-13

    Hydrogels are promising materials for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and controlled drug release. In the past two decades, the peptide hydrogel subclass has attracted an increasing level of interest from the scientific community because of its numerous advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and, most importantly, injectability. Here, we report on a hydrogel consisting of the amphipathic hexapeptide H-FEFQFK-NH 2 , which has previously shown promising in vivo properties in terms of releasing morphine. In this study, the release of a small molecule, a peptide, and a protein cargo as representatives of the three major drug classes is directly visualized by in vivo fluorescence and nuclear imaging. In addition, the in vivo stability of the peptide hydrogel system is investigated through the use of a radiolabeled hydrogelator sequence. Although it is shown that the hydrogel remains present for several days, the largest decrease in volume takes place within the first 12 h of subcutaneous injection, which is also the time frame wherein the cargos are released. Compared to the situation in which the cargos are injected in solution, a prolonged release profile is observed up to 12 h, showing the potential of our hydrogel system as a scaffold for controlled drug delivery. Importantly, this study elucidates the release mechanism of the peptide hydrogel system that seems to be based on erosion of the hydrogel providing a generally applicable controlled release platform for small molecule, peptide, and protein drugs.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Based Thermo-Responsive Hydrogels for Cell Sheet Engineering.

    PubMed

    Son, Kuk Hui; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-10-20

    The swelling properties and thermal transition of hydrogels can be tailored by changing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of polymer networks. Especially, poly( N -isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) has received attention as thermo-responsive hydrogels for tissue engineering because its hydrophobicity and swelling property are transited around body temperature (32 °C). In this study, we investigated the potential of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as a hydrophilic co-monomer and crosslinker of PNIPAm to enhance biological properties of PNIPAm hydrogels. The swelling ratios, lower critical solution temperature (LCST), and internal pore structure of the synthesized p(NIPAm- co -PEGDA) hydrogels could be varied with changes in the molecular weight of PEGDA and the co-monomer ratios (NIPAm to PEGDA). We found that increasing the molecular weight of PEGDA showed an increase of pore sizes and swelling ratios of the hydrogels. In contrast, increasing the weight ratio of PEGDA under the same molecular weight condition increased the crosslinking density and decreased the swelling ratios of the hydrogels. Further, to evaluate the potential of these hydrogels as cell sheets, we seeded bovine chondrocytes on the p(NIPAm- co -PEGDA) hydrogels and observed the proliferation of the seed cells and their detachment as a cell sheet upon a decrease in temperature. Based on our results, we confirmed that p(NIPAm- co -PEGDA) hydrogels could be utilized as cell sheets with enhanced cell proliferation performance.

  9. Self-assembled three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-based hydrogel for highly efficient and facile removal of pharmaceutical compounds from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Umbreen, Nadia; Sohni, Saima; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Khattak, Nimat Ullah; Gul, Kashif

    2018-05-14

    Herein, self-assembled three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based hydrogels were synthesized and characterized in detail. A thorough investigation on the uptake of three widely used pharmaceutical drugs, viz. Naproxen (NPX), Ibuprofen (IBP) and Diclofenac (DFC) was carried out from aqueous solutions. To ensure the sustainability of developed hydrogel assembly, practically important parameters such as desorption, recyclability and applicability to real samples were also evaluated. Using the developed 3D hydrogels as adsorptive platforms, excellent decontamination for the above mentioned persistent pharmaceutical drugs was achieved in acidic pH with a removal efficiency in the range of 70-80%. These hydrogels showed fast adsorption kinetics and experimental findings were fitted to different kinetic models, such as pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle and the Elovich models in an attempt to better understand the adsorption kinetics. Furthermore, equilibrium adsorption data was fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, where relatively higher R 2 values obtained in case of former one suggested that monolayer adsorption played an important part in drug uptake. Thermodynamic aspects were also studied and negative ΔG 0 values obtained indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption process. The study was also extended to check practical utility of as-prepared hydrogels by spiking real aqueous samples with drug solution, where high % recoveries obtained for NPX, IBP and DFC were of particular importance with regard to prospective application in wastewater treatment systems. We advocate RGO-based hydrogels as environmentally benign, readily recoverable/recyclable material with excellent adsorption capacity for application in wastewater purification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Physiological Indicators of Paracoccus denitrificans Encapsulated in Silica Sol-Gel Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Trögl, Josef; Jirková, Ivana; Kuráň, Pavel; Akhmetshina, Elmira; Brovdyová, Tat′jána; Sirotkin, Alexander; Kirilina, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content was determined in samples of Paracoccus denitrificans encapsulated in silica hydrogel films prepared from prepolymerized tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Immediately after encapsulation the total PLFA concentration was linearly proportional to the optical density (600 nm) of the input microbial suspension (R2 = 0.99). After 7 days this relationship remained linear, but with significantly decreased slope, indicating a higher extinction of bacteria in suspensions of input concentration 108 cells/mL and higher. trans-Fatty acids, indicators of cytoplasmatic membrane disturbances, were below the detection limit. The cy/pre ratio (i.e., ratio of cyclopropylated fatty acids (cy17:0 + cy19:0) to their metabolic precursors (16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7)), an indicator of the transition of the culture to a stationary growth-phase, decreased depending on co-immobilization of nutrients in the order phosphate buffer > mineral medium > Luria Broth rich medium. The ratio, too, was logarithmically proportional to cell concentration. These results confirm the applicability of total PLFA as an indicator for the determination of living biomass and cy/pre ratio for determination of nutrient limitation of microorganisms encapsulated in sol-gel matrices. This may be of interest for monitoring of sol-gel encapsulated bacteria proposed as optical recognition elements in biosensor construction, as well as other biotechnological applications. PMID:25690547

  11. Enzymatically Cross-linked Alginic-Hyaluronic acid Composite Hydrogels As Cell Delivery Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2013-01-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The ezymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tryaminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significanly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of functional alginate hydrogels based on click chemistry for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    García-Astrain, Clara; Avérous, Luc

    2018-06-15

    Environment-sensitive alginate-based hydrogels for drug delivery applications are receiving increasing attention. However, most work in this field involves traditional cross-linking strategies which led to hydrogels with poor long-term stability. Herein, a series of chemically cross-linked alginate hydrogels was synthesized via click chemistry using Diels-Alder reaction by reacting furan-modified alginate and bifunctional cross-linkers. Alginate was successfully functionalized with furfurylamine. Then, 3D architectures were synthesized with water-soluble bismaleimides. Different substitution degrees were achieved in order to study the effect of alginate modification and the cross-linking extent over the behaviour of the hydrogels. The ensuing hydrogels were analysed in terms of microstructure, swelling, structure modification and rheological behaviour. The materials response to external stimuli such as pH was also investigated, revealing a pulsatile behaviour in a large pH range (1-13) and a clear pH-dependent swelling. Finally, vanillin release studies were conducted to demonstrate the potential of these biobased materials for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robust multi-responsive supramolecular hydrogel based on a mono-component host-guest gelator.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weinan; Zhao, Dongxu; Qiu, Yuan; Hu, Haisi; Wang, Hong; Wang, Qin; Liao, Yonggui; Peng, Haiyan; Xie, Xiaolin

    2018-05-29

    Supramolecular hydrogels have been widely investigated, but the construction of stimuli-responsive mono-component host-guest hydrogels remains a challenge in that it is still hard to balance the solubility and gelation ability of the gelator. In this work, three azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin derivatives with different alkyl lengths (β-CD-Azo-Cn) have been synthesized. The length of the alkyl chain dramatically influences the solubility and gelation ability of β-CD derivatives in water. Among these derivatives, β-CD-Azo-C8 possesses the lowest minimum gelation concentration (MGC). Based on the host-guest interaction between β-CD and azobenzene units in aqueous solution, which is confirmed by UV-visible and ROESY NMR spectra, the gelators self-assemble and further interwine into networks through the hydrogen bonds on the surface of β-CD cavities. Hydrogels formed by mono-component gelators can collapse under external stimuli such as heating, competition guests and hosts, and UV irradiation. When the concentration of the gelator is more than 8 wt%, the hydrogel exhibits good self-supporting ability with a storage modulus higher than 104 Pa. The gel-sol transition temperature of the hydrogel is near body temperature, indicating its potential applications in biological materials.

  14. Viscoelastic behavior of mineralized (CaCO3) chitin based PVP-CMC hydrogel scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, Vida; Saha, Nabanita; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Saha, Petr

    2017-05-01

    Enhancement of the mechanical as well as functional properties of the perspective mineralized PVP-CMC-CaCO3 hydrogel scaffold applicable for bone tissue engineering is quite essential. Therefore, the incorporation feasibility of chitin, a bioactive, antibacterial and biodegradable material, was examined in order to test its ability to enchance mechanical properties of the PVP-CMC-CaCO3 hydrogel scaffold. Chitin based PVP-CMC hydrogels were prepared and characterized both as non-mineralized and mineralized (CaCO3) form of hydrogel scaffolds. Both α-chitin (commercially bought) and β-chitin (isolated from the cuttlebone) were individually tested. It was observed that at 1% strain all hydrogel scaffolds have linear trend, with highly pronounced elastic properties in comparison to viscous ones. The complex viscosity has directly proportional behavior with negative slope against angular frequency within the range of ω = 0.1 - 100 rad.s-1. Incorporation of β-chitin increased storage modulus of all mineralized samples, making it interesting for further research.

  15. Chromatographic matrix based on hydrogel-coated reticulated polyurethane foams, prepared by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Mirna L.; Giménez, Claudia Y.; Delgado, Juan F.; Martínez, Leandro J.; Grasselli, Mariano

    2017-12-01

    Novel chromatographic materials for protein purification with high adsorption capacity and fouling resistance are highly demanded to improve downstream processes. Here, we describe a novel adsorptive material based on reticulated polyurethane foam (rPUF) coated with a functional hydrogel layer. rPUF provides physical rigidity through its macroscopic structure, whereas the hydrogel layer provides capacity to adsorb proteins by specific interactions. The hydrogel coating process was performed by the dip-coating method, using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution. The PVA hydrogel was linked to the rPUF material by using a radiation-induced crosslinking process in aqueous ethanol solution. The ethanol in the solvent mixture allowed a balance between PVA swelling and PVA dissolution during the irradiation step. The resulting material showed higher thermal stability than the non-irradiated one. In addition, a simultaneous radiation-induced grafting polymerization (SRIGP) was done by simple addition of glycidyl methacrylate monomer into the irradiation solution. In a further step, sulfonic ligands were included specifically in the hydrogel layer, which contained around 200% of PVA respect to the original rPUF. Materials were characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, SEM microscopy and EDX analysis. The cation-exchange rPUF material was functionally characterized by the Langmuir isotherm and a dynamic adsorption experiment to analyze the chromatographic properties for protein purification processes.

  16. Acetic and Acrylic Acid Molecular Imprinted Model Silicone Hydrogel Materials for Ciprofloxacin-HCl Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Alex; Sheardown, Heather; Jones, Lyndon

    2012-01-01

    Contact lenses, as an alternative drug delivery vehicle for the eye compared to eye drops, are desirable due to potential advantages in dosing regimen, bioavailability and patient tolerance/compliance. The challenge has been to engineer and develop these materials to sustain drug delivery to the eye for a long period of time. In this study, model silicone hydrogel materials were created using a molecular imprinting strategy to deliver the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Acetic and acrylic acid were used as the functional monomers, to interact with the ciprofloxacin template to efficiently create recognition cavities within the final polymerized material. Synthesized materials were loaded with 9.06 mM, 0.10 mM and 0.025 mM solutions of ciprofloxacin, and the release of ciprofloxacin into an artificial tear solution was monitored over time. The materials were shown to release for periods varying from 3 to 14 days, dependent on the loading solution, functional monomer concentration and functional monomer:template ratio, with materials with greater monomer:template ratio (8:1 and 16:1 imprinted) tending to release for longer periods of time. Materials with a lower monomer:template ratio (4:1 imprinted) tended to release comparatively greater amounts of ciprofloxacin into solution, but the release was somewhat shorter. The total amount of drug released from the imprinted materials was sufficient to reach levels relevant to inhibit the growth of common ocular isolates of bacteria. This work is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of molecular imprinting in model silicone hydrogel-type materials. PMID:28817033

  17. Nanodiamond-based injectable hydrogel for sustained growth factor release: Preparation, characterization and in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Pacelli, Settimio; Acosta, Francisca; Chakravarti, Aparna R; Samanta, Saheli G; Whitlow, Jonathan; Modaresi, Saman; Ahmed, Rafeeq P H; Rajasingh, Johnson; Paul, Arghya

    2017-08-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) represent an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials that possess favorable physical and chemical properties to be used as multifunctional carriers for a variety of bioactive molecules. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a new injectable ND-based nanocomposite hydrogel which facilitates a controlled release of therapeutic molecules for regenerative applications. In particular, we have formulated a thermosensitive hydrogel using gelatin, chitosan and NDs that provides a sustained release of exogenous human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for wound healing applications. Addition of NDs improved the mechanical properties of the injectable hydrogels without affecting its thermosensitive gelation properties. Biocompatibility of the generated hydrogel was verified by in vitro assessment of apoptotic gene expressions and anti-inflammatory interleukin productions. NDs were complexed with VEGF and the inclusion of this complex in the hydrogel network enabled the sustained release of the angiogenic growth factor. These results suggest for the first time that NDs can be used to formulate a biocompatible, thermosensitive and multifunctional hydrogel platform that can function both as a filling agent to modulate hydrogel properties, as well as a delivery platform for the controlled release of bioactive molecules and growth factors. One of the major drawbacks associated with the use of conventional hydrogels as carriers of growth factors is their inability to control the release kinetics of the loaded molecules. In fact, in most cases, a burst release is inevitable leading to diminished therapeutic effects and unsuccessful therapies. As a potential solution to this issue, we hereby propose a strategy of incorporating ND complexes within an injectable hydrogel matrix. The functional groups on the surface of the NDs can establish interactions with the model growth factor VEGF and promote a prolonged release from the polymer network

  18. Novel hydrogel-based preparation-free EEG electrode.

    PubMed

    Alba, Nicolas Alexander; Sclabassi, Robert J; Sun, Mingui; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2010-08-01

    The largest obstacles to signal transduction for electroencephalography (EEG) recording are the hair and the epidermal stratum corneum of the skin. In typical clinical situations, hair is parted or removed, and the stratum corneum is either abraded or punctured using invasive penetration devices. These steps increase preparation time, discomfort, and the risk of infection. Cross-linked sodium polyacrylate gel swelled with electrolyte was explored as a possible skin contact element for a prototype preparation-free EEG electrode. As a superabsorbent hydrogel, polyacrylate can swell with electrolyte solution to a degree far beyond typical contemporary electrode materials, delivering a strong hydrating effect to the skin surface. This hydrating power allows the material to increase the effective skin contact surface area through wetting, and noninvasively decrease or bypass the highly resistive barrier of the stratum corneum, allowing for reduced impedance and improved electrode performance. For the purposes of the tests performed in this study, the polyacrylate was prepared both as a solid elastic gel and as a flowable paste designed to penetrate dense scalp hair. The gel can hold 99.2% DI water or 91% electrolyte solution, and the water content remains high after 29 h of air exposure. The electrical impedance of the gel electrode on unprepared human forearm is significantly lower than a number of commercial ECG and EEG electrodes. This low impedance was maintained for at least 8 h (the longest time period measured). When a paste form of the electrode was applied directly onto scalp hair, the impedance was found to be lower than that measured with commercially available EEG paste applied in the same manner. Time-frequency transformation analysis of frontal lobe EEG recordings indicated comparable frequency response between the polyacrylate-based electrode on unprepared skin and the commercial EEG electrode on abraded skin. Evoked potential recordings demonstrated

  19. Time-dependent chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of hydrogel-based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichsenring, Peter; Wallmersperger, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Charged hydrogels are ionic polymer gels and belong to the class of smart materials. These gels are multiphasic materials which consist of a solid phase, a fluid phase and an ionic phase. Due to the presence of bound charges these materials are stimuli-responsive to electrical or chemical loads. The application of electrical or chemical stimuli as well as mechanical loads lead to a viscoelastic response. On the macroscopic scale, the response is governed by a local reversible release or absorption of water which, in turn, leads to a local decrease or increase of mass and a respective volume change. Furthermore, the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium of a hydrogel depends on the chemical composition of the gel and the surrounding solution bath. Due to the presence of bound charges in the hydrogel, this system can be understood as an osmotic cell where differences in the concentration of mobile ions in the gel and solution domain lead to an osmotic pressure difference. In the present work, a continuum-based numerical model is presented in order to describe the time-dependent swelling behavior of hydrogels. The numerical model is based on the Theory of Porous Media and captures the fluid-solid, fluid-ion and ion-ion interactions. As a direct consequence of the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium, the corresponding boundary conditions are defined following the equilibrium conditions. For the interaction of the hydrogel with surrounding mechanical structures, also respective jump condtions are formulated. Finaly, numerical results of the time-dependent behavior of a hydrogel-based chemo-sensor will be presented.

  20. Synthesis and Primary Characterization of Self-Assembled Peptide-Based Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Radhika P.; Schneider, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Hydrogels based on peptide self-assembly form an important class of biomaterials that find application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. It is essential to prepare peptides with high purity to achieve batch-to-batch consistency affording hydrogels with reproducible properties. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis coupled with optimized Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl) chemistry to obtain peptides in high yield and purity is discussed. Details of isolating a desired peptide from crude synthetic mixtures and assessment of the peptide’s final purity by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry are provided. Beyond the practical importance of synthesis and primary characterization, techniques used to investigate the properties of hydrogels are briefly discussed. PMID:19031061

  1. Evaluation of Hydrogel Suppositories for Delivery of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether to Rectal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuying; Yin, Huijuan; Lu, Yu; Zhang, Haixia; Wang, Han

    2016-10-12

    We evaluated the potential utility of hydrogels for delivery of the photosensitizing agents 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) to rectal tumors. Hydrogel suppositories containing ALA or HMME were administered to the rectal cavity of BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous tumors of SW837 rectal carcinoma cells. For comparison, ALA and HMME were also administered by three common photosensitizer delivery routes; local administration to the skin and intratumoral or intravenous injection. The concentration of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX or HMME in the rectal wall, skin, and subcutaneous tumor was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry, and their distribution in vertical sections of the tumor was measured using a fluorescence spectroscopy system. The concentration of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX in the rectal wall after local administration of suppositories to the rectal cavity was 9.76-fold (1 h) and 5.8-fold (3 h) higher than in the skin after cutaneous administration. The maximal depth of ALA penetration in the tumor was ~3-6 mm at 2 h after cutaneous administration. Much lower levels of HMME were observed in the rectal wall after administration as a hydrogel suppository, and the maximal depth of tumor penetration was <2 mm after cutaneous administration. These data show that ALA more readily penetrates the mucosal barrier than the skin. Administration of ALA as an intrarectal hydrogel suppository is thus a potential delivery route for photodynamic therapy of rectal cancer.

  2. Effect of stiffness of chitosan-hyaluronic acid dialdehyde hydrogels on the viability and growth of encapsulated chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    V Thomas, Lynda; Vg, Rahul; D Nair, Prabha

    2017-11-01

    Substrate elasticity or stiffness can influence the phenotypic and functional characteristics of chondrocytes. This work aimed to study the effect of varying stiffness compositions of a two-component injectable hydrogel based on chitosan (CH) and oxidized hyaluronic acid (HDA) on the growth and functionality of encapsulated chondrocytes. Three different ratios of the gel were prepared (10:1,10:3 and 10:5 CH-HDA) and characterized. The stiffness of the gels was evaluated from the force displacement curves using force spectroscopy AFM analysis. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were harvested and the cells from Passage 2 to 4 were used for the encapsulation study. The viability and ECM production of encapsulated chondrocytes were assessed at 7day, 14day and 28day post culture. The results of the study show that as the ratio of hyaluronic acid dialdehyde component was increased, the stiffness of the gels increased from 130.78±19.83kPa to 181.47±19.77kPa which was also evidenced from the decrease in gelling time. Although there was an increase in the percentage of viable encapsulated cells which also maintained the spherical phenotype in the less stiff gels, decreased expression of ECM markers- Collagen type II and Glycosaminoglycans was observed compared to the stiffer gels. These findings indicate that gel stiffness strongly impacts the chondrocyte microenvironment both in maintenance of phenotypic integrity and ECM production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Artificial phototropism based on a photo-thermo-responsive hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishna, Hamsini

    Solar energy is leading in renewable energy sources and the aspects surrounding the efforts to harvest light are gaining importance. One such aspect is increasing the light absorption, where heliotropism comes into play. Heliotropism, the ability to track the sun across the sky, can be integrated with solar cells for more efficient photon collection and other optoelectronic systems. Inspired by plants, which optimize incident sunlight in nature, several researchers have made artificial heliotropic and phototropic systems. This project aims to design, synthesize and characterize a material system and evaluate its application in a phototropic system. A gold nanoparticle (Au NP) incorporated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogel was synthesized as a photo-thermo-responsive material in our phototropic system. The Au NPs generate heat from the incident via plasmonic resonance to induce a volume phase change of the thermo-responsive hydrogel PNIPAAm. PNIPAAm shrinks or swells at temperature above or below 32°C. Upon irradiation, the Au NP-PNIPAAm micropillar actuates, specifically bending toward the incident light and precisely following the varying incident angle. Swelling ratio tests, bending angle tests with a static incident light and bending tests with varying angles were carried out on hydrogel samples with varying Au NP concentrations. Swelling ratios ranging from 1.45 to 2.9 were recorded for pure hydrogel samples and samples with very low Au NP concentrations. Swelling ratios of 2.41 and 3.37 were calculated for samples with low and high concentrations of Au NPs, respectively. A bending of up to 88° was observed in Au NP-hydrogel pillars with a low Au NP concentration with a 90° incident angle. The light tracking performance was assessed by the slope of the pillar Bending angle (response angle) vs. Incident light angle plot. A slope of 1 indicates ideal tracking with top of the pillar being normal to the incident light, maximizing the photon

  4. Accelerated Leach Testing of Glass (ALTGLASS): II. Mineralization of hydrogels by leachate strong bases

    DOE PAGES

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Trivelpiece, Cory L.; Crawford, Charles L.; ...

    2017-02-18

    The durability of high level nuclear waste glasses must be predicted on geological time scales. Waste glass surfaces form hydrogels when in contact with water for varying test durations. As the glass hydrogels age, some exhibit an undesirable resumption of dissolution at long times while others exhibit near steady-state dissolution, that is, nonresumption of dissolution. Resumption of dissolution is associated with the formation of zeolitic phases while nonresumption of dissolution is associated with the formation of clay minerals. Hydrogels with a stoichiometry close to that of imogolite, (Al 2O 3·Si(OH) 4), with ferrihydrite (Fe 2O 3·0.5H 2O), have been shownmore » to be associated with waste glasses that resume dissolution. Aluminosilicate hydrogels with a stoichiometry of allophane-hisingerite ((Al,Fe) 2O 3·1.3-2Si(OH) 4) have been shown to be associated with waste glasses that exhibit near steady-state dissolution at long times. These phases are all amorphous and poorly crystalline and are also found on natural weathered basalt glasses. Interaction of these hydrogels with excess alkali and OH – (strong base) in the leachates, causes the Al 2O 3· nSiO 2 (where n=1-2) hydrogels to mineralize to zeolites. Excess alkali in the leachate is generated by alkali in the glass. As a result, preliminary rate-determining leach layer forming exchange reactions are hypothesized based on these findings.« less

  5. Accelerated Leach Testing of Glass (ALTGLASS): II. Mineralization of hydrogels by leachate strong bases

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Trivelpiece, Cory L.; Crawford, Charles L.

    The durability of high level nuclear waste glasses must be predicted on geological time scales. Waste glass surfaces form hydrogels when in contact with water for varying test durations. As the glass hydrogels age, some exhibit an undesirable resumption of dissolution at long times while others exhibit near steady-state dissolution, that is, nonresumption of dissolution. Resumption of dissolution is associated with the formation of zeolitic phases while nonresumption of dissolution is associated with the formation of clay minerals. Hydrogels with a stoichiometry close to that of imogolite, (Al 2O 3·Si(OH) 4), with ferrihydrite (Fe 2O 3·0.5H 2O), have been shownmore » to be associated with waste glasses that resume dissolution. Aluminosilicate hydrogels with a stoichiometry of allophane-hisingerite ((Al,Fe) 2O 3·1.3-2Si(OH) 4) have been shown to be associated with waste glasses that exhibit near steady-state dissolution at long times. These phases are all amorphous and poorly crystalline and are also found on natural weathered basalt glasses. Interaction of these hydrogels with excess alkali and OH – (strong base) in the leachates, causes the Al 2O 3· nSiO 2 (where n=1-2) hydrogels to mineralize to zeolites. Excess alkali in the leachate is generated by alkali in the glass. As a result, preliminary rate-determining leach layer forming exchange reactions are hypothesized based on these findings.« less

  6. Drug loading optimization and extended drug delivery of corticoids from pHEMA based soft contact lenses hydrogels via chemical and microstructural modifications.

    PubMed

    García-Millán, Eva; Koprivnik, Sandra; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-20

    This paper proposes an approach to improve drug loading capacity and release properties of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) soft contact lenses based on the optimization of the hydrogel composition and microstructural modifications using water during the polymerization process. P(HEMA) based soft contact lenses were prepared by thermal or photopolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) solutions containing ethylene glycol di-methacrylate as crosslinker and different proportions of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) or methacrylic acid (MA) as co-monomers. Transmittance, water uptake, swelling, microstructure, drug absorption isotherms and in vitro release were characterized using triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as model drug. Best drug loading ratios were obtained with lenses containing the highest amount (200 mM) of MA. Incorporation of 40% V/V of water during the polymerization increases the hydrogel porosity giving a better drug loading capacity. In vitro TA release kinetics shows that MA hydrogels released the drug significantly faster than NVP-hydrogels. Drug release was found to be diffusion controlled and kinetics was shown to be reproducible after consecutive drug loading/release processes. Results of p(HEMA) based soft contact lenses copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and different co-monomers could be a good alternative to optimize the loading and ocular drug delivery of this corticosteroid drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Angiogenic potential of gellan-gum-based hydrogels for application in nucleus pulposus regeneration: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Silva-Correia, Joana; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Salgado, António J; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Reis, Rui M; Reis, Rui L

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogels for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration should be able to comprise a nonangiogenic or even antiangiogenic feature. Gellan gum (GG)-based hydrogels have been reported to possess adequate properties for being used as NP substitutes in acellular and cellular strategies, due to its ability to support cell encapsulation, adequate mechanical properties, and noncytotoxicity. In this study, the angiogenic response of GG-based hydrogels was investigated by performing the chorioallantoic membrane assay. The convergence of macroscopic blood vessels toward the GG, ionic-crosslinked methacrylated GG (iGG-MA), and photo-crosslinked methacrylated GG (phGG-MA) hydrogel discs was quantified. Gelatin sponge (GSp) and filter paper (FP) alone and with vascular endothelial growth factor were used as controls of angiogenesis. The images obtained were digitally processed and analyzed by three independent observers. The macroscopic blood vessel quantification demonstrated that the GG-based hydrogels are not angiogenic as compared with FP controls. No statistical differences between the GG-based hydrogels tested in respect to its angiogenic ability were observed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and SNA-lectin immunohistochemistry assay indicated that the iGG-MA and phGG-MA hydrogels do not allow the ingrowth of chick endothelial cells, following 4 days of implantation. On the contrary, GG, GSp, and FP controls allowed cell infiltration. The histological data also indicated that the GG-based hydrogels do not elicit any acute inflammatory response. The results showed that the GG, iGG-MA, and phGG-MA hydrogels present different permeability to cells but functioned as a physical barrier for vascular invasion. These hydrogels present promising and tunable properties for being used as NP substitutes in the treatment of degenerative intervertebral disc.

  8. Collagen and hyaluronic acid hydrogel in water-in-oil microemulsion delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Sylwia; Kłosowska-Chomiczewska, Ilona; Szumała, Patrycja

    2017-11-01

    The increase in skin related health issues has promoted interest in research on the efficacy of microemulsion in dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. Here, we assessed the water-in-oil microemulsion capacity to incorporate two natural polymers, i.e. collagen and hyaluronic acid with low and high molecular weight. Systems were extensively characterized in terms of conductivity, phase inversion studies, droplet diameter, polydispersity index and rheological properties. The results of this research indicate that the structure and extent of water phase in microemulsions is governed by ratio and amount of surfactant mixture (sorbitan ester derivatives). However, results have also shown that collagen, depending upon the weight of the molecule and its surface activity, influence the droplet size of the microemulsions. While the hyaluronic acid, especially with high molecular weight, due to the water-binding ability and hydrogel formation alters the rheological properties of the microemulsion, thus providing viscous consistency of the formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High performance polymer chemical hydrogel-based electrode binder materials for direct borohydride fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Nurul A.; Ma, Jia; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    Novel, cost-effective, high-performance, and environment-friendly electrode binders, comprising polyvinyl alcohol chemical hydrogel (PCH) and chitosan chemical hydrogel (CCH), are reported for direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). PCH and CCH binders-based electrodes have been fabricated using a novel, simple, cost-effective, time-effective, and environmentally benign technique. Morphologies and electrochemical performance in DBFCs of the chemical hydrogel binder-based electrodes have been compared with those of Nafion ® binder-based electrodes. Relationships between the performance of binders in DBFCs with structural features of the polymers and the polymer-based chemical hydrogels are discussed. The CCH binder exhibited better performance than a Nafion ® binder whereas the PCH binder exhibited comparable performance to Nafion ® in DBFCs operating at elevated cell temperatures. The better performance of CCH binder at higher operating cell temperatures has been ascribed to the hydrophilic nature and water retention characteristics of chitosan. DBFCs employing CCH binder-based electrodes and a Nafion ®-117 membrane as an electrolyte exhibited a maximum peak power density of about 589 mW cm -2 at 70 °C.

  10. Biocompatible and biodegradable dual-drug release system based on silk hydrogel containing silk nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Yamazaki, Shoya; Naga, Naofumi

    2012-05-14

    We developed a facile and quick ethanol-based method for preparing silk nanoparticles and then fabricated a biodegradable and biocompatible dual-drug release system based on silk nanoparticles and the molecular networks of silk hydrogels. Model drugs incorporated in the silk nanoparticles and silk hydrogels showed fast and constant release, respectively, indicating successful dual-drug release from silk hydrogel containing silk nanoparticles. The release behaviors achieved by this dual-drug release system suggest to be regulated by physical properties (e.g., β-sheet contents and size of the silk nanoparticles and network size of the silk hydrogels), which is an important advantage for biomedical applications. The present silk-based system for dual-drug release also demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity against human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and thus, this silk-based dual-drug release system has potential as a versatile and useful new platform of polymeric materials for various types of dual delivery of bioactive molecules.

  11. The influence of hyaluronic acid hydrogel crosslinking density and macromolecular diffusivity on human MSC chondrogenesis and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liming; Hou, Chieh; Tous, Elena; Rai, Reena; Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels formed via photocrosslinking provide stable 3D hydrogel environments that support the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Crosslinking density has a significant impact on the physical properties of hydrogels, including their mechanical stiffness and macromolecular diffusivity. Variations in the HA hydrogel crosslinking density can be obtained by either changes in the HA macromer concentration (1, 3, or 5% w/v at 15 min exposure) or the extent of reaction through light exposure time (5% w/v at 5, 10, or 15 min). In this work, increased crosslinking by either method resulted in an overall decrease in cartilage matrix content and more restricted matrix distribution. Increased crosslinking also promoted hypertrophic differentiation of the chondrogenically induced MSCs, resulting in more matrix calcification in vitro. For example, type X collagen expression in the high crosslinking density 5% 15 min group was ~156 and 285% higher when compared to the low crosslinking density 1% 15 min and 5% 5 min groups on day 42, respectively. Supplementation with inhibitors of the small GTPase pathway involved in cytoskeletal tension or myosin II had no effect on hypertrophic differentiation and matrix calcification, indicating that the differential response is unlikely to be related to force-sensing mechanotransduction mechanisms. When implanted subcutaneously in nude mice, higher crosslinking density again resulted in reduced cartilage matrix content, restricted matrix distribution, and increased matrix calcification. This study demonstrates that hydrogel properties mediated through alterations in crosslinking density must be considered in the context of the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrogenically induced MSCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitosan-based thermosensitive hydrogel as a promising ocular drug delivery system: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingwei; Li, Xinru; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yanhui; Fan, Yating; Huang, Yanqing; Liu, Yan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of in situ thermosensitive hydrogel based on chitosan in combination with disodium α-d-Glucose 1-phosphate (DGP) for ocular drug delivery system. Aqueous solution of chitosan/DGP underwent sol-gel transition as temperature increased which was flowing sol at room temperature and then turned into non-flowing hydrogel at physiological temperature. The properties of gels were characterized regarding gelation time, gelation temperature, and morphology. The sol-to-gel phase transition behaviors were affected by the concentrations of chitosan, DGP and the model drug levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LD). The developed hydrogel presented a characteristic of a rapid release at the initial period followed by a sustained release and remarkably enhanced the cornea penetration of LD. The results of ocular irritation demonstrated the excellent ocular tolerance of the hydrogel. The ocular residence time for the hydrogel was significantly prolonged compared with eye drops. The drug-loaded hydrogel produced more effective anti-allergic conjunctivitis effects compared with LD aqueous solution. These results showed that the chitosan/DGP thermosensitive hydrogel could be used as an ideal ocular drug delivery system in terms of the suitable sol-gel transition temperature, mild pH environment in the hydrogel as well as the organic solvent free.

  13. Enzymatically-stable oxetane-based dipeptide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Laura; Draper, Emily R; Beadle, Jonathan D; Shipman, Michael; Raubo, Piotr; Jamieson, Andrew G; Adams, Dave J

    2018-02-13

    Low molecular weight gelators that are not easily degraded by enzymes have a range of potential applications. Here, we report new Fmoc-protected dipeptides in which the amide carbonyl group has been replaced by an oxetane ring. Remarkably one of these peptidomimetics, but not the corresponding dipeptide, is an effective gelator, forming hydrogels at a concentration of 3 mg mL -1 . On assembly, there is a lack of beta-sheet structure, implying that there is no requirement for this motif in such a gel. Furthermore, the modified dipeptide is also stable to proteolysis compared to the parent dipeptide.

  14. Mechanical and transport properties of the poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(acrylic acid) double network hydrogel from molecular dynamic simulations.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung Soon; Goddard, William A; Kalani, M Yashar S

    2007-02-22

    We used atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanical and transport properties of the PEO-PAA double network (DN) hydrogel with 76 wt % water content. By analyzing the pair correlation functions for polymer-water pairs and for ion-water pairs and the solvent accessible surface area, we found that the solvation of polymer and ion in the DN hydrogel is enhanced in comparison with both PEO and PAA single network (SN) hydrogels. The effective mesh size of this DN hydrogel is smaller than that of the SN hydrogels with the same water content and the same molecular weight between the cross-linking points (Mc). Applying uniaxial extensions, we obtained the stress-strain curves for the hydrogels. This shows that the DN hydrogel has a sudden increase of stress above approximately 100% strain, much higher than the sum of the stresses of the two SN hydrogels at the same strain. This arises because PEO has a smaller Mc value than PAA, so that the PEO in the DN reaches fully stretched out at 100% strain that corresponds to 260% strain in the PEO SN (beyond this point, the bond stretching and the angle bending increase dramatically). We also calculated the diffusion coefficients of solutes such as D-glucose and ascorbic acid in the hydrogels, where we find that the diffusion coefficients of those solutes in the DN hydrogel are 60% of that in the PEO SN and 40% of that in the PAA SN due to its smaller effective mesh size.

  15. A hybrid composite system of biphasic calcium phosphate granules loaded with hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Faruq, Omar; Kim, Boram; Padalhin, Andrew R; Lee, Gun Hee; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2017-10-01

    An ideal bone substitute should be made of biocompatible materials that mimic the structure, characteristics, and functions of natural bone. Many researchers have worked on the fabrication of different bone scaffold systems including ceramic-polymer hybrid system. In the present study, we incorporated hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel to micro-channeled biphasic calcium phosphate granules as a carrier to improve cell attachment and proliferation through highly interconnected porous structure. This hybrid system is composed of ceramic biphasic calcium phosphate granules measuring 1 mm in diameter with seven holes and hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel. This combination of biphasic calcium phosphate and hyaluronic acid-gelatin retained suitable characteristics for bone regeneration. The resulting scaffold had a porosity of 56% with a suitable pore sizes. The mechanical strength of biphasic calcium phosphate granule increased after loading hyaluronic acid-gelatin from 4.26 ± 0.43 to 6.57 ± 0.25 MPa, which is highly recommended for cancellous bone substitution. Swelling and degradation rates decreased in the hybrid scaffold compared to hydrogel due to the presence of granules in hybrid scaffold. In vitro cytocompatibility studies were observed by preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cell line and the result revealed that biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin significantly increased cell growth and proliferation compared to biphasic calcium phosphate granules. Analysis of micro-computed tomography data and stained tissue sections from the implanted samples showed that the hybrid scaffold had good osseointegration and better bone formation in the scaffold one and two months postimplantation. Histological section confirmed the formation of dense collagenous tissue and new bone in biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin scaffolds at two months. Our study demonstrated that such hybrid biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin scaffold is a

  16. Hydrogel-based electrochemical sensor for non-invasive and continuous glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Habeen; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Dong-Chul; Koh, Younggook; Cha, Junhoe

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring blood glucose level of diabetic patients is crucial in diabetes care from life threating complications. Selfmonitoring blood glucose (SMBG) that involves finger prick to draw blood samples into the measurement system is a widely-used method of routine measurement of blood glucose levels to date. SMBG includes, however, unavoidable pain problems resulting from the repetitive measurements. We hereby present a hydrogel-based electrochemical (H-EC) sensor to monitor the glucose level, non-invasively. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized in the disc-type hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based hydrogel and kept intact in the hydrogel. Fast electron transfer mediated by Prussian blue (PB, hexacyanoferrate) generated efficient signal amplifications to facilitate the detection of the extracted glucose from the interstitial fluid. The linear response and the selectivity against glucose of the H-EC sensor were validated by chronoamperometry. For the practical use, the outcomes from the correlation of the extracted glucose concentration and the blood glucose value by on-body extraction, as well as the validation of the hydrogel-based electrochemical (H-EC) device, were applied to the on-body glucose monitoring.

  17. A postoperative anti-adhesion barrier based on photoinduced imine-crosslinking hydrogel with tissue-adhesive ability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlong; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Yan; Wang, Yang; Bao, Chunyan; Chen, Yunfeng; Lin, Qiuning; Zhu, Linyong

    2017-10-15

    Postoperative adhesion is a serious complication that can further lead to morbidity and/or mortality. Polymer anti-adhesion barrier material provides an effective precaution to reduce the probability of postoperative adhesion. Clinical application requires these materials to be easily handled, biocompatible, biodegradable, and most importantly tissue adherent to provide target sites with reliable isolation. However, currently there is nearly no polymer barrier material that can fully satisfy these requirements. In this study, based on the photoinduced imine-crosslinking (PIC) reaction, we had developed a photo-crosslinking hydrogel (CNG hydrogel) that composed of o-nitrobenzyl alcohol (NB) modified carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-NB) and glycol chitosan (GC) as an anti-adhesion barrier material. Under light irradiation, CMC-NB generated aldehyde groups which subsequently reacted with amino groups distributed on GC or tissue surface to form a hydrogel barrier that covalently attached to tissue surface. Rheological analysis demonstrated that CNG hydrogel (30mg/mL polymer content) could be formed in 30s upon light irradiation. Tissue adhesive tests showed that the tissue adhesive strength of CNG hydrogel (30mg/mL) was about 8.32kPa-24.65kPa which increased with increasing CMC-NB content in CNG hydrogel. Toxicity evaluation by L929 cells demonstrated that CNG hydrogel was cytocompatible. Furthermore, sidewall defect-cecum abrasion model of rat was employed to evaluate the postoperative anti-adhesion efficacy of CNG hydrogel. And a significantly reduction of tissue adhesion (20% samples with low score adhesion) was found in CNG hydrogel treated group, compared with control group (100% samples with high score adhesion). In addition, CNG hydrogel could be degraded in nearly 14days and showed no side effect on wound healing. These findings indicated that CNG hydrogel can effectively expanded the clinical treatments of postoperative tissue adhesion. In this study, a tissue

  18. A step into the RNA world: Conditional analysis of hydrogel formation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate induced by cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Takumi; Enomoto, Ryota; Uchino, Sho; Hirasawa, Ito; Umehara, Takuya; Tamura, Koji

    2017-12-01

    Nucleotide polymerization occurs by the nucleophilic attack of 3'-oxygen of the 3'-terminal nucleotide on the α-phosphorus of the incoming nucleotide 5'-triphosphate. The π-stacking of mononucleotides is an important factor for prebiotic RNA polymerization in terms of attaining the proximity of two reacting moieties. Adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are known to form hydrogel in the presence of cyanuric acid at neutral pH. However, we observed that other canonical ribonucleotides did not gel under the same condition. The π-stacking-induced hydrogel formation of AMP was destroyed at pH 2.0, suggesting that the protonation of N at position 1 of adenine abolished hydrogen bonding with the NH of cyanuric acid and resulted in the deformation of the hexad of adenine and cyanuric acid. A liquid-like gel was formed in the case of adenosine with cyanuric acid and boric acid, whereas AMP caused the formation of a solid gel, implying that the negative charge inherent to AMP prevented the formation of esters of boric acid with the cis-diols of ribose. Cyanuric acid-driven oligomerizations of AMP might have been the first crucial event in the foundation of the RNA world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogel Biomaterials: A Smart Future?

    PubMed Central

    Kopeček, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogels were the first biomaterials developed for human use. The state-of-the-art and potential for the future are discussed. Recently, new designs have produced mechanically strong synthetic hydrogels. Protein based hydrogels and hybrid hydrogels containing protein domains present a novel advance; such biomaterials may self-assemble from block or graft copolymers containing biorecognition domains. One of the domains, the coiled-coil, ubiquitously found in nature, has been used as an example to demonstrate the developments in the design of smart hydrogels. The application potential of synthetic, protein-based, DNA-based, and hybrid hydrogels bodes well for the future of this class of biomaterials. PMID:17697712

  20. Hydrogel-laden paper scaffold system for origami-based tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Hwan; Lee, Hak Rae; Yu, Seung Jung; Han, Min-Eui; Lee, Doh Young; Kim, Soo Yeon; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Han, Mi-Jung; Lee, Tae-Ik; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kwon, Seong Keun; Im, Sung Gap; Hwang, Nathaniel S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for assembling biofunctionalized paper into a multiform structured scaffold system for reliable tissue regeneration using an origami-based approach. The surface of a paper was conformally modified with a poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) layer via initiated chemical vapor deposition followed by the immobilization of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and deposition of Ca2+. This procedure ensures the formation of alginate hydrogel on the paper due to Ca2+ diffusion. Furthermore, strong adhesion of the alginate hydrogel on the paper onto the paper substrate was achieved due to an electrostatic interaction between the alginate and PLL. The developed scaffold system was versatile and allowed area-selective cell seeding. Also, the hydrogel-laden paper could be folded freely into 3D tissue-like structures using a simple origami-based method. The cylindrically constructed paper scaffold system with chondrocytes was applied into a three-ring defect trachea in rabbits. The transplanted engineered tissues replaced the native trachea without stenosis after 4 wks. As for the custom-built scaffold system, the hydrogel-laden paper system will provide a robust and facile method for the formation of tissues mimicking native tissue constructs. PMID:26621717

  1. Sustainable Hydrogels Based on Lignin-Methacrylate Copolymers with Enhanced Water Retention and Tunable Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Kalavathy; Mann, Jeffrey K; English, Eldon; Harper, David P; Carrier, Danielle Julie; Rials, Timothy G; Labbé, Nicole; Chmely, Stephen C

    2018-04-12

    Synthesizing lignin-based copolymers would valorize a major coproduct stream from pulp and paper mills and biorefineries as well as reduce the dependence on petrochemical-based consumer goods. In this study, we used organosolv lignin isolated from hybrid poplar ( Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) to generate lignin-containing methacrylate hydrogels. The copolymer hydrogels were synthesized by first grafting 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto lignin (OSLH) via esterification and then by free radical polymerization of OSLH with excess HEMA. The copolymer hydrogels were prepared with different stoichiometric ratios of OSLH (e.g., 0, 10, 20, and 40 wt %) with respect to HEMA. Copolymerization with OSLH led to an increase in cross-linking density, which in turn enhanced the hydrogel's material properties; we report up to 39% improvement in water retention, 20% increase in thermostability, and up to a 3 order increase in magnitude of the storage modulus ( G'). The copolymer's properties, such as water retention and glass transition temperature, could be tuned by altering the percent functionalization of lignin OH groups and the ratio of OSLH to HEMA.

  2. Hydrogel-laden paper scaffold system for origami-based tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Hwan; Lee, Hak Rae; Yu, Seung Jung; Han, Min-Eui; Lee, Doh Young; Kim, Soo Yeon; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Han, Mi-Jung; Lee, Tae-Ik; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kwon, Seong Keun; Im, Sung Gap; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we present a method for assembling biofunctionalized paper into a multiform structured scaffold system for reliable tissue regeneration using an origami-based approach. The surface of a paper was conformally modified with a poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) layer via initiated chemical vapor deposition followed by the immobilization of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and deposition of Ca(2+). This procedure ensures the formation of alginate hydrogel on the paper due to Ca(2+) diffusion. Furthermore, strong adhesion of the alginate hydrogel on the paper onto the paper substrate was achieved due to an electrostatic interaction between the alginate and PLL. The developed scaffold system was versatile and allowed area-selective cell seeding. Also, the hydrogel-laden paper could be folded freely into 3D tissue-like structures using a simple origami-based method. The cylindrically constructed paper scaffold system with chondrocytes was applied into a three-ring defect trachea in rabbits. The transplanted engineered tissues replaced the native trachea without stenosis after 4 wks. As for the custom-built scaffold system, the hydrogel-laden paper system will provide a robust and facile method for the formation of tissues mimicking native tissue constructs.

  3. Highly stretchable HA/SA hydrogels for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Yang, Rui; Hua, Xiaobin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Jumei; Wu, Rile; Cen, Lian

    2018-04-01

    A highly stretchable hyaluronic acid (HA)/sodium alginate (SA) hydrogel was developed in this study based on an interpenetrating polymer network. HA/SA hydrogels were prepared by mixing two polysaccharides followed by covalent crosslinking via epoxy groups on HA molecules and ionic crosslinking via divalent ions on SA chains sequentially. The effect of HA/SA ratio on the pore size and distribution, swelling ratio, elongation and rheological properties as well as protein loading and release properties of HA/SA hydrogels was explored. Moreover, a surface modification method, layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique, was applied to modify the hydrogel to evaluate the hydrogel's tenability in varying biological performance. It was then shown that the hydrogels had the pore sizes ranging from 100 to 50 μm. With the increase in SA content of the resulting hydrogels, the pore size, swelling ratio, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of the hydrogel all decreased, whereas the in vitro bulk weight loss was fastened. Moreover, elongation at break (EB) value increased first, reached a peak value and then decreased, that is HA8/SA1 (HA:SA = 8:1) had the highest EB value of 417%. This hydrogel could retain 33.2% of the pre-loaded protein even after 72 h, which could be further attenuated when LBL was used to shell the hydrogel. The growth of fibroblasts on HA8/SA1 hydrogel gave preliminary assessment on its suitability as a cellular carrier, while the LBL modified HA8/SA1 hydrogel also favored the anchoring of keratinocytes, further enhancing its cell carrier role for tissue regeneration, especially skin engineering.

  4. Fabrication of Novel Hydrogel with Berberine-Enriched Carboxymethylcellulose and Hyaluronic Acid as an Anti-Inflammatory Barrier Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Chih; Huang, Kuen-Yu; Yang, Bing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    An antiadhesion barrier membrane is an important biomaterial for protecting tissue from postsurgical complications. However, there is room to improve these membranes. Recently, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) incorporated with hyaluronic acid (HA) as an antiadhesion barrier membrane and drug delivery system has been reported to provide excellent tissue regeneration and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel hydrogel membrane composed of berberine-enriched CMC prepared from bark of the P. amurense tree and HA (PE-CMC/HA). In vitro anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated to determine possible clinical applications. The PE-CMC/HA membranes were fabricated by mixing PE-CMC and HA as a base with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol to form a film. Tensile strength and ultramorphology of the membrane were evaluated using a universal testing machine and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Berberine content of the membrane was confirmed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 260 nm. Anti-inflammatory property of the membrane was measured using a Griess reaction assay. Our results showed that fabricated PE-CMC/HA releases berberine at a concentration of 660 μg/ml while optimal plasticity was obtained at a 30 : 70 PE-CMC/HA ratio. The berberine-enriched PE-CMC/HA had an inhibited 60% of inflammation stimulated by LPS. These results suggest that the PE-CMC/HA membrane fabricated in this study is a useful anti-inflammatory berberine release system. PMID:28119926

  5. Hyaluronic acid-laminin hydrogels increase neural stem cell transplant retention and migratory response to SDF-1α.

    PubMed

    Addington, C P; Dharmawaj, S; Heffernan, J M; Sirianni, R W; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2017-07-01

    The chemokine SDF-1α plays a critical role in mediating stem cell response to injury and disease and has specifically been shown to mobilize neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) towards sites of neural injury. Current neural transplant paradigms within the brain suffer from low rates of retention and engraftment after injury. Therefore, increasing transplant sensitivity to injury-induced SDF-1α represents a method for increasing neural transplant efficacy. Previously, we have reported on a hyaluronic acid-laminin based hydrogel (HA-Lm gel) that increases NPSC expression of SDF-1α receptor, CXCR4, and subsequently, NPSC chemotactic migration towards a source of SDF-1α in vitro. The study presented here investigates the capacity of the HA-Lm gel to promote NPSC response to exogenous SDF-1α in vivo. We observed the HA-Lm gel to significantly increase NPSC transplant retention and migration in response to SDF-1α in a manner critically dependent on signaling via the SDF-1α-CXCR4 axis. This work lays the foundation for development of a more effective cell therapy for neural injury, but also has broader implications in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine given the essential roles of SDF-1α across injury and disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protease-modulating polyacrylate-based hydrogel stimulates wound bed preparation in venous leg ulcers – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, P; Faivre, B; Véran, Y; Debure, C; Truchetet, F; Bécherel, P-A; Plantin, P; Kerihuel, J-C; Eming, SA; Dissemond, J; Weyandt, G; Kaspar, D; Smola, H; Zöllner, P

    2014-01-01

    Background Stringent control of proteolytic activity represents a major therapeutic approach for wound-bed preparation. Objectives We tested whether a protease-modulating polyacrylate- (PA-) containing hydrogel resulted in a more efficient wound-bed preparation of venous leg ulcers when compared to an amorphous hydrogel without known protease-modulating properties. Methods Patients were randomized to the polyacrylate-based hydrogel (n = 34) or to an amorphous hydrogel (n = 41). Wound beds were evaluated by three blinded experts using photographs taken on days 0, 7 and 14. Results After 14 days of treatment there was an absolute decrease in fibrin and necrotic tissue of 37.6 ± 29.9 percentage points in the PA-based hydrogel group and by 16.8 ± 23.0 percentage points in the amorphous hydrogel group. The absolute increase in the proportion of ulcer area covered by granulation tissue was 36.0 ± 27.4 percentage points in the PA-based hydrogel group and 14.5 ± 22.0 percentage points in the control group. The differences between the groups were significant (decrease in fibrin and necrotic tissue P = 0.004 and increase in granulation tissue P = 0.0005, respectively). Conclusion In particular, long-standing wounds profited from the treatment with the PA-based hydrogel. These data suggest that PA-based hydrogel dressings can stimulate normalization of the wound environment, particularly in hard-to-heal ulcers. PMID:24612304

  7. Release behavior and bioefficacy of imazethapyr formulations based on biopolymeric hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Anupama; Das, T K; Sarkar, Dhruba Jyoti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Dhaka, Rashmi; Kumar, Anil

    2017-06-03

    Controlled release formulations of imazethapyr herbicide have been developed employing guar gum-g-cl-polyacrylate/bentonite clay hydrogel composite (GG-HG) and guar gum-g-cl-PNIPAm nano hydrogel (GG-NHG) as carriers, to assess the suitability of biopolymeric hydrogels as controlled herbicide release devices. The kinetics of imazethapyr release from the developed formulations was studied in water and it revealed that the developed formulations of imazethapyr behaved as slow release formulations as compared to commercial formulation. The calculated diffusion exponent (n) values showed that Fickian diffusion was the predominant mechanism of imazethapyr release from the developed formulations. Time for release of half of the loaded imazethapyr (t 1/2 ) ranged between 0.06 and 4.8 days in case of GG-NHG and 4.4 and 12.6 days for the GG-HG formulations. Weed control index (WCI) of GG-HG and GG-NHG formulations was similar to that of the commercial formulation and the herbicidal effect was observed for relatively longer period. Guar gum-based biopolymeric hydrogels in both macro and nano particle size range can serve as potential carriers in developing slow release herbicide formulations.

  8. Design and characterization of hydrogel-based microfluidic devices with biomimetic solute transport networks

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogel could serve as a matrix material of new classes of solar cells and photoreactors with embedded microfluidic networks. These devices mimic the structure and function of plant leaves, which are a natural soft matter based microfluidic system. These unusual microfluidic-hydrogel devices with fluid-penetrable medium operate on the basis of convective-diffusive mechanism, where the liquid is transported between the non-connected channels via molecular permeation through the hydrogel. We define three key designs of such hydrogel devices, having linear, T-shaped, and branched channels and report results of numerical simulation of the process of their infusion with solute carried by the incoming fluid. The computational procedure takes into account both pressure-driven convection and concentration gradient-driven diffusion in the permeable gel matrix. We define the criteria for evaluation of the fluid infusion rate, uniformity, solute loss by outflow and overall performance. The T-shaped channel network was identified as the most efficient one and was improved further by investigating the effect of the channel-end secondary branches. Our parallel experimental data on the pattern of solute infusions are in excellent agreement with the simulation. These network designs can be applied to a broad range of novel microfluidic materials and soft matter devices with distributed microchannel networks. PMID:28396708

  9. A Crosslinked HA-Based Hydrogel Ameliorates Dry Eye Symptoms in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, commonly referred to as dry eye or KCS, can affect both humans and dogs. The standard of care in treating KCS typically includes daily administration of eye drops to either stimulate tear production or to hydrate and lubricate the corneal surface. Lubricating eye drops are often applied four to six times daily for the life of the patient. In order to reduce this dosing regimen yet still provides sufficient hydration and lubrication, we have developed a crosslinked hydrogel based on a modified, thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA), xCMHA-S. This xCMHA-S gel was found to have different viscosity and rheologic behavior than solutions of noncrosslinked HA. The gel was also able to increase tear breakup time in rabbits, indicating a stabilization of the tear film. Further, in a preliminary clinical study of dogs with KCS, the gel significantly reduced the symptoms associated with KCS within two weeks while only being applied twice daily. The reduction of symptoms combined with the low dosing regimen indicates that this gel may lead to both improved patient health and owner compliance in applying the treatment. PMID:23840213

  10. A novel hydrogel based piezoresistive pressure sensor platform for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orthner, Michael P.

    New hydrogel-based micropressure sensor arrays for use in the fields of chemical sensing, physiological monitoring, and medical diagnostics are developed and demonstrated. This sensor technology provides reliable, linear, and accurate measurements of hydrogel swelling pressures, a function of ambient chemical concentrations. For the first time, perforations were implemented into the pressure sensors piezoresistive diaphragms, used to simultaneously increase sensor sensitivity and permit diffusion of analytes into the hydrogel cavity. It was shown through analytical and numerical (finite element) methods that pore shape, location, and size can be used to modify the diaphragm mechanics and concentrate stress within the piezoresistors, thus improving electrical output (sensitivity). An optimized pore pattern was chosen based on these numerical calculations. Fabrication was performed using a 14-step semiconductor fabrication process implementing a combination of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) to create perforations. The sensor arrays (2x2) measure approximately 3 x 5 mm2 and used to measure full scale pressures of 50, 25, and 5 kPa, respectively. These specifications were defined by the various swelling pressures of ionic strength, pH and glucose specific hydrogels that were targeted in this work. Initial characterization of the sensor arrays was performed using a custom built bulge testing apparatus that simultaneously measured deflection (optical profilometry), pressure, and electrical output. The new perforated diaphragm sensors were found to be fully functional with sensitivities ranging from 23 to 252 muV/V-kPa with full scale output (FSO) ranging from 5 to 80 mV. To demonstrate proof of concept, hydrogels sensitive to changes in ionic strength were synthesized using hydroxypropyl-methacrylate (HPMA), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl-methacrylate (DMA) and a tetra-ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) crosslinker. This hydrogel quickly and

  11. Injectable graphene oxide/hydrogel-based angiogenic gene delivery system for vasculogenesis and cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Paul, Arghya; Hasan, Anwarul; Kindi, Hamood Al; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Shin, Su Ryon; Krafft, Dorothee; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Shum-Tim, Dominique; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-08-26

    The objective of this study was to develop an injectable and biocompatible hydrogel which can efficiently deliver a nanocomplex of graphene oxide (GO) and vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF) pro-angiogenic gene for myocardial therapy. For the study, an efficient nonviral gene delivery system using polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized GO nanosheets (fGO) complexed with DNAVEGF was formulated and incorporated in the low-modulus methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogel to promote controlled and localized gene therapy. It was hypothesized that the fGOVEGF/GelMA nanocomposite hydrogels can efficiently transfect myocardial tissues and induce favorable therapeutic effects without invoking cytotoxic effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, a rat model with acute myocardial infarction was used, and the therapeutic hydrogels were injected intramyocardially in the peri-infarct regions. The secreted VEGF from in vitro transfected cardiomyocytes demonstrated profound mitotic activities on endothelial cells. A significant increase in myocardial capillary density at the injected peri-infarct region and reduction in scar area were noted in the infarcted hearts with fGOVEGF/GelMA treatment compared to infarcted hearts treated with untreated sham, GelMA and DNAVEGF/GelMA groups. Furthermore, the fGOVEGF/GelMA group showed significantly higher (p < 0.05, n = 7) cardiac performance in echocardiography compared to other groups, 14 days postinjection. In addition, no significant differences were noticed between GO/GelMA and non-GO groups in the serum cytokine levels and quantitative PCR based inflammatory microRNA (miRNA) marker expressions at the injected sites. Collectively, the current findings suggest the feasibility of a combined hydrogel-based gene therapy system for ischemic heart diseases using nonviral hybrid complex of fGO and DNA.

  12. Biomimetic hydrogel loaded with silk and l-proline for tissue engineering and wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Ponrasu; Ramachandran, Balaji; Kannan, Ramya; Muthuvijayan, Vignesh

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this article was to develop silk protein (SF) and l-proline (LP) loaded chitosan-(CS) based hydrogels via physical cross linking for tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Silk fibroin, a biodegradable and biocompatible protein, and l-proline, an important imino acid that is required for collagen synthesis, were added to chitosan to improve the wound healing properties of the hydrogel. Characterization of these hydrogels revealed that CS/SF/LP hydrogels were blended properly and LP incorporated hydrogels showed excellent thermal stability and good surface morphology. Swelling study showed the water holding efficiency of the hydrogels to provide enough moisture at the wound surface. In vitro biodegradation results demonstrated that the hydrogels had good degradation rate in PBS with lysozyme. LP loaded hydrogels showed approximately a twofold increase in antioxidant activity. In vitro cytocompatibility studies using NIH 3T3 L1 cells showed increased cell viability (p < 0.01), migration, proliferation and wound healing activity (p < 0.001) in LP loaded hydrogels compared to CS and CS/SF hydrogels. Cell adhesion on SF and LP hydrogels were observed using SEM and compared to CS hydrogel. LP incorporation showed 74-78% of wound closure compared to 35% for CS/SF and 3% for CS hydrogels at 48 h. These results suggest that incorporation of LP can significantly accelerate wound healing process compared to pure CS and SF-loaded CS hydrogels. Hence, CS/LP hydrogels could be a potential wound dressing material for the enhanced wound tissue regeneration and repair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1401-1408, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dynamic behavior of acrylic acid clusters as quasi-mobile nodes in a model of hydrogel network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidek, Jan; Milchev, Andrey; Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2012-12-01

    Using a molecular dynamics simulation, we study the thermo-mechanical behavior of a model hydrogel subject to deformation and change in temperature. The model is found to describe qualitatively poly-lactide-glycolide hydrogels in which acrylic acid (AA)-groups are believed to play the role of quasi-mobile nodes in the formation of a network. From our extensive analysis of the structure, formation, and disintegration of the AA-groups, we are able to elucidate the relationship between structure and viscous-elastic behavior of the model hydrogel. Thus, in qualitative agreement with observations, we find a softening of the mechanical response at large deformations, which is enhanced by growing temperature. Several observables as the non-affinity parameter A and the network rearrangement parameter V indicate the existence of a (temperature-dependent) threshold degree of deformation beyond which the quasi-elastic response of the model system turns over into plastic (ductile) one. The critical stretching when the affinity of the deformation is lost can be clearly located in terms of A and V as well as by analysis of the energy density of the system. The observed stress-strain relationship matches that of known experimental systems.

  14. Fabrication of magnetic macroporous chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid) hydrogel for removal of Cd2+ and Pb2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aiqin

    2016-12-01

    A novel macroporous magnetic macroporous chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid) hydrogel adsorbent was fabricated from the Pickering high internal emulsions template stabilized by modified Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The structure and composition of modified Fe 3 O 4 and macroporous magnetic hydrogel were characterized by TEM, XRD, TG and SEM techniques. The characterization results suggest that the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles have been modified successfully with organosilane of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTES), and the porous structure of the macroporous hydrogel can be tuned with the amount of stabilized particles, volume fraction of dispersed phase and the amount of the cosurfactant. Adsorption experiments indicate that the adsorption equilibrium was rapidly reached within 20min and the maximal adsorption capacities were determined to be 308.84mg/g for Cd 2+ and 695.22mg/g for Pb 2+ . After five adsorption-desorption cycles, the adsorbent can retain its high adsorption capacity. The introduction of Fe 3 O 4 is beneficial to the recycle of adsorbent after usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating network hydrogel by intrastromal implantation in rabbit cornea

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Luo Luo; Vanchinathan, Vijay; Dalal, Roopa; Noolandi, Jaan; Waters, Dale J.; Hartmann, Laura; Cochran, Jennifer R.; Frank, Curtis W.; Yu, Charles Q.; Ta, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of a poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) (PEG/PAA) interpenetrating network hydrogel designed for artificial cornea in a rabbit model. PEG/PAA hydrogel measuring 6 mm in diameter was implanted in the corneal stroma of twelve rabbits. Stromal flaps were created with a microkeratome. Randomly, six rabbits were assigned to bear the implant for 2 months, two rabbits for 6 months, two rabbits for 9 months, one rabbit for 12 months, and one rabbit for 16 months. Rabbits were evaluated monthly. After the assigned period, eyes were enucleated, and corneas were processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. There were clear corneas in three of six rabbits that had implantation of hydrogel for 2 months. In the six rabbits with implant for 6 months or longer, the corneas remained clear in four. There was a high rate of epithelial defect and corneal thinning in these six rabbits. One planned 9-month rabbit developed extrusion of implant at 4 months. The cornea remained clear in the 16-month rabbit but histology revealed epithelial in-growth. Intrastromal implantation of PEG/PAA resulted in a high rate of long-term complications. PMID:25778285

  16. An improved correlation to predict molecular weight between crosslinks based on equilibrium degree of swelling of hydrogel networks.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Lewis, John; Hahn, Mariah S; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J

    2018-04-01

    Accurate characterization of hydrogel diffusional properties is of substantial importance for a range of biotechnological applications. The diffusional capacity of hydrogels has commonly been estimated using the average molecular weight between crosslinks (M c ), which is calculated based on the equilibrium degree of swelling. However, the existing correlation linking M c and equilibrium swelling fails to accurately reflect the diffusional properties of highly crosslinked hydrogel networks. Also, as demonstrated herein, the current model fails to accurately predict the diffusional properties of hydrogels when polymer concentration and molecular weight are varied simultaneously. To address these limitations, we evaluated the diffusional properties of 48 distinct hydrogel formulations using two different photoinitiator systems, employing molecular size exclusion as an alternative methodology to calculate average hydrogel mesh size. The resulting data were then utilized to develop a revised correlation between M c and hydrogel equilibrium swelling that substantially reduces the limitations associated with the current correlation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1339-1348, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Short-peptide-based molecular hydrogels: novel gelation strategies and applications for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaimin; Yang, Zhimou

    2012-08-01

    Molecular hydrogels hold big potential for tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery. Our lab focuses on short-peptide-based molecular hydrogels formed by biocompatible methods and their applications in tissue engineering (especially, 3D cell culture) and controlled drug delivery. This feature article firstly describes our recent progresses of the development of novel methods to form hydrogels, including the strategy of disulfide bond reduction and assistance with specific protein-peptide interactions. We then introduce the applications of our hydrogels in fields of controlled stem cell differentiation, cell culture, surface modifications of polyester materials by molecular self-assembly, and anti-degradation of recombinant complex proteins. A novel molecular hydrogel system of hydrophobic compounds that are only formed by hydrolysis processes was also included in this article. The hydrogels of hydrophobic compounds, especially those of hydrophobic therapeutic agents, may be developed into a carrier-free delivery system for long term delivery of therapeutic agents. With the efforts in this field, we believe that molecular hydrogels formed by short peptides and hydrophobic therapeutic agents can be practically applied for 3D cell culture and long term drug delivery in near future, respectively.

  18. Responsive Hydrogel-based Photonic Nanochains for Microenvironment Sensing and Imaging in Real Time and High Resolution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Cui, Qian; Fang, Kai; Chen, Ke; Ma, Huiru; Guan, Jianguo

    2018-01-17

    Microenvironment sensing and imaging are of importance in microscale zones like microreactors, microfluidic systems, and biological cells. But they are so far implemented only based on chemical colors from dyes or quantum dots, which suffered either from photobleaching, quenching, or photoblinking behaviors, or from limited color gamut. In contrast, structural colors from hydrogel-based photonic crystals (PCs) may be stable and tunable in the whole visible spectrum by diffraction peak shift, facilitating the visual detection with high accuracy. However, the current hydrogel-based PCs are all inappropriate for microscale detection due to the bulk size. Here we demonstrate the smallest hydrogel-based PCs, responsive hydrogel-based photonic nanochains with high-resolution and real-time response, by developing a general hydrogen bond-guided template polymerization method. A variety of mechanically separated stimuli-responsive hydrogel-based photonic nanochains have been obtained in a large scale including those responding to pH, solvent, and temperature. Each of them has a submicrometer diameter and is composed of individual one-dimensional periodic structure of magnetic particles locked by a tens-of-nanometer-thick peapod-like responsive hydrogel shell. Taking the pH-responsive hydrogel-based photonic nanochains, for example, pH-induced hydrogel volume change notably alters the nanochain length, resulting in a significant variation of the structural color. The submicrometer size endows the nanochains with improved resolution and response time by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the previous counterparts. Our results for the first time validate the feasibility of using structural colors for microenvironment sensing and imaging and may further promote the applications of responsive PCs, such as in displays and printing.

  19. Differentiation of osteoclast precursors on gellan gum-based spongy-like hydrogels for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Maia, F Raquel; Musson, David S; Naot, Dorit; da Silva, Lucilia P; Bastos, Ana R; Costa, João B; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Correlo, Vitor M; Reis, Rui L; Cornish, Jillian

    2018-03-16

    Bone tissue engineering with cell-scaffold constructs has been attracting a lot of attention, in particular as a tool for the efficient guiding of new tissue formation. However, the majority of the current strategies used to evaluate novel biomaterials focus on osteoblasts and bone formation, while osteoclasts are often overlooked. Consequently, there is limited knowledge on the interaction between osteoclasts and biomaterials. In this study, the ability of spongy-like gellan gum and hydroxyapatite-reinforced gellan gum hydrogels to support osteoclastogenesis was investigated in vitro. First, the spongy-like gellan gum and hydroxyapatite-reinforced gellan gum hydrogels were characterized in terms of microstructure, water uptake and mechanical properties. Then, bone marrow cells isolated from the long bones of mice and cultured in spongy-like hydrogels were treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to promote osteoclastogenesis. It was shown that the addition of HAp to spongy-like gellan gum hydrogels enables the formation of larger pores and thicker walls, promoting an increase in stiffness. Hydroxyapatite-reinforced spongy-like gellan gum hydrogels support the formation of the aggregates of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained cells and the expression of genes encoding DC-STAMP and Cathepsin K, suggesting the differentiation of bone marrow cells into pre-osteoclasts. The hydroxyapatite-reinforced spongy-like gellan gum hydrogels developed in this work show promise for future use in bone tissue scaffolding applications.

  20. Hyaluronan (HA) interacting proteins RHAMM and hyaluronidase impact prostate cancer cell behavior and invadopodia formation in 3D HA-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gurski, Lisa A; Xu, Xian; Labrada, Lyana N; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Xiao, Longxi; van Golen, Kenneth L; Jia, Xinqiao; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    To study the individual functions of hyaluronan interacting proteins in prostate cancer (PCa) motility through connective tissues, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel assay that provides a flexible, quantifiable, and physiologically relevant alternative to current methods. Invasion in this system reflects the prevalence of HA in connective tissues and its role in the promotion of cancer cell motility and tissue invasion, making the system ideal to study invasion through bone marrow or other HA-rich connective tissues. The bio-compatible cross-linking process we used allows for direct encapsulation of cancer cells within the gel where they adopt a distinct, cluster-like morphology. Metastatic PCa cells in these hydrogels develop fingerlike structures, "invadopodia", consistent with their invasive properties. The number of invadopodia, as well as cluster size, shape, and convergence, can provide a quantifiable measure of invasive potential. Among candidate hyaluronan interacting proteins that could be responsible for the behavior we observed, we found that culture in the HA hydrogel triggers invasive PCa cells to differentially express and localize receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM)/CD168 which, in the absence of CD44, appears to contribute to PCa motility and invasion by interacting with the HA hydrogel components. PCa cell invasion through the HA hydrogel also was found to depend on the activity of hyaluronidases. Studies shown here reveal that while hyaluronidase activity is necessary for invadopodia and inter-connecting cluster formation, activity alone is not sufficient for acquisition of invasiveness to occur. We therefore suggest that development of invasive behavior in 3D HA-based systems requires development of additional cellular features, such as activation of motility associated pathways that regulate formation of invadopodia. Thus, we report development of a 3D system amenable to dissection of

  1. Colloidal gas aphron foams: A novel approach to a hydrogel based tissue engineered myocardial patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Elizabeth Edna

    Cardiovascular disease currently affects an estimated 58 million Americans and is the leading cause of death in the US. Over 2.3 million Americans are currently living with heart failure a leading cause of which is acute myocardial infarction, during which a part of the heart muscle is damaged beyond repair. There is a great need to develop treatments for damaged heart tissue. One potential therapy involves replacement of nonfunctioning scar tissue with a patch of healthy, functioning tissue. A tissue engineered cardiac patch would be ideal for such an application. Tissue engineering techniques require the use of porous scaffolds, which serve as a 3-D template for initial cell attachment and grow-th leading to tissue formation. The scaffold must also have mechanical properties closely matching those of the tissues at the site of implantation. Our research presents a new approach to meet these design requirements. A unique interaction between poly(vinyl alcohol) and amino acids has been discovered by our lab, resulting in the production of novel gels. These unique synthetic hydrogels along with one natural hydrogel, alginate (derived from brown seaweed), have been coupled with a new approach to tissue scaffold fabrication using solid colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs). CGAs are colloidal foams containing uniform bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers. Upon solidification the GCAs form a porous, 3-D network suitable for a tissue scaffold. The project encompasses four specific aims: (I) characterize hydrogel formation mechanism, (II) use colloidal gas aphrons to produce hydrogel scaffolds, (III) chemically and physically characterize scaffold materials and (IV) optimize and evaluate scaffold biocompatibility.

  2. Hybrid nanocomposites based on electroactive hydrogels and cellulose nanocrystals for high-sensitivity electro-mechanical underwater actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Migliorini, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Erica; Monaco, Ilaria; Yan, Yunsong; Lenardi, Cristina; Comes Franchini, Mauro; Milani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and characterization of a hybrid hydrogel/cellulose nanocomposite, which exhibits high-performance electro-mechanical underwater actuation and high sensitivity in response to electrical stimuli below the standard potential of water electrolysis. The macromolecular structure of the material is constituted by an electroactive hydrogel, obtained through a photo-polymerization reaction with the use of three vinylic co-monomers: Na-4-vinylbenzenesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, and acrylonitrile. Different amounts (from 0.1% to 1.4% w/w) of biodegradable cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with sulfonate surface groups, obtained through the acidic hydrolysis of sulphite pulp lapsheets, are physically incorporated into the gel matrix during the synthesis step. Freestanding thin films of the nanocomposites are molded, and their swelling, mechanical and responsive properties are fully characterized. We observed that the embedding of the CNCs enhanced both the material Young’s modulus and its sensitivity to the applied electric field in the sub-volt regime (down to 5 mV cm-1). A demonstrator integrating multiple actuators that cooperatively bend together, mimicking the motion of an electro-valve, is also prototyped and tested. The presented nanocomposite is suitable for the development of soft smart components for bio-robotic applications and cells-based and bio-hybrid fluidic devices fabrication.

  3. Guar gum based biodegradable, antibacterial and electrically conductive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kaith, Balbir S; Sharma, Reena; Kalia, Susheel

    2015-04-01

    Guar gum-polyacrylic acid-polyaniline based biodegradable electrically conductive interpenetrating network (IPN) structures were prepared through a two-step aqueous polymerization. Hexamine and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as a cross linker-initiator system to crosslink the poly(AA) chains on Guar gum (Ggum) backbone. Optimum reaction conditions for maximum percentage swelling (7470.23%) were time (min) = 60; vacuum (mmHg) = 450; pH = 7.0; solvent (mL) = 27.5; [APS] (mol L(-1)) = 0.306 × 10(-1); [AA] (mol L(-1)) = 0.291 × 10(-3) and [hexamine] (mol L(-1))=0.356 × 10(-1). The semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) were converted into IPNs through impregnation of polyaniline chains under acidic and neutral conditions. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to characterize the semi-IPNs and IPNs. Synthesized semi-IPNs and IPNs were further evaluated for moisture retention in different soils, antibacterial and biodegradation behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyaluronic Acid-Serum Hydrogels Rapidly Restore Metabolism of Encapsulated Stem Cells and Promote Engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Angel T.; Karakas, Mehmet F.; Vakrou, Styliani; Afzal, Junaid; Rittenbach, Andrew; Lin, Xiaoping; Wahl, Richard L.; Pomper, Martin G.; Steenbergen, Charles J.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.; Abraham, M. Roselle

    2015-01-01

    Background Cell death due to anoikis, necrosis and cell egress from transplantation sites limits functional benefits of cellular cardiomyoplasty. Cell dissociation and suspension, which are a pre-requisite for most cell transplantation studies, lead to depression of cellular metabolism and anoikis, which contribute to low engraftment. Objective We tissue engineered scaffolds with the goal of rapidly restoring metabolism, promoting viability, proliferation and engraftment of encapsulated stem cells. Methods The carboxyl groups of HA were functionalized with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) to yield HA succinimidyl succinate (HA-NHS) groups that react with free amine groups to form amide bonds. HA-NHS was cross-linked by serum to generate HA:Serum (HA:Ser) hydrogels. Physical properties of HA:Ser hydrogels were measured. Effect of encapsulating cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) in HA:Ser hydrogels on viability, proliferation, glucose uptake and metabolism was assessed in vitro. In vivo acute intra-myocardial cell retention of 18FDG-labeled CDCs encapsulated in HA:Ser hydrogels was quantified. Effect of CDC encapsulation in HA:Ser hydrogels on in vivo metabolism and engraftment at 7 days was assessed by serial, dual isotope SPECT-CT and bioluminescence imaging of CDCs expressing the Na-iodide symporter and firefly luciferase genes respectively. Effect of HA:Ser hydrogels +/− CDCs on cardiac function was assessed at 7 days & 28 days post-infarct. Results HA:Ser hydrogels are highly bio-adhesive, biodegradable, promote rapid cell adhesion, glucose uptake and restore bioenergetics of encapsulated cells within 1 h of encapsulation, both in vitro and in vivo. These metabolic scaffolds can be applied epicardially as a patch to beating hearts or injected intramyocardially. HA:Ser hydrogels markedly increase acute intramyocardial retention (~6 fold), promote in vivo viability, proliferation, engraftment of encapsulated stem cells and angiogenesis. Conclusion HA:Ser hydrogels

  5. Preparation and characterization of pH sensitive crosslinked Linseed polysaccharides-co-acrylic acid/methacrylic acid hydrogels for controlled delivery of ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Farya; Erum, Alia; Tulain, Ume Ruqia; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Ahmad, Mahmood; Akhter, Faiza

    2017-01-01

    Some pH responsive polymeric matrix of Linseed ( Linum usitatissimum ), L. hydrogel (LSH) was prepared by free radical polymerization using potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator, N,N -methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker, acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) as monomers; while ketoprofen was used as a model drug. Different formulations of LSH-co-AA and LSH-co-MAA were formulated by varying the concentration of crosslinker and monomers. Structures obtained were thoroughly characterized using Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, XRD analysis and Scanning electron microscopy. Sol-gel fractions, porosity of the materials and ketoprofen loading capacity were also measured. Swelling and in vitro drug release studies were conducted at simulated gastric fluids, i.e., pH 1.2 and 7.4. FTIR evaluation confirmed successful grafting of AA and MAA to LSH backbone. XRD studies showed retention of crystalline structure of ketoprofen in LSH-co-AA and its amorphous dispersion in LSH-co-MAA. Gel content was increased by increasing MBA and monomer content; whereas porosity of hydrogel was increased by increasing monomer concentration and decreased by increasing MBA content. Swelling of copolymer hydrogels was high at pH 7.4 and low at pH 1.2. Ketoprofen release showed an increasing trend by increasing monomer content; however it was decreased with increasing MBA content. Sustained release of ketoprofen was noted from copolymers and release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  6. Glow discharge electrolysis plasma initiated preparation of temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Zhu, Sha; Bai, Yunping; Xi, Ning; Wang, Shaoyang; Bian, Yang; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yucang

    2015-05-20

    The temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels have been prepared through glow discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP). The effect of different discharge voltages on the temperature and pH response performance of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels was inspected, and the formation mechanism, deswelling behaviors of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels were also discussed. At the same time, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning differential thermal analysis (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were adopted to characterize the structure, phase transformation behaviors and microstructure of hydrogels. It turned out to be that all reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels had a double sensitivity to temperature and pH, and their phase transition temperatures were all approximately 33 °C, as well as the deswelling dynamics met the first model. In addition, the hydrogel (TPRH-3), under discharge voltage 600 V, was more sensitive to temperature and pH and had higher deswelling ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress relaxing hyaluronic acid-collagen hydrogels promote cell spreading, fiber remodeling, and focal adhesion formation in 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lou, Junzhe; Stowers, Ryan; Nam, Sungmin; Xia, Yan; Chaudhuri, Ovijit

    2018-02-01

    The physical and architectural cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in regulating important cellular functions such as spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Natural ECM is a complex viscoelastic scaffold composed of various distinct components that are often organized into a fibrillar microstructure. Hydrogels are frequently used as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture, but are typically elastic, due to covalent crosslinking, and non-fibrillar. Recent work has revealed the importance of stress relaxation in viscoelastic hydrogels in regulating biological processes such as spreading and differentiation, but these studies all utilize synthetic ECM hydrogels that are non-fibrillar. Key mechanotransduction events, such as focal adhesion formation, have only been observed in fibrillar networks in 3D culture to date. Here we present an interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel system based on HA crosslinked with dynamic covalent bonds and collagen I that captures the viscoelasticity and fibrillarity of ECM in tissues. The IPN hydrogels exhibit two distinct processes in stress relaxation, one from collagen and the other from HA crosslinking dynamics. Stress relaxation in the IPN hydrogels can be tuned by modulating HA crosslinker affinity, molecular weight of the HA, or HA concentration. Faster relaxation in the IPN hydrogels promotes cell spreading, fiber remodeling, and focal adhesion (FA) formation - behaviors often inhibited in other hydrogel-based materials in 3D culture. This study presents a new, broadly adaptable materials platform for mimicking key ECM features of viscoelasticity and fibrillarity in hydrogels for 3D cell culture and sheds light on how these mechanical and structural cues regulate cell behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal-Ion-Mediated Supramolecular Chirality of l-Phenylalanine Based Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Feng, Chuan-Liang

    2018-05-14

    For chiral hydrogels and related applications, one of the critical issues is how to control the chirality of supramolecular systems in an efficient way, including easy operation, efficient transfer of chirality, and so on. Herein, supramolecular chirality of l-phenylalanine based hydrogels can be effectively controlled by using a broad range of metal ions. The degree of twisting (twist pitch) and the diameter of the chiral nanostructures can also be efficiently regulated. These are ascribed to the synergic effect of hydrogen bonding and metal ion coordination. This study may develop a method to design a new class of electronically, optically, and biologically active materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Programmable release of multiple protein drugs from aptamer-functionalized hydrogels via nucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed

    Battig, Mark R; Soontornworajit, Boonchoy; Wang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    Polymeric delivery systems have been extensively studied to achieve localized and controlled release of protein drugs. However, it is still challenging to control the release of multiple protein drugs in distinct stages according to the progress of disease or treatment. This study successfully demonstrates that multiple protein drugs can be released from aptamer-functionalized hydrogels with adjustable release rates at predetermined time points using complementary sequences (CSs) as biomolecular triggers. Because both aptamer-protein interactions and aptamer-CS hybridization are sequence-specific, aptamer-functionalized hydrogels constitute a promising polymeric delivery system for the programmable release of multiple protein drugs to treat complex human diseases.

  10. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/oligo (ethylene glycol) acrylate) terpolymeric hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micic, M.; Stamenic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2012-09-01

    Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers, it is possible to prepare P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels with dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of our study is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of the obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of terpolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesised by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterised by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature range (20-70 °C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in the swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increased progressively with an increase in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl groups from IA occurs at pH>4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, peptides, proteins, etc.

  11. Development and Characterization of a 3D Printed, Keratin-Based Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Placone, Jesse K; Navarro, Javier; Laslo, Gregory W; Lerman, Max J; Gabard, Alexis R; Herendeen, Gregory J; Falco, Erin E; Tomblyn, Seth; Burnett, Luke; Fisher, John P

    2017-01-01

    Keratin, a naturally-derived polymer derived from human hair, is physiologically biodegradable, provides adequate cell support, and can self-assemble or be crosslinked to form hydrogels. Nevertheless, it has had limited use in tissue engineering and has been mainly used as casted scaffolds for drug or growth factor delivery applications. Here, we present and assess a novel method for the printed, sequential production of 3D keratin scaffolds. Using a riboflavin-SPS-hydroquinone (initiator-catalyst-inhibitor) photosensitive solution we produced 3D keratin constructs via UV crosslinking in a lithography-based 3D printer. The hydrogels obtained have adequate printing resolution and result in compressive and dynamic mechanical properties, uptake and swelling capacities, cytotoxicity, and microstructural characteristics that are comparable or superior to those of casted keratin scaffolds previously reported. The novel keratin-based printing resin and printing methodology presented have the potential to impact future research by providing an avenue to rapidly and reproducibly manufacture patient-specific hydrogels for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  12. A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly of stretchable supercapacitors based on highly stretchable and sticky hydrogel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Gengchao; Bao, Hua; Saha, Petr

    2015-06-01

    A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly strategy for the stretchable supercapacitor device is developed based on a novel Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte, saving the stretchable rubber base conventionally used. The Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte exhibits high stretchability (>1000%), electrical conductivity (0.036 S cm-1) and stickiness. Due to the unique features of the hydrogel electrolyte, the carbon nanotube@MnO2 film electrodes can be firmly stuck to two sides of the prestrained hydrogel electrolyte. Then, by releasing the hydrogel electrolyte, homogenous buckles are formed for the film electrodes to get a full stretchable supercapacitor device. Besides, the high stickiness of the hydrogel electrolyte ensures its strong adhesion with the film electrodes, facilitating ion and electronic transfer of the supercapacitor. As a result, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved with the specific capacitance of 478.6 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2 (corresponding to 201.1 F g-1) and capacitance retention of 91.5% after 3000 charging-discharging cycles under 150% strain, which is the best for the stretchable supercapacitors.

  13. Bioinspired Smart Actuator Based on Graphene Oxide-Polymer Hybrid Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiahe; Yang, Yiqing; Zhang, Enzhong; Sun, Weixiang; Tong, Zhen

    2015-10-28

    Rapid response and strong mechanical properties are desired for smart materials used in soft actuators. A bioinspired hybrid hydrogel actuator was designed and prepared by series combination of three trunks of tough polymer-clay hydrogels to accomplish the comprehensive actuation of "extension-grasp-retraction" like a fishing rod. The hydrogels with thermo-creep and thermo-shrinking features were successively irradiated by near-infrared (NIR) to execute extension and retraction, respectively. The GO in the hydrogels absorbed the NIR energy and transformed it into thermo-energy rapidly and effectively. The hydrogel with adhesion or magnetic force was adopted as the "hook" of the hybrid hydrogel actuator for grasping object. The hook of the hybrid hydrogel actuator was replaceable according to applications, even with functional materials other than hydrogels. This study provides an innovative concept to explore new soft actuators through combining response hydrogels and programming the same stimulus.

  14. Surface modification of model hydrogel contact lenses with hyaluronic acid via thiol-ene "click" chemistry for enhancing surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Korogiannaki, Myrto; Zhang, Jianfeng; Sheardown, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Discontinuation of contact lens wear as a result of ocular dryness and discomfort is extremely common; as many as 26% of contact lens wearers discontinue use within the first year. While patients are generally satisfied with conventional hydrogel lenses, improving on-eye comfort continues to remain a goal. Surface modification with a biomimetic, ocular friendly hydrophilic layer of a wetting agent is hypothesized to improve the interfacial interactions of the contact lens with the ocular surface. In this work, the synthesis and characterization of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) surfaces grafted with a hydrophilic layer of hyaluronic acid are described. The immobilization reaction involved the covalent attachment of thiolated hyaluronic acid (20 kDa) on acrylated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) via nucleophile-initiated Michael addition thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The surface chemistry of the modified surfaces was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The appearance of N (1s) and S (2p) peaks on the low resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra confirmed successful immobilization of hyaluronic acid. Grafting hyaluronic acid to the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) surfaces decreased the contact angle, the dehydration rate, and the amount of nonspecific sorption of lysozyme and albumin in comparison to pristine hydrogel materials, suggesting the development of more wettable surfaces with improved water-retentive and antifouling properties, while maintaining optical transparency (>92%). In vitro testing also showed excellent viability of human corneal epithelial cells with the hyaluronic acid-grafted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) surfaces. Hence, surface modification with hyaluronic acid via thiol-ene "click" chemistry could be useful in improving contact lens surface properties, potentially alleviating symptoms of contact lens related dryness and discomfort during

  15. Synthesis and properties of hemicelluloses-based semi-IPN hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng; Guan, Ying; Zhang, Bing; Bian, Jing; Ren, Jun-Li; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-04-01

    Hemicelluloses were extracted from holocellulose of bamboo by alkaline treatment. The phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) (P-PVA) samples with various substitution degrees were prepared through the esterification of PVA and phosphoric acid. A series of hydrogels of semi-interpenetrating polymeric networks (semi-IPN) composed of hemicelluloses-g-poly(acrylic acid) (HM-g-PAA) and the phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) (P-PVA) were prepared by radical polymerization using potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The HM-g-PAA networks were crosslinked by N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent in the presence of linear P-PVA. FT-IR results confirmed that the hydrogels comprised a porous crosslink structure of P-PVA and HM with side chains that carried carboxylate and phosphorylate groups. SEM observations indicated that the incorporation of P-PVA induced highly porous structure, and P-PVA was uniformly dispersed in the polymeric network. The interior network structures of the semi-IPN matrix became more porous with increasing P-PVA. The TGA results showed that the thermo-decomposing temperature and thermal stability were increased effectively for intruding the chain of P-PVA. The maximum equilibrium swelling ratio of hydrogels in distilled water and 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solutions was up to 1085 g g(-1) and 87 g g(-1), respectively. The compressive strength increased with increasing the MBA/HM and P-PVA/HM ratios, and decreased with the increment of AA/HM ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  17. Synthesis characterization and in vitro drug release from acrylamide and sodium alginate based superporous hydrogel devices

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Manju; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Dinanath

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Present investigation was aimed at developing gastroretentive superporous hydrogels (SPHs) having desired mechanical characteristics with sustained release. Materials and Methods: The acrylamide based SPHs of various generations (1st, 2nd and 3rd) were synthesized by gas blowing technique. The prepared SPHs were evaluated for swelling, mechanical strength studies and scanning electron microscopy studies. Verapamil hydrochloride was loaded into selected SPHs by aqueous drug loading method and characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and in vitro drug release studies. Results: SPHs of third generation were observed to have desired mechanical strength with sufficient swelling properties. Integrity of the drug was maintained in hydrogel polymeric network as indicated by FTIR, X-RD, and DSC and NMR studies. Initially, fast drug release (up to 60%) was observed in 30 min in formulation batches containing pure drug only (A, C and E), which was further sustained untill 24 h. Discussion: The increase in mechanical strength was due to the chemical cross-linking of secondary polymer in hydrogel network. The initial burst release was due to the presence of free drug at the surface and later sustained drug release was due to diffusion of entrapped drug in polymeric network. Significant decrease in drug release was observed by the addition of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. Conclusion: SPH interpenetrating networks with fast swelling and sufficient mechanical strength were prepared, which can be potentially exploited for designing gastroretentive drug delivery devices. PMID:24167785

  18. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on three-dimensional graphene hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-05-28

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors are of considerable interest as mobile power supply for future flexible electronics. Graphene or carbon nanotubes based thin films have been used to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high gravimetric specific capacitances (80-200 F/g), but usually with a rather low overall or areal specific capacitance (3-50 mF/cm(2)) due to the ultrasmall electrode thickness (typically a few micrometers) and ultralow mass loading, which is not desirable for practical applications. Here we report the exploration of a three-dimensional (3D) graphene hydrogel for the fabrication of high-performance solid-state flexible supercapacitors. With a highly interconnected 3D network structure, graphene hydrogel exhibits exceptional electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness to make it an excellent material for flexible energy storage devices. Our studies demonstrate that flexible supercapacitors with a 120 μm thick graphene hydrogel thin film can exhibit excellent capacitive characteristics, including a high gravimetric specific capacitance of 186 F/g (up to 196 F/g for a 42 μm thick electrode), an unprecedented areal specific capacitance of 372 mF/cm(2) (up to 402 mF/cm(2) for a 185 μm thick electrode), low leakage current (10.6 μA), excellent cycling stability, and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. This study demonstrates the exciting potential of 3D graphene macrostructures for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  19. Experimental study of porous media flow using hydro-gel beads and LED based PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshani, H. M. D.; Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Muhlhaus, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    A novel experimental approach for measuring porous flow characteristics using spherical hydro-gel beads and particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is presented. A transparent porous medium consisting of hydro-gel beads that are made of a super-absorbent polymer, allows using water as the fluid phase while simultaneously having the same refractive index. As a result, a more adaptable and cost effective refractive index matched (RIM) medium is created. The transparent nature of the porous medium allows optical systems to visualize the flow field by using poly-amide seeding particles (PSP). Low risk light emitting diode (LED) based light was used to illuminate the plane in order to track the seeding particles’ path for the characterization of the flow inside the porous medium. The system was calibrated using a manually measured flow by a flow meter. Velocity profiles were obtained and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively in order to characterise the flow. Results show that this adaptable, low risk experimental set-up can be used for flow measurements in porous medium under low Reynolds numbers. The limitations of using hydro-gel beads are also discussed.

  20. Application of Extrusion-Based Hydrogel Bioprinting for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    You, Fu; Eames, B Frank; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2017-07-23

    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly developing technique that has made substantial progress in the fabrication of constructs for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) over the past decade. With this technique, cell-laden hydrogels or bio-inks have been extruded onto printing stages, layer-by-layer, to form three-dimensional (3D) constructs with varying sizes, shapes, and resolutions. This paper reviews the cell sources and hydrogels that can be used for bio-ink formulations in CTE application. Additionally, this paper discusses the important properties of bio-inks to be applied in the EBB technique, including biocompatibility, printability, as well as mechanical properties. The printability of a bio-ink is associated with the formation of first layer, ink rheological properties, and crosslinking mechanisms. Further, this paper discusses two bioprinting approaches to build up cartilage constructs, i.e., self-supporting hydrogel bioprinting and hybrid bioprinting, along with their applications in fabricating chondral, osteochondral, and zonally organized cartilage regenerative constructs. Lastly, current limitations and future opportunities of EBB in printing cartilage regenerative constructs are reviewed.

  1. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Thermistor Based on Self-Healing Double Network Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Han, Songjia; Yang, Tengzhou; Li, Zhong; Wu, Zixuan; Gui, Xuchun; Tao, Kai; Miao, Jianmin; Norford, Leslie K; Liu, Chuan; Huo, Fengwei

    2018-06-06

    An ultrastretchable thermistor that combines intrinsic stretchability, thermal sensitivity, transparency, and self-healing capability is fabricated. It is found the polyacrylamide/carrageenan double network (DN) hydrogel is highly sensitive to temperature and therefore can be exploited as a novel channel material for a thermistor. This thermistor can be stretched from 0 to 330% strain with the sensitivity as high as 2.6%/°C at extreme 200% strain. Noticeably, the mechanical, electrical, and thermal sensing properties of the DN hydrogel can be self-healed, analogous to the self-healing capability of human skin. The large mechanical deformations, such as flexion and twist with large angles, do not affect the thermal sensitivity. Good flexibility enables the thermistor to be attached on nonplanar curvilinear surfaces for practical temperature detection. Remarkably, the thermal sensitivity can be improved by introducing mechanical strain, making the sensitivity programmable. This thermistor with tunable sensitivity is advantageous over traditional rigid thermistors that lack flexibility in adjusting their sensitivity. In addition to superior sensitivity and stretchability compared with traditional thermistors, this DN hydrogel-based thermistor provides additional advantages of good transparency and self-healing ability, enabling it to be potentially integrated in soft robots to grasp real world information for guiding their actions.

  2. Application of Extrusion-Based Hydrogel Bioprinting for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    You, Fu; Eames, B. Frank; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly developing technique that has made substantial progress in the fabrication of constructs for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) over the past decade. With this technique, cell-laden hydrogels or bio-inks have been extruded onto printing stages, layer-by-layer, to form three-dimensional (3D) constructs with varying sizes, shapes, and resolutions. This paper reviews the cell sources and hydrogels that can be used for bio-ink formulations in CTE application. Additionally, this paper discusses the important properties of bio-inks to be applied in the EBB technique, including biocompatibility, printability, as well as mechanical properties. The printability of a bio-ink is associated with the formation of first layer, ink rheological properties, and crosslinking mechanisms. Further, this paper discusses two bioprinting approaches to build up cartilage constructs, i.e., self-supporting hydrogel bioprinting and hybrid bioprinting, along with their applications in fabricating chondral, osteochondral, and zonally organized cartilage regenerative constructs. Lastly, current limitations and future opportunities of EBB in printing cartilage regenerative constructs are reviewed. PMID:28737701

  3. Thermosensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate-based hydrogel and its derivatives in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Supper, Stephanie; Anton, Nicolas; Seidel, Nina; Riemenschnitter, Marc; Curdy, Catherine; Vandamme, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Thermogelling chitosan (CS)/glycerophosphate (GP) solutions have been reported as a new type of parenteral in situ forming depot system. These free-flowing solutions at ambient temperature turn into semi-solid hydrogels after parenteral administration. Formulation parameters such as CS physico-chemical characteristics, CS/gelling agent ratio or pH of the system, were acknowledged as key parameters affecting the solution stability, the sol/gel transition behavior and/or the final hydrogel structure. We discuss also the use of the standard CS/GP thermogels for various biomedical applications, including drug delivery and tissue engineering. Furthermore, this manuscript reviews the different strategies implemented to improve the hydrogel characteristics such as combination with carrier particles, replacement of GP, addition of a second polymer and chemical modification of CS. The recent advances in the formulation of CS-based thermogelling systems already overcame several challenges faced by the standard CS/GP system. Dispersion of drug-loaded carrier particles into the thermogels allowed achieving prolonged release profiles for low molecular weight drugs; incorporation of an additional polymer enabled to strengthen the network, while the use of chemically modified CS led to enhanced pH sensitivity or biodegradability of the matrix.

  4. Ciprofloxacin-lidocaine-based hydrogel: development, characterization, and in vivo evaluation in a second-degree burn model.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, María Florencia; Breda, Susana Andrea; Soria, Elio Andrés; Tártara, Luis Ignacio; Manzo, Rubén Hilario; Olivera, María Eugenia

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this work was to develop an effective carbomer hydrogel to be used to treat second-degree burns that combined ciprofloxacin and lidocaine (CbCipLid hydrogel). Its antibiotic and anesthetic efficacy and the physical and chemical properties of the CbCipLid hydrogel (release rate and kinetics, rheology, appearance, and drug content) were evaluated both before and after a sterilization cycle and also after 6 months of storage. For the in vivo studies, second-degree burns were developed in a rat model. Animals were divided into three groups: CbCipLid hydrogel, silver sulfadiazine cream (reference), and carbomer hydrogel (as control). The treatments were applied daily for 21 days, and the healing was monitored by macroscopic observation and histologic evaluation. The anesthetic effect was evaluated through the corneal touch threshold in a rabbit eye model. The CbCipLid hydrogel obtained is transparent and allows the loading of ciprofloxacin above its solubility at a neutral pH, with a rheology which is convenient for topical administration. Its physical and chemical properties remained unchanged after sterilization and for at least six additional months. Both ciprofloxacin and lidocaine are reversibly released from the CbCipLid hydrogel with a kinetics fitting the Higuchi model. The presence of a biologic-like fluid increased the rate of drug delivery through an ionic exchange mechanism. Treatment with the CbCipLid hydrogel decreased the wound-healing period, compared with the reference, and was associated with a greater number of fibroblasts and a faster rate of epithelialization and dermis reconstruction. These differences were assigned to the moist environment provided by the hydrogel and also to the presence of a therapeutic concentration of ciprofloxacin. Moreover, CbCipLid hydrogel provides an immediate anesthetic effect, which is significantly more intense than that of the reference. Based on these results, it is believed that the Cb

  5. Effect of xanthan gum on lipid digestion and bioaccessibility of β-carotene-loaded rice starch-based filled hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinjae; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of xanthan gum on the lipid digestibility, rheological properties, and β-carotene bioaccessibility of rice starch-based filled hydrogels. β-Carotene was solubilized within lipid droplets of emulsion that were then entrapped within rice starch hydrogels fabricated with different concentrations of xanthan gum. At a low concentration of xanthan gum (<0.5wt%), the viscous characteristics of the filled starch hydrogels increased. Furthermore, these hydrogels had a slower rate of lipid digestion than the β-carotene-loaded emulsion. As the concentration of xanthan gum was increased (to 1.0wt% and 2.0wt%), the filled starch hydrogels became more elastic gel-like than those without xanthan gum, and also had the fastest rate and highest final extent of lipid digestion. The addition of xanthan gum to the filled starch hydrogel lowered the bioaccessibility of β-carotene to varying degrees, depending on the xanthan gum concentration. The results obtained from this study can be useful in designing gel-like food products fortified with lipophilic nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sterilization of silicone-based hydrogels for biomedical application using ozone gas: Comparison with conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Galante, Raquel; Ghisleni, Daniela; Paradiso, Patrizia; Alves, Vitor D; Pinto, Terezinha J A; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula

    2017-09-01

    Sterilization of hydrogels is challenging due to their often reported sensitivity to conventional methods involving heat or radiation. Although aseptic manufacturing is a possibility, terminal sterilization is safer in biological terms, leading to a higher overall efficiency, and thus should be used whenever it is possible. The main goal of this work was to study the applicability of an innovative ozone gas terminal sterilization method for silicone-based hydrogels and compare its efficacy and effects with those of traditional sterilization methods: steam heat and gamma irradiation. Ozone gas sterilization is a method with potential interest since it is reported as a low cost green method, does not leave toxic residues and can be applied to thermosensitive materials. A hydrogel intended for ophthalmological applications, based on tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl] propyl methacrylate, was prepared and extensively characterized before and after the sterilization procedures. Alterations regarding transparency, swelling, wettability, ionic permeability, friction coefficient, mechanical properties, topography and morphology and chemical composition were monitored. Efficacy of the ozonation was accessed by performing controlled contaminations and sterility tests. In vitro cytotoxicity testes were also performed. The results show that ozonation may be applied to sterilize the studied material. A treatment with 8 pulses allowed sterilizing the material with bioburdens≤10 3 CFU/mL, preserving all the studied properties within the required known values for contact lenses materials. However, a higher exposure (10 pulses) led to some degradation of the material and induced mild cytotoxicity. Steam heat sterilization led to an increase of swelling capacity and a decrease of the water contact angle. Regarding gamma irradiation, the increase of irradiation dose led to an increase of the friction coefficient. The higher dose (25kGy) originated surface degradation and affected the

  7. Combined Effects of Supersaturation Rates and Doses on the Kinetic-Solubility Profiles of Amorphous Solid Dispersions Based on Water-Insoluble Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Schver, Giovanna C R M; Lee, Ping I

    2018-05-07

    Under nonsink dissolution conditions, the kinetic-solubility profiles of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) based on soluble carriers typically exhibit so-called "spring-and-parachute" concentration-time behaviors. However, the kinetic-solubility profiles of ASDs based on insoluble carriers (including hydrogels) are known to show sustained supersaturation during nonsink dissolution through a matrix-regulated diffusion mechanism by which the supersaturation of the drug is built up gradually and sustained over an extended period without any dissolved polymers acting as crystallization inhibitors. Despite previous findings demonstrating the interplay between supersaturation rates and total doses on the kinetic-solubility profiles of soluble amorphous systems (including ASDs based on dissolution-regulated releases from soluble polymer carriers), the combined effects of supersaturation rates and doses on the kinetic-solubility profiles of ASDs based on diffusion-regulated releases from water-insoluble carriers have not been investigated previously. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine the impacts of total doses and supersaturation-generation rates on the resulting kinetic-solubility profiles of ASDs based on insoluble hydrogel carriers. We employed a previously established ASD-carrier system based on water-insoluble-cross-linked-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA)-hydrogel beads and two poorly water soluble model drugs: the weakly acidic indomethacin (IND) and the weakly basic posaconazole (PCZ). Our results show clearly for the first time that by using the smallest-particle-size fraction and a high dose (i.e., above the critical dose), it is indeed possible to significantly shorten the duration of sustained supersaturation in the kinetic-solubility profile of an ASD based on a water-insoluble hydrogel carrier, such that it resembles the spring-and-parachute dissolution profiles normally associated with ASDs based on soluble carriers. This generates

  8. Functional and in vitro gastric digestibility of the whey protein hydrogel loaded with nanostructured lipid carriers and gelled via citric acid-mediated crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Behnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Salami, Maryam

    2017-12-15

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with mean size of 347nm were fabricated and added into a heat-denatured whey protein solution. The subsequent crosslinking of proteins by citric acid or CaCl 2 resulted in the formation of cold-set hydrogels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proposed formation of more hydrogen bonds in gel due to NLC loading or citric acid-mediated gelation. It was also found based on FITR spectroscopy that citric acid crosslinking disordered whey proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed a non-porous and finely meshed microstructure for the crosslinked gels compared to non-crosslinked counterparts. Crosslinking also increased the firmness and water-holding capacity of gels. In pepsin-free fluid, a strong correlation existed between reduction in gel swellability and digestibility over periods up to 60min due to NLC loading and citric acid gelation. However, in peptic fluid, NLC loading and citric acid crosslinking brought about much higher decrease in digestibility than swellability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for iontohporesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Prasanta; Alam, Asif Ali; Arora, Neha; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Basak, Piyali

    2013-06-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. The iontophoresis deal with the systemic delivery of the bioactive agents (drug) by applying an electric current. It is basically an injection without the needle. The iontophoretic system requires a gel-based matrix to accommodate the bioactive agent. Hydrogels have been used by many investigators in controlled-release drug delivery systems because of their good tissue compatibility and easy manipulation of swelling level and, thereby, solute permeability. In this work we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We have cross linked polyvinyl alcohol chemically with Glutaraldehyde with different wt%. FTIR study reveals the chemical changes during cross linking. Swelling in water, is done to have an idea about drug loading and drug release from the membrane. After drug loading to the hydrogels, we have studied the drug release property of the hydrogels using salicylic acid as a model drug.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of lactose-based homopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenjing

    The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow

  11. Hyaluronic Acid/Collagen Hydrogel as an Alternative to Alginate for Long-Term Immunoprotected Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Stephen; Williams, Janette; Rawal, Sonia; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Alginate has long been the material of choice for immunoprotection of islets due to its low cost and ability to easily form microspheres. Unfortunately, this seaweed-derived material is notoriously prone to fibrotic overgrowth in vivo, resulting in premature graft failure. The purpose of this study was to test an alternative, hyaluronic acid (HA-COL), for in vitro function, viability, and allogeneic islet transplant outcomes in diabetic rats. In vitro studies indicated that the HA-COL gel had diffusion characteristics that would allow small molecules such as glucose and insulin to enter and exit the gel, whereas larger molecules (70 and 500 kDa dextrans) were impeded from diffusing past the gel edge in 24 h. Islets encapsulated in HA-COL hydrogel showed significantly improved in vitro viability over unencapsulated islets and retained their morphology and glucose sensitivity for 28 days. When unencapsulated allogeneic islet transplants were administered to the omentum of outbred rats, they initially were normoglycemic, but by 11 days returned to hyperglycemia. Immunohistological examination of the grafts and surrounding tissue indicated strong graft rejection. By comparison, when using the same outbred strain of rats, allogeneic transplantation of islets within the HA-COL gel reversed long-term diabetes and prevented graft rejection in all animals. Animals were sacrificed at 40, 52, 64, and 80 weeks for evaluation, and all were non-diabetic at sacrifice. Explanted grafts revealed viable islets in the transplant site as well as intact hydrogel, with little or no evidence of fibrotic overgrowth or cellular rejection. The results of these studies demonstrate great potential for HA-COL hydrogel as an alternative to sodium alginate for long-term immunoprotected islet transplantation.

  12. Host cell recruitment patterns by bone morphogenetic protein-2 releasing hyaluronic acid hydrogels in a mouse subcutaneous environment.

    PubMed

    Todeschi, Maria R; El Backly, Rania M; Varghese, Oommen P; Hilborn, Jöns; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to identify host cell recruitment patterns in a mouse model in response to rhBMP-2 releasing hyaluronic acid hydrogels and influence of added nano-hydroxyapatite particles on rhBMP-2 release and pattern of bone formation. Implanted gels were retrieved after implantation and cells were enzymatically dissociated for flow cytometric analysis. Percentages of macrophages, progenitor endothelial cells and putative mesenchymal stem cells were measured. Implants were evaluated for BMP-2 release by ELISA and by histology to monitor tissue formation. Hyaluronic acid+BMP-2 gels influenced the inflammatory response in the bone healing microenvironment. Host-derived putative mesenchymal stem cells were major contributors. Addition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles modified the release pattern of rhBMP-2, resulting in enhanced bone formation.

  13. Imaging cell picker: A morphology-based automated cell separation system on a photodegradable hydrogel culture platform.

    PubMed

    Shibuta, Mayu; Tamura, Masato; Kanie, Kei; Yanagisawa, Masumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Satoh, Taku; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Sugiura, Shinji; Kato, Ryuji

    2018-06-09

    Cellular morphology on and in a scaffold composed of extracellular matrix generally represents the cellular phenotype. Therefore, morphology-based cell separation should be interesting method that is applicable to cell separation without staining surface markers in contrast to conventional cell separation methods (e.g., fluorescence activated cell sorting and magnetic activated cell sorting). In our previous study, we have proposed a cloning technology using a photodegradable gelatin hydrogel to separate the individual cells on and in hydrogels. To further expand the applicability of this photodegradable hydrogel culture platform, we here report an image-based cell separation system imaging cell picker for the morphology-based cell separation on a photodegradable hydrogel. We have developed the platform which enables the automated workflow of image acquisition, image processing and morphology analysis, and collection of a target cells. We have shown the performance of the morphology-based cell separation through the optimization of the critical parameters that determine the system's performance, such as (i) culture conditions, (ii) imaging conditions, and (iii) the image analysis scheme, to actually clone the cells of interest. Furthermore, we demonstrated the morphology-based cloning performance of cancer cells in the mixture of cells by automated hydrogel degradation by light irradiation and pipetting. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Silver Nanoparticle-Containing Composite Hydrogel as Highly Efficient Dye Catalysts for Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Tifeng; Guo, Haiying; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Tang, Yongfu; Yan, Xuehai; Li, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    New reduced graphene oxide-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels were successfully prepared in situ through the simultaneous reduction of GO and noble metal precursors within the GO gel matrix. The as-formed hydrogels are composed of a network structure of cross-linked nanosheets. The reported method is based on the in situ co-reduction of GO and silver acetate within the hydrogel matrix to form RGO-based composite gel. The stabilization of silver nanoparticles was also achieved simultaneously within the gel composite system. The as-formed silver nanoparticles were found to be homogeneously and uniformly dispersed on the surface of the RGO nanosheets within the composite gel. More importantly, this RGO-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogel matrix acts as a potential catalyst for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. Interestingly, the as-prepared catalytic composite matrix structure can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment after the reaction, suggesting the potentially large-scale applications of the reduced graphene oxide-based nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment. PMID:26183266

  15. Development of gellan gum-based microparticles/hydrogel matrices for application in the intervertebral disc regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana Ribeiro; Silva-Correia, Joana; Caridade, Sofia Glória; Oliveira, Joao T; Sousa, Rui A; Salgado, Antonio J; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Mano, João F; Sousa, Nuno; Reis, Rui L

    2011-10-01

    Low back pain is one of the most reported medical conditions associated to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Nucleus pulposus (NP) is often regarded as the structure where IVD degeneration begins. Gellan gum (GG)-based hydrogels for acellular and cellular tissue engineering strategies have been developed for finding applications as NP substitutes. The innovative strategy is based on the reinforcement of the hydrogel matrix with biocompatible and biodegradable GG microparticles (MPs), which are expected to improve the mechanical properties, while allowing to tailor its degradation rate. In this study, several GG MP/hydrogel disc formulations were prepared by means of mixing high acyl GG (0.75% (w/v)) and low acyl GG (2% (w/v)) GG aqueous solutions at different ratios, namely, 75%:25% (v/v), 50%:50% (v/v), and 25%:75% (v/v), respectively. The GG MP size was measured using a stereo microscope, and their dispersion within the hydrogel matrix was evaluated by means of staining the MPs with Toluidine Blue-O. The developed GG MPs/hydrogel discs were physicochemically characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The swelling behavior and degradation rate were assessed by immersion in a phosphate buffer saline for 14 days. The morphology and mechanical behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The mechanical properties of the hydrogel disc were improved by mixing the gels with the MPs. In addition, the possible cytotoxicity of the leachables released by MPs/hydrogel discs was screened in vitro, using a mouse lung fibroblast cell line (L929 cells). To investigate the encapsulation efficacy of L929 cells into the GG MPs/hydrogel discs, cells were stained with DAPI blue/Texas Red-Phalloidin and observed by confocal microscopy, after 24, 48, and 72 h of culturing. A cell viability assay was also performed using Calcein AM staining. The cell culture

  16. Introduction to cell–hydrogel mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Ahearne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The development of hydrogel-based biomaterials represents a promising approach to generating new strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In order to develop more sophisticated cell-seeded hydrogel constructs, it is important to understand how cells mechanically interact with hydrogels. In this paper, we review the mechanisms by which cells remodel hydrogels, the influence that the hydrogel mechanical and structural properties have on cell behaviour and the role of mechanical stimulation in cell-seeded hydrogels. Cell-mediated remodelling of hydrogels is directed by several cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, contraction, degradation and extracellular matrix deposition. Variations in hydrogel stiffness, density, composition, orientation and viscoelastic characteristics all affect cell activity and phenotype. The application of mechanical force on cells encapsulated in hydrogels can also instigate changes in cell behaviour. By improving our understanding of cell–material mechano-interactions in hydrogels, this should enable a new generation of regenerative medical therapies to be developed. PMID:24748951

  17. Reinforcing the inner phase of the filled hydrogels with CNTs alters drug release properties and human keratinocyte morphology: A study on the gelatin- tamarind gum filled hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Vivek; Gaur, Deepanjali; Nayak, Suraj K; Singh, Vinay K; Chakraborty, Subhabrata; Banerjee, Indranil; Ray, Sirsendu S; Anis, Arfat; Pal, Kunal

    2017-11-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of gelatin-tamarind gum (TG) based filled hydrogels for drug delivery applications. In this study, three different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated within the dispersed TG phase of the filled hydrogels. The prepared hydrogels were thoroughly characterised using bright field microscope, FESEM, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, and mechanical tester. The swelling and the drug (salicylic acid) release properties of the filled hydrogels were also evaluated. The micrographs revealed the formation of biphasic systems. The internal phase appeared as agglomerates, and the CNTs were confined within the dispersed TG phase. FTIR and XRD studies revealed that CNTs promoted associative interactions among the components of the hydrogel, which promoted the formation of large crystallite size. The mechanical study indicated better resistance to the breakdown of the architecture of the CNT-containing filled hydrogels. Drug release studies, both passive and iontophoretic, suggested that the non-Fickian diffusion of the drug was prevalent during its release from hydrogel matrices. The prepared hydrogels were cytocompatible with human keratinocytes. The results suggested the probable use of such hydrogels in wound healing, tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and Characterization of Micro-Porous Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels for in vitro Gene Transfer to mMSCs

    PubMed Central

    Tokatlian, Talar; Cam, Cynthia; Siegman, Shayne N.; Lei, Yuguo; Segura, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    The effective and sustained delivery of DNA locally would increase the applicability of gene therapy in tissue regeneration and therapeutic angiogenesis. One promising approach is to use porous hydrogel scaffolds to encapsulate and deliver nucleotides in the form of nanoparticles to the affected sites. We have designed and characterized micro-porous (µ-pore) hyaluronic acid hydrogels which allow for effective cell seeding in vitro post scaffold fabrication and allow for cell spreading and proliferation without requiring high levels of degradation. These factors, coupled with high loading efficiency of DNA polyplexes using a previously developed caged nanoparticle encapsulation (CnE) technique, then allowed for long-term sustained transfection and transgene expression of incorporated mMSCs. In this study, we examined the effect of pore size on gene transfer efficiency and the kinetics of transgene expression. For all investigated pore sizes (30, 60, and 100 µm), encapsulated DNA polyplexes were released steadily starting by day 4 for up to 10 days. Likewise, transgene expression was sustained over this period, although significant differences between different pore sizes were not observed. Cell viability was also shown to remain high over time, even in the presence of high concentrations of DNA polyplexes. The knowledge acquired through this in vitro model can be utilized to design and better predict scaffold-mediated gene delivery for local gene therapy in an in vivo model where host cells infiltrate the scaffold over time. PMID:22820309

  19. Modulating release of ranibizumab and aflibercept from thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels for potential treatment of ocular neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Miguel; Pow, Poh Yih; Tabitha, Tan Su Teng; Nirmal, Sonali; Larsson, Andreas; Radhakrishnan, Krishna; Nirmal, Jayabalan; Quah, Soo Tng; Geifman Shochat, Susana; Agrawal, Rupesh; Venkatraman, Subbu

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels with varying degrees of crosslinking that has been utilized to modulate release kinetics of two clinically relevant FDA-approved anti-VEGF protein drugs, ranibizumab and aflibercept. These hydrogels have been fabricated into disc shaped structures for potential use as patches on ocular surface. Protein conformational changes and aggregation after loading and release was evaluated by circular dichroism (CD), steady-state tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Finally, the capacity of both released proteins to bind to VEGF was tested by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. The study demonstrates the versatility of thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels for delivering proteins. The effect of various parameters of the hydrogel on protein release kinetics and mechanism of protein release was studied using the Korsmeyer-Peppas release model. Furthermore, we have studied the stability of released proteins in detail while comparing it with non-entrapped proteins under physiological conditions to understand the effect of formulation conditions on protein stability. The disc-shaped thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels provide a potentially useful platform to deliver ranibizumab and aflibercept for the treatments of ocular diseases such as wet AMD, DME and corneal neovascularization.

  20. Influence of clay particles on microfluidic-based preparation of hydrogel composite microsphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Joung Sook

    2016-05-01

    For the successful fabrication of a hydrogel composite microsphere, this study aimed to investigate the influence of clay particles on microsphere formation in a microfluidic device which has flow focusing and a 4.5:1 contraction channel. A poly alginic acid solution (2.0 wt.%) with clay particles was used as the dispersed phase to generate drops in an oil medium, which then merged with drops of a CaCl2 solution for gelation. Drop generations were observed with different flow rates and particles types. When the flow rate increased, drop generation was enhanced and drop size decreased by the build-up of more favorable hydrodynamic flow conditions to detach the droplets. The addition of a small amount of particles insignificantly changed the drop generation behavior even though it reduced interfacial tension and increased the viscosity of the solution. Instead, clays particles significantly affected hydro-gelation depending on the hydrophobicity of particles, which produced further heterogeneity in the shape and size of microsphere.

  1. Nanocomposites based on pH-sensitive hydrogels and chitosan decorated carbon nanotubes with antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Bellingeri, Romina; Mulko, Lucinda; Molina, Maria; Picco, Natalia; Alustiza, Fabrisio; Grosso, Carolina; Vivas, Adriana; Acevedo, Diego F; Barbero, Cesar A

    2018-09-01

    The present work aimed to study the properties of a novel nanocomposite with promising biomedical applications. Nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of different concentrations of chitosan decorated carbon nanotubes to acrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogels. The nanocomposites chemical structure was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The FT-IR shows the typical bands due to the hydrogel and additionally the peaks at 1750 cm -1 and 1450 cm -1 that correspond to the carbon nanotubes incorporated into the polymer matrix. Mechanical properties and swelling measurements in different buffer solutions were also performed. The nanocomposites showed improved mechanical properties and a stronger pH-response. In order to evaluate antimicrobial activity, the growth and adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to nanocomposites were studied. Cytocompatibility was also evaluated by MTT assay on MDCK and 3T3 cell lines. The nanocomposites were found to be cytocompatible and showed a reduced bacterial colonization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biocompatible hydrogel membranes for the protection of RNA aptamer-based electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R.; Wagan, Samiullah; Liu, Juan; Leach, Jennie B.; White, Ryan J.

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical-aptamer based (E-AB) sensors represent a universal specific, selective, and sensitive sensing platform for the detection of small molecule targets. Their specific detection abilities are afforded by oligonucleotide (RNA or DNA) aptamers employed as electrode-bound biorecognition elements. Sensor signaling is predicated on bindinginduced changes in conformation and/or flexibility of the aptamer that is readily measurable electrochemically. While sensors fabricated using DNA aptamers can achieve specific and selective detection even in unadulterated sample matrices, such as blood serum, RNA-based sensors fail when challenged in the same sample matrix without significant sample pretreatment. This failure is at least partially a result of enzymatic degradation of the RNA sensing element. This degradation destroys the sensing aptamer inhibiting the quantitative measurement of the target analyte and thus limits the application of E-AB sensors constructed with RNA aptamer. To circumvent this, we demonstrate that a biocompatible hydrogel membrane protects the RNA aptamer sensor surface from enzymatic degradation for at least 3 hours - a remarkable improvement over the rapid (~minutes) degradation of unprotected sensors. To demonstrate this, we characterize the response of sensors fabricated with representative DNA and RNA aptamers directed against the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin in blood serum both protected and unprotected by a polyacrylamide membrane. Furthermore, we find encapsulation of the sensor surface with the hydrogel does not significantly impede the detection ability of aptamer-based sensors. This hydrogel-aptamer interface will thus likely prove useful for the long-term monitoring of therapeutics in complex biological media.

  3. Controlled release of ascorbic acid from gelatin hydrogel attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in rat experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm model.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Morimoto, Keisuke; Bao, Wulan; Yu, Jie; Okita, Yutaka; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Okada, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. We investigated the hypothesis that the known antioxidant ascorbic acid, which can also promote elastin and collagen production by smooth muscle cells, would prevent AAA formation in a rat model. An intraluminal elastase and extraluminal calcium chloride-induced rat AAA model was used, and the animals were divided into three groups: control (group C, n = 18), the aorta wrapped with a saline-impregnated gelatin hydrogel sheet (group G, n = 18), and the aorta wrapped with a gelatin hydrogel sheet incorporating ascorbic acid (group A, n = 18). Wrapping of the sheet was completed at the end of treatment for AAA creation. The aortic dilatation ratio was measured, and aortic tissues were further examined for oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage using biochemical and histologic techniques. Aortic dilatation at both 4 and 8 weeks was inhibited in group A (dilatation ratio [%] at 4 weeks: 186.2 ± 21.8 in group C, 152.3 ± 10.2 in group G, 126.8 ± 11.6 in group A; P < .0001; dilatation ratio [%] at 8 weeks: 219.3 ± 37.5 in group C, 194.0 ± 11.6 in group G, 145.7 ± 8.3 in group A; P = .0002). Elastin and collagen content were significantly preserved in group A (elastin, P = .0015; collagen, P < .0001). The messenger RNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-1β, and tissue necrosis factor-α (P = .0024, P < .0001, P < .0001, and P < .0001, respectively) were downregulated in group A (P = .0024), whereas tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were both upregulated in group A (TIMP-1, P = .0014; TIMP-2, P < .0001). Gelatin zymography showed activities of pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly suppressed in group C (P < .0001 for each). Reactive oxygen species expression and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and cluster of differentiation 68 staining were significantly suppressed in group A (reactive

  4. Toward a versatile toolbox for cucurbit[n]uril-based supramolecular hydrogel networks through in situ polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Soo Yun Tan, Cindy; Lan, Yang; Scherman, Oren A

    2017-09-15

    The success of exploiting cucurbit[ n ]uril (CB[ n ])-based molecular recognition in self-assembled systems has sparked a tremendous interest in polymer and materials chemistry. In this study, polymerization in the presence of host-guest complexes is applied as a modular synthetic approach toward a diverse set of CB[8]-based supramolecular hydrogels with desirable properties, such as mechanical strength, toughness, energy dissipation, self-healing, and shear-thinning. A range of vinyl monomers, including acrylamide-, acrylate-, and imidazolium-based hydrophilic monomers, could be easily incorporated as the polymer backbones, leading to a library of CB[8] hydrogel networks. This versatile strategy explores new horizons for the construction of supramolecular hydrogel networks and materials with emergent properties in wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors, and structural biomaterials. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2017 , 55 , 3105-3109.

  5. Hydrogels based on polysaccharide-calcium phosphate with antibacterial / antitumor activity for 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teterina, A. Yu; Fedotov, A. Yu; Zobkov, Yu V.; Sergeeva, N. S.; Sviridova, I. K.; Kirsanova, V. A.; Karalkin, P. A.; Komlev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop hydrogels for 3D printing of sodium alginate/gelatin/octacalcium phosphate-based constructs with antibacterial and antitumor activity intended for bone defects replacement in patients with malignant diseases. In this work, we evaluated the drug release kinetic and physico-chemical characteristics of constructs, as well as their specific activity, biocompatibility and osteoplastic properties by means of in vitro and in vivo tests. The principal possibility of creating the biocompatible bone substitutes with antibacterial/antitumor activity and osteoconductive-retaining properties of 3D printing method was demonstrated.

  6. The effects of cross-linked thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-based hydrogel injection on retinal function.

    PubMed

    Turturro, Sanja B; Guthrie, Micah J; Appel, Alyssa A; Drapala, Pawel W; Brey, Eric M; Pérez-Luna, Victor H; Mieler, William F; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J

    2011-05-01

    There is significant interest in biomaterials that provide sustained release of therapeutic molecules to the retina. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based materials have received significant attention as injectable drug delivery platforms due to PNIPAAm's thermo-responsive properties at approximately 32 °C. While the drug delivery properties of PNIPAAm materials have been studied extensively, there is a need to evaluate the safety effects of hydrogel injection on retinal function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) crosslinked PNIPAAm hydrogel injection on retinal function. Utilizing scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), optical coherent tomography (OCT), and electroretinography (ERG), retinal function was assessed following hydrogel injection. In region near the hydrogel, there was a significant decrease in arterial and venous diameters (∼4%) and an increase in venous blood velocity (∼8%) 1 week post-injection. Retinal thickness decreased (∼6%) at 1 week and the maximum a- and b-wave amplitudes of ERG decreased (∼15%). All data returned to baseline values after week 1. These data suggest that the injection of PEG-DA crosslinked PNIPAAm hydrogel results in a small transient effect on retinal function without any long-term effects. These results further support the potential of PNIPAAm-based materials as an ocular drug delivery platform. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfluidic hydrogels for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo You; Zhou, Li Hong; Zhang, Qian Cheng; Chen, Yong Mei; Sun, Wei; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2011-03-01

    With advanced properties similar to the native extracellular matrix, hydrogels have found widespread applications in tissue engineering. Hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been successfully developed to engineer different tissues such as skin, cartilage and bladder. Whilst significant advances have been made, it is still challenging to fabricate large and complex functional tissues due mainly to the limited diffusion capability of hydrogels. The integration of microfluidic networks and hydrogels can greatly enhance mass transport in hydrogels and spatiotemporally control the chemical microenvironment of cells, mimicking the function of native microvessels. In this review, we present and discuss recent advances in the fabrication of microfluidic hydrogels from the viewpoint of tissue engineering. Further development of new hydrogels and microengineering technologies will have a great impact on tissue engineering.

  8. Hydrogel-based ultra-moisturizing cream formulation for skin hydration and enhanced dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Gon; Kim, Sung Rae; Cho, Hye In; Kang, Mean Hyung; Yeom, Dong Woo; Lee, Seo Hyun; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2014-01-01

    To develop an external vehicle for skin hydration and enhanced dermal drug delivery, a hydrogel-based ultra-moisturizing cream (HUMC) was successfully formulated with carbopol 934P, urea, Tinocare GL, grape seed oil, and other excipients. The HUMC showed plastic flow behavior due to a gel structure with a cream base. Different types of drug-free vehicles such as a hydrogel, conventional cream (CC), and three HUMCs were prepared and subjected to an in vivo skin hydration test on a hairless mouse using a corneometer. Hydration effect (∆AU) was in the order of HUMC2>HUMC1 ≥ CC>HUMC3>hydrogel. Using nile red (NR) and 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) as lipophilic and hydrophilic fluorescent probes, respectively, in vitro skin permeation and accumulation studies were conducted using Franz diffusion cells. The values of steady-state flux (Jss, ng/h/cm(2)) were obtained: 74.8 (CC), 145.6 (HUMC1), and 161.9 (HUMC2) for NR delivery; 6.8 (CC), 8.3 (HUMC1), and 10.9 (HUMC2) for 5-CF delivery. The amounts retained in the skin at 12 h (Qr, ng/cm(2)) were determined: 86.4 (CC) and 102.0 (HUMC2) for NR; and 70.1 (CC) and 195.6 (HUMC2) for 5-CF. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent probes. NR tended to be localized into the deeper part of the skin with adipose tissue whereas 5-CF localized in the upper layer of the skin. Thus we propose that HUMC2 is an efficacious vehicle for skin hydration and enhances dermal delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs.

  9. Glucose-Responsive Trehalose Hydrogel for Insulin Stabilization and Delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juneyoung; Ko, Jeong Hoon; Mansfield, Kathryn M; Nauka, Peter C; Bat, Erhan; Maynard, Heather D

    2018-05-01

    Effective delivery of therapeutic proteins is important for many biomedical applications. Yet, the stabilization of proteins during delivery and long-term storage remains a significant challenge. Herein, a trehalose-based hydrogel is reported that stabilizes insulin to elevated temperatures prior to glucose-triggered release. The hydrogel is synthesized using a polymer with trehalose side chains and a phenylboronic acid end-functionalized 8-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The hydroxyls of the trehalose side chains form boronate ester linkages with the PEG boronic acid cross-linker to yield hydrogels without any further modification of the original trehalose polymer. Dissolution of the hydrogel is triggered upon addition of glucose as a stronger binder to boronic acid (K b = 2.57 vs 0.48 m -1 for trehalose), allowing the insulin that is entrapped during gelation to be released in a glucose-responsive manner. Moreover, the trehalose hydrogel stabilizes the insulin as determined by immunobinding after heating up to 90 °C. After 30 min heating, 74% of insulin is detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the presence of the trehalose hydrogel, whereas only 2% is detected without any additives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Hydrogel-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Matthew; Betts, David; Suh, Amy; Bui, Kathryn; Kim, London Doyoung; Cho, Hyunah

    2015-11-13

    Hydrogels are three-dimensional materials that can withstand a great amount of water incorporation while maintaining integrity. This allows hydrogels to be very unique biomedical materials, especially for drug delivery. Much effort has been made to incorporate hydrophilic molecules in hydrogels in the field of drug delivery, while loading of hydrophobic drugs has not been vastly studied. However, in recent years, research has also been conducted on incorporating hydrophobic molecules within hydrogel matrices for achieving a steady release of drugs to treat various ailments. Here, we summarize the types of hydrogels used as drug delivery vehicles, various methods to incorporate hydrophobic molecules in hydrogel matrices, and the potential therapeutic applications of hydrogels in cancer.

  11. Weak Bond-Based Injectable and Stimuli Responsive Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaochu; Wang, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    Here we define hydrogels crosslinked by weak bonds as physical hydrogels. They possess unique features including reversible bonding, shear thinning and stimuli-responsiveness. Unlike covalently crosslinked hydrogels, physical hydrogels do not require triggers to initiate chemical reactions for in situ gelation. The drug can be fully loaded in a pre-formed hydrogel for delivery with minimal cargo leakage during injection. These benefits make physical hydrogels useful as delivery vehicles for applications in biomedical engineering. This review focuses on recent advances of physical hydrogels crosslinked by weak bonds: hydrogen bonds, ionic interactions, host-guest chemistry, hydrophobic interactions, coordination bonds and π-π stacking interactions. Understanding the principles and the state of the art of gels with these dynamic bonds may give rise to breakthroughs in many biomedical research areas including drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:29062484

  12. Characterization of superabsorbent hydrogel based on epichlorohydrin crosslink and carboxymethyl functionalization of cassava starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muharam, S.; Yuningsih, L. M.; Sumitra, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogel was prepared by epichlorohydrin crosslink of cassava starch. Their swelling improved with added carboxymethyl group on the starch-epichlorohydrin structure. The structure and properties of starch-epichlorohydrin-carboxymethyl hydrogel were measured by SEM, FTIR, water and physiological solution absorption test and water retention test. The result showed that hydrogel displayed macroporous with heterogenous distribution and irregular surface was formed by epichlorohydrin and carboxymethyl bond in the structure of hydrogel. It was confirmed also by the FTIR spectra. The swelling ratio of starch-epichlorohydrin hydrogel to the water is 518 % and increased to 1,028.5 % with carboxymethyl addition on the structure. The best influence of the physiological solution to the swelling ratio of starch-epichlorohydrin-carboxymethyl hydrogel is urea solution. The water retention of starch-epichlorohydrin-carboxymethyl hydrogel in NaCl solution is better than in CaCl2 solution.

  13. Glucose-responsive hydrogel electrode for biocompatible glucose transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor using a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET) with a functionalized hydrogel. The principle of the FET device contributes to the easy detection of ionic charges with high sensitivity, and the hydrogel coated on the electrode enables the specific detection of glucose with biocompatibility. The copolymerized hydrogel on the Au gate electrode of the FET device is optimized by controlling the mixture ratio of biocompatible 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as the main monomer and vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as a glucose-responsive monomer. The gate surface potential of the hydrogel FETs shifts in the negative direction with increasing glucose concentration from 10 μM to 40 mM, which results from the increase in the negative charges on the basis of the diol-binding of PBA derivatives with glucose molecules in the hydrogel. Moreover, the hydrogel coated on the gate suppresses the signal noise caused by the nonspecific adsorption of proteins such as albumin. The hydrogel FET can serve as a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor in in vivo or ex vivo applications such as eye contact lenses and sheets adhering to the skin.

  14. Formation of hydrogels based on chitosan/alginate for the delivery of lysozyme and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tiantian; Huang, Jiaqi; Jiang, Yangyang; Hu, Yaqin; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu

    2018-02-01

    Novel hydrogels based on chitosan/sodium alginate (CS-ALG) were prepared to deliver and protect lysozyme while eliminating food-borne microorganisms. These hydrogels were characterized according to the zeta potential, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results demonstrated that the resultant hydrogels were negatively charged and spherical in shape. In addition, the maximum swelling ratio was 45.66±7.62 for CS-ALG hydrogels loaded with lysozyme. The relative activity of the released lysozyme was 87.72±3.96%, indicating that CS-ALG hydrogels are promising matrices for enzyme loading and adsorption. Furthermore, a 100% bacterial clearance rate of CS/ALG loaded with lysozyme was observed to correspond to the superposition effect stimulated by CS and lysozyme, which improved the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus compared to CS/ALG, suggesting its potential use in the food industry as well as other applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strong and Robust Polyaniline-Based Supramolecular Hydrogels for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanwan; Gao, Fengxian; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Mingming

    2016-08-01

    We report a supramolecular strategy to prepare conductive hydrogels with outstanding mechanical and electrochemical properties, which are utilized for flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) with high performance. The supramolecular assembly of polyaniline and polyvinyl alcohol through dynamic boronate bond yields the polyaniline-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PPH), which shows remarkable tensile strength (5.3 MPa) and electrochemical capacitance (928 F g(-1) ). The flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on PPH provides a large capacitance (306 mF cm(-2) and 153 F g(-1) ) and a high energy density of 13.6 Wh kg(-1) , superior to other flexible supercapacitors. The robustness of the PPH-based supercapacitor is demonstrated by the 100 % capacitance retention after 1000 mechanical folding cycles, and the 90 % capacitance retention after 1000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The high activity and robustness enable the PPH-based supercapacitor as a promising power device for flexible electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Influence of Stabilized Deconjugated Ursodeoxycholic Acid on Polymer-Hydrogel System of Transplantable NIT-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Mooranian, Armin; Negrulj, Rebecca; Al-Salami, Hani

    2016-05-01

    The encapsulation of pancreatic β-cells in biocompatible matrix has generated great interest in diabetes treatment. Our work has shown improved microcapsules when incorporating the bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), in terms of morphology and cell viability although cell survival remained low. Thus, the study aimed at incorporating the polyelectrolytes polyallylamine (PAA) and poly-l-ornithine (PLO), with the polymer sodium alginate (SA) and the hydrogel ultrasonic gel (USG) with UDCA and examined cell viability and functionality post microencapsulation. Microcapsules without (control) and with UDCA (test) were produced using 1% PLO, 2.5% PAA, 1.8% SA and 4.5% USG. Pancreatic β-cells were microencapsulated and the microcapsules' morphology, surface components, cellular and bile acid distribution, osmotic and mechanical stability as well as biocompatibilities, insulin production, bioenergetics and the inflammatory response were tested. Incorporation of UDCA at 4% into a PLO-PAA-SA formulation system increased cell survival (p < 0.01), insulin production (p < 0.01), reduced the inflammatory profile (TNF-α, IFN-ϒ, IL-6 and IL-1β; p < 0.01) and improved the microcapsule physical and mechanical strength (p < 0.01). β-cell microencapsulation using 1% PLO, 2.5% PAA, 1.8% SA, 4.5% USG and the bile acid UDCA (4%) has good potential in cell transplantation and diabetes treatment.

  17. Direct laser writing of synthetic poly(amino acid) hydrogels and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates by two-photon polymerization.

    PubMed

    Käpylä, Elli; Sedlačík, Tomáš; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Viitanen, Jouko; Rypáček, František; Kellomäki, Minna

    2014-10-01

    The additive manufacturing technique of direct laser writing by two-photon polymerization (2PP-DLW) enables the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures with superior accuracy and flexibility. When combined with biomimetic hydrogel materials, 2PP-DLW can be used to recreate the microarchitectures of the extracellular matrix. However, there are currently only a limited number of hydrogels applicable for 2PP-DLW. In order to widen the selection of synthetic biodegradable hydrogels, in this work we studied the 2PP-DLW of methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(α-amino acid)s (poly(AA)s). The performance of these materials was compared to widely used poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEGdas) in terms of polymerization and damage thresholds, voxel size, line width, post-polymerization swelling and deformation. We found that both methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(AA) hydrogels are suitable to 2PP-DLW with a wider processing window than PEGdas. The poly(AA) with the highest degree of acryloylation showed the greatest potential for 3D microfabrication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of linear low-density polyethylene-g-poly (acrylic acid)-co-starch/organo-montmorillonite hydrogel composite as an adsorbent for removal of Pb(ΙΙ) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Irani, Maryam; Ismail, Hanafi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Fan, Maohong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to remove Pb(II) from the aqueous solution using a type of hydrogel composite. A hydrogel composite consisting of waste linear low density polyethylene, acrylic acid, starch, and organo-montmorillonite was prepared through emulsion polymerization method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Solid carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CNMR)), silicon(-29) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Si NMR)), and X-ray diffraction spectroscope ((XRD) were applied to characterize the hydrogel composite. The hydrogel composite was then employed as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from the aqueous solution. The Pb(II)-loaded hydrogel composite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ((XPS)). From XPS results, it was found that the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of the hydrogel composite participated in the removal of Pb(II). Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) followed the pseudo-second-order equation. It was also found that the Langmuir model described the adsorption isotherm better than the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum removal capacity of the hydrogel composite for Pb(II) ions was 430mg/g. Thus, the waste linear low-density polyethylene-g-poly (acrylic acid)-co-starch/organo-montmorillonite hydrogel composite could be a promising Pb(II) adsorbent. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Ionic Hydrogel Based on Chitosan Cross-Linked with 6-Phosphogluconic Trisodium Salt as a Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Mayte; Rodríguez-Berna, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Hernández, Ma Jesús; Corma, Avelino; Bermejo, Marival; Merino, Virginia; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta

    2018-04-09

    In this work, 6-phosphogluconic trisodium salt (6-PG - Na + ) is introduced as a new aqueous and nontoxic cross-linking agent to obtain ionic hydrogels. Here, it is shown the formation of hydrogels based on chitosan cross-linked with 6-PG - Na + . This formulation is obtained by ionic interaction of cationic groups of polymer with anionic groups of the cross-linker. These hydrogels are nontoxic, do not cause dermal irritation, are easy to extend, and have an adequate adhesion force to be applied as polymeric film over the skin. This formulation exhibits a first order release kinetic and can be applied as drug vehicle for topical administration or as wound dressing for wound healing. The primary goal of this communication is to report the identification and utility of 6-phosphogluconic trisodium salt (6-PG - Na + ) as a nontoxic cross-linker applicable for cationic polymers.

  20. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel-based shape-adjustable polyimide films triggered by near-human-body temperature.

    PubMed

    Huanqing Cui; Xuemin Du; Juan Wang; Tianhong Tang; Tianzhun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogel-based shape-adjustable films were successfully fabricated via grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) onto one side of polyimide (PI) films. The prepared PI-g-PNIPAM films exhibited rapid, reversible, and repeatable bending/unbending property by heating to near-human-body temperature (37 °C) or cooling to 25 °C. The excellent property of PI-g-PNIPAM films resulted from a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM at about 32 °C. Varying the thickness of PNIPAM hydrogel layer regulated the thermo-responsive shape bending degree and response speed of PI-g-PNIPAM films. The thermo-induced shrinkage of hydrogel layers can tune the curvature of PI films, which have potential applications in the field of wearable and implantable devices.

  1. Development and evaluation of nanostructured lipid carrier-based hydrogel for topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Rajinikanth, Paruvathanahalli Siddalingam; Chellian, Jestin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)-based hydrogel and study its potential for the topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Precirol® ATO 5 (glyceryl palmitostearate) and Labrasol® were selected as the solid and liquid lipid phases, respectively. Poloxamer 188 and Solutol® HS15 (polyoxyl-15-hydroxystearate) were selected as surfactants. The developed lipid formulations were dispersed in 1% Carbopol® 934 (poly[acrylic acid]) gel medium in order to maintain the topical application consistency. The average size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index for the 5-FU-NLC were found to be 208.32±8.21 nm, −21.82±0.40 mV, and 0.352±0.060, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that 5-FU-NLC was <200 nm in size, with a spherical shape. In vitro drug permeation studies showed a release pattern with initial burst followed by sustained release, and the rate of 5-FU permeation was significantly improved for 5-FU-NLC gel (10.27±1.82 μg/cm2/h) as compared with plain 5-FU gel (2.85±1.12 μg/cm2/h). Further, skin retention studies showed a significant retention of 5-FU from the NLC gel (91.256±4.56 μg/cm2) as compared with that from the 5-FU plain gel (12.23±3.86 μg/cm2) in the rat skin. Skin irritation was also significantly reduced with 5-FU-NLC gel as compared with 5-FU plain gel. These results show that the prepared 5-FU-loaded NLC has high potential to improve the penetration of 5-FU through the stratum corneum, with enormous retention and with minimal skin irritation, which is the prerequisite for topically applied formulations. PMID:27785014

  2. Self-cleaned electrochemical protein imprinting biosensor basing on a thermo-responsive memory hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yubo; Zeng, Qiang; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Min; Tao, Jia; Wang, Lishi

    2018-01-15

    Herein, the self-cleaned electrochemical protein imprinting biosensor basing on a thermo-responsive memory hydrogel was constructed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a free radical polymerization method. Combining the advantages of thermo-responsive molecular imprinted polymers and electrochemistry, the resulted biosensor presents a novel self-cleaned ability for bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous media. As a temperature controlled gate, the hydrogel film undergoes the adsorption and desorption of BSA basing on a reversible structure change with the external temperature stimuli. In particular, these processes have been revealed by the response of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of electroactive [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- . The results have been supported by the evidences of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angles measurements. Under the optimal conditions, a wide detection range from 0.02μmolL -1 to 10μmolL -1 with a detection limit of 0.012 μmolL -1 (S/N = 3) was obtained for BSA. This proposed BSA sensor also possesses high selectivity, excellent stability, acceptable recovery and good reproducibility in its practical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Aptamer-based hydrogel barcodes for the capture and detection of multiple types of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yueshuang; Wang, Huan; Luan, Chengxin; Liu, Yuxiao; Chen, Baoan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2018-02-15

    Rapid and sensitive diagnosing hematological infections based on the separation and detection of pathogenic bacteria in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. To address this, we herein present a new barcodes technology that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of pathogenic bacteria from a complex sample. The barcodes are poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel inverse opal particles with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during bacteria capture on their surfaces. As the spherical surface of the particles has ordered porous nanostructure, the barcodes can provide not only more surface area for probe immobilization and reaction, but also a nanopatterned platform for highly efficient bioreactions. In addition, the PEG hydrogel scaffold could decrease the non-specificity adsorption by its anti-adhesive effect, and the decorated aptamer probes in the scaffolds could increase the sensitivity, reliability, and specificity of the bacteria capture and detection. Moreover, the tagged magnetic nanoparticles in the PEG scaffold could impart the barcodes with controllable movement under magnetic fields, which can be used to significantly increase the reaction speed and simplify the processing of the bioassays. Based on the describe barcodes, it was demonstrated that the bacteria could be captured and identified even at low bacterial concentrations (100 CFU mL -1 ) within 2.5h, which is effectively shortened in comparison with the "gold standard" in clinic. These features make the barcodes ideal for capturing and detecting multiple bacteria from clinical samples for hematological infection diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Raman-based imaging uncovers the effects of alginate hydrogel implants in spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Roberta; Tamosaityte, Sandra; Koch, Maria; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Later, Robert; Uckermann, Ortrud; Beiermeister, Rudolf; Gelinsky, Michael; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of spinal cord injury by using implants that provide a permissive environment for axonal growth is in the focus of the research for regenerative therapies. Here, Raman-based label-free techniques were applied for the characterization of morphochemical properties of surgically induced spinal cord injury in the rat that received an implant of soft unfunctionalized alginate hydrogel. Raman microspectroscopy followed by chemometrics allowed mapping the different degenerative areas, while multimodal multiphoton microscopy (e.g. the combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), endogenous two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation on the same platform) enabled to address the morphochemistry of the tissue at cellular level. The regions of injury, characterized by demyelination and scarring, were retrieved and the distribution of key tissue components was evaluated by Raman mapping. The alginate hydrogel was detected in the lesion up to six months after implantation and had positive effects on the nervous tissue. For instance, multimodal multiphoton microscopy complemented the results of Raman mapping, providing the micromorphology of lipid-rich tissue structures by CARS and enabling to discern lipid-rich regions that contained myelinated axons from degenerative regions characterized by myelin fragmentation and presence of foam cells. These findings demonstrate that Raman-based imaging methods provide useful information for the evaluation of alginate implant effects and have therefore the potential to contribute to new strategies for monitoring degenerative and regenerative processes induced in SCI, thereby improving the effectiveness of therapies.

  5. Water-in-Water Emulsion Based Synthesis of Hydrogel Nanospheres with Tunable Release Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydın, Derya; Kızılel, Seda

    2017-07-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) micro/nanospheres have several unique advantages as polymer based drug delivery systems (DDS) such as tunable size, large surface area to volume ratio, and colloidal stability. Emulsification is one of the widely used methods for facile synthesis of micro/nanospheres. Two-phase aqueous system based on polymer-polymer immiscibility is a novel approach for preparation of water-in-water (w/w) emulsions. This method is promising for the synthesis of PEG micro/nanospheres for biological systems, since the emulsion is aqueous and do not require organic solvents or surfactants. Here, we report the synthesis of nano-scale PEG hydrogel particles using w/w emulsions using phase separation of dextran and PEG prepolymer. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scaning electron microscopy (SEM) results demonstrated that nano-scale hydrogel spheres could be obtained with this approach. We investigated the release kinetics of a model drug, pregabalin (PGB) from PEG nanospheres and demonstrated the influence of polymerization conditions on loading and release of the drug as well as the morphology and size distribution of PEG nanospheres. The experimental drug release data was fitted to a stretched exponential function which suggested high correlation with experimental results to predict half-time and drug release rates from the model equation. The biocompatibility of nanospheres on human dermal fibroblasts using cell-survival assay suggested that PEG nanospheres with altered concentrations are non-toxic, and can be considered for controlled drug/molecule delivery.

  6. Concomitant monitoring of implant formation and drug release of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants in a hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutis using UV-vis imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Larsen, Susan W; Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-02-20

    For poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA)-based in situ forming implants, the rate of implant formation plays an important role in determining the overall drug release kinetics. Currently, in vitro techniques capable of characterizing the processes of drug release and implant formation at the same time are not available. A hydrogel-based in vitro experimental setup was recently developed requiring only microliter of formulation and forming a closed system potentially suitable for interfacing with various spectroscopic techniques. The aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to investigate the feasibility of concomitant UV imaging, Vis imaging and light microscopy for detailed characterization of the behavior of in situ forming PLGA implants in the hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutis. The model compounds, piroxicam and α-lactalbumin were added to PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PLGA-triacetin solutions. Upon bringing the PLGA-solvent-compound pre-formulation in contact with the hydrogel, Vis imaging and light microscopy were applied to visualize the depot formation and UV imaging was used to quantify drug transport in the hydrogel. As compared to piroxicam, the α-lactalbumin invoked an acceleration of phase separation and an increase of implant size. α-Lactalbumin was released faster from the PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone system than the PLGA-triacetin system opposite to the piroxicam release pattern. A linear relationship between the rate of implant formation and initial compound release within the first 4h was established for the PLGA-NMP systems. This implies that phase separation may be one of the controlling factors in drug release. The rate of implant formation may be an important parameter for predicting and tailoring drug release. The approach combining UV imaging, Vis imaging and light microscopy may facilitate understanding of release processes and holds potential for becoming a useful tool in formulation development of in situ forming

  7. Development of β-cyclodextrin-based hydrogel microparticles for solubility enhancement of rosuvastatin: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sarfraz, Rai Muhammad; Ahmad, Mahmood; Mahmood, Asif; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Abrar, Asad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility of rosuvastatin (RST) calcium by developing β-cyclodextrin-g-poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid [AMPS]) hydrogel microparticles through aqueous free-radical polymerization technique. Prepared hydrogel microparticles were characterized for percent entrapment efficiency, solubility studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, zeta size and potential, swelling and release studies. Formulations (HS1–HS9) have shown entrapment efficiency between 83.50%±0.30% and 88.50%±0.25%, and optimum release was offered by formulation HS7 at both pH levels, ie, 1.2 (89%) and 7.4 (92%). The majority of microparticles had a particle size of less than 500 µm and zeta potential of −37 mV. Similarly, optimum solubility, ie, 10.66-fold, was determined at pH 6.8 as compared to pure RST calcium, ie, 7.30-fold. In vivo studies on fabricated hydrogel microparticulate system in comparison to pure drug were carried out, and better results regarding pharmacokinetic parameters were seen in the case of hydrogel microparticles. A potential approach for solubility enhancement of RST calcium and other hydrophobic moieties was successfully developed. PMID:29123380

  8. A Stimuli-Responsive Supramolecular Hydrogel for Controlled Release of Drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subharanjan; Datta, Lakshmi Priya; Roy, Soumyajit

    An inexpensive, facile, and environmentally benign method has been developed for the preparation of stimuli-responsive and self-healing polyacrylic acid-chitosan-based supramolecular hydrogels. Guanidine hydrochloride is used as the supramolecular crosslinker to form an interconnected network with polyacrylic acid-chitosan complex. Because of the dynamic equilibrium between the hydrogen-bonding sites of the components, the hydrogels were found to be self-healable and sensitive to biochemical-stimulus, such as pH. Controlled loading of drug like doxorubicin and its significant anticancer activity of such hydrogels is worth mentioning.

  9. A hydrogel actuator with flexible folding deformation and shape programming via using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuiping; Yu, Feng; Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogel actuator is an intelligent material, which can work as artificial muscle. However, most present hydrogel actuators, due to the inferior mechanical property and uncontrolled folding property, have always resulted in slipping off or the failure of grasping an object with specific shape and required weight. In order to solve this problem, here a tough hydrogel actuator with programmable folding deformation has been prepared by combining the "selective implanting method" and "ionic coordination". The shape and folding angle (from 0 to 180 o ) of hydrogel actuator can be precisely controlled by altering the location and size of the implanting parts that seems like the joints of finger. The ionic coordination is not only the force to trigger the folding of hydrogel, but also utilized to reinforce the mechanical property. We believed the superior mechanical and shape-programmable property can endow the hydrogel actuator with great application prospect in soft machine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Maleic Anhydride-Modified Xylan-g-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel with Multifunctional Properties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinxin; Song, Tao; Chang, Minmin; Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Runcang; Ren, Junli

    2018-01-01

    Introducing multifunctional groups and inorganic material imparts xylan-based hydrogels with excellent properties, such as responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, and external magnetic field. In this work, a composite hydrogel was synthesized by introducing acid treated carbon nanotubes (AT-CNTs) into the maleic anhydride modified xylan grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (MAX-g-PNIPAM) hydrogels network. It was found that the addition of AT-CNTs affected the MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel structure, the swelling ratio and mechanical properties, and imparted the hydrogel with new properties of electrical conductivity and near infrared region (NIR) photothermal conversion. AT-CNTs could reinforce the mechanical properties of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogels, being up to 83 kPa for the compressive strength when the amount was 11 wt %, which was eight times than that of PNIPAM hydrogel and four times than that of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel. The electroconductibility was enhanced by the increase of AT-CNTs amounts. Meanwhile, the composite hydrogel also exhibited multiple shape memory and NIR photothermal conversion properties, and water temperature was increased from 26 °C to 56 °C within 8 min under the NIR irradiation. Thus, the AT-CNTs reinforced MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel possessed promising multifunctional properties, which offered many potential applications in the fields of biosensors, thermal-arrest technology, and drug-controlled release. PMID:29495611

  11. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Maleic Anhydride-Modified Xylan-g-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel with Multifunctional Properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinxin; Song, Tao; Chang, Minmin; Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Runcang; Ren, Junli

    2018-02-28

    Introducing multifunctional groups and inorganic material imparts xylan-based hydrogels with excellent properties, such as responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, and external magnetic field. In this work, a composite hydrogel was synthesized by introducing acid treated carbon nanotubes (AT-CNTs) into the maleic anhydride modified xylan grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (MAX-g-PNIPAM) hydrogels network. It was found that the addition of AT-CNTs affected the MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel structure, the swelling ratio and mechanical properties, and imparted the hydrogel with new properties of electrical conductivity and near infrared region (NIR) photothermal conversion. AT-CNTs could reinforce the mechanical properties of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogels, being up to 83 kPa for the compressive strength when the amount was 11 wt %, which was eight times than that of PNIPAM hydrogel and four times than that of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel. The electroconductibility was enhanced by the increase of AT-CNTs amounts. Meanwhile, the composite hydrogel also exhibited multiple shape memory and NIR photothermal conversion properties, and water temperature was increased from 26 °C to 56 °C within 8 min under the NIR irradiation. Thus, the AT-CNTs reinforced MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel possessed promising multifunctional properties, which offered many potential applications in the fields of biosensors, thermal-arrest technology, and drug-controlled release.

  12. Hydrogels and Cell Based Therapies in Spinal Cord Injury Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Assunção-Silva, Rita C.; Gomes, Eduardo D.; Silva, Nuno A.; Salgado, António J.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a central nervous system- (CNS-) related disorder for which there is yet no successful treatment. Within the past several years, cell-based therapies have been explored for SCI repair, including the use of pluripotent human stem cells, and a number of adult-derived stem and mature cells such as mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and Schwann cells. Although promising, cell transplantation is often overturned by the poor cell survival in the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Alternatively, the therapeutic role of different cells has been used in tissue engineering approaches by engrafting cells with biomaterials. The latter have the advantages of physically mimicking the CNS tissue, while promoting a more permissive environment for cell survival, growth, and differentiation. The roles of both cell- and biomaterial-based therapies as single therapeutic approaches for SCI repair will be discussed in this review. Moreover, as the multifactorial inhibitory environment of a SCI suggests that combinatorial approaches would be more effective, the importance of using biomaterials as cell carriers will be herein highlighted, as well as the recent advances and achievements of these promising tools for neural tissue regeneration. PMID:26124844

  13. Synthesis of Acylated Xylan-Based Magnetic Fe3O4 Hydrogels and Their Application for H2O2 Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qing-Qing; Ren, Jun-Li; Peng, Feng; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Cun-Dian; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Acylated xylan-based magnetic Fe3O4 nanocomposite hydrogels (ACX-MNP-gels) were prepared by fabricating Fe3O4 nanoctahedra in situ within a hydrogel matrix which was synthesized by the copolymerization of acylated xylan (ACX) with acrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide under ultraviolet irradiation. The size of the Fe3O4 fabricated within the hydrogel matrix could be adjusted through controlling the crosslinking concentrations (C). The magnetic hydrogels showed desirable magnetic and mechanical properties, which were confirmed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, physical property measurement system, SEM, TGA, and compression test. Moreover, the catalytic performance of the magnetic hydrogels was explored. The magnetic hydrogels (C = 7.5 wt %) presented excellent catalytic activity and provided a sensitive response to H2O2 detection even at a concentration level of 5 × 10−6 mol·L−1. This approach to preparing magnetic hydrogels loaded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles endows xylan-based hydrogels with new promising applications in biotechnology and environmental chemistry. PMID:28773811

  14. A study in the adsorption of Fe(2+) and NO(3)(-) on pine needles based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ghanshyam S; Chauhan, Sandeep; Kumar, Sunil; Kumari, Anita

    2008-09-01

    Novel supports for use as cation and anion adsorbents were prepared from lignocellulosics using pine needles and their carboxymethylated forms by network/hydrogel formation with acrylamide and N,N-methylene bisacrylamide. The hydrogels thus prepared were further functionalized by partial alkaline hydrolysis with 0.5 N NaOH and were characterized by FTIR, SEM and nitrogen analysis. Adsorption of Fe(2+) on these hydrogels was carried as a function of time, temperature, pH and ionic strength. The hydrogel having the maximum adsorption capacity was loaded with Fe(2+) at the conditions those afforded maximum uptake and was used as novel anionic adsorbent for NO(3)(-). The water uptake capacities and biodegradability of the hydrogels before and after the ion loading was studied to evaluate the possible end-uses of these hydrogels as alternate materials in the removal of ionic species from water.

  15. Development of soy lecithin based novel self-assembled emulsion hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay K; Pandey, Preeti M; Agarwal, Tarun; Kumar, Dilip; Banerjee, Indranil; Anis, Arfat; Pal, Kunal

    2015-03-01

    The current study reports the development and characterization of soy lecithin based novel self-assembled emulsion hydrogels. Sesame oil was used as the representative oil phase. Emulsion gels were formed when the concentration of soy lecithin was >40% w/w. Metronidazole was used as the model drug for the drug release and the antimicrobial tests. Microscopic study showed the apolar dispersed phase in an aqueous continuum phase, suggesting the formation of emulsion hydrogels. FTIR study indicated the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, whereas, the XRD study indicated predominantly amorphous nature of the emulsion gels. Composition dependent mechanical and drug release properties of the emulsion gels were observed. In-depth analyses of the mechanical studies were done using Ostwald-de Waele power-law, Kohlrausch and Weichert models, whereas, the drug release profiles were modeled using Korsmeyer-Peppas and Peppas-Sahlin models. The mechanical analyses indicated viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels. The release of the drug from the emulsion gels was diffusion mediated. The drug loaded emulsion gels showed good antimicrobial activity. The biocompatibility test using HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes) suggested biocompatibility of the emulsion gels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver nanoparticle based antibacterial methacrylate hydrogels potential for bone graft applications.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, M Isabel; Perni, Stefano; Tommasi, Giacomo; Morris, Nathanael Glyn; Hawkins, Karl; López-Cabarcos, Enrique; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-05-01

    Infections are frequent and very undesired occurrences after orthopedic procedures; furthermore, the growing concern caused by the rise in antibiotic resistance is progressively dwindling the efficacy of such drugs. Artificial bone graft materials could solve some of the problems associated with the gold standard use of natural bone graft such as limited bone material, pain at the donor site and rejections if donor tissue is used. We have previously described new acrylate base nanocomposite hydrogels as bone graft materials. In the present paper, we describe the integration of silver nanoparticles in the polymeric mineralized biomaterial to provide non-antibiotic antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Two different crosslinking degrees were tested and the silver nanoparticles were integrated into the composite matrix by means of three different methods: entrapment in the polymeric hydrogel before the mineralization; diffusion during the process of calcium phosphate crystallization and adsorption post-mineralization. The latter being generally the most effective method of encapsulation; however, the adsorption of silver nanoparticles inside the pores of the biomaterial led to a decreasing antibacterial activity for adsorption time longer than 2 days. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Multitarget sensing of glucose and cholesterol based on Janus hydrogel microparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Dong-Hua; Yue, Shuai; Yang, Chun-Guang; Xu, Zhang-Run

    2017-06-15

    A visualized sensing method for glucose and cholesterol was developed based on the hemispheres of the same Janus hydrogel microparticles. Single-phase and Janus hydrogel microparticles were both generated using a centrifugal microfluidic chip. For glucose sensing, concanavalin A and fluorescein labeled dextran used for competitive binding assay were encapsulated in alginate microparticles, and the fluorescence of the microparticles was positively correlated with glucose concentration. For cholesterol sensing, the microparticles embedded with γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine by H 2 O 2 , an enzymatic hydrolysis product of cholesterol. And the color transition was more sensitive in the microparticles than in solutions, indicating the microparticles are more applicable for visualized determination. Furthermore, Janus microparticles were employed for multitarget sensing in the two hemespheres, and glucose and cholesterol were detected within the same microparticles without obvious interference. Besides, the particles could be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in human serum utilizing the microparticles, which confirmed the potential application of the microparticles in real sample detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodegradability and swelling capacity of kaolin based chitosan-g-PHEMA nanocomposite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Rana, Pradeep Kumar; Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, exhibits excellent biological properties such as biodegradability, immunological and antibacterial activity. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the chemical modification of chitosan in order to widen its applications. The chemical modification of chitosan has been achieved via grafting of monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of the initiator, ammonium persulfate (APS) and kaolin was added to improve the mechanical strength of the newly developed nanocomposites hydrogel. The so prepared grafted nanocomposites hydrogel was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA. The equilibrium water content (EWC) of the samples were measured at different pH ranges 6.5-8.0 and found optimum at pH 7.5 for biomedical applications. Further, the biodegradability of the samples was studied at different time intervals from 15 days to 1 year but, the kaolin based nanohydrogels exhibited good biodegradability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epoxy-based hydrogels investigated by high-frequency dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krakovský, Ivan; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Ryuta

    2013-11-14

    Using high-frequency dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, nanophase-separated structures of epoxy-based hydrogels were investigated as a function of water content at 25 °C. The dielectric spectra resulting from the hydrogels were reasonably decomposed into two Debye-type and two Cole-Cole-type relaxation modes. The fastest Debye-type mode, found at 8.3 ps, was attributed to the rotational relaxation process of free water molecules in the bulk state. The other Debye-type mode, at ca. 20-34 ps, originates from the exchange process of water molecules that are hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic epoxy network portions for free bulk ones. The first Cole-Cole-type mode observed, at ca. 20-370 ps, was assigned to the complicated dynamics for electric dipole moments of the hydrophilic groups in the epoxy networks (mainly monomeric oxyethylene units). The slowest major Cole-Cole-type mode, at 5-29 ns, was attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization process and confirmed the presence of the nanophase-separated structures as revealed by the previous small-angle neutron scattering experiments.

  20. Silver nanoparticle based antibacterial methacrylate hydrogels potential for bone graft applications

    PubMed Central

    González-Sánchez, M. Isabel; Perni, Stefano; Tommasi, Giacomo; Morris, Nathanael Glyn; Hawkins, Karl; López-Cabarcos, Enrique; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections are frequent and very undesired occurrences after orthopedic procedures; furthermore, the growing concern caused by the rise in antibiotic resistance is progressively dwindling the efficacy of such drugs. Artificial bone graft materials could solve some of the problems associated with the gold standard use of natural bone graft such as limited bone material, pain at the donor site and rejections if donor tissue is used. We have previously described new acrylate base nanocomposite hydrogels as bone graft materials. In the present paper, we describe the integration of silver nanoparticles in the polymeric mineralized biomaterial to provide non-antibiotic antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Two different crosslinking degrees were tested and the silver nanoparticles were integrated into the composite matrix by means of three different methods: entrapment in the polymeric hydrogel before the mineralization; diffusion during the process of calcium phosphate crystallization and adsorption post-mineralization. The latter being generally the most effective method of encapsulation; however, the adsorption of silver nanoparticles inside the pores of the biomaterial led to a decreasing antibacterial activity for adsorption time longer than 2 days. PMID:25746278

  1. HYDROGEL-BASED NANOCOMPOSITES OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS FOR TISSUE REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Suwei; Segura, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design artificial extracellular matrices as cell instructive scaffolds has opened the door to technologies capable of studying cell fates in vitro and to guide tissue repair in vivo. One main component of the design of artificial extracellular matrices is the incorporation of protein-based biochemical cues to guide cell phenotypes and multicellular organizations. However, promoting the long-term bioactivity, controlling the bioavailability and understanding how the physical presentations of these proteins impacts cellular fates are among the challenges of the field. Nanotechnolgy has advanced to meet the challenges of protein therapeutics. For example, the approaches to incorporating proteins into tissue repairing scaffolds have ranged from bulk encapsulations to smart nanodepots that protect proteins from degradations and allow opportunities for controlled release. PMID:24778979

  2. HYDROGEL-BASED NANOCOMPOSITES OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS FOR TISSUE REPAIR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Suwei; Segura, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The ability to design artificial extracellular matrices as cell instructive scaffolds has opened the door to technologies capable of studying cell fates in vitro and to guide tissue repair in vivo . One main component of the design of artificial extracellular matrices is the incorporation of protein-based biochemical cues to guide cell phenotypes and multicellular organizations. However, promoting the long-term bioactivity, controlling the bioavailability and understanding how the physical presentations of these proteins impacts cellular fates are among the challenges of the field. Nanotechnolgy has advanced to meet the challenges of protein therapeutics. For example, the approaches to incorporating proteins into tissue repairing scaffolds have ranged from bulk encapsulations to smart nanodepots that protect proteins from degradations and allow opportunities for controlled release.

  3. In vivo biofunctional evaluation of hydrogels for disc regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reitmaier, Sandra; Kreja, Ludwika; Gruchenberg, Katharina; Kanter, Britta; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Reis, Rui Luís; Perugini, Valeria; Santin, Matteo; Ignatius, Anita; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative strategies aim to restore the original biofunctionality of the intervertebral disc. Different biomaterials are available, which might support disc regeneration. In the present study, the prospects of success of two hydrogels functionalized with anti-angiogenic peptides and seeded with bone marrow derived mononuclear cells (BMC), respectively, were investigated in an ovine nucleotomy model. In a one-step procedure iliac crest aspirates were harvested and, subsequently, separated BMC were seeded on hydrogels and implanted into the ovine disc. For the cell-seeded approach a hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel was used. The anti-angiogenic potential of newly developed VEGF-blockers was investigated on ionically crosslinked metacrylated gellan gum hydrogels. Untreated discs served as nucleotomy controls. 24 adult merino sheep were used. After 6 weeks histological, after 12 weeks histological and biomechanical analyses were conducted. Biomechanical tests revealed no differences between any of the implanted and nucleotomized discs. All implanted discs significantly degenerated compared to intact discs. In contrast, there was no marked difference between implanted and nucleotomized discs. In tendency, albeit not significant, degeneration score and disc height index deteriorated for all but not for the cell-seeded hydrogels from 6 to 12 weeks. Cell-seeded hydrogels slightly decelerated degeneration. None of the hydrogel configurations was able to regenerate biofunctionality of the intervertebral disc. This might presumably be caused by hydrogel extrusion. Great importance should be given to the development of annulus sealants, which effectively exploit the potential of (cell-seeded) hydrogels for biological disc regeneration and restoration of intervertebral disc functioning.

  4. Redox hydrogel based bienzyme electrode for L-glutamate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Belay, A; Collins, A; Ruzgas, T; Kissinger, P T; Gorton, L; Csöregi, E

    1999-02-01

    Amperometric bienzyme electrodes based on coupled L-glutamate oxidase (GlOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were constructed for the direct monitoring of L-glutamate in a flow injection (FI)-system. The bienzyme electrodes were constructed by coating solid graphite rods with a premixed solution containing GlOx and HRP crosslinked with a redox polymer formed of poly(1-vinylimidazole) complexed with (osmium (4-4'-dimethylbpy)2 Cl)II/III. Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) was used as the crosslinker and the modified electrodes were inserted as the working electrode in a conventional three electrode flow through amperometric cell operated at -0.05 V versus Ag¿AgCl (0.1 M KCl). The bienzyme electrode was optimized with regard to wire composition, Os-loading of the wires, enzyme ratios, coating procedure, flow rate, effect of poly(ethyleneimine) addition, etc. The optimized electrodes were characterized by a sensitivity of 88.36 +/- 0.14 microA mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.3 microM (calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio), a response time of less than 10 s and responded linearly between 0.3 and 250 microM (linear regression coefficient = 0.999) with an operational stability of only 3% sensitivity loss during 8 h of continuous FI operation at a sample throughput of 30 injections h(-1).

  5. Wood hemicellulose/chitosan-based semi-interpenetrating network hydrogels : mechanical swelling and controlled drug release properties

    Treesearch

    Ahmet M. Karaaslan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2010-01-01

    The cell wall of most plant biomass from forest and agricultural resources consists of three major polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Of these, hemicelluloses have gained increasing attention as sustainable raw materials. In this study, novel pH-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on hemicelluloses and chitosan were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the...

  6. Formation of Cucurbit[8]uril-Based Supramolecular Hydrogel Beads Using Droplet-Based Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuejiao; Appel, Eric A; Liu, Xin; Parker, Richard M; Scherman, Oren A; Abell, Chris

    2015-09-14

    Herein we describe the use of microdroplets as templates for the fabrication of uniform-sized supramolecular hydrogel beads, assembled by supramolecular cross-linking of functional biopolymers with the macrocyclic host molecule, cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]). The microdroplets were formed containing diluted hydrogel precursors in solution, including the functional polymers and CB[8], in a microfluidic device. Subsequent evaporation of water from collected microdroplets concentrated the contents, driving the formation of the CB[8]-mediated host-guest ternary complex interactions and leading to the assembly of condensed three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds. Rehydration of the dried particles gave monodisperse hydrogel beads. Their equilibrium size was shown to be dependent on both the quantity of material loaded and the dimensions of the microfluidic flow focus. Fluorescein-labeled dextran was used to evaluate the efficacy of the hydrogel beads as a vector for controlled cargo release. Both passive, sustained release (hours) and triggered, fast release (minutes) of the FITC-dextran was observed, with the rate of sustained release dependent on the formulation. The kinetics of release was fitted to the Ritger-Peppas controlled release equation and shown to follow an anomalous (non-Fickian) transport mechanism.

  7. Gum karaya based hydrogel nanocomposites for the effective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Hemant; Maity, Arjun; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable hydrogel nanocomposites (HNC) of gum karaya (GK) grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) incorporated silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NPs) were synthesized using the in situ graft copolymerization method and tested for the adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the HNC were characterized using different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that the surface area and porosity of the hydrogel polymer significantly increased after nanocomposite formation with SiC NPs. The HNC was employed for the removal of cationic dyes, i.e., malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RhB) from the aqueous solution. The HNC was found to remove 91% (MG) and 86% (RhB) of dyes with a polymer dose of 0.5 and 0.6 g l-1 in neutral medium, respectively. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent and followed the pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 757.57 and 497.51 mg g-1 for MG and RhB, respectively. Furthermore, the HNC was demonstrated as a versatile adsorbent for the removal of both cationic and anionic dyes from the simulated wastewater. The HNC showed excellent regeneration capacity and was successfully used for the three cycles of adsorption-desorption. In summary, the HNC has shown its potential as an environment friendly and efficient adsorbent for the adsorption of cationic dyes from contaminated water.

  8. Characterization of elasticity and hydration of composite hydrogel based on collagen-iota carrageenan as a corneal tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinawati, M.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    The cornea is a refractive element of the eye that serves to continue the stimulation of light into the eye it has a clear, transparent, elastic and relatively thick tissue. Factors caused corneal blindness, are dystrophy, keratoconus, corneal scaring. Hydrogels can be made from polysaccharide derivatives that have gelation properties such as iota carrageenan. Therefore, it is a need to develop composite hydrogel based collagen-iota carragenan as an engineeried corneal tissue with high elasticity and hydration properties. Collagen hydrogel has a maximum water content an has equlibrium up to 40 %, less than the human cornea, 81 % and under normal hydration conditions, the human cornea can transmit 87 % of visible light. In addition, the refractive index on the surface of the cornea with air is 1.375-1.380. Based on this study, it is necessary to conduct research on the development and composition of hydrogel composite collagen-iota carrageen hydrogen based on. The best result was K5 (5:5) treatment, which has the equilibrium water content of 87.07 % and viscosity of 10.7346 Pa.s.

  9. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogels based on sodium lignosulfonate and their adsorption properties for Ni2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingying; He, Shufu; Hou, Haiqian; Hao, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the attention of both academic and industrial research is paid to the novel materials based on renewable organic resources. Sodium lignosulphonate (SLS) is selected in this study to synthesize novel superabsorbent hydrogels by ultrasonic polymerization. The structure, morphology and stability of SLS-based hydrogel were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Under the optimal condition, SLS-based hydrogel possesses the water absorbency of 1328g·g -1 in distilled water and 110g·g -1 in 0.9wt% NaCl solution. In addition, the prepared SLS-hydrogel as an adsorbent was applied to remove Ni 2+ from an aqueous solution in virtue of its low cost and favorable adsorption capacity. The various experimental conditions that influence the adsorption capacity were investigated such as temperature (20-60°C), pH (2.0-7.0), contact time (0-360min) and initial concentration of the Ni 2+ solution (100-600mg·L -1 ). Then the adsorption capability could reach 293mg·g -1 under optimal conditions. The results revealed that the adsorption behavior is spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, it was observed that the adsorption mechanism and adsorption equilibrium data obeyed pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reversible Polymer Hydrogels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    glucosamine hydrochloride was dissolved in 100 mL of de- ionized water and placed in an ice bath at >5oC and purged with N2 gas for 20 minutes; 3.25...Temperature sensitive hydrogels based on N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPA) and acryloyl glucosamine (AG) were synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as...hydrogels by copolymerization of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPA), and acryloyl glucosamine (AG) a derivative of chi- tosan, a biopolymer from

  11. Hydrogel-based encapsulation of biological, functional tissue: fundamentals, technologies and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, H.; Ehrhart, F.; Zimmermann, D.; Müller, K.; Katsen-Globa, A.; Behringer, M.; Feilen, P. J.; Gessner, P.; Zimmermann, G.; Shirley, S. G.; Weber, M. M.; Metze, J.; Zimmermann, U.

    2007-12-01

    Replacing dysfunctional endocrine cells or tissues (e.g. islets, parathyroid tissue) by functional, foreign material without using immunosuppressives could soon become reality. Immunological reactions are avoided by encapsulating cells/tissues in hydrogel (e.g. alginate) microcapsules, preventing interaction of the enclosed material with the host’s immune system while permitting the unhindered passage of nutrients, oxygen and secreted therapeutic factors. Detailed investigations of the physical, physico-chemical and immunological parameters of alginate-based microcapsules have led recently to the development of a novel class of cell-entrapping microcapsules that meet the demands of biocompatibility, long-term integrity and function. This together with the development of ‘good medical practice’ microfluidic chip technology and of advanced cryopreservation technology for generation and storage of immunoisolated transplants will bring cell-based therapy to clinics and the market.

  12. Elasticity-based development of functionally enhanced multicellular 3D liver encapsulated in hybrid hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Joon; Son, Myung Jin; Ahn, Jiwon; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Mihee; Kim, Ansoon; Jeung, Yun-Ji; Kim, Han-Gyeul; Won, Misun; Lim, Jung Hwa; Kim, Nam-Soon; Jung, Cho-Rock; Chung, Kyung-Sook

    2017-12-01

    Current in vitro liver models provide three-dimensional (3-D) microenvironments in combination with tissue engineering technology and can perform more accurate in vivo mimicry than two-dimensional models. However, a human cell-based, functionally mature liver model is still desired, which would provide an alternative to animal experiments and resolve low-prediction issues on species differences. Here, we prepared hybrid hydrogels of varying elasticity and compared them with a normal liver, to develop a more mature liver model that preserves liver properties in vitro. We encapsulated HepaRG cells, either alone or with supporting cells, in a biodegradable hybrid hydrogel. The elastic modulus of the 3D liver dynamically changed during culture due to the combined effects of prolonged degradation of hydrogel and extracellular matrix formation provided by the supporting cells. As a result, when the elastic modulus of the 3D liver model converges close to that of the in vivo liver (≅ 2.3 to 5.9 kPa), both phenotypic and functional maturation of the 3D liver were realized, while hepatic gene expression, albumin secretion, cytochrome p450-3A4 activity, and drug metabolism were enhanced. Finally, the 3D liver model was expanded to applications with embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes and primary human hepatocytes, and it supported prolonged hepatocyte survival and functionality in long-term culture. Our model represents critical progress in developing a biomimetic liver system to simulate liver tissue remodeling, and provides a versatile platform in drug development and disease modeling, ranging from physiology to pathology. We provide a functionally improved 3D liver model that recapitulates in vivo liver stiffness. We have experimentally addressed the issues of orchestrated effects of mechanical compliance, controlled matrix formation by stromal cells in conjunction with hepatic differentiation, and functional maturation of hepatocytes in a dynamic 3D

  13. Property-based design: optimization and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and PVA-matrix composite for artificial cornea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Zuo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Li, Jidong; Zhang, Aiming; Li, Yubao; Yang, Xiaochao

    2014-03-01

    Each approach for artificial cornea design is toward the same goal: to develop a material that best mimics the important properties of natural cornea. Accordingly, the selection and optimization of corneal substitute should be based on their physicochemical properties. In this study, three types of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels with different polymerization degree (PVA1799, PVA2499 and PVA2699) were prepared by freeze-thawing techniques. After characterization in terms of transparency, water content, water contact angle, mechanical property, root-mean-square roughness and protein adsorption behavior, the optimized PVA2499 hydrogel with similar properties of natural cornea was selected as a matrix material for artificial cornea. Based on this, a biomimetic artificial cornea was fabricated with core-and-skirt structure: a transparent PVA hydrogel core, surrounding by a ringed PVA-matrix composite skirt that composed of graphite, Fe-doped nano hydroxyapatite (n-Fe-HA) and PVA hydrogel. Different ratio of graphite/n-Fe-HA can tune the skirt color from dark brown to light brown, which well simulates the iris color of Oriental eyes. Moreover, morphologic and mechanical examination showed that an integrated core-and-skirt artificial cornea was formed from an interpenetrating polymer network, no phase separation appeared on the interface between the core and the skirt.

  14. Gelatin-based Hydrogel Degradation and Tissue Interaction in vivo: Insights from Multimodal Preclinical Imaging in Immunocompetent Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Tondera, Christoph; Hauser, Sandra; Krüger-Genge, Anne; Jung, Friedrich; Neffe, Axel T; Lendlein, Andreas; Klopfleisch, Robert; Steinbach, Jörg; Neuber, Christin; Pietzsch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels based on gelatin have evolved as promising multifunctional biomaterials. Gelatin is crosslinked with lysine diisocyanate ethyl ester (LDI) and the molar ratio of gelatin and LDI in the starting material mixture determines elastic properties of the resulting hydrogel. In order to investigate the clinical potential of these biopolymers, hydrogels with different ratios of gelatin and diisocyanate (3-fold (G10_LNCO3) and 8-fold (G10_LNCO8) molar excess of isocyanate groups) were subcutaneously implanted in mice (uni- or bilateral implantation). Degradation and biomaterial-tissue-interaction were investigated in vivo (MRI, optical imaging, PET) and ex vivo (autoradiography, histology, serum analysis). Multimodal imaging revealed that the number of covalent net points correlates well with degradation time, which allows for targeted modification of hydrogels based on properties of the tissue to be replaced. Importantly, the degradation time was also dependent on the number of implants per animal. Despite local mechanisms of tissue remodeling no adverse tissue responses could be observed neither locally nor systemically. Finally, this preclinical investigation in immunocompetent mice clearly demonstrated a complete restoration of the original healthy tissue.

  15. Regeneration of hyaline cartilage promoted by xenogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells embedded within elastin-like recombinamer-based bioactive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pescador, David; Ibáñez-Fonseca, Arturo; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Briñón, Jesús G; Arias, Francisco Javier; Muntión, Sandra; Hernández, Cristina; Girotti, Alessandra; Alonso, Matilde; Del Cañizo, María Consuelo; Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos; Blanco, Juan Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decades, novel therapeutic tools for osteochondral regeneration have arisen from the combination of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and highly specialized smart biomaterials, such as hydrogel-forming elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), which could serve as cell-carriers. Herein, we evaluate the delivery of xenogeneic human MSCs (hMSCs) within an injectable ELR-based hydrogel carrier for osteochondral regeneration in rabbits. First, a critical-size osteochondral defect was created in the femora of the animals and subsequently filled with the ELR-based hydrogel alone or with embedded hMSCs. Regeneration outcomes were evaluated after three months by gross assessment, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, showing complete filling of the defect and the de novo formation of hyaline-like cartilage and subchondral bone in the hMSC-treated knees. Furthermore, histological sectioning and staining of every sample confirmed regeneration of the full cartilage thickness and early subchondral bone repair, which was more similar to the native cartilage in the case of the cell-loaded ELR-based hydrogel. Overall histological differences between the two groups were assessed semi-quantitatively using the Wakitani scale and found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Immunofluorescence against a human mitochondrial antibody three months post-implantation showed that the hMSCs were integrated into the de novo formed tissue, thus suggesting their ability to overcome the interspecies barrier. Hence, we conclude that the use of xenogeneic MSCs embedded in an ELR-based hydrogel leads to the successful regeneration of hyaline cartilage in osteochondral lesions.

  16. The enhanced anti-tissue adhesive effect of injectable pluronic-HA hydrogel by poly(γ-glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Kim, Manse; Hwang, Youngmin; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-12-01

    The stability of tissue barrier in physiological condition is a key factor to isolate the damaged site from adjacent tissue for anti-tissue adhesion. Although pluronic or pluronic-hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel as an injectable formulation can prevent tissue adhesion at the injection site, the anti-tissue adhesion effect is limited due to its poor stability. Herein, we prepared tissue barrier formulations composed of pluronic F127 (F127) and HA mixture (F127-HA) and the effect of the addition of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) was characterized. All of F127, HA, and F127-HA mixture showed the poor in vitro residence stability less than 3 days. However, by adding PGA into F127-HA mixture, their stability was significantly enhanced by the control of the molecular weight and concentration of PGA. Thus, F127-HA with 10wt% PGA (2000kDa) showed the long-term stability over 10 days. Similarly, the enhanced stability of F127-HA with PGA resulted in the enhanced and excellent in vivo anti-tissue adhesion effect, evidenced by histological analysis and grading of tissue adhesion. Therefore, F127-HA containing PGA could be applied as an efficient injectable tissue barrier for anti-tissue adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of hydrophobic modification in alginate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Soumitra

    Alginate has been exploited commercially for decades in foods, textiles, paper, pharmaceutical industries, and also as a detoxifier for removing heavy metals. Alginate is also popular in cell encapsulation because of its relatively mild gelation protocol and simple chemistry with which biological active entities can be immobilized. Surface modification of alginate gels has been explored to induce desired cell interactions with the gel matrix. These modifications alter the bulk properties, which strongly determine on how cells feel and response to the three-dimensional microenvironment. However, there is a need to develop strategies to engineer functionalities into bulk alginate hydrogels that not only preserve their inherent qualities but are also less toxic. In this thesis, our main focus was to optimize the mechanical properties of alginate-based hydrogels, and by doing so control the performance of the biomaterials. In the first scheme, we used alginate and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose as components in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) gels. The second network was used to control gelation time and rheological properties. We believe these experiments also may provide insight into the mechanical and structural properties of more complex biopolymer gels and naturally-occurring IPNs. Next, we worked on incorporating a hydrophobic moiety directly into the alginate chain, resulting in materials for extended release of hydrophobic drugs. We successfully synthesized hydrophobically modified alginate (HMA) by attaching octylamine groups onto the alginate backbone by standard carbodiimide based amide coupling reaction. Solubility of several model hydrophobic drugs in dilute HMA solutions was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude. HMA hydrogels, prepared by crosslinking the alginate chains with calcium ions, were found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties (modulus ˜100 kPa) with release extended upto 5 days. Ability

  18. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel and nanosilver composite as antimicrobial agents for UTI pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Saad M; Aldalbahi, Ali; Al-Hajji, Abdullah Baker; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Panhuis, Marc In Het; Alhokbany, Norah; Ahamad, Tansir

    2016-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) containing hydrogel composite were first synthesized by preparing a new hydrogel from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and the cross-linker ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE), followed by the incorporation of AgNPs by microwave radiation. The resulting neat hydrogels and AgNPs-hydrogel composites were characterized using spectral, thermal, microscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The SEM and TEM results demonstrated that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical with diameters ranging from 8 to 14nm. In addition, the XRD analysis confirmed the nanocrystalline phase of silver with face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the AgNPs confirmed the presence of an elemental silver signal, and no peaks of any other impurities were detected. Additionally, the antibacterial activities of the neat hydrogel and AgNPs-hydrogel composites were measured by Kirby-Bauer method against urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens. The rheology measurement revealed that the values of storage modulus (G') were higher than that of loss modulus (G″). The AgNPs-hydrogel composites exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis compared to the corresponding neat hydrogel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heparin-based hydrogels with tunable sulfation & degradation for anti-inflammatory small molecule delivery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yifeng; Tellier, Liane E; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2016-08-16

    Sustained release of anti-inflammatory agents remains challenging for small molecule drugs due to their low molecular weight and hydrophobicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to control the release of a small molecule anti-inflammatory agent, crystal violet (CV), from hydrogels fabricated with heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan capable of binding positively-charged molecules such as CV. In this system, both electrostatic interactions between heparin and CV and hydrogel degradation were tuned simultaneously by varying the level of heparin sulfation and varying the amount of dithiothreitol within hydrogels, respectively. It was found that heparin sulfation significantly affected CV release, whereby more sulfated heparin hydrogels (Hep and Hep(-N)) released CV with near zero-order release kinetics (R-squared values between 0.96-0.99). Furthermore, CV was released more quickly from fast-degrading hydrogels than slow-degrading hydrogels, providing a method to tune total CV release between 5-15 days while maintaining linear release kinetics. In particular, N-desulfated heparin hydrogels exhibited efficient CV loading (∼90% of originally included CV), near zero-order CV release kinetics, and maintenance of CV bioactivity after release, making this hydrogel formulation a promising CV delivery vehicle for a wide range of inflammatory diseases.

  20. Gelam (Melaleuca spp.) Honey-Based Hydrogel as Burn Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Zohdi, Rozaini; Abu Bakar Zakaria, Zuki; Yusof, Norimah; Mohamed Mustapha, Noordin; Abdullah, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim

    2012-01-01

    A novel cross-linked honey hydrogel dressing was developed by incorporating Malaysian honey into hydrogel dressing formulation, cross-linked and sterilized using electron beam irradiation (25 kGy). In this study, the physical properties of the prepared honey hydrogel and its wound healing efficacy on deep partial thickness burn wounds in rats were assessed. Skin samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after burn for histopathological and molecular evaluations. Application of honey hydrogel dressings significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) wound closure and accelerated the rate of re-epithelialization as compared to control hydrogel and OpSite film dressing. A significant decrease in inflammatory response was observed in honey hydrogel treated wounds as early as 7 days after burn (P < 0.05). Semiquantitative analysis using RT-PCR revealed that treatment with honey hydrogel significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6). The present study substantiates the potential efficacy of honey hydrogel dressings in accelerating burn wound healing. PMID:21941590

  1. Preparation and characterization of oil palm frond based cellulose hydrogel and its swelling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumaran, Nesha; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah bin Mat

    2016-11-01

    Malaysia is one of the largest producer of palm oil thus the quantity of biomass each year from this industry is very large. The oil palm frond from palm oil industry can be used as a source of cellulose which can be incorporated into hydrogel to be used as adsorbent. This research reported how to disperse 2 % cellulose in a `green-solution' prepared by using urea and sodium hydroxide. Polymerization is carried out between the monomers polyacrylamide and cellulose using microwave to form hydrogel. Hydrogel with 2 % cellulose have a swelling index of 1814 %. Meanwhile, zero hydrogel which is made with only polyacrylamide has swelling index of 15 %. Scanning electron microscope shows that cellulose hydrogel have a rough surface compared with zero hydrogel. This might attribute to the high swelling index for cellulose hydrogel compared with zero hydrogel. Meanwhile, FTIR shows that successful polymerization has occurred between polyacrylamide and cellulose with the characteristic band at 1657.99 cm-1 which is for N-H bond.

  2. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots/poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylic amide) composite hydrogel synthesized by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Qing; Wen, Wanxin; Hu, Liang; He, Weiwei; Liu, Hanzhou

    2018-04-01

    To improve the durability and stability of quantum dots (QDs) in the composite hydrogel, an irradiation induced reduction and polymerization-crosslinking method was reported herein where CdS QDs could be synthesized in situ and fastened to polymer chains due to the coordination forces between amino groups and CdS nanoparticles. The morphology and photoluminescence (PL) property of the composite hydrogel were studied. The result indicated that the CdS QDs with uniform size were dispersed evenly in the composite hydrogel, and the introduced CdS QDs had no obvious effect on the hydrogel structure. With the increases of reagent concentrations, PL intensity of the composite hydrogel was enhanced; however, the emission wavelength had no change.

  3. Cytocompatibility, antibacterial activity and biodegradability of self-assembling beta-hairpin peptide-based hydrogels for tissue regenerative applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Daphne Ann

    Every year, millions of people suffer from tissue loss or failure. One approach to repair damaged or diseased tissue is through tissue/organ transplantation. However, one of the major problems which exist with this approach is that there are more people in need of a transplant than there are donors. Over the past several decades, scientists and doctors have come together to find a way to overcome this challenge. This collaboration has led to the development of biomimetic scaffolds, which closely mimic the desired tissue of interest to act as a substitute for the unfunctional tissue, with hopes to improve the quality of life. The Schneider and Pochan labs have developed a biomimetic scaffold using self-assembling beta-hairpin peptides. The self-assembly event can be triggered in response to physiological conditions, which is dictated by the monomer, to form non covalently crosslinked mechanically rigid hydrogels. In vitro studies showed that hydrogels were cytocompatible and may not elicit a pro-inflammatory response from murine macrophages. These material properties show promise for the use of these hydrogels in tissue engineering. When implanting a material into a host, a major concern is the introduction of infection. Infection, if not prevented or halted, results in poor tissue integration and function, ultimately leading to implant removal from the host. Interestingly, the beta-hairpin hydrogels were shown to exhibit antibacterial properties against pathogens commonly found in hospital environments. This inherently antibacterial hydrogel is advantageous because it may help decrease or diminish bacterial contamination when implanted in vivo, which may help to increase the success of implants. Also, a unique and exciting feature of these peptide-based hydrogels is their ability to shear-thin and self-heal. Hydrogels can be directly formed in a syringe and be subsequently delivered to a tissue defect in a minimally invasive manner where they will recover to their

  4. Cellulose Anionic Hydrogels Based on Cellulose Nanofibers As Natural Stimulants for Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Minmin; Luan, Qian; Tang, Hu; Huang, Fenghong; Xiang, Xia; Yang, Chen; Bao, Yuping

    2017-05-17

    Cellulose anionic hydrogels were successfully prepared by dissolving TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in NaOH/urea aqueous solution and being cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The hydrogels exhibited microporous structure and high hydrophilicity, which contribute to the excellent water absorption property. The growth indexes, including the germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the seedlings, were investigated. The results showed that cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents as plant growth regulators could be beneficial for seed germination and growth. Moreover, they presented preferable antifungal activity during the breeding and growth of the sesame seed breeding. Thus, the cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents could be applied as soilless culture mediums for plant growth. This research provided a simple and effective method for the fabrication of cellulose anionic hydrogel and evaluated its application in agriculture.

  5. Cyclodextrin-cross-linked diaminotriazine-based hydrogen bonding strengthened hydrogels for drug and reverse gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiufeng; Wang, Ning; Liu, Lu; Liu, Wenguang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen bonding strengthened hydrogel was prepared by radical copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylated β-cyclodextrin (PEG-β-CD) and 2-vinyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine (VDT) monomer. PEG-β-CD served not only as a cross-linker, but also as a built-in solubilizing agent of the hydrophobic drug in the gel. Increasing VDT content resulted in a notable enhancement in the mechanical strengths of hydrogels whose equilibrium water contents could be modulated from 75% to 85% by varying the ratio of PEG-β-CD cross-linker. It was shown that copolymerizing more PEG-β-CDs could load higher amount of ibuprofen (IBU) in the gels and contribute to a slower release rate of IBU. Plasmid DNA could be anchored onto the surface of hydrogels due to the hydrogen bonding between the base pairs and diaminotriazine, thereby mediating efficient reverse gene transfection of luciferase gene in COS-7 cells cultured on the gel surface. The cytocompatible PEG-β-CD-cross-linked PVDT hydrogels with multifunction of drug and gene delivery hold a potential as tissue engineering scaffold.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a biocompatible chitosan-based hydrogel cross-linked via 'click' chemistry for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Guaresti, O; García-Astrain, C; Palomares, T; Alonso-Varona, A; Eceiza, A; Gabilondo, N

    2017-09-01

    A chemically cross-linked chitosan-based hydrogel was successfully synthesized through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction and characterized. The final product was obtained after different steps; on the one hand, furan-modified chitosan (Cs-Fu) was synthesized by the reaction of furfural with the free amino groups of chitosan. On the other hand, highlighting the novelty of the present research, maleimide-functionalized chitosan (Cs-AMI) was prepared by the reaction of a maleimide-modified aminoacid with the amino groups of chitosan through amide coupling. The two complementary chitosan derivatives were cross-linked to the final hydrogel network. Both modification reactions were confirmed by FTIR and 1 H NMR, obtaining a degree of substitution (DS) of 31% and 26% for Cs-Fu and Cs-AMI, respectively. The as-designed hydrogel was analyzed in terms of microstructure, swelling capacity and rheological behaviour. The hydrogel showed pH-sensitivity, biocompatibility and inhibitory bacterial activity, promising features for biomedical applications, particularly for targeted-drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of polymer network parameters of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogels on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2014-01-30

    The present article deals with design of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogel drug delivery systems. The characterization of hydrogels has been carried out by SEMs, EDAX, FTIR, (13)C NMR, XRD, TGA/DTA/DTG and swelling studies. The correlation between reaction conditions and structural parameters of polymer networks such as polymer volume fraction in the swollen state (ϕ), Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links (M¯c), crosslink density (ρ) and mesh size (ξ) has been determined. The different kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi square root law, Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Hixson-Crowell cube root model were applied and it has been observed that release profile of amoxicillin best followed the first order model for the release of drug from the polymer matrix. The swelling of the hydrogels and release of drug from the drug loaded hydrogels occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in pH 7.4 solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid enrichment of rare-earth metals by carboxymethyl cellulose-based open-cellular hydrogel adsorbent from HIPEs template.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Wenbo; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aiqin

    2016-04-20

    A series of monolithic open-cellular hydrogel adsorbents based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were prepared through high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) and used to enrich the rare-earth metals La(3+) and Ce(3+). The changes of pore structure, and the effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration on the adsorption performance were systematically studied. The results show that the as-prepared monolithic hydrogel adsorbents possess good open-cellular framework structure and have fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity for La(3+) and Ce(3+). The involved adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 30min and the maximal adsorption capacity is determined to be 384.62mg/g for La(3+) and 333.33mg/g for Ce(3+). Moreover, these porous hydrogel adsorbents show an excellent adsorptive reusability for La(3+) and Ce(3+) through five adsorption-desorption cycles. Such a pore hierarchy structure makes this monolithic open-cellular hydrogel adsorbent be an effective adsorbent for effective enrichment of La(3+) and Ce(3+) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Triboelectric-Nanogenerator-Based Soft Energy-Harvesting Skin Enabled by Toughly Bonded Elastomer/Hydrogel Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Liu, Mengmeng; Dou, Su; Sun, Jiangman; Cong, Zifeng; Jiang, Chunyan; Du, Chunhua; Pu, Xiong; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-03-27

    A major challenge accompanying the booming next-generation soft electronics is providing correspondingly soft and sustainable power sources for driving such devices. Here, we report stretchable triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) with dual working modes based on the soft hydrogel-elastomer hybrid as energy skins for harvesting biomechanical energies. The tough interfacial bonding between the hydrophilic hydrogel and hydrophobic elastomer, achieved by the interface modification, ensures the stable mechanical and electrical performances of the TENGs. Furthermore, the dehydration of this toughly bonded hydrogel-elastomer hybrid is significantly inhibited (the average dehydration decreases by over 73%). With PDMS as the electrification layer and hydrogel as the electrode, a stretchable, transparent (90% transmittance), and ultrathin (380 μm) single-electrode TENG was fabricated to conformally attach on human skin and deform as the body moves. The two-electrode mode TENG is capable of harvesting energy from arbitrary human motions (press, stretch, bend, and twist) to drive the self-powered electronics. This work provides a feasible technology to design soft power sources, which could potentially solve the energy issues of soft electronics.

  10. A simple hemostasis model for the quantitative evaluation of hydrogel-based local hemostatic biomaterials on tissue surface.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2008-09-01

    Several hemostat hydrogels are clinically used, and some other agents are studied for safer, more facile, and more efficient hemostasis. In the present paper, we proposed a novel method to evaluate local hemostat hydrogel on tissue surface. The procedure consisted of the following steps: (step 1) a mouse was fixed on a cork board, and its abdomen was incised; (step 2) serous fluid was carefully removed because it affected the estimation of the weight gained by the filter paper, and parafilm and preweighted filter paper were placed beneath the liver (parafilm prevented the filter paper's absorption of gradually oozing serous fluid); (step 3) the cork board was tilted and maintained at an angle of about 45 degrees so that the bleeding would more easily flow from the liver toward the filter paper; and (step 4) the bleeding lasted for 3 min. In this step, a hemostat was applied to the liver wound immediately after the liver was pricked with a needle. We found that (1) a careful removal of serous fluid prior to a bleeding and (2) a quantitative determination of the amount of excess aqueous solution that oozed out from a hemostat were important to a rigorous evaluation of hemostat efficacy. We successfully evaluated the efficacy of a fibrin-based hemostat hydrogel by using our method. The method proposed in the present study enabled the quantitative, accurate, and easy evaluation of the efficacy of local hemostatic hydrogel which acts as tissue-adhesive agent on biointerfaces.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and application in biomedicine of a novel chondroitin sulfate based hydrogel and bioadhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehin, Iossif

    Clinically, there exists a need for adhesive biomaterials. There is room to improve upon what is currently on the market as it is either too toxic, lacks the required adhesive strength and/or lacks the desired degradation properties. The general goals of this thesis all focused on designing a biomaterial which would improve upon these shortcomings while at the same time allow for modifications to meet the needs for the specific application of interest. To accomplish this task, it was important to choose the appropriate composition and crosslinking chemistry which will allow the most flexibility. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was chosen as the principle component of the hydrogel because it is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in almost all tissues in the body. Many variants of CS exist with each one possessing unique biological activity allowing for tight control over these properties of the material. To modulate cell migration through the adhesive, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or blood was used as the second constituent. The former made the scaffold act as a cell barrier while the ladder could be used in varying concentrations to modulate cell adhesion and migration into the biomaterial. Also, the CS and blood components are both biodegradable and degradation can be controlled using various methods. While the constituents were chosen to allow flexibility in the biological activity and cell migration into the scaffold, the crosslinking chemistry was chosen to allow control over the mechanical properties as well as to increase tissue adhesion. By functionalizing the carboxyl groups of the GAG with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), the resulting chondroitin sulfate succinimidyl succinate (CS-NHS) molecule could react with primary amines on polymers to form a hydrogel as well as the primary amines on proteins comprising tissue to anchor the hydrogel to the tissue. The material has been characterized and optimized for several applications. The applications described here

  12. T-style keratoprosthesis based on surface-modified poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel for cornea repairs.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun; Sun, Jianguo; Hong, Jiaxu; Wang, Wentao; Wei, Anji; Le, Qihua; Xu, Jianjiang

    2015-05-01

    Corneal disease is a common cause of blindness, and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents a novel T-style design of a keratoprosthesis and its preparation methods, in which a mechanically and structurally effective artificial cornea is made based on a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel. The porous skirt was modified with hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin, and the bottom of the optical column was coated with poly(ethylene glycol). The physical properties of the T-style Kpro were analyzed using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry and electron scanning microscopy. The surface chemical properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface modification in the spongy skirt promoted cell adhesion and produced a firm bond between the corneal tissue and the implant device, while the surface modification in the optic column resisted cell adhesion and prevented retroprosthetic membrane formation. Through improved surgical techniques, the novel T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with the host environment. In vivo implantation experiments showed that the T-style keratoprosthesis is a promising cornea alternative for patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal opacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation on pH- and temperature-responsive chitosan-p(MAA-co-NIPAM) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Rasib, S Z M; Ahmad, Z; Khan, A; Akil, H M; Othman, M B H; Hamid, Z A A; Ullah, F

    2018-03-01

    In this study, chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) [chitosan-p(MAA-co-NIPAM)] hydrogels were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. In order to be used as a carrier for drug delivery systems, the hydrogels had to be biocompatible, biodegradable and multi-responsive. The polymerization was performed by copolymerize MAA and NIPAM with chitosan polymer to produce a chitosan-based hydrogel. Due to instability during synthesis and complexity of components to produce the hydrogel, further study at different times of reaction is important to observe the synthesis process, the effect of end product on swelling behaviour and the most important is to find the best way to control the hydrogel synthesis in order to have an optimal swelling behaviour for drug release application. Studied by using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy found that, the synthesized was successfully produced stable chitosan-based hydrogel with PNIPAM continuously covered the outer surface of hydrogel which influenced much on the stability during synthesis. The chitosan and PMAA increased the zeta potential of the hydrogel and the chitosan capable to control shrinkage above human body temperature. The chitosan-p(MAA-co-NIPAM) hydrogels also responses to pH and temperature thus improved the ability to performance as a drug carrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and characterisation of a novel hydrogel based on Auricularia polytricha β-glucan and its bio-release property for vitamin B12 delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Da; He, Yue; Song, Guanglei

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates a novel hydrogel synthesis method and its bio-release property. This hydrogel, with a three-dimensional network structure based on Auricularia polytricha β-glucan, was characterised by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1 H NMR and scanning electron microscopy. Vitamin B 12 (VB 12 , cobalamin) as a hydrophilic functional food component was entrapped into these hydrogels. The in vitro release profile of VB 12 was established in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The results showed that the hydrogel had medium pore size from 30 to 300 µm, and the swelling ratio increased with the degree of substitution. The hydrogel demonstrated good stability in SGF and bio-release capability in SIF for VB 12 . The accumulated release rate is about 80% in SIF and below 20% in SGF, which indicated the significant different release property in stomach and intestine. The Auricularia polytricha β-glucan-based hydrogel has a good swelling ratio, pepsin stability and pancrelipase-catalysed biodegradation property. The bio-release rate is significantly different in SIF and SGF, which indicated that this hydrogel could be a good intestinal target carrier of VB 12 . © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  16. Programmable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong

    2018-03-05

    Programmable hydrogels are defined as hydrogels that are able to change their properties and functions periodically, reversibly and/or sequentially on demand. They are different from those responsive hydrogels whose changes are passive or cannot be stopped or reversed once started and vice versa. The purpose of this review is to summarize major progress in developing programmable hydrogels from the viewpoints of principles, functions and biomedical applications. The principles are first introduced in three categories including biological, chemical and physical stimulation. With the stimulation, programmable hydrogels can undergo functional changes in dimension, mechanical support, cell attachment and molecular sequestration, which are introduced in the middle of this review. The last section is focused on the introduction and discussion of four biomedical applications including mechanistic studies in mechanobiology, tissue engineering, cell separation and protein delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reusable self-healing hydrogels realized via in situ polymerization.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Balachandran; Prasad, Edamana

    2015-04-09

    In this work, a self-healing hydrogel has been prepared using in situ polymerization of acrylic acid and acrylamide in the presence of glycogen. The hydrogel was characterized using NMR, SEM, FT-IR, rheology, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. The developed hydrogel exhibits self-healing properties at neutral pH, high swelling ability, high elasticity, and excellent mechanical strength. The hydrogel exhibits modulus values (G', G″) as high as 10(6) Pa and shows an exceptionally high degree of swelling ratio (∼3.5 × 10(3)). Further, the polymer based hydrogel adsorbs toxic metal ions (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+)) and organic dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) from contaminated water with remarkable efficiency (90-98%). The mechanistic analysis indicated the presence of pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The reusability of the hydrogel has been demonstrated by repeating the adsorption-desorption process over five cycles with identical results in the adsorption efficiency.

  18. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, N. Narayana; Ravindra, S.; Reddy, N. Madhava; Rajinikanth, V.; Raju, K. Mohana; Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu

    2015-11-01

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies.

  19. Novel levan and pNIPA temperature sensitive hydrogels for 5-ASA controlled release.

    PubMed

    Osman, Asila; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Eroglu, Mehmet S

    2017-06-01

    Levan based cross-linker was successfully synthesized and used to prepare a series of more biocompatible and temperature responsive levan/N-isopropyl acrylamide (levan/pNIPA) hydrogels by redox polymerization at room temperature. Volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the hydrogels were precisely determined by derivative differential scanning calorimetry (DDSC). Incorporation of levan into the pNIPA hydrogel increased the VPTT from 32.8°C to 35.09°C, approaching to body temperature. Swelling behavior and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) release of the hydrogels were found to vary significantly with temperature and composition. Moreover, a remarkable increase in thermal stability of levan within hydrogel with increase of pNIPA content was recorded. The biocompatibility of the hydrogels were tested against mouse fibroblast L929 cell line in phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 7.4). The hydrogels showed increasing biocompatibility with increasing levan ratio, indicating levan enhanced the hydrogel surface during swelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of visible-light responsive and mechanically enhanced "smart" UCST interpenetrating network hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifei; Ghag, Onkar; Reimann, Morgan; Sitterle, Philip; Chatterjee, Prithwish; Nofen, Elizabeth; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing; Dai, Lenore L

    2017-12-20

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), chlorophyllin-incorporated environmentally responsive hydrogel was synthesized and exhibited the following features: enhanced mechanical properties, upper critical solution temperature (UCST) swelling behavior, and promising visible-light responsiveness. Poor mechanical properties are known challenges for hydrogel-based materials. By forming an interpenetrating network between polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer networks, the mechanical properties of the synthesized IPN hydrogels were significantly improved compared to hydrogels made of a single network of each polymer. The formation of the interpenetrating network was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the analysis of glass transition temperature, and a unique UCST responsive swelling behavior, which is in contrast to the more prevalent lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviour of environmentally responsive hydrogels. The visible-light responsiveness of the synthesized hydrogel also demonstrated a positive swelling behavior, and the effect of incorporating chlorophyllin as the chromophore unit was observed to reduce the average pore size and further enhance the mechanical properties of the hydrogel. This interpenetrating network system shows potential to serve as a new route in developing "smart" hydrogels using visible-light as a simple, inexpensive, and remotely controllable stimulus.

  1. Investigation of copper (Cu2+) adsorption performances and gamma radiation dose effect of polymeric hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Safia; Yasin, Tariq; Imran, Zahid; Batool, Syeda Sitwat

    2018-02-01

    In present study, series of gamma irradiated poly(acrylic acid)/Penytriethoxytrisilane (PTES) based hydrogels were synthesized. The hydrogels were used for the adsorption of Cu2+ from the aqueous solution. Batch adsorption experiments were performed by varying contact time (0-10 hours), pH value (2-6), hydrogels weight (15-155 mg) and initial Cu2+ concentration (0.003-90 mg/L). The results indicated that lowering the gamma irradiation dose (30-15 kGy) and PTES amount (1.65-0.83 μmol) into hydrogel polymeric networks, improved the initial rate of adsorption and final adsorption capacity of hydrogel for Cu2+. AA40/15 had 143.4mg/g Cu2+ adsorption capacity higher than AA80/30 which is 106.0mg/g. Hydrogels exhibited maximum o adsorption capacity for Cu2+ within a wide pH range. All adsorption data was described by the pseudo—first order and second order kinetic model equations and isotherm data by Langmuir model. FTIR spectra analysis before and after adsorption of Cu2+ on the AA hydrogels gave detail analysis of adsorption mechanism. The behavior of adsorption expressed that the enhanced adsorption capacity was due to the porous structure and e presence of functional groups onto surface of adsorbate. It is expected this polymeric hydrogel has potential to work as alternative biomedical sorbents and environmental use as pH altered.

  2. Temperature-responsive in situ nanoparticle hydrogels based on hydrophilic pendant cyclic ether modified PEG-PCL-PEG.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zujian; Zhao, Junqiang; Li, Yin; Xu, Shuxin; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2016-10-20

    Thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels based on poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL/PEG) block copolymers have attracted considerable attention for sustained drug release and tissue engineering applications. Previously, we have reported a thermo-sensitive hydrogel of P(CL-co-TOSUO)-PEG-P(CL-co-TOSUO) (PECT) triblock copolymers modified by hydrophilic cyclic ether pendant groups 1,4,8-trioxa-[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone (TOSUO). Unfortunately, the low gel modulus of PECT (only 50-70 Pa) may limit its applications. Herein, another kind of thermogelling triblock copolymer of a pendant cyclic ether-modified caprolactonic poloxamer analog, PEG-P(CL-co-TOSUO)-PEG (PECTE), was successfully prepared by control of the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity balance and chemical compositions of the copolymers. PECTE powder could directly disperse in water to f