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Sample records for acid binding affinity

  1. Specific high-affinity binding of fatty acids to epidermal cytosolic proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.; Chung, W.L.; Mukhtar, H. )

    1991-08-01

    Cytosol from rat, mouse, and human skin or rat epidermis was incubated with (3H)arachidonic acid, (14C)retinoic acid, (14C)oleic acid, (3H)leukotriene A4, (3H)prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or (3H) 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), and protein-bound ligands were separated using Lipidex-1000 at 4C to assess the binding specificity. The binding of oleic acid and arachidonic acid with rat epidermal cytosol was rapid, saturable, and reversible. Binding of oleic acid was competed out with the simultaneous addition of other ligands and found to be in the following order: arachidonic acid greater than oleic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than lauric acid greater than leukotriene A4 greater than 15-HETE = PGE1 greater than PGE2 = PGF2. Scatchard analysis of the binding with arachidonic acid, oleic acid, and retinoic acid revealed high-affinity binding sites with the dissociation constant in the nM range. SDS-PAGE analysis of the oleic acid-bound epidermal cytosolic protein(s) revealed maximum binding at the 14.5 kDa region. The presence of the fatty acid-binding protein in epidermal cytosol and its binding to fatty acids and retinoic acid may be of significance both in the trafficking and the metabolism of fatty acids and retinoids across the skin.

  2. Affinity regression predicts the recognition code of nucleic acid binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pelossof, Raphael; Singh, Irtisha; Yang, Julie L.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Hughes, Timothy R.; Leslie, Christina S.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the affinity profiles of nucleic acid-binding proteins directly from the protein sequence is a major unsolved problem. We present a statistical approach for learning the recognition code of a family of transcription factors (TFs) or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from high-throughput binding assays. Our method, called affinity regression, trains on protein binding microarray (PBM) or RNA compete experiments to learn an interaction model between proteins and nucleic acids, using only protein domain and probe sequences as inputs. By training on mouse homeodomain PBM profiles, our model correctly identifies residues that confer DNA-binding specificity and accurately predicts binding motifs for an independent set of divergent homeodomains. Similarly, learning from RNA compete profiles for diverse RBPs, our model can predict the binding affinities of held-out proteins and identify key RNA-binding residues. More broadly, we envision applying our method to model and predict biological interactions in any setting where there is a high-throughput ‘affinity’ readout. PMID:26571099

  3. Binding affinities of amino acid analogues at the charged aqueous titania interface: implications for titania-binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Anas M; Hughes, Zak E; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2014-11-11

    Despite the extensive utilization of biomolecule-titania interfaces, biomolecular recognition and interactions at the aqueous titania interface remain far from being fully understood. Here, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, in partnership with metadynamics, are used to calculate the free energy of adsorption of different amino acid side chain analogues at the negatively-charged aqueous rutile TiO2 (110) interface, under conditions corresponding with neutral pH. Our calculations predict that charged amino acid analogues have a relatively high affinity to the titania surface, with the arginine analogue predicted to be the strongest binder. Interactions between uncharged amino acid analogues and titania are found to be repulsive or weak at best. All of the residues that bound to the negatively-charged interface show a relatively stronger adsorption compared with the charge-neutral interface, including the negatively-charged analogue. Of the analogues that are found to bind to the titania surface, the rank ordering of the binding affinities is predicted to be "arginine" > "lysine" ≈ aspartic acid > "serine". This is the same ordering as was found previously for the charge-neutral aqueous titania interface. Our results show very good agreement with available experimental data and can provide a baseline for the interpretation of peptide-TiO2 adsorption data.

  4. Characterization of the binding strengths between boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules by affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lü, Chenchen; Liu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of boronic acids toward cis-diol-containing biomolecules has found wide applications in many fields, such as sensing, separation, drug delivery, and functional materials. A sound understanding of the binding interactions will greatly facilitate exquisite applications of this chemistry. Traditional techniques are associated with some apparent drawbacks, so they are only applicable to a limited range of boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules. This chapter describes an affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method for the characterization of the binding strengths between boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules. As compared with existing approaches, such as (11)B NMR, the ACE method exhibits several significant advantages: (1) possibility of simultaneous study of multiple interactions, (2) low requirement on the purity of the binding species, (3) widely applicable to almost all types of cis-diol-containing compounds and boronic acids, and (4) high accuracy and precision.

  5. Selectivity and affinity determinants for ligand binding to the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Knut; McKinney, Jeffrey Alan; Haavik, Jan; Martínez, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxylation of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan is carried out by a family of non-heme iron and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) dependent enzymes, i.e. the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAHs). The reactions catalyzed by these enzymes are important for biomedicine and their mutant forms in humans are associated with phenylketonuria (phenylalanine hydroxylase), Parkinson's disease and DOPA-responsive dystonia (tyrosine hydroxylase), and possibly neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders (tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and 2). We attempt to rationalize current knowledge about substrate and inhibitor specificity based on the three-dimensional structures of the enzymes and their complexes with substrates, cofactors and inhibitors. In addition, further insights on the selectivity and affinity determinants for ligand binding in the AAHs were obtained from molecular interaction field (MIF) analysis. We applied this computational structural approach to a rational analysis of structural differences at the active sites of the enzymes, a strategy that can help in the design of novel selective ligands for each AAH.

  6. Identification and binding mechanism of phage displayed peptides with specific affinity to acid-alkali treated titanium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhua; Tan, Jing; Wu, Baohua; Wang, Jianxin; Qu, Shuxin; Weng, Jie; Feng, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Acid-alkali treatment is one of means widely used for preparing bioactive titanium surfaces. Peptides with specific affinity to titanium surface modified by acid-alkali two-steps treatment were obtained via phage display technology. Out of the eight new unique peptides, titanium-binding peptide 54 displayed by monoclonal M13 phage at its pIII coat protein (TBP54-M13 phage) was proved to have higher binding affinity to the substrate. The binding interaction occurred at the domain from phenylalanine at position 1 to arginine at position 6 in the sequences of TBP54 (FAETHRGFHFSF) mainly via the reaction of these residues with the Ti surface. Together the coordination and electrostatic interactions controlled the specific binding of the phage to the substrate. The binding affinity was dependent on the surface basic hydroxyl group content. In addition, the phage showed a different interaction way with the Ti surface without acid-alkali treatment along with an impaired affinity. This study could provide more understanding of the interaction mechanism between the selected peptide and its specific substrate, and develop a promising method for the biofunctionalization of titanium.

  7. Alkali metal ion binding to amino acids versus their methyl esters: affinity trends and structural changes in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Talley, Jody M; Cerda, Blas A; Ohanessian, Gilles; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2002-03-15

    The relative alkali metal ion (M(+)) affinities (binding energies) between seventeen different amino acids (AA) and the corresponding methyl esters (AAOMe) were determined in the gas phase by the kinetic method based on the dissociation of AA-M(+)-AAOMe heterodimers (M=Li, Na, K, Cs). With the exception of proline, the Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) affinities of the other aliphatic amino acids increase in the order AAaffinities generally decrease in this direction. For aliphatic beta-amino acids, which are particularly basic molecules, the order AA>AAOMe is already observed for K(+). Proline binds more strongly than its methyl ester to all M(+) except Li(+). Ab initio calculations on the M(+) complexes of alanine, beta-aminoisobutyric acid, proline, glycine methyl ester, alanine methyl ester, and proline methyl ester show that their energetically most favorable complexes result from charge solvation, except for proline which forms salt bridges. The most stable mode of charge solvation depends on the ligand (AA or AAOMe) and, for AA, it gradually changes with metal ion size. Esters chelate all M(+) ions through the amine and carbonyl groups. Amino acids coordinate Li(+) and Na(+) ions through the amine and carbonyl groups as well, but K(+) and Cs(+) ions are coordinated by the O atoms of the carboxyl group. Upon consideration of these differences in favored binding geometries, the theoretically derived relative M(+) affinities between aliphatic AA and AAOMe are in good overall agreement with the above given experimental trends. The majority of side chain functionalized amino acids studied show experimentally the affinity order AAacids lysine and arginine, whose K(+) (for arginine) and Cs(+) complexes (for both) follow the affinity order AA>AAOMe. The latter ranking is attributed to salt bridge formation.

  8. Characterization of the sources of protein-ligand affinity: 1-sulfonato-8-(1')anilinonaphthalene binding to intestinal fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, W R; Kurian, E; Prendergast, F G

    1996-01-01

    1-Sulfonato-8-(1')anilinonaphthalene (1,8-ANS) was employed as a fluorescent probe of the fatty acid binding site of recombinant rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein (1-FABP). The enhancement of fluorescence upon binding allowed direct determination of binding affinity by fluorescence titration experiments, and measurement of the effects on that affinity of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Solvent isotope effects were also determined. These data were compared to results from isothermal titration calorimetry. We obtained values for the enthalpy and entropy of this interaction at a variety of temperatures, and hence determined the change in heat capacity of the system consequent upon binding. The ANS-1-FABP is enthalpically driven; above approximately 14 degrees C it is entropically opposed, but below this temperature the entropy makes a positive contribution to the binding. The changes we observe in both enthalpy and entropy of binding with temperature can be derived from the change in heat capacity upon binding by integration, which demonstrates the internal consistency of our results. Bound ANS is displaced by fatty acids and can itself displace fatty acids bound to I-FABP. The binding site for ANS appears to be inside the solvent-containing cavity observed in the x-ray crystal structure, the same cavity occupied by fatty acid. From the fluorescence spectrum and from an inversion of the Debye-Hueckel formula for the activity coefficients as a function of added salt, we inferred that this cavity is fairly polar in character, which is in keeping with inferences drawn from the x-ray structure. The binding affinity of ANS is considered to be a consequence of both electrostatic and conditional hydrophobic effects. We speculate that the observed change in heat capacity is produced mainly by the displacement of strongly hydrogen-bonded waters from the protein cavity. PMID:8770188

  9. Enhanced Binding Affinity for an i-Motif DNA Substrate Exhibited by a Protein Containing Nucleobase Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaoguang; Talukder, Poulami; Daskalova, Sasha M; Roy, Basab; Chen, Shengxi; Li, Zhongxian; Dedkova, Larisa M; Hecht, Sidney M

    2017-03-17

    Several variants of a nucleic acid binding motif (RRM1) of putative transcription factor hnRNP LL containing nucleobase amino acids at specific positions have been prepared and used to study binding affinity for the BCL2 i-motif DNA. Molecular modeling suggested a number of amino acids in RRM1 likely to be involved in interaction with the i-motif DNA, and His24 and Arg26 were chosen for modification based on their potential ability to interact with G14 of the i-motif DNA. Four nucleobase amino acids were introduced into RRM1 at one or both of positions 24 and 26. The introduction of cytosine nucleobase 2 into position 24 of RRM1 increased the affinity of the modified protein for the i-motif DNA, consistent with the possible Watson-Crick interaction of 2 and G14. In comparison, the introduction of uracil nucleobase 3 had a minimal effect on DNA affinity. Two structurally simplified nucleobase analogues (1 and 4) lacking both the N-1 and the 2-oxo substituents were also introduced in lieu of His24. Again, the RRM1 analogue containing 1 exhibited enhanced affinity for the i-motif DNA, while the protein analogue containing 4 bound less tightly to the DNA substrate. Finally, the modified protein containing 1 in lieu of Arg26 also bound to the i-motif DNA more strongly than the wild-type protein, but a protein containing 1 both at positions 24 and 26 bound to the DNA less strongly than wild type. The results support the idea of using nucleobase amino acids as protein constituents for controlling and enhancing DNA-protein interaction. Finally, modification of the i-motif DNA at G14 diminished RRM1-DNA interaction, as well as the ability of nucleobase amino acid 1 to stabilize RRM1-DNA interaction.

  10. Photoaffinity labeling of high affinity nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-binding proteins in sea urchin egg.

    PubMed

    Walseth, Timothy F; Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Jain, Pooja; Ruas, Margarida; Parrington, John; Galione, Antony; Marchant, Jonathan S; Slama, James T

    2012-01-20

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a messenger that regulates calcium release from intracellular acidic stores. Recent studies have identified two-pore channels (TPCs) as endolysosomal channels that are regulated by NAADP; however, the nature of the NAADP receptor binding site is unknown. To further study NAADP binding sites, we have synthesized and characterized [(32)P-5-azido]nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate ([(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP) as a photoaffinity probe. Photolysis of sea urchin egg homogenates preincubated with [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP resulted in specific labeling of 45-, 40-, and 30-kDa proteins, which was prevented by inclusion of nanomolar concentrations of unlabeled NAADP or 5N(3)-NAADP, but not by micromolar concentrations of structurally related nucleotides such as NAD, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinic acid, or nicotinamide. [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP binding was saturable and displayed high affinity (K(d) ∼10 nM) in both binding and photolabeling experiments. [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP photolabeling was irreversible in a high K(+) buffer, a hallmark feature of NAADP binding in the egg system. The proteins photolabeled by [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP have molecular masses smaller than the sea urchin TPCs, and antibodies to TPCs do not detect any immunoreactivity that comigrates with either the 45-kDa or the 40-kDa photolabeled proteins. Interestingly, antibodies to TPC1 and TPC3 were able to immunoprecipitate a small fraction of the 45- and 40-kDa photolabeled proteins, suggesting that these proteins associate with TPCs. These data suggest that high affinity NAADP binding sites are distinct from TPCs.

  11. BAD-lectins: boronic acid-decorated lectins with enhanced binding affinity for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-De; Chen, Chang-Yang; Wu, Sz-Wei; Han, Chia-Li; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2013-09-03

    The weak and variable binding affinities exhibited by lectin-carbohydrate interactions have often compromised the practical utility of lectin in capturing glycoproteins for glycoproteomic applications. We report here the development and applications of a new type of hybrid biomaterial, namely a boronic acid-decorated lectin (BAD-lectin), for efficient bifunctional glycoprotein labeling and enrichment. Our binding studies showed an enhanced affinity by BAD-lectin, likely to be mediated via the formation of boronate ester linkages between the lectin and glycan subsequent to the initial recognition process and thus preserving its glycan-specificity. Moreover, when attached to magnetic nanoparticles (BAD-lectin@MNPs), 2 to 60-fold improvement on detection sensitivity and enrichment efficiency for specific glycoproteins was observed over the independent use of either lectin or BA. Tested at the level of whole cell lysates for glycoproteomic applications, three different types of BAD-lectin@MNPs exhibited excellent specificities with only 6% overlapping among the 295 N-linked glycopeptides identified. As many as 236 N-linked glycopeptides (80%) were uniquely identified by one of the BAD-lectin@MNPs. These results indicated that the enhanced glycan-selective recognition and binding affinity of BAD-lectin@MNPs will facilitate a complementary identification of the under-explored glycoproteome.

  12. Chemical binding affinity estimation using MSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.

    2011-03-01

    Binding affinity can be estimated in several ways in the laboratory but there is no viable way to estimate binding affinity in vivo without assumptions on the number of binding sites. Magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion, MSB, measures the rotational Brownian motion. The MSB signal is affected by nanoparticle binding affinity so it provides a mechanism to measure the chemical binding affinity. We present a possible mechanism to quantify the binding affinity and test that mechanism using viscous solutions.

  13. Determination of drug-polymer binding constants by affinity capillary electrophoresis for aryl propionic acid derivatives and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongjiang; Choi, Duk Soon; Chokshi, Hitesh

    2013-03-01

    The binding constants (K(b)s) of 17 aryl propionic acid derivatives (APADs) and related compounds with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30) and vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64) in aqueous media were determined by affinity capillary electrophoreses (ACE). The K(b)s of APAD to polymers increase with octanol-water partition coefficients of the compounds. Kollidon VA64 is a stronger binder than PVP K30 to APAD compounds. The K(b)s are greater at pH 4 than at pH 9. Both hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding may be involved. However, hydrophobic interaction appears to be dominant. The ACE method is simple and fast, which could be used to study drug-polymer interaction in aqueous media.

  14. On the molecular basis of the high affinity binding of basic amino acids to LAOBP, a periplasmic binding protein from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Nancy O; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Tellez, Luis A; Pérez-Hernández, Gerardo; García-Hernández, Enrique; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro

    2015-02-01

    The rational designing of binding abilities in proteins requires an understanding of the relationship between structure and thermodynamics. However, our knowledge of the molecular origin of high-affinity binding of ligands to proteins is still limited; such is the case for l-lysine-l-arginine-l-ornithine periplasmic binding protein (LAOBP), a periplasmic binding protein from Salmonella typhimurium that binds to l-arginine, l-lysine, and l-ornithine with nanomolar affinity and to l-histidine with micromolar affinity. Structural studies indicate that ligand binding induces a large conformational change in LAOBP. In this work, we studied the thermodynamics of l-histidine and l-arginine binding to LAOBP by isothermal titration calorimetry. For both ligands, the affinity is enthalpically driven, with a binding ΔCp of ~-300 cal mol(-1)  K(-1) , most of which arises from the burial of protein nonpolar surfaces that accompanies the conformational change. Osmotic stress measurements revealed that several water molecules become sequestered upon complex formation. In addition, LAOBP prefers positively charged ligands in their side chain. An energetic analysis shows that the protein acquires a thermodynamically equivalent state with both ligands. The 1000-fold higher affinity of LAOBP for l-arginine as compared with l-histidine is mainly of enthalpic origin and can be ascribed to the formation of an extra pair of hydrogen bonds. Periplasmic binding proteins have evolved diverse energetic strategies for ligand recognition. STM4351, another arginine binding protein from Salmonella, shows an entropy-driven micromolar affinity toward l-arginine. In contrast, our data show that LAOBP achieves nanomolar affinity for the same ligand through enthalpy optimization.

  15. Multispectroscopic and docking studies on the binding of chlorogenic acid isomers to human serum albumin: Effects of esteryl position on affinity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Huang, Yanmei; Ma, Xiangling; Liao, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Qing; Xiong, Xinnuo; Li, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Structural differences among various dietary polyphenols affect their absorption, metabolism, and bioactivities. In this work, chlorogenic acid (CA) and its two positional isomers, neochlorogenic acid (NCA) and cryptochlorogenic acid (CCA), were investigated for their binding reactions with human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopies, as well as molecular docking. All three isomers were bound to HSA at Sudlow's site I and affected the protein secondary structure. CCA presented the strongest ability of hydrogen-bond formation, and both CA and NCA generated more electrostatic interactions with HSA. The albumin-binding capacity of these compounds decreased in the order CCA>NCA>CA. The compound with 4-esteryl structure showed higher binding affinity and larger conformational changes to HSA than that with 3- or 5-esteryl structures. These comparative studies on structure-affinity relationship contributed to the structural modification and design of phenolic food additives or new polyphenol-like drugs.

  16. Sedimentation properties in density gradients correspond with levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, chromatin compaction and binding affinity to hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Forough; Binduraihem, Adel; Miller, David

    2017-03-01

    Mature spermatozoa bind hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix via hyaladherins. Immature spermatozoa may be unable to interact because they do not express the appropriate hyaladherins on their surface. Fresh human semen samples were fractionated using differential density gradient centrifugation (DDGC) and the ability of these fractions to bind hyaluronic acid was evaluated. The presence of sperm hyaladherins was also assessed. CD44 was located mainly on the acrosome and equatorial segment and became more restricted to the equatorial segment in capacitated spermatozoa. Hyaluronic acid-TRITC (hyaluronic acid conjugated with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanante), a generic hyaluronic-acid-binding reagent, labelled the membrane and the neck region, particularly after capacitation. Sperm populations obtained after DDGC or after interaction with hyaluronic acid were assessed for DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity. Strong relationships between both measures and sperm sedimentation and hyaluronic-acid-binding profiles were revealed. Capacitation enhanced hyaluronic acid binding of both DDGC-pelleted sperm and sperm washed free of seminal fluid. In conclusion, hyaladherins were detected on human sperm and a higher capacity for sperm hyaluronic-acid-binding was shown to correspond with their DDGC sedimentation profiles and with lower levels of DNA fragmentation and better chromatin maturity. Capacitation induced changes in the distribution and presence of hyaladherins may enhance hyaluronic-acid-binding.

  17. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands: design, synthesis, and binding studies.

    PubMed

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte; Frydenvang, Karla; Dahl, Ivar F; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Brehm, Lotte; Frølund, Bente; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2008-12-25

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites in brain, of which the latter have not been linked unequivocally to function, but are speculated to be GHB receptors. In this study, a series of biaromatic 4-substituted GHB analogues, including 4'-phenethylphenyl, 4'-styrylphenyl, and 4'-benzyloxyphenyl GHB analogues, were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically in a [3H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid ([3H]NCS-382) binding assay and in GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor binding assays. The compounds were selective for the high-affinity GHB binding sites and several displayed Ki values below 100 nM. The affinity of the 4-[4'-(2-iodobenzyloxy)phenyl] GHB analogue 17b was shown to reside predominantly with the R-enantiomer (Ki = 22 nM), which has higher affinity than previously reported GHB ligands.

  18. Predicting the effects of amino acid replacements in peptide hormones on their binding affinities for class B GPCRs and application to the design of secretin receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Jerez A.; Dong, Maoqing; Miller, Laurence J.; Bordner, Andrew J.

    2012-07-01

    Computational prediction of the effects of residue changes on peptide-protein binding affinities, followed by experimental testing of the top predicted binders, is an efficient strategy for the rational structure-based design of peptide inhibitors. In this study we apply this approach to the discovery of competitive antagonists for the secretin receptor, the prototypical member of class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Proteins in this family are involved in peptide hormone-stimulated signaling and are implicated in several human diseases, making them potential therapeutic targets. We first validated our computational method by predicting changes in the binding affinities of several peptides to their cognate class B GPCRs due to alanine replacement and compared the results with previously published experimental values. Overall, the results showed a significant correlation between the predicted and experimental ΔΔG values. Next, we identified candidate inhibitors by applying this method to a homology model of the secretin receptor bound to an N-terminal truncated secretin peptide. Predictions were made for single residue replacements to each of the other nineteen naturally occurring amino acids at peptide residues within the segment binding the receptor N-terminal domain. Amino acid replacements predicted to most enhance receptor binding were then experimentally tested by competition-binding assays. We found two residue changes that improved binding affinities by almost one log unit. Furthermore, a peptide combining both of these favorable modifications resulted in an almost two log unit improvement in binding affinity, demonstrating the approximately additive effect of these changes on binding. In order to further investigate possible physical effects of these residue changes on receptor binding affinity, molecular dynamics simulations were performed on representatives of the successful peptide analogues (namely A17I, G25R, and A17I/G25R) in bound and

  19. On-column entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein for studies of drug-protein binding by high-performance affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Bi, Cong; Koke, Michelle; Jackson, Abby; Hage, David S

    2016-08-01

    An on-column approach for protein entrapment was developed to immobilize alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for drug-protein binding studies based on high-performance affinity chromatography. Soluble AGP was physically entrapped by using microcolumns that contained hydrazide-activated porous silica and by employing mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. Three on-column entrapment methods were evaluated and compared to a previous slurry-based entrapment method. The final selected method was used to prepare 1.0 cm × 2.1 mm I.D. affinity microcolumns that contained up to 21 (±4) μg AGP and that could be used over the course of more than 150 sample applications. Frontal analysis and zonal elution studies were performed on these affinity microcolumns to examine the binding of various drugs with the entrapped AGP. Site-selective competition studies were also conducted for these drugs. The results showed good agreement with previous observations for these drug-protein systems and with binding constants that have been reported in the literature. The entrapment method developed in this study should be useful for future work in the area of personalized medicine and in the high-throughput screening of drug interactions with AGP or other proteins. Graphical abstract On-column protein entrapment using a hydrazide-activated support and oxidized glycogen as a capping agent.

  20. Expression, purification and characterization of the recombinant kringle 2 and kringle 3 domains of human plasminogen and analysis of their binding affinity for omega-aminocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Marti, D; Schaller, J; Ochensberger, B; Rickli, E E

    1994-01-15

    The kringle 2 (E161T/C162S/EEE[K2HPg/C169S]TT) and the kringle 3 (TYQ[K3HPg]DS) domains of human plasminogen (HPg) were expressed in Escherichia coli in an expression vector with the phage T5 promotor/operator element N250PSN250P29 and the cDNA sequence for a hexahistidine tail to facilitate the isolation of the recombinant protein. A coagulation factor Xa (FXa)-sensitive cleavage site was introduced to remove the N-terminal histidine tag. In r-K2, mutations E161T and C162S were introduced to enhance the FXa cleavage yield and C169S to replace the cysteine residue, participating in the inter-kringle disulfide bridge between kringles 2 and 3. Recombinant proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid/agarose and refolded under denaturing and reducing conditions followed by a non-denaturing and oxidising environment. The free thiol group in position 297 in r-K3 was selectively alkylated with iodoacetamide. The hexahistidine tail was successfully removed with FXa. The N-terminal sequence, the amino acid composition and the molecular mass analyses are in agreement with the expected data. The correct arrangement of the disulfide bonds was verified by sequence analysis of the corresponding thermolytic and subtilisin fragments. r-K2 exhibits weak binding to lysine-Bio-Gel. The weak binding affinity of r-K2 for omega-aminocarboxylic acids is confirmed by intrinsic fluorescence titration with 6-aminohexanoic acid (NH2C5COOH) indicating a Kd of approximately 401 microM. In contrast, r-K3 seems to be devoid of a binding affinity for omega-aminocarboxylic acids. Considering earlier determined Kd values of kringle 1, kringle 4 and kringle 5, the binding affinity of HPg kringle domains for NH2C5COOH is proposed to decrease in the following order, kringle 1 > kringle 4 > kringle 5 > kringle 2 > kringle 3.

  1. Phosphatase-Stable Phosphoamino Acid Mimetics That Enhance Binding Affinities with the Polo-Box Domain of Polo-like Kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Hymel, David; Burke, Terrence R

    2017-02-03

    (2S,3R)-2-Amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (Pmab) is a phosphatase-stable analogue of phosphothreonine (pThr), which has been used in a variety of biological contexts. Among these applications are peptidomimetic ligands that bind to the polo-box domain (PBD) of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) with affinities approaching that of the corresponding pThr-containing peptides. However, Pmab is not widely used, because there are no direct, high-yield preparations of suitably protected reagent. We have now achieved an efficient synthesis of protected Pmab, as well as variants with different substituents at the 3R center. When incorporated into our peptidomimetic scaffold, these new Pmab analogues exhibit Plk1 PBD-binding affinities that are several-fold higher than Pmab, yet retain good selectivity for Plk1 relative to the PBDs of Plk2 and Plk3. These findings will significantly impact the future development of PBD-binding inhibitors, as well as ligands directed against a broad spectrum of pThr-dependent processes.

  2. Hyphenated affinity capillary electrophoresis with a high-sensitivity cell for the simultaneous binding study of retinol and retinoic acid in nanomolars with serum albumins.

    PubMed

    El-Hady, D Abd; Albishri, H M

    2012-12-12

    Retinol and retinoic acid are Vitamin A components that are critical for many biological processes. Both of them are strongly complexing with serum albumins giving constants of the order of 10(5)Lmol(-1) or higher. With respect to this fact, affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) is not applicable in its commonly used form. Therefore, for the first time, the hyphenated ACE with a high-sensitivity cell was developed and employed to investigate the binding of retinol and retinoic acid in nanomolars with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions. ACE/high-sensitivity coupled cell had contributed to fast the association and dissociation rates of the complexes in nanomolar scale of analytes ensuring the establishment of a dynamic equilibrium within a short electrophoresis time. In addition, this hyphenation led to reduce the concentrations of serum albumins as additives in background electrolyte making a sense beside the proper rinsing protocol for the negligible possibility of their adsorption. The mobility ratio based on nonlinear regression analysis was used to deduce precise binding constants of analytes with serum albumins. The binding constants (K, Lmol(-1)) of retinol were 1.28×10(5) and 5.25×10(6) and retinoic acid were 3.29×10(5) and 2.27×10(6) with HSA and BSA, respectively. The displacement and reciprocal competitive binding of analytes were investigated and indicated that retinoic acid was able to replace retinol from HSA and vice versa in the case of BSA.

  3. Requirement for both H and L chain V regions, VH and VK joining amino acids, and the unique H chain D region for the high affinity binding of an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody.

    PubMed

    Ruff-Jamison, S; Glenney, J R

    1993-04-15

    Sequence analysis of a panel of antibodies to phosphotyrosine revealed predominant H and L chain V regions in the immune response and a unique D segment in the Py20 mAb, which exhibits a high affinity for phosphotyrosine. In order to determine the influence of somatic diversity on the high affinity binding of Py20, H and L chain V regions were expressed in Escherichia coli as an Fv dimer. Whereas the H or L chain V regions of Py20 alone were unable to bind phosphotyrosine, the Fv binds phosphotyrosine with an affinity comparable with the intact IgG as determined by fluorescence quenching experiments (1.55 x 10(-7) M vs 1.25 x 10(-7) M, respectively). Substitution of the Py20 V regions with other IgG V regions that differed greatly in sequence abolished binding. A high affinity Py20-combining site was dependent on the presence of the unique D-D segment. Replacement of the Py20 D-D region with a single homologous D region resulted in a decrease in affinity (5.9 x 10(-7) M). Substitution of this D-D region for the D region of another anti-phosphotyrosine antibody that is known to bind phosphotyrosine weakly (1 x 10(-3) M) conferred high affinity binding. Removal of three tyrosines from the first of the two D regions was accompanied by a fivefold reduction in affinity for phosphotyrosine. In addition, changing the VK and VH junctional amino acids resulted in a complete loss of binding. Therefore, the formation of the high affinity Py20 combining site requires both a H and L chain that are similar in sequence to those of Py20 including the unique D region and the junctional amino acids.

  4. Engineering of Bispecific Affinity Proteins with High Affinity for ERBB2 and Adaptable Binding to Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Åstrand, Mikael; Georgieva-Kotseva, Maria; Björnmalm, Mattias; Löfblom, John; Hober, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor 2, ERBB2, is a well-validated target for cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent studies suggest that the over-expression of this receptor in various cancers might also be exploited for antibody-based payload delivery, e.g. antibody drug conjugates. In such strategies, the full-length antibody format is probably not required for therapeutic effect and smaller tumor-specific affinity proteins might be an alternative. However, small proteins and peptides generally suffer from fast excretion through the kidneys, and thereby require frequent administration in order to maintain a therapeutic concentration. In an attempt aimed at combining ERBB2-targeting with antibody-like pharmacokinetic properties in a small protein format, we have engineered bispecific ERBB2-binding proteins that are based on a small albumin-binding domain. Phage display selection against ERBB2 was used for identification of a lead candidate, followed by affinity maturation using second-generation libraries. Cell surface display and flow-cytometric sorting allowed stringent selection of top candidates from pools pre-enriched by phage display. Several affinity-matured molecules were shown to bind human ERBB2 with sub-nanomolar affinity while retaining the interaction with human serum albumin. Moreover, parallel selections against ERBB2 in the presence of human serum albumin identified several amino acid substitutions that dramatically modulate the albumin affinity, which could provide a convenient means to control the pharmacokinetics. The new affinity proteins competed for ERBB2-binding with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and recognized the native receptor on a human cancer cell line. Hence, high affinity tumor targeting and tunable albumin binding were combined in one small adaptable protein. PMID:25089830

  5. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-l- carnitine and/or R-α-lipoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiankang; Killilea, David W.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2002-01-01

    We test whether the dysfunction with age of carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), a key mitochondrial enzyme for fuel utilization, is due to decreased binding affinity for substrate and whether this substrate, fed to old rats, restores CAT activity. The kinetics of CAT were analyzed by using the brains of young and old rats and of old rats supplemented for 7 weeks with the CAT substrate acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) and/or the mitochondrial antioxidant precursor R-α-lipoic acid (LA). Old rats, compared with young rats, showed a decrease in CAT activity and in CAT-binding affinity for both substrates, ALCAR and CoA. Feeding ALCAR or ALCAR plus LA to old rats significantly restored CAT-binding affinity for ALCAR and CoA, and CAT activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, lipid peroxidation and total iron and copper levels were assayed; all increased in old rats. Feeding old rats LA or LA plus ALCAR inhibited lipid peroxidation but did not decrease iron and copper levels. Ex vivo oxidation of young-rat brain with Fe(II) caused loss of CAT activity and binding affinity. In vitro oxidation of purified CAT with Fe(II) inactivated the enzyme but did not alter binding affinity. However, in vitro treatment of CAT with the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxy-nonenal caused a decrease in CAT-binding affinity and activity, thus mimicking age-related change. Preincubation of CAT with ALCAR or CoA prevented malondialdehyde-induced dysfunction. Thus, feeding old rats high levels of key mitochondrial metabolites can ameliorate oxidative damage, enzyme activity, substrate-binding affinity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:11854488

  6. Site-directed mutagenesis of human beta-adrenergic receptors: substitution of aspartic acid-130 by asparagine produces a receptor with high-affinity agonist binding that is uncoupled from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C M; Chung, F Z; Wang, C D; Venter, J C

    1988-01-01

    By using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we have produced a point mutation (guanine to adenine) at nucleotide 388 of the gene for human beta-adrenergic receptor (beta AR) that results in a substitution of asparagine for the highly conserved aspartic acid at position 130 in the putative third transmembrane domain of the human beta AR ([Asn130]beta AR). We have examined the functional significance of this mutation in B-82 cells continuously expressing the mutant [Asn130]beta AR. The mutant [Asn130]beta AR displayed normal antagonist binding but unusually high-affinity agonist binding (5- to 10-fold higher than wild-type beta AR), consistent with a single class of high-affinity binding sites. The mutant beta AR displayed guanine nucleotide-sensitive changes in agonist affinity (3- to 5-fold shift) implying an interaction between the beta AR and the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein; however, the ability of guanine nucleotides to alter agonist affinity was attenuated. Addition of saturating concentrations of isoproterenol to cell cultures expressing mutant [Asn130]-beta ARs had no effect on intracellular levels of cAMP, indicating that the mutant beta AR is unable to affect stimulation of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate that substitution of the aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 130 of the human beta AR dissociates the well-characterized guanine nucleotide effects on agonist affinity from those on activation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein and adenylate cyclase and suggests the existence of two distinct counterions for the amine portion of catecholamines that are associated with high- and low-affinity agonist binding states of beta AR. Images PMID:2840663

  7. Paralogous proteins comprising the 150 kDa hydrophobic-ligand-binding-protein complex of the Taenia solium metacestode have evolved non-overlapped binding affinities toward fatty acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Bae, Young-An; Yang, Yichao; Hong, Sung-Tae; Kong, Yoon

    2011-09-01

    We previously identified a hydrophobic-ligand-binding protein (HLBP) of the Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), which might be involved in the uptake of fatty acids (FAs) from host environments. The TsM 150kDa HLBP was a hetero-oligomeric complex composed of multiple 7kDa (RS1) and 10kDa (CyDA, b1 and m13h) subunits, and displayed a wide spectrum of binding affinities toward various FA analogs. In this study, we analysed biochemical properties and phylogenetic relationships of the individual subunits. Despite the low sequence identity (average 26.5%), these subunit proteins conserved an α-helix-rich structural domain and the first introns inserted in each of the respective chromosomal genes were found to be orthologous to one another, suggesting their common evolutionary origin. The recombinant RS1 protein bound strongly to all of the FA analogs examined including 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)amino]undecanoic acid (DAUDA), but not to 16-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitic acid (16-AP). The interactive binding between RS1 and FA analogs was specifically interfered with by the addition of non-fluorescent FA molecules or antibodies specific to the 150kDa protein. Conversely, the 10kDa members reacted only with the palmitic acid-derived 16-AP, whose interactive force was strengthened by the presence of other FA molecules. The use of mutagenic RS1 proteins demonstrated that a structural/electrostatic integrity around the second α-helix, rather than the conventional Trp residue, was the major factor governing the hydrophobic interaction. The 7 and 10kDa proteins exhibited distinctive immunoreactive patterns against sera from neurocysticercosis patients. These collective data suggest that the paralogous protein family have gained diverse functions during their evolution, to ensure the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and survival of TsMs in hostile host environments.

  8. Americium binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Peters, A J; Hamilton-Taylor, J; Tipping, E

    2001-09-01

    The binding of americium (Am) by peat humic acid (PHA) has been investigated at Am concentrations between 10(-1) and 10(-7) M at pH approximately 2.6 in the presence and absence of Cu as a competing ion. Cu-PHA binding was also investigated in order to derive independent binding constants for use in modeling the competitive binding studies. Humic ion-binding model VI was used to compare the acquired data with previously published binding data and to investigate the importance of high-affinity binding sites in metal-PHA binding. Am was not observed to bind to high-affinity, low-concentration binding sites. The model VI parameter deltaLK2 takes into accountthe small number of strong sites in PHA and was found to be important for Cu-PHA binding but not for Am-PHA binding, regardless of whether Cu was present. Analysis of the PHA sample revealed that it contained a considerable quantity of Fe not removed by the extraction procedure, much of which is believed to be present as Fe(III). Model VI was then used to investigate the possible importance of the presence of Fe(III) in the Am-PHA binding experiments. When Fe(III) was assumed to be present, improved descriptions of the data by model VI were obtained by assuming that all of the metals [Am, Cu, and Fe(III)] undergo strong binding. This highlights the importance of Fe(III) competition in metal-PHA binding studies and possible shortcomings in the extraction procedure used to extract PHA.

  9. Binding Affinities Controlled by Shifting Conformational Equilibria: Opportunities and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Michielssens, Servaas; de Groot, Bert L.; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Conformational selection is an established mechanism in molecular recognition. Despite its power to explain binding events, it is hardly used in protein/ligand design to modulate molecular recognition. Here, we explore the opportunities and limitations of design by conformational selection. Using appropriate thermodynamic cycles, our approach predicts the effects of a conformational shift on binding affinity and also allows one to disentangle the effects induced by a conformational shift from other effects influencing the binding affinity. The method is assessed and applied to explain the contribution of a conformational shift on the binding affinity of six ubiquitin mutants showing different conformational shifts in six different complexes. PMID:25992736

  10. Experimental and theoretical binding affinity between polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and selected phenolic compounds from food matrices.

    PubMed

    Durán-Lara, Esteban F; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Castro, Ricardo I; Avila-Salas, Fabián; González-Nilo, Fernando D; Laurie, V Felipe; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-02-01

    Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a fining agent, widely used in winemaking and brewing, whose mode of action in removing phenolic compounds has not been fully characterised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experimental and theoretical binding affinity of PVPP towards six phenolic compounds representing different types of phenolic species. The interaction between PVPP and phenolics was evaluated in model solutions, where hydroxyl groups, hydrophobic bonding and steric hindrance were characterised. The results of the study indicated that PVPP exhibits high affinity for quercetin and catechin, moderate affinity for epicatechin, gallic acid and lower affinity for 4-methylcatechol and caffeic acid. The affinity has a direct correlation with the hydroxylation degree of each compound. The results show that the affinity of PVPP towards phenols is related with frontier orbitals. This work demonstrates a direct correlation between the experimental affinity and the interaction energy calculations obtained through computational chemistry methods.

  11. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerman, D.; Taylor, S.; Kirschenbaum, I.; Klagsbrun, M.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Thomas, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint.

  12. Affinity Regulates Spatial Range of EGF Receptor Autocrine Ligand Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, Ann; Iida, Tomoko; Lam, Ho-Yan; Hill, Virginia; Wiley, H S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2002-08-08

    Proper spatial localization of EGFR signaling activated by autocrine ligands represents a critical factor in embryonic development as well as tissue organization and function, and ligand/receptor binding affinity is among the molecular and cellular properties suggested to play a role in governing this localization. The authors employ a computational model to predict how receptor-binding affinity affects local capture of autocrine ligand vis-a-vis escape to distal regions, and provide experimental test by constructing cell lines expressing EGFR along with either wild-type EGF or a low-affinity mutant, EGF{sup L47M}. The model predicts local capture of a lower affinity autocrine ligand to be less efficient when the ligand production rate is small relative to receptor appearance rate. The experimental data confirm this prediction, demonstrating that cells can use ligand/receptor binding affinity to regulate ligand spatial distribution when autocrine ligand production is limiting for receptor signaling.

  13. Carbohydrate-binding protein identification by coupling structural similarity searching with binding affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Yang, Yuedong; von Itzstein, Mark; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2014-11-15

    Carbohydrate-binding proteins (CBPs) are potential biomarkers and drug targets. However, the interactions between carbohydrates and proteins are challenging to study experimentally and computationally because of their low binding affinity, high flexibility, and the lack of a linear sequence in carbohydrates as exists in RNA, DNA, and proteins. Here, we describe a structure-based function-prediction technique called SPOT-Struc that identifies carbohydrate-recognizing proteins and their binding amino acid residues by structural alignment program SPalign and binding affinity scoring according to a knowledge-based statistical potential based on the distance-scaled finite-ideal gas reference state (DFIRE). The leave-one-out cross-validation of the method on 113 carbohydrate-binding domains and 3442 noncarbohydrate binding proteins yields a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.56 for SPalign alone and 0.63 for SPOT-Struc (SPalign + binding affinity scoring) for CBP prediction. SPOT-Struc is a technique with high positive predictive value (79% correct predictions in all positive CBP predictions) with a reasonable sensitivity (52% positive predictions in all CBPs). The sensitivity of the method was changed slightly when applied to 31 APO (unbound) structures found in the protein databank (14/31 for APO versus 15/31 for HOLO). The result of SPOT-Struc will not change significantly if highly homologous templates were used. SPOT-Struc predicted 19 out of 2076 structural genome targets as CBPs. In particular, one uncharacterized protein in Bacillus subtilis (1oq1A) was matched to galectin-9 from Mus musculus. Thus, SPOT-Struc is useful for uncovering novel carbohydrate-binding proteins. SPOT-Struc is available at http://sparks-lab.org.

  14. Production and Characterization of Desmalonichrome Relative Binding Affinity for Uranyl Ions in Relation to Other Siderophores

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Kai-For; Dai, Ziyu; Wunschel, David S.

    2016-06-24

    Siderophores are Fe binding secondary metabolites that have been investigated for their uranium binding properties. Much of the previous work has focused on characterizing hydroxamate types of siderophores, such as desferrioxamine B, for their uranyl binding affinity. Carboxylate forms of these metabolites hold potential to be more efficient chelators of uranyl, yet they have not been widely studied and are more difficult to obtain. Desmalonichrome is a carboxylate siderophore which is not commercially available and so was obtained from the ascomycete fungus Fusarium oxysporum cultivated under Fe depleted conditions. The relative affinity for uranyl binding of desmalonichrome was investigated using a competitive analysis of binding affinities between uranyl acetate and different concentrations of iron(III) chloride using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In addition to desmalonichrome, three other siderophores, including two hydroxamates (desferrioxamine B and desferrichrome) and one carboxylate (desferrichrome A) were studied to understand their relative affinities for the uranyl ion at two pH values. The binding affinities of hydroxymate siderophores to uranyl ion were found to decrease to a greater degree at lower pH as the concentration of Fe (III) ion increases. On the other hand, lowering pH has little impact on the binding affinities between carboxylate siderophores and uranyl ion. Desmalonichrome was shown to have the greatest relative affinity for uranyl at any pH and Fe(III) concentration. These results suggest that acidic functional groups in the ligands are critical for strong chelation with uranium at lower pH.

  15. Limited proteolysis for assaying ligand binding affinities of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Benkoussa, M; Nominé, B; Mouchon, A; Lefebvre, B; Bernardon, J M; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    1997-01-01

    The binding of natural or synthetic ligands to nuclear receptors is the triggering event leading to gene transcription activation or repression. Ligand binding to the ligand binding domain of these receptors induces conformational changes that are evidenced by an increased resistance of this domain to proteases. In vitro labeled receptors were incubated with various synthetic or natural agonists or antagonists and submitted to trypsin digestion. Proteolysis products were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantified. The amount of trypsin-resistant fragments was proportional to receptor occupancy by the ligand, and allowed the determination of dissociation constants (kDa). Using the wild-type or mutated human retinoic acid receptor alpha as a model, kDa values determined by classical competition binding assays using tritiated ligands are in agreement with those measured by the proteolytic assay. This method was successfully extended to human retinoic X receptor alpha, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, thus providing a basis for a new, faster assay to determine simultaneously the affinity and conformation of receptors when bound to a given ligand.

  16. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  17. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  18. Phosphatidylserine Reversibly Binds Cu2+ with Extremely High Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Christopher F.; Cong, Xiao; Robison, Aaron; Pace, Hudson P.; Liu, Chunming; Poyton, Matthew F.; Cremer, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) embedded within supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) was found to bind Cu2+ from solution with extraordinarily high affinity. In fact, the equilibrium dissociation constant was in the femtomolar range. The resulting complex formed in a 1:2 Cu2+ to PS ratio and quenches a broad spectrum of lipid-bound fluorophores in a reversible and pH-dependent fashion. At acidic pH values, the fluorophores were almost completely unquenched, while at basic pH values significant quenching (85–90%) was observed. The pH at which the transition occurred was dependent on the PS concentration and ranged from approximately pH 5 to 8. The quenching kinetics was slow at low Cu2+ concentrations and basic values pH (up to several hours), while the unquenching reaction was orders of magnitude more rapid upon lowering the pH. This was consistent with diffusion limited complex formation at basic pH, but rapid dissociation under acidic conditions. The tight binding of Cu2+ to PS may have physiological consequences under certain circumstances. PMID:22548290

  19. A luminescent affinity tag for proteins based on the terbium(III)-binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shinji; Tanaka, Shogo; Inoue, Sayomi; Komatsu, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    Genetically encoded tags attached to proteins of interest are widely exploited for proteome analysis. Here, we present Tb(3+)-binding peptides (TBPs) which can be used for both luminescent measurements and affinity purification of proteins. TBPs consist of acidic amino acid residues and tryptophan residues which serve as Tb(3+)-binding sites and sensitizers for Tb(3+) luminescence, respectively. The Tb(3+) complexes of TBPs fused to a target protein exhibited luminescence characteristic of Tb(3+) by excitation of the tryptophan residue, and fusion proteins fused to one of the TPBs were successfully isolated from Escherichia coli cell lysate by affinity chromatography with a Tb(3+)-immobilized solid support.

  20. The Effect of Geometrical Isomerism of 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid on Its Binding Affinity to HIV-Integrase Enzyme: A Molecular Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    Makola, Mpho M.; Dubery, Ian A.; Kabanda, Mwadham M.; du Preez, Louis L.

    2016-01-01

    A potent plant-derived HIV-1 inhibitor, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA), has been shown to undergo isomerisation upon UV exposure where the naturally occurring 3trans,5trans-diCQA isomer gives rise to the 3cis,5trans-diCQA, 3trans,5cis-diCQA, and 3cis,5cis-diCQA isomers. In this study, inhibition of HIV-1 INT by UV-induced isomers was investigated using molecular docking methods. Here, density functional theory (DFT) models were used for geometry optimization of the 3,5-diCQA isomers. The YASARA and Autodock VINA software packages were then used to determine the binding interactions between the HIV-1 INT catalytic domain and the 3,5-diCQA isomers and the Discovery Studio suite was used to visualise the interactions between the isomers and the protein. The geometrical isomers of 3,5-diCQA were all found to bind to the catalytic core domain of the INT enzyme. Moreover, the cis geometrical isomers were found to interact with the metal cofactor of HIV-1INT, a phenomenon which has been linked to antiviral potency. Furthermore, the 3trans,5cis-diCQA isomer was also found to interact with both LYS156 and LYS159 which are important residues for viral DNA integration. The differences in binding modes of these naturally coexisting isomers may allow wider synergistic activity which may be beneficial in comparison to the activities of each individual isomer. PMID:27829863

  1. Improving antibody binding affinity and specificity for therapeutic development.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Jenny; Lee, Chingwei V; Haber, Lauric; Fuh, Germaine

    2009-01-01

    Affinity maturation is an important part of the therapeutic antibody development process as in vivo activity often requires high binding affinity. Here, we describe a targeted approach for affinity improvement of therapeutic antibodies. Sets of CDR residues that are solvent accessible and relatively diverse in natural antibodies are targeted for diversification. Degenerate oligonucleotides are used to generate combinatorial phage-displayed antibody libraries with varying degree of diversity at randomized positions from which high-affinity antibodies can be selected. An advantage of using antibodies for therapy is their exquisite target specificity, which enables selective antigen binding and reduces off-target effects. However, it can be useful, and often it is necessary, to generate cross-reactive antibodies binding to not only the human antigen but also the corresponding non-human primate or rodent orthologs. Such cross-reactive antibodies can be used to validate the therapeutic targeting and examine the safety profile in preclinical animal models before committing to a costly development track. We show how affinity improvement and cross-species binding can be achieved in a one-step process.

  2. Relative binding affinities of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, Amandeep K.; Petridis, Loukas; Cheng, Xiaolin; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2016-07-22

    Monolignol binding to the peroxidase active site is the first step in lignin polymerization in plant cell walls. Using molecular dynamics, docking, and free energy perturbation calculations, we investigate the binding of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase C. Our results suggest that p-coumaryl alcohol has the strongest binding affinity followed by sinapyl and coniferyl alcohol. Stacking interactions between the monolignol aromatic rings and nearby phenylalanine residues play an important role in determining the calculated relative binding affinities. p-Coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols bind in a pose productive for reaction in which a direct H-bond is formed between the phenolic –OH group and a water molecule (W2) that may facilitate proton transfer during oxidation. In contrast, in the case of sinapyl alcohol there is no such direct interaction, the phenolic –OH group instead interacting with Pro139. Furthermore, since proton and electron transfer is the rate-limiting step in monolignol oxidation by peroxidase, the binding pose (and thus the formation of near attack conformation) appears to play a more important role than the overall binding affinity in determining the oxidation rate.

  3. Relative binding affinities of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase

    DOE PAGES

    Sangha, Amandeep K.; Petridis, Loukas; Cheng, Xiaolin; ...

    2016-07-22

    Monolignol binding to the peroxidase active site is the first step in lignin polymerization in plant cell walls. Using molecular dynamics, docking, and free energy perturbation calculations, we investigate the binding of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase C. Our results suggest that p-coumaryl alcohol has the strongest binding affinity followed by sinapyl and coniferyl alcohol. Stacking interactions between the monolignol aromatic rings and nearby phenylalanine residues play an important role in determining the calculated relative binding affinities. p-Coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols bind in a pose productive for reaction in which a direct H-bond is formed between the phenolic –OH group andmore » a water molecule (W2) that may facilitate proton transfer during oxidation. In contrast, in the case of sinapyl alcohol there is no such direct interaction, the phenolic –OH group instead interacting with Pro139. Furthermore, since proton and electron transfer is the rate-limiting step in monolignol oxidation by peroxidase, the binding pose (and thus the formation of near attack conformation) appears to play a more important role than the overall binding affinity in determining the oxidation rate.« less

  4. Binding mode and affinity studies of DNA-binding agents using topoisomerase I DNA unwinding assay.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Ruel E; Gleason, Aaron B; Keyes, James A; Sahabi, Sadia

    2007-02-15

    A topoisomerase I DNA unwinding assay has been used to determine the relative DNA-binding affinities of a model pair of homologous naphthalene diimides. Binding affinity data were corroborated using calorimetric (ITC) and spectrophotometric (titration and T(m)) studies, with substituent size playing a significant role in binding. The assay was also used to investigate the mode of binding adopted by several known DNA-binding agents, including SYBR Green and PicoGreen. Some of the compounds exhibited unexpected binding modes.

  5. GHB receptor targets in the CNS: focus on high-affinity binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bay, Tina; Eghorn, Laura F; Klein, Anders B; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2014-01-15

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound in the mammalian brain with both low- and high-affinity receptor targets. GHB is used clinically in the treatment of symptoms of narcolepsy and alcoholism, but also illicitly abused as the recreational drug Fantasy. Major pharmacological effects of exogenous GHB are mediated by GABA subtype B (GABAB) receptors that bind GHB with low affinity. The existence of GHB high-affinity binding sites has been known for more than three decades, but the uncovering of their molecular identity has only recently begun. This has been prompted by the generation of molecular tools to selectively study high-affinity sites. These include both genetically modified GABAB knock-out mice and engineered selective GHB ligands. Recently, certain GABA subtype A (GABAA) receptor subtypes emerged as high-affinity GHB binding sites and potential physiological mediators of GHB effects. In this research update, a description of the various reported receptors for GHB is provided, including GABAB receptors, certain GABAA receptor subtypes and other reported GHB receptors. The main focus will thus be on the high-affinity binding targets for GHB and their potential functional roles in the mammalian brain.

  6. Integrating computational methods and experimental data for understanding the recognition mechanism and binding affinity of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Yugandhar, K

    2017-01-07

    Protein-protein interactions perform several functions inside the cell. Understanding the recognition mechanism and binding affinity of protein-protein complexes is a challenging problem in experimental and computational biology. In this review, we focus on two aspects (i) understanding the recognition mechanism and (ii) predicting the binding affinity. The first part deals with computational techniques for identifying the binding site residues and the contribution of important interactions for understanding the recognition mechanism of protein-protein complexes in comparison with experimental observations. The second part is devoted to the methods developed for discriminating high and low affinity complexes, and predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes using three-dimensional structural information and just from the amino acid sequence. The overall view enhances our understanding of the integration of experimental data and computational methods, recognition mechanism of protein-protein complexes and the binding affinity.

  7. Characterization of a small acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Helianthus annuus L. and its binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Du, Zhi-Yan; Garcés, Rafael; Tanner, Julian A; Chye, Mee-Len; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-05-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) bind to acyl-CoA esters and promote their interaction with other proteins, lipids and cell structures. Small class I ACBPs have been identified in different plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (AtACBP6), Brassica napus (BnACBP) and Oryza sativa (OsACBP1, OsACBP2, OsACBP3), and they are capable of binding to different acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids. Here we characterize HaACBP6, a class I ACBP expressed in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) tissues, studying the specificity of its corresponding recombinant HaACBP6 protein towards various acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids in vitro, particularly using isothermal titration calorimetry and protein phospholipid binding assays. This protein binds with high affinity to de novo synthetized derivatives palmitoly-CoA, stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA (Kd 0.29, 0.14 and 0.15 μM respectively). On the contrary, it showed lower affinity towards linoleoyl-CoA (Kd 5.6 μM). Moreover, rHaACBP6 binds to different phosphatidylcholine species (dipalmitoyl-PC, dioleoyl-PC and dilinoleoyl-PC), yet it displays no affinity towards other phospholipids like lyso-PC, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid derivatives. In the light of these results, the possible involvement of this protein in sunflower oil synthesis is considered.

  8. Determinants of the Differential Antizyme-Binding Affinity of Ornithine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Chin; Hsu, Den-Hua; Huang, Chi-Liang; Liu, Yi-Liang; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a ubiquitous enzyme that is conserved in all species from bacteria to humans. Mammalian ODC is degraded by the proteasome in a ubiquitin-independent manner by direct binding to the antizyme (AZ). In contrast, Trypanosoma brucei ODC has a low binding affinity toward AZ. In this study, we identified key amino acid residues that govern the differential AZ binding affinity of human and Trypanosoma brucei ODC. Multiple sequence alignments of the ODC putative AZ-binding site highlights several key amino acid residues that are different between the human and Trypanosoma brucei ODC protein sequences, including residue 119, 124,125, 129, 136, 137 and 140 (the numbers is for human ODC). We generated a septuple human ODC mutant protein where these seven bases were mutated to match the Trypanosoma brucei ODC protein sequence. The septuple mutant protein was much less sensitive to AZ inhibition compared to the WT protein, suggesting that these amino acid residues play a role in human ODC-AZ binding. Additional experiments with sextuple mutants suggest that residue 137 plays a direct role in AZ binding, and residues 119 and 140 play secondary roles in AZ binding. The dissociation constants were also calculated to quantify the affinity of the ODC-AZ binding interaction. The Kd value for the wild type ODC protein-AZ heterodimer ([ODC_WT]-AZ) is approximately 0.22 μM, while the Kd value for the septuple mutant-AZ heterodimer ([ODC_7M]-AZ) is approximately 12.4 μM. The greater than 50-fold increase in [ODC_7M]-AZ binding affinity shows that the ODC-7M enzyme has a much lower binding affinity toward AZ. For the mutant proteins ODC_7M(-Q119H) and ODC_7M(-V137D), the Kd was 1.4 and 1.2 μM, respectively. These affinities are 6-fold higher than the WT_ODC Kd, which suggests that residues 119 and 137 play a role in AZ binding. PMID:22073206

  9. Nucleotides of transcription factor binding sites exert interdependent effects on the binding affinities of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bulyk, Martha L.; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Church, George M.

    2002-01-01

    We can determine the effects of many possible sequence variations in transcription factor binding sites using microarray binding experiments. Analysis of wild-type and mutant Zif268 (Egr1) zinc fingers bound to microarrays containing all possible central 3 bp triplet binding sites indicates that the nucleotides of transcription factor binding sites cannot be treated independently. This indicates that the current practice of characterizing transcription factor binding sites by mutating individual positions of binding sites one base pair at a time does not provide a true picture of the sequence specificity. Similarly, current bioinformatic practices using either just a consensus sequence, or even mononucleotide frequency weight matrices to provide more complete descriptions of transcription factor binding sites, are not accurate in depicting the true binding site specificities, since these methods rely upon the assumption that the nucleotides of binding sites exert independent effects on binding affinity. Our results stress the importance of complete reference tables of all possible binding sites for comparing protein binding preferences for various DNA sequences. We also show results suggesting that microarray binding data using particular subsets of all possible binding sites can be used to extrapolate the relative binding affinities of all possible full-length binding sites, given a known binding site for use as a starting sequence for site preference refinement. PMID:11861919

  10. Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marshall P; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron J; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein targets, whereas adding RNA to recombinant RNA binding protein substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Preincubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G. During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps, which bind NE and cathepsin G. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and neutrophil extracellular traps in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high-affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation.

  11. Binding Affinity of Glycoconjugates to BACILLUS Spores and Toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Aveen; Eassa, Souzan; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Early recognition of Bacillus cereus group species is important since they can cause food-borne illnesses and deadly diseases in humans. Glycoconjugates (GCs) are carbohydrates covalently linked to non-sugar moieties including lipids, proteins or other entities. GCs are involved in recognition and signaling processes intrinsic to biochemical functions in cells. They also stimulate cell-cell adhesion and subsequent recognition and activation of receptors. We have demonstrated that GCs are involved in Bacillus cereus spore recognition. In the present study, we have investigated whether GCs possess the ability to bind and recognize B. cereus spores and Bacillus anthracis recombinant single toxins (sTX) and complex toxins (cTX). The affinity of GCs to spores + sTX and spores + cTX toxins was studied in the binding essay. Our results demonstrated that GC9 and GC10 were able to selectively bind to B. cereus spores and B. anthracis toxins. Different binding affinities for GCs were found toward Bacillus cereus spores + sTX and spores + cTX. Dilution of GCs does not impede the recognition and binding. Developed method provides a tool for simultaneous recognition and targeting of spores, bacteria toxins, and/or other entities.

  12. Detection of Serum Lysophosphatidic Acids Using Affinity Binding and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    binding by anti-lipid antibodies, scale-up production issues, and problems in obtaining homogenous, healthy anti-lipid producing clones using the...screening and management has taken a major leap forward with the recent cloning of several enzymes involved in the metabolism of lysophospholipids...1999]. suggesting that plasma LPC originates from a The cloning of LysoPLD and its identification source other than LCAT. Further the 100 jiM of as

  13. pH-dependent binding engineering reveals an FcRn affinity threshold that governs IgG recycling.

    PubMed

    Borrok, M Jack; Wu, Yanli; Beyaz, Nurten; Yu, Xiang-Qing; Oganesyan, Vaheh; Dall'Acqua, William F; Tsui, Ping

    2015-02-13

    The Fc domain of IgG has been the target of multiple mutational studies aimed at altering the pH-dependent IgG/FcRn interaction to modulate IgG pharmacokinetics. These studies have yielded antibody variants with disparate pharmacokinetic characteristics, ranging from extended in vivo half-life to those exhibiting extremely rapid clearance. To better understand pH-dependent binding parameters that govern these outcomes and limit FcRn-mediated half-life extension, we generated a panel of novel Fc variants with high affinity binding at acidic pH that vary in pH 7.4 affinities and assessed pharmacokinetic outcomes. Pharmacokinetic studies in human FcRn transgenic mice and cynomolgus monkeys showed that multiple variants with increased FcRn affinities at acidic pH exhibited extended serum half-lives relative to the parental IgG. Importantly, the results reveal an underappreciated affinity threshold of neutral pH binding that determines IgG recycling efficiency. Variants with pH 7.4 FcRn affinities below this threshold recycle efficiently and can exhibit increased serum persistence. Increasing neutral pH FcRn affinity beyond this threshold reduced serum persistence by offsetting the benefits of increased pH 6.0 binding. Ultra-high affinity binding to FcRn at both acidic and neutral pH leads to rapid serum clearance.

  14. Affinity of cefoperazone for penicillin-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, N; Minami, S; Matsuhashi, M; Takaoka, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1980-01-01

    Cefoperazone (T-1551, CFP) a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. We investigated the affinity of CFP to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis by CFP. CFP had high affinities for Escherichia coli PBP-3, -1Bs, -2, and -1A, in descending order, and low affinities for PBP-4, -5, and -6. Similarly, CFP showed high affinity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBP-3, -1A, -1B, -2, and -4, in descending order. It is known that E. coli PBP-3 and P. aeruginosa PBP-3 participate in cell division. These results are in good agreement with the formation of filamentous cells of E. coli and P. aeruginosa treated with CFP. CFP had lower inhibitory activities on D-alanine carboxypeptidase IA and IB of E. coli than that of penicillin G, but its inhibitory activities on the cross-link formation in peptidoglycan synthesis were the same as those of penicillin G and higher than those of ampicillin. Images PMID:6448021

  15. HIGH AFFINITY, DSRNA BINDING BY DISCONNECTED INTERACTING PROTEIN 1†

    PubMed Central

    Catanese, Daniel J.; Matthews, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Disconnected Interacting Protein 1 (DIP1) appears from sequence analysis and preliminary binding studies to be a member of the dsRNA-binding protein family. Of interest, DIP1 was shown previously to interact with and influence multiple proteins involved in transcription regulation in Drosophila melanogaster. We show here that the longest isoform of this protein, DIP1-c, exhibits a 500-fold preference for dsRNA over dsDNA of similar nucleotide sequence. Further, DIP1-c demonstrated very high affinity for a subset of dsRNA ligands, with binding in the picomolar range for VA1 RNA and miR-iab-4 precursor stem-loop, a potential physiological RNA target involved in regulating expression of its protein partner, Ultrabithorax. PMID:20643095

  16. Structural origins of high-affinity biotin binding to streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Weber, P C; Ohlendorf, D H; Wendoloski, J J; Salemme, F R

    1989-01-06

    The high affinity of the noncovalent interaction between biotin and streptavidin forms the basis for many diagnostic assays that require the formation of an irreversible and specific linkage between biological macromolecules. Comparison of the refined crystal structures of apo and a streptavidin:biotin complex shows that the high affinity results from several factors. These factors include the formation of multiple hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions between biotin and the protein, together with the ordering of surface polypeptide loops that bury the biotin in the protein interior. Structural alterations at the biotin binding site produce quaternary changes in the streptavidin tetramer. These changes apparently propagate through cooperative deformations in the twisted beta sheets that link tetramer subunits.

  17. Identifying Affinity Classes of Inorganic Materials Binding Sequences via a Graph-Based Model.

    PubMed

    Du, Nan; Knecht, Marc R; Swihart, Mark T; Tang, Zhenghua; Walsh, Tiffany R; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in bionanotechnology have recently generated growing interest in identifying peptides that bind to inorganic materials and classifying them based on their inorganic material affinities. However, there are some distinct characteristics of inorganic materials binding sequence data that limit the performance of many widely-used classification methods when applied to this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to predict the affinity classes of peptide sequences with respect to an associated inorganic material. We first generate a large set of simulated peptide sequences based on an amino acid transition matrix tailored for the specific inorganic material. Then the probability of test sequences belonging to a specific affinity class is calculated by minimizing an objective function. In addition, the objective function is minimized through iterative propagation of probability estimates among sequences and sequence clusters. Results of computational experiments on two real inorganic material binding sequence data sets show that the proposed framework is highly effective for identifying the affinity classes of inorganic material binding sequences. Moreover, the experiments on the structural classification of proteins (SCOP) data set shows that the proposed framework is general and can be applied to traditional protein sequences.

  18. Optimizing molecular electrostatic interactions: Binding affinity and specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Erik

    The design of molecules that bind tightly and specifically to designated target molecules is an important goal in many fields of molecular science. While the shape of the molecule to be designed is a relatively well defined problem with an intuitive answer, determination of the distribution of electrostatic charge that it should have in order to possess high affinity and/or specificity for a target is a subtle problem involving a tradeoff between an unfavorable electrostatic desolvation penalty incurred due to the removal of solvent from the interacting surfaces of the reactants, and the generally favorable intermolecular interactions made in the bound state. In this thesis, a theoretical formalism based on a continuum electrostatic approximation is developed in which charge distributions leading to optimal affinity and/or high specificity may be obtained. Methods for obtaining these charge distributions are developed in detail and analytical solutions are obtained in several special cases (where the molecules are shaped as infinite membranes, spheres, and spheroids). Their existence and non-uniqueness are also shown, and it is proven that the resulting optimized electrostatic binding free energies are favorable (negative) in many cases of physical interest. Affinity and specificity optimization is then applied to the chorismate mutase family of enzymes, including the catalytic antibody 1F7. It is shown that affinity optimization can be used to suggest better molecular inhibitors and that specificity optimization can be used to help elucidate molecular function and possibly aid in the creation of improved haptens. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  19. High-affinity binding of fibronectin to cultured Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardarelli, P.M.; Blumenstock, F.A.; McKeown-Longo, P.J.; Saba, T.M.; Mazurkiewicz, J.E.; Dias, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Hepatic Kupffer cells are a major component of the reticuloendothelial or macrophage system. They were the first phagocytic cell type whose phagocytosis was shown to be influenced by plasma fibronectin, a dimeric opsonic glycoprotein. In the current study, the binding of soluble radioiodinated fibronectin purified from rat serum to isolated rat hepatic Kupffer cells was investigated using a cultured Kupffer cell monolayer technique. Binding was specific, since unlabeled purified fibronectin competed in a dose-dependent manner with the 125I-fibronectin for binding to the Kupffer cells. Addition of gelatin enhanced the binding of 125I-fibronectin to Kupffer cells. The phagocytosis of gelatinized-coated red cells by Kupffer cells was increased either by preopsonizing the target particles with purified fibronectin or by the addition of purified fibronectin to the culture medium. In contrast, exposure of the Kupffer cells to medium containing purified fibronectin followed by wash-removal of the fibronectin did not increase the uptake of gelatin-coated red blood cells, even though fibronectin was detected on the surface of the Kupffer cells by immunofluorescence. Trypsinized monolayers expressed decreased capacity to bind 125I-fibronectin as well as fibronectin-coated sheep erythrocytes. The binding of 125I-fibronectin-gelatin complexes was inhibited by excess unlabeled fibronectin. We calculated that specific high-affinity (Kd = 7.46 x 10(-9) M) binding sites for fibronectin exist on Kupffer cells. There are approximately 2,800-3,500 binding sites or putative fibronectin receptors per Kupffer cell. These sites appear to mediate the enhanced phagocytosis of gelatin-coated particles opsonized by fibronectin.

  20. Phosphorylation of a chloroplast RNA-binding protein changes its affinity to RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lisitsky, I; Schuster, G

    1995-01-01

    An RNA-binding protein of 28 kDa (28RNP) was previously isolated from spinach chloroplasts and found to be required for 3' end-processing of chloroplast mRNAs. The amino acid sequence of 28RNP revealed two approximately 80 amino-acid RNA-binding domains, as well as an acidic- and glycine-rich amino terminal domain. Upon analysis of the RNA-binding properties of the 'native' 28RNP in comparison to the recombinant bacterial expressed protein, differences were detected in the affinity to some chloroplastic 3' end RNAs. It was suggested that post-translational modification can modulate the affinity of the 28RNP in the chloroplast to different RNAs. In order to determine if phosphorylation accounts for this post-translational modification, we examined if the 28RNP is a phosphoprotein and if it can serve as a substrate for protein kinases. It was found that the 28RNP was phosphorylated when intact chloroplasts were metabolically labeled with [32P] orthophosphate, and that recombinant 28RNP served as an excellent substrate in vitro for protein kinase isolated from spinach chloroplasts or recombinant alpha subunit of maize casein kinase II. The 28RNP was apparently phosphorylated at one site located in the acidic domain at the N-terminus of the protein. Site-directed mutagenesis of the serines in that region revealed that the phosphorylation of the protein was eliminated when serine number 22 from the N-terminus was changed to tryptophan. RNA-binding analysis of the phosphorylated 28RNP revealed that the affinity of the phosphorylated protein was reduced approximately 3-4-fold in comparison to the non-phosphorylated protein. Therefore, phosphorylation of the 28RNP modulates its affinity to RNA and may play a significant role in its biological function in the chloroplast. Images PMID:7630729

  1. Purification and characterization of a new type lactose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1991-02-01

    A new type lactose-binding lectin was purified from extracts of Ulex europaeus seeds by affinity chromatography on a column of galactose-Sepharose 4B, followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. This lectin, designated as Ulex europaeus lectin III (UEA-III), was found to be inhibited by lactose. The dimeric lectin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 70,000 Da; it consists of two apparently identical subunits of a molecular mass of 34,000 Da. Compositional analysis showed that this lectin contains 30% carbohydrate and a large amount of aspartic acid, serine and valine, but no sulfur-containing amino acids. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin I (UEA-I) and di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin II (UEA-II), both of which we have already purified and characterized, and that of UEA-III were determined and compared.

  2. Binding Kinetics versus Affinities in BRD4 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming; Zhou, Jingwei; Wang, Laiyou; Liu, Zhihong; Guo, Jiao; Wu, Ruibo

    2015-09-28

    Bromodomains (BRDs) are protein modules that selectively recognize histones as a "reader" by binding to an acetylated lysine substrate. The human BRD4 has emerged as a promising drug target for a number of disease pathways, and several potent BRD inhibitors have been discovered experimentally recently. However, the detailed inhibition mechanism especially for the inhibitor binding kinetics is not clear. Herein, by employing classical molecular dynamics (MD) and state-of-the-art density functional QM/MM MD simulations, the dynamic characteristics of ZA-loop in BRD4 are revealed. And then the correlation between binding pocket size and ZA-loop motion is elucidated. Moreover, our simulations found that the compound (-)-JQ1 could be accommodated reasonably in thermodynamics whereas it is infeasible in binding kinetics against BRD4. Its racemate (+)-JQ1 proved to be both thermodynamically reasonable and kinetically achievable against BRD4, which could explain the previous experimental results that (+)-JQ1 shows a high inhibitory effect toward BRD4 (IC50 is 77 nM) while (-)-JQ1 is inactive (>10 μM). Furthermore, the L92/L94/Y97 in the ZA-loop and Asn140 in the BC-loop are identified to be critical residues in (+)-JQ1 binding/releasing kinetics. All these findings shed light on further selective inhibitor design toward BRD family, by exploiting the non-negligible ligand binding kinetics features and flexible ZA-loop motions of BRD, instead of only the static ligand-protein binding affinity.

  3. Compensating Enthalpic and Entropic Changes Hinder Binding Affinity Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lafont,V.; Armstrong, A.; Ohtaka, H.; Kiso, Y.; Amzel, L.; Freire, E.

    2007-01-01

    A common strategy to improve the potency of drug candidates is to introduce chemical functionalities, like hydrogen bond donors or acceptors, at positions where they are able to establish strong interactions with the target. However, it is often observed that the added functionalities do not necessarily improve potency even if they form strong hydrogen bonds. Here, we explore the thermodynamic and structural basis for those observations. KNI-10033 is a potent experimental HIV-1 protease inhibitor with picomolar affinity against the wild-type enzyme (Kd = 13 pm). The potency of the inhibitor is the result of favorable enthalpic (?H = -8.2 kcal/mol) and entropic (-T?S = -6.7 kcal/mol) interactions. The replacement of the thioether group in KNI-10033 by a sulfonyl group (KNI-10075) results in a strong hydrogen bond with the amide of Asp 30B of the HIV-1 protease. This additional hydrogen bond improves the binding enthalpy by 3.9 kcal/mol; however, the enthalpy gain is completely compensated by an entropy loss, resulting in no affinity change. Crystallographic and thermodynamic analysis of the inhibitor/protease complexes indicates that the entropy losses are due to a combination of conformational and solvation effects. These results provide a set of practical guidelines aimed at overcoming enthalpy/entropy compensation and improve binding potency.

  4. Relations between high-affinity binding sites of markers for binding regions on human serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U

    1985-01-01

    Binding of warfarin, digitoxin, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red, individually or in different pair combinations, to defatted human serum albumin at ligand/protein molar ratios less than 1:1 was studied at pH 7.0. The binding was determined by ultrafiltration. Some of the experiments were repeated with the use of equilibrium dialysis in order to strengthen the results. Irrespective of the method used, all ligands bind to one high-affinity binding site with an association constant in the range 10(4)-10(6) M-1. High-affinity binding of the following pair of ligands took place independently: warfarin-Phenol Red, warfarin-diazepam, warfarin-digitoxin and digitoxin-diazepam. Simultaneous binding of warfarin and salicylate led to a mutual decrease in binding of one another, as did simultaneous binding of digitoxin and Phenol Red. Both effects could be accounted for by a coupling constant. The coupling constant is the factor by which the primary association constants are affected; in these examples of anti-co-operativity the factor has a value between 0 and 1. In the first example it was calculated to be 0.8 and in the latter 0.5. Finally, digitoxin and salicylate were found to compete for a common high-affinity binding site. The present findings support the proposal of four separate primary binding sites for warfarin, digitoxin (and salicylate), diazepam and Phenol Red. An attempt to correlate this partial binding model for serum albumin with other models in the literature is made. PMID:3977850

  5. Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Bind to Protein Z Cooperatively and with Equal Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Tanusree; Manoj, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Protein Z (PZ) is an anticoagulant that binds with high affinity to Protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) and accelerates the rate of ZPI-mediated inhibition of factor Xa (fXa) by more than 1000-fold in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids. PZ promotion of the ZPI-fXa interaction results from the anchoring of the Gla domain of PZ onto phospholipid surfaces and positioning the bound ZPI in close proximity to the Gla-anchored fXa, forming a ternary complex of PZ/ZPI/fXa. Although interaction of PZ with phospholipid membrane appears to be absolutely crucial for its cofactor activity, little is known about the binding of different phospholipids to PZ. The present study was conceived to understand the interaction of different phospholipids with PZ. Experiments with both soluble lipids and model membranes revealed that PZ binds to phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with equal affinity (Kd~48 μM); further, PS and PE bound to PZ synergistically. Equilibrium dialysis experiments revealed two lipid-binding sites for both PS and PE. PZ binds with weaker affinity to other phospholipids, e.g., phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and binding of these lipids is not synergistic with respect to PS. Both PS and PE -containing membranes supported the formation of a fXa-PZ complex. PZ protection of fXa from antithrombin inhibition were also shown to be comparable in presence of both PS: PC and PE: PC membranes. These findings are particularly important and intriguing since they suggest a special affinity of PZ, in vivo, towards activated platelets, the primary membrane involved in blood coagulation process. PMID:27584039

  6. Affinity binding of inclusion bodies on supermacroporous monolithic cryogels using labeling with specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist, Josefin; Kumar, Ashok; Sundström, Heléne; Ledung, Erika; Hörnsten, E Gunnar; Enfors, Sven-Olof; Mattiasson, Bo

    2006-03-23

    A new chromatographic method based on affinity supermacroporous monolithic cryogels is developed for binding and analyzing inclusion bodies during fermentation. The work demonstrated that it is possible to bind specific IgG and IgY antibodies to the 15 and 17 amino acids at the terminus ends of a 33 kDa target protein aggregated as inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies from lysed fermentation broth can be specifically retained in protein A and pseudo-biospecific ligand sulfamethazine modified supermacroporous cryogels. The degree of binding of IgG and IgY treated inclusion bodies to the Protein A and sulfamethazine gels are investigated, as well as the influence of pH on the sulfamethazine ligand. Optimum binding of 78 and 72% was observed on both protein A and sulfamethazine modified cryogel columns, respectively, using IgG labeling of the inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies pass through unretained in the sulfamethazine supermacroporous gel at pH that does not favour the binding between the ligand on the gel and the antibodies on the surface of inclusion bodies. Also the unlabeled inclusion bodies went through the gel unretained, showing no non-specific binding or trapping within the gel. These findings may very well be the foundation for the building of a powerful analytical tool during fermentation of inclusion bodies as well as a convenient way to purify them from fermentation broth. These results also support our earlier findings [Kumar, A., Plieva, F.M., Galaev, I.Yu., Mattiasson, B., 2003. Affinity fractionation of lymphocytes using a monolithic cyogel. J. Immunol. Methods 283, 185-194] with mammalian cells that were surface labeled with specific antibodies and recognized on protein A supermacroporous gels. A general binding and separation system can be established on antibody binding cryogel affinity matrices.

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel high affinity metal-binding site in the hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M R; Simorre, J P; Hanson, P; Mokler, V; Bellon, L; Beigelman, L; Pardi, A

    1999-01-01

    A novel metal-binding site has been identified in the hammerhead ribozyme by 31P NMR. The metal-binding site is associated with the A13 phosphate in the catalytic core of the hammerhead ribozyme and is distinct from any previously identified metal-binding sites. 31P NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the metal-binding affinity for this site and leads to an apparent dissociation constant of 250-570 microM at 25 degrees C for binding of a single Mg2+ ion. The NMR data also show evidence of a structural change at this site upon metal binding and these results are compared with previous data on metal-induced structural changes in the core of the hammerhead ribozyme. These NMR data were combined with the X-ray structure of the hammerhead ribozyme (Pley HW, Flaherty KM, McKay DB. 1994. Nature 372:68-74) to model RNA ligands involved in binding the metal at this A13 site. In this model, the A13 metal-binding site is structurally similar to the previously identified A(g) metal-binding site and illustrates the symmetrical nature of the tandem G x A base pairs in domain 2 of the hammerhead ribozyme. These results demonstrate that 31P NMR represents an important method for both identification and characterization of metal-binding sites in nucleic acids. PMID:10445883

  8. High Affinity Binding of Indium and Ruthenium Ions by Gastrins.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Graham S; George, Graham N; Pushie, M Jake

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone gastrin binds two ferric ions with high affinity, and iron binding is essential for the biological activity of non-amidated forms of the hormone. Since gastrins act as growth factors in gastrointestinal cancers, and as peptides labelled with Ga and In isotopes are increasingly used for cancer diagnosis, the ability of gastrins to bind other metal ions was investigated systematically by absorption spectroscopy. The coordination structures of the complexes were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Changes in the absorption of gastrin in the presence of increasing concentrations of Ga3+ were fitted by a 2 site model with dissociation constants (Kd) of 3.3 x 10-7 and 1.1 x 10-6 M. Although the absorption of gastrin did not change upon the addition of In3+ ions, the changes in absorbance on Fe3+ ion binding in the presence of indium ions were fitted by a 2 site model with Kd values for In3+ of 6.5 x 10-15 and 1.7 x 10-7 M. Similar results were obtained with Ru3+ ions, although the Kd values for Ru3+ of 2.6 x 10-13 and 1.2 x 10-5 M were slightly larger than observed for In3+. The structures determined by EXAFS all had metal:gastrin stoichiometries of 2:1 but, while the metal ions in the Fe, Ga and In complexes were bridged by a carboxylate and an oxygen with a metal-metal separation of 3.0-3.3 Å, the Ru complex clearly demonstrated a short range Ru-Ru separation, which was significantly shorter, at 2.4 Å, indicative of a metal-metal bond. We conclude that gastrin selectively binds two In3+ or Ru3+ ions, and that the affinity of the first site for In3+ or Ru3+ ions is higher than for ferric ions. Some of the metal ion-gastrin complexes may be useful for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Application of volcanic ash particles for protein affinity purification with a minimized silica-binding tag.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed A A; Ikeda, Takeshi; Motomura, Kei; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ishida, Takenori; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio

    2016-11-01

    We recently reported that the spore coat protein, CotB1 (171 amino acids), from Bacillus cereus mediates silica biomineralization and that the polycationic C-terminal sequence of CotB1 (14 amino acids), designated CotB1p, serves as a silica-binding tag when fused to other proteins. Here, we reduced the length of this silica-binding tag to only seven amino acids (SB7 tag: RQSSRGR) while retaining its affinity for silica. Alanine scanning mutagenesis indicated that the three arginine residues in the SB7 tag play important roles in binding to a silica surface. Monomeric l-arginine, at concentrations of 0.3-0.5 M, was found to serve as a competitive eluent to release bound SB7-tagged proteins from silica surfaces. To develop a low-cost, silica-based affinity purification procedure, we used natural volcanic ash particles with a silica content of ∼70%, rather than pure synthetic silica particles, as an adsorbent for SB7-tagged proteins. Using green fluorescent protein, mCherry, and mKate2 as model proteins, our purification method achieved 75-90% recovery with ∼90% purity. These values are comparable to or even higher than that of the commonly used His-tag affinity purification. In addition to low cost, another advantage of our method is the use of l-arginine as the eluent because its protein-stabilizing effect would help minimize alteration of the intrinsic properties of the purified proteins. Our approach paves the way for the use of naturally occurring materials as adsorbents for simple, low-cost affinity purification.

  10. Practical strategies for the evaluation of high-affinity protein/nucleic acid interactions

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, Sarah E.; Lewis, Karen A.; Wuttke, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of binding interactions between proteins and nucleic acids is highly sensitive to a variety of experimental conditions. Optimization of these conditions is critical for obtaining high quality, reproducible data, particularly in the context of very high affinity interactions. Here, we discuss the practical considerations involved in optimizing the apparent binding constant of an interaction as measured by two common quantitative assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and double-filter binding when measuring extremely tight protein/nucleic acid interactions with sub-nanomolar binding affinities. We include specific examples from two telomere end-binding protein systems, Schizo -saccharomyces pombe Pot1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc13, to demonstrate potential experimental pitfalls and some useful strategies for optimization. PMID:25197549

  11. Preorganized Peptide Scaffolds as Mimics of Phosphorylated Proteins Binding Sites with a High Affinity for Uranyl.

    PubMed

    Starck, Matthieu; Sisommay, Nathalie; Laporte, Fanny A; Oros, Stéphane; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2015-12-07

    Cyclic peptides with two phosphoserines and two glutamic acids were developed to mimic high-affinity binding sites for uranyl found in proteins such as osteopontin, which is believed to be a privileged target of this ion in vivo. These peptides adopt a β-sheet structure that allows the coordination of the latter amino acid side chains in the equatorial plane of the dioxo uranyl cation. Complementary spectroscopic and analytical methods revealed that these cyclic peptides are efficient uranyl chelating peptides with a large contribution from the phosphorylated residues. The conditional affinity constants were measured by following fluorescence tryptophan quenching and are larger than 10(10) at physiological pH. These compounds are therefore promising models for understanding uranyl chelation by proteins, which is relevant to this actinide ion toxicity.

  12. Enriching Peptide Libraries for Binding Affinity and Specificity Through Computationally Directed Library Design.

    PubMed

    Foight, Glenna Wink; Chen, T Scott; Richman, Daniel; Keating, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Peptide reagents with high affinity or specificity for their target protein interaction partner are of utility for many important applications. Optimization of peptide binding by screening large libraries is a proven and powerful approach. Libraries designed to be enriched in peptide sequences that are predicted to have desired affinity or specificity characteristics are more likely to yield success than random mutagenesis. We present a library optimization method in which the choice of amino acids to encode at each peptide position can be guided by available experimental data or structure-based predictions. We discuss how to use analysis of predicted library performance to inform rounds of library design. Finally, we include protocols for more complex library design procedures that consider the chemical diversity of the amino acids at each peptide position and optimize a library score based on a user-specified input model.

  13. Membrane Modulates Affinity for Calcium Ion to Create an Apparent Cooperative Binding Response by Annexin a5

    PubMed Central

    Gauer, Jacob W.; Knutson, Kristofer J.; Jaworski, Samantha R.; Rice, Anne M.; Rannikko, Anika M.; Lentz, Barry R.; Hinderliter, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to characterize the binding of calcium ion (Ca2+) and phospholipid to the peripheral membrane-binding protein annexin a5. The phospholipid was a binary mixture of a neutral and an acidic phospholipid, specifically phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine in the form of large unilamellar vesicles. To stringently define the mode of binding, a global fit of data collected in the presence and absence of membrane concentrations exceeding protein saturation was performed. A partition function defined the contribution of all heat-evolving or heat-absorbing binding states. We find that annexin a5 binds Ca2+ in solution according to a simple independent-site model (solution-state affinity). In the presence of phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes, binding of Ca2+ differentiates into two classes of sites, both of which have higher affinity compared with the solution-state affinity. As in the solution-state scenario, the sites within each class were described with an independent-site model. Transitioning from a solution state with lower Ca2+ affinity to a membrane-associated, higher Ca2+ affinity state, results in cooperative binding. We discuss how weak membrane association of annexin a5 prior to Ca2+ influx is the basis for the cooperative response of annexin a5 toward Ca2+, and the role of membrane organization in this response. PMID:23746516

  14. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  15. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Eng, W S; Robles, S; Vogt, R G; Wiśniewski, J R; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural 3H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated [125I]12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added 125I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of [125I]12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  16. Heparin-binding peptide as a novel affinity tag for purification of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Langston, Rebekah; Daily, Anna; Kight, Alicia; McNabb, David S; Henry, Ralph; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

    2016-10-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins constitutes a significant part of the downstream processing in biopharmaceutical industries. Major costs involved in the production of bio-therapeutics mainly depend on the number of purification steps used during the downstream process. Affinity chromatography is a widely used method for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in different expression host platforms. Recombinant protein purification is achieved by fusing appropriate affinity tags to either N- or C- terminus of the target recombinant proteins. Currently available protein/peptide affinity tags have proved quite useful in the purification of recombinant proteins. However, these affinity tags suffer from specific limitations in their use under different conditions of purification. In this study, we have designed a novel 34-amino acid heparin-binding affinity tag (HB-tag) for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. HB-tag fused recombinant proteins were overexpressed in E. coli in high yields. A one-step heparin-Sepharose-based affinity chromatography protocol was developed to purify HB-fused recombinant proteins to homogeneity using a simple sodium chloride step gradient elution. The HB-tag has also been shown to facilitate the purification of target recombinant proteins from their 8 M urea denatured state(s). The HB-tag has been demonstrated to be successfully released from the fusion protein by an appropriate protease treatment to obtain the recombinant target protein(s) in high yields. Results of the two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments indicate that the purified recombinant target protein(s) exist in the native conformation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the HB-peptide sequence, exhibited high binding specificity and sensitivity to the HB-fused recombinant proteins (∼10 ng) in different crude cell extracts obtained from diverse expression hosts. In our opinion, the HB-tag provides a

  17. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  18. AB-Bind: Antibody binding mutational database for computational affinity predictions.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Sarah; Apgar, James R; Bennett, Eric M; Keating, Amy E

    2016-02-01

    Antibodies (Abs) are a crucial component of the immune system and are often used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The need for high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies in research and medicine is driving the development of computational tools for accelerating antibody design and discovery. We report a diverse set of antibody binding data with accompanying structures that can be used to evaluate methods for modeling antibody interactions. Our Antibody-Bind (AB-Bind) database includes 1101 mutants with experimentally determined changes in binding free energies (ΔΔG) across 32 complexes. Using the AB-Bind data set, we evaluated the performance of protein scoring potentials in their ability to predict changes in binding free energies upon mutagenesis. Numerical correlations between computed and observed ΔΔG values were low (r = 0.16-0.45), but the potentials exhibited predictive power for classifying variants as improved vs weakened binders. Performance was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves; the highest AUC values for 527 mutants with |ΔΔG| > 1.0 kcal/mol were 0.81, 0.87, and 0.88 using STATIUM, FoldX, and Discovery Studio scoring potentials, respectively. Some methods could also enrich for variants with improved binding affinity; FoldX and Discovery Studio were able to correctly rank 42% and 30%, respectively, of the 80 most improved binders (those with ΔΔG < -1.0 kcal/mol) in the top 5% of the database. This modest predictive performance has value but demonstrates the continuing need to develop and improve protein energy functions for affinity prediction.

  19. Nucleic acid-binding specificity of human FUS protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueyin; Schwartz, Jacob C.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    FUS, a nuclear RNA-binding protein, plays multiple roles in RNA processing. Five specific FUS-binding RNA sequence/structure motifs have been proposed, but their affinities for FUS have not been directly compared. Here we find that human FUS binds all these sequences with Kdapp values spanning a 10-fold range. Furthermore, some RNAs that do not contain any of these motifs bind FUS with similar affinity. FUS binds RNA in a length-dependent manner, consistent with a substantial non-specific component to binding. Finally, investigation of FUS binding to different nucleic acids shows that it binds single-stranded DNA with three-fold lower affinity than ssRNA of the same length and sequence, while binding to double-stranded nucleic acids is weaker. We conclude that FUS has quite general nucleic acid-binding activity, with the various proposed RNA motifs being neither necessary for FUS binding nor sufficient to explain its diverse binding partners. PMID:26150427

  20. Probing the interactions between boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules by affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lü, Chenchen; Li, Hengye; Wang, Heye; Liu, Zhen

    2013-02-19

    The affinity of boronic acids to cis-diol-containing biomolecules has found wide applications in many fields, such as sensing, separation, drug delivery, and functional materials. A sound understanding of the binding interactions will greatly facilitate exquisite applications of this chemistry. Although a few analytical tools have been available for the characterization of the interactions, these techniques are associated with some apparent drawbacks, so they are only applicable to a limited range of boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules. Therefore, a widely applicable method is still greatly needed. In this work, an affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method was established and validated to probe the interactions between boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules. The method was proven to be applicable to almost all types of cis-diol-containing biomolecules and boronic acids. Based on this method, a quantitative, comparative study on the interactions between 14 boronic acids that have important potentials for application with 5 typical monosaccharides of biological importance was carried out. The findings provided new insights into boronate affinity interactions, particularly the relationship between the binding strength with the molecular structures of the binding species. Besides, effects of pH and temperature on the binding strength were also investigated. This method exhibited several significant advantages, including (1) possibility of simultaneous study of multiple interactions, (2) low requirement on the purity of the binding species, (3) wide applicability, and (4) high accuracy and precision.

  1. Learning a peptide-protein binding affinity predictor with kernel ridge regression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cellular function of a vast majority of proteins is performed through physical interactions with other biomolecules, which, most of the time, are other proteins. Peptides represent templates of choice for mimicking a secondary structure in order to modulate protein-protein interaction. They are thus an interesting class of therapeutics since they also display strong activity, high selectivity, low toxicity and few drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, predicting peptides that would bind to a specific MHC alleles would be of tremendous benefit to improve vaccine based therapy and possibly generate antibodies with greater affinity. Modern computational methods have the potential to accelerate and lower the cost of drug and vaccine discovery by selecting potential compounds for testing in silico prior to biological validation. Results We propose a specialized string kernel for small bio-molecules, peptides and pseudo-sequences of binding interfaces. The kernel incorporates physico-chemical properties of amino acids and elegantly generalizes eight kernels, comprised of the Oligo, the Weighted Degree, the Blended Spectrum, and the Radial Basis Function. We provide a low complexity dynamic programming algorithm for the exact computation of the kernel and a linear time algorithm for it’s approximation. Combined with kernel ridge regression and SupCK, a novel binding pocket kernel, the proposed kernel yields biologically relevant and good prediction accuracy on the PepX database. For the first time, a machine learning predictor is capable of predicting the binding affinity of any peptide to any protein with reasonable accuracy. The method was also applied to both single-target and pan-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex class II benchmark datasets and three Quantitative Structure Affinity Model benchmark datasets. Conclusion On all benchmarks, our method significantly (p-value ≤ 0.057) outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods at predicting

  2. Improving the binding affinity of an antibody using molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Casipit, C. L.; Tal, R.; Wittman, V.; Chavaillaz, P. A.; Arbuthnott, K.; Weidanz, J. A.; Jiao, J. A.; Wong, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    Activated Factor X releases F1.2, a 271-amino acid peptide, from the amino terminus of prothrombin during blood coagulation. A nine-amino acid peptide, C9 (DSDRAIEGR), corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of F1.2 was synthesized and used to produce a monoclonal antibody, TA1 (K(D)) 1.22 x 10(-6) M). To model the TA1 antibody, we entered the sequence information of the cloned TA1 Fv into the antibody modeling program, ABM, which combines homology methods, conformational search procedures, and energy screening and has proved to be a reliable and reproducible antibody modeling method. Using a novel protein fusion procedure, we expressed the C9 peptide fused to the carboxyl terminus of the PENI repressor protein from Bacillus licheniformis in Escherichia coli. We constructed fusion proteins containing alanine substitutions for each amino acid in the C9 epitope. Binding studies, using the C9 alanine mutants and TA1, and spatial constraints predicted by the modeled TA1 binding cleft enabled us to establish a plausible conformation for C9 complexed with TA1. Furthermore, based on binding results of conservative amino acid substitutions in C9 and mutations in the antibody, we were able to refine the complex model and identify antibody mutations that would improve binding affinity. PMID:10082364

  3. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  4. The binding specificity and affinity determinants of family 1 and family 3 cellulose binding modules

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiö, Janne; Sugiyama, Junji; Gustavsson, Malin; Fransson, Linda; Linder, Markus; Teeri, Tuula T.

    2003-01-01

    Cellulose binding modules (CBMs) potentiate the action of cellulolytic enzymes on insoluble substrates. Numerous studies have established that three aromatic residues on a CBM surface are needed for binding onto cellulose crystals and that tryptophans contribute to higher binding affinity than tyrosines. However, studies addressing the nature of CBM–cellulose interactions have so far failed to establish the binding site on cellulose crystals targeted by CBMs. In this study, the binding sites of CBMs on Valonia cellulose crystals have been visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Fusion of the CBMs with a modified staphylococcal protein A (ZZ-domain) allowed direct immuno-gold labeling at close proximity of the actual CBM binding site. The transmission electron microscopy images provide unequivocal evidence that the fungal family 1 CBMs as well as the family 3 CBM from Clostridium thermocellum CipA have defined binding sites on two opposite corners of Valonia cellulose crystals. In most samples these corners are worn to display significant area of the hydrophobic (110) plane, which thus constitutes the binding site for these CBMs. PMID:12522267

  5. Response Element Composition Governs Correlations between Binding Site Affinity and Transcription in Glucocorticoid Receptor Feed-forward Loops.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Sarah K; Zuo, Zheng; Kadiyala, Vineela; Zhang, Liyang; Pufall, Miles A; Jain, Mukesh K; Phang, Tzu L; Stormo, Gary D; Gerber, Anthony N

    2015-08-07

    Combinatorial gene regulation through feed-forward loops (FFLs) can bestow specificity and temporal control to client gene expression; however, characteristics of binding sites that mediate these effects are not established. We previously showed that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and KLF15 form coherent FFLs that cooperatively induce targets such as the amino acid-metabolizing enzymes AASS and PRODH and incoherent FFLs exemplified by repression of MT2A by KLF15. Here, we demonstrate that GR and KLF15 physically interact and identify low affinity GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) for PRODH and AASS that contribute to combinatorial regulation with KLF15. We used deep sequencing and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to derive in vitro GR binding affinities across sequence space. We applied these data to show that AASS GRE activity correlated (r(2) = 0.73) with predicted GR binding affinities across a 50-fold affinity range in transfection assays; however, the slope of the linear relationship more than doubled when KLF15 was expressed. Whereas activity of the MT2A GRE was even more strongly (r(2) = 0.89) correlated with GR binding site affinity, the slope of the linear relationship was sharply reduced by KLF15, consistent with incoherent FFL logic. Thus, GRE architecture and co-regulator expression together determine the functional parameters that relate GR binding site affinity to hormone-induced transcriptional responses. Utilization of specific affinity response functions and GR binding sites by FFLs may contribute to the diversity of gene expression patterns within GR-regulated transcriptomes.

  6. Purification of high affinity benzodiazepine receptor binding site fragments from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    In central nervous system benzodiazepine recognition sites occur on neuronal cell surfaces as one member of a multireceptor complex, including recognition sites for benzodiazepines, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), barbiturates and a chloride ionophore. During photoaffinity labelling, the benzodiazepine agonist, /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to central benzodiazepine high affinity recognition sites in the presence of ultraviolet light. In these studies a /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam radiolabel was used to track the isolation and purification of high affinity agonist binding site fragments from membrane-bound benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain. The authors present a method for limited proteolysis of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled rat brain membranes, generating photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site. Using trypsin chymotrypsin A/sub 4/, or a combination of these two proteases, they have demonstrated the extent and time course for partial digestion of benzodiazepine receptor, yielding photolabeled receptor binding site fragments. These photolabeled receptor fragments have been further purified on the basis of size, using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as well as on the basis of hydrophobicity, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) precolumn, several HPLC elution schemes, and two different HPLC column types. Using these procedures, they have purified three photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site which appear to have a molecular weight of less than 2000 daltons each.

  7. RNA containing pyrrolocytidine base analogs: good binding affinity and fluorescence that responds to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Alexander S; Damha, Masad J; Hudson, Robert H E

    2008-01-01

    6-Phenylpyrrolocytidine and 6-methoxymethylene-pyrrolocytidine are base-modified nucleosides with remarkable fluorescence properties. When incorporated into RNA, these analogs enhance binding affinity towards RNA and DNA targets with a concomitant change in their fluorescence upon duplex formation. The fluorescence response depends on the nature of the 6-substituent and the sequence position of the modified nucleoside. The fluorescence response of these structurally conservative, well-tolerated fluorescent nucleosides may be exploited as probes in the study of nucleic acid processing enzymes.

  8. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-03-20

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.

  9. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The training set used to derive a common reactivity pattern (COREPA) model for estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity in Model I (see Abstract I in this series) was extended to include 47 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements in addition to the...

  10. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.J.; Martino, A.M.; Hall, D.P. Jr.; Schwartz, R.D.; Taylor, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic sites in rat CNS and peripheral tissues was measured in the presence of cytisin, which occupies nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The muscarinic sites were characterized with regard to binding kinetics, pharmacology, anatomical distribution, and regulation by guanyl nucleotides. These binding sites have characteristics of high-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors with a Kd of approximately 30 nM. Most of the muscarinic agonist and antagonist drugs tested have high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding site, but pirenzepine, an antagonist which is selective for M-1 receptors, has relatively low affinity. The ratio of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding sites to total muscarinic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate varies from 9 to 90% in different tissues, with the highest ratios in the pons, medulla, and heart atrium. In the presence of guanyl nucleotides, (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine binding is decreased, but the extent of decrease varies from 40 to 90% in different tissues, with the largest decreases being found in the pons, medulla, cerebellum, and heart atrium. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binds to high-affinity M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptors, and they suggest that most M-2 sites have high affinity for acetylcholine but that only a small fraction of M-1 sites have such high affinity.

  11. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....

  12. Investigation of the effect of mutations of rat albumin on the binding affinity to the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin antagonist, 4-[1-[3-chloro-4-[N'-(2-methylphenyl)ureido]phenylacetyl]-(4S)-fluoro-(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-yl]methoxybenzoic acid (D01-4582), using recombinant rat albumins.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Okazaki, Osamu; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2010-08-02

    The authors reported previously rat strain differences in plasma protein binding to alpha(4)beta(1) antagonist D01-4582, resulting in a great strain difference in its pharmacokinetics (19-fold differences in the AUC). The previous study suggested that amino acid changes of V238L and/or T293I in albumin reduced the binding affinity. In order to elucidate the relative significance of these mutations, an expression system was developed to obtain recombinant rat albumins (rRSA) using Pichia pastoris, followed by a binding analysis of four rRSAs by the ultracentrifugation method. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of wild-type rRSA was 210 nM, while K(d) of rRSA that carried both V238L and T293I mutations was 974 nM. K(d) of artificial rRSA that carried only V238L was 426 nM, and K(d) of artificial rRSA that carried only T293I was 191 nM. These results suggested that V238L would be more important in the alteration of K(d). However, since none of the single mutations were sufficient to explain the reduction of affinity, the possibility was also suggested that T293I interacted cooperatively to reduce the binding affinity of rat albumin to D01-4582. Further investigation is required to elucidate the mechanism of the possible cooperative interaction.

  13. Tuning the affinity of anion binding sites in porin channels with negatively charged residues: molecular details for OprP.

    PubMed

    Modi, Niraj; Bárcena-Uribarri, Iván; Bains, Manjeet; Benz, Roland; Hancock, Robert E W; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2015-02-20

    The cell envelope of the Gram negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is poorly permeable to many classes of hydrophilic molecules including antibiotics due to the presence of the narrow and selective porins. Here we focused on one of the narrow-channel porins, that is, OprP, which is responsible for the high-affinity uptake of phosphate ions. Its two central binding sites for phosphate contain a number of positively charged amino acids together with a single negatively charged residue (D94). The presence of this negatively charged residue in a binding site for negatively charged phosphate ions is highly surprising due to the potentially reduced binding affinity. The goal of this study was to better understand the role of D94 in phosphate binding, selectivity, and transport using a combination of mutagenesis, electrophysiology, and free-energy calculations. The presence of a negatively charged residue in the binding site is critical for this specific porin OprP as emphasized by the evolutionary conservation of such negatively charged residue in the binding site of several anion-selective porins. Mutations of D94 in OprP to any positively charged or neutral residue increased the binding affinity of phosphate for OprP. Detailed analysis indicated that this anionic residue in the phosphate binding site of OprP, despite its negative charge, maintained energetically favorable phosphate binding sites in the central region of the channel and at the same time decreased residence time thus preventing excessively strong binding of phosphate that would oppose phosphate flux through the channel. Intriguingly mutations of D94 to positively charged residues, lysine and arginine, resulted in very different binding affinities and free energy profiles, indicating the importance of side chain conformations of these positively charged residues in phosphate binding to OprP.

  14. Affinity polymers tailored for the protein A binding site of immunoglobulin G proteins.

    PubMed

    Latza, Patricia; Gilles, Patrick; Schaller, Torsten; Schrader, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Rational design in combination with a screening process was used to develop affinity polymers for a specific binding site on the surface of immunoglobulin G (IgG) proteins. The concept starts with the identification of critical amino acid residues on the protein interface and their topological arrangement. Appropriate binding monomers were subsequently synthesized. Together with a sugar monomer (2-5 equiv) for water solubility and a dansyl monomer (0.5 equiv) as a fluorescent label, they were subjected in aqueous solution to linear radical copolymerization in various compositions (e.g., azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), homogeneous water/DMF mixtures). After ultrafiltration and lyophilization, colorless dry water-soluble powders were obtained. NMR spectroscopic and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization indicated molecular weights between 30 and 500 kD and confirmed retention of monomer composition as well as the absence of monomers. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen of the polymer libraries (20-50 members), few copolymers qualified as strong and selective binders for the protein A binding site on the Fc fragment of the antibody. Their monomer composition precisely reflected the critical amino acids found at the interface. The simple combination of a charged and a nonpolar binding monomer sufficed for selective submicromolar IgG recognition by the synthetic polymer. Affinities were confirmed by fluorescence titrations; they increased with decreasing salt load but remained largely unaltered at lowered pH. Other proteins, including those of similar size and isoelectric point (pI), were bound 10-1000 times less tightly. This example indicates that interaction domains in other proteins may also be targeted by synthetic polymers if their comonomer composition reflects the nature and arrangement of amino acid residues on the protein surface.

  15. Characterization of the binding sites for dicarboxylic acids on bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Tonsgard, J H; Meredith, S C

    1991-01-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are prominent features of several diseases, including Reye's syndrome and inborn errors of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, dicarboxylic acids are potentially toxic to cellular processes. Previous studies [Tonsgard, Mendelson & Meredith (1988) J. Clin. Invest. 82, 1567-1573] demonstrated that long-chain dicarboxylic acids have a single high-affinity binding site and between one and three lower-affinity sites on albumin. Medium-chain-length dicarboxylic acids have a single low-affinity site. We further characterized dicarboxylic acid binding to albumin in order to understand the potential effects of drugs and other ligands on dicarboxylic acid binding and toxicity. Progesterone and oleate competitively inhibit octadecanedioic acid binding to the single high-affinity site. Octanoate inhibits binding to the low-affinity sites. Dansylated probes for subdomain 2AB inhibit dodecanedioic acid binding whereas probes for subdomain 3AB do not. In contrast, low concentrations of octadecanedioic acid inhibit the binding of dansylated probes to subdomain 3AB and 2AB. L-Tryptophan, which binds in subdomain 3AB, inhibits hexadecanedioic acid binding but has no effect on dodecanedioic acid. Bilirubin and acetylsalicylic acid, which bind in subdomain 2AB, inhibit the binding of medium-chain and long-chain dicarboxylic acids. Our results suggest that long-chain dicarboxylic acids bind in subdomains 2C, 3AB and 2AB. The single low-affinity binding site for medium-chain dicarboxylic acids is in subdomain 2AB. These studies suggest that dicarboxylic acids are likely to be unbound in disease states and may be potentially toxic. PMID:2064600

  16. Sugar-binding proteins from fish: selection of high affinity "lambodies" that recognize biomedically relevant glycans.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xia; Ma, Mark Z; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Chowdhury, Sudipa; Barchi, Joseph J; Mariuzza, Roy A; Murphy, Michael B; Mao, Li; Pancer, Zeev

    2013-01-18

    Glycan-binding proteins are important for a wide variety of basic research and clinical applications, but proteins with high affinity and selectivity for carbohydrates are difficult to obtain. Here we describe a facile and cost-effective strategy to generate monoclonal lamprey antibodies, called lambodies, that target glycan determinants. We screened a library of yeast surface-displayed (YSD) lamprey variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) for clones that can selectively bind various biomedically important glycotopes. These glycoconjugates included tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (Tn and TFα), Lewis antigens (LeA and LeX), N-glycolylneuraminic acid, targets of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (poly-Man9 and the HIV gp120), and the glycoproteins asialo-ovine submaxillary mucin (aOSM) and asialo-human glycophorin A (aGPA). We isolated clones that bind each of these targets in a glycan-dependent manner and with very strong binding constants, for example, 6.2 nM for Man9 and 44.7 nM for gp120, determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). One particular lambody, VLRB.aGPA.23, was shown by glycan array analysis to be selective for the blood group H type 3 trisaccharide (BG-H3, Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα), aGPA, and TFα (Galβ1-3GalNAcα), with affinity constants of 0.2, 1, and 8 nM, respectively. In human tissue microarrays this lambody selectively detected cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens in 14 different types of cancers. It stained 27% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples in a pattern that correlated with poor patient survival. Lambodies with exquisite affinity and selectivity for glycans may find myriad uses in glycobiology and biomedical research.

  17. Introduction of structural affinity handles as a tool in selective nucleic acid separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, III, Richard Coale (Inventor); Cano, Luis Antonio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The method is used for separating nucleic acids and other similar constructs. It involves selective introduction, enhancement, or stabilization of affinity handles such as single-strandedness in the undesired (or desired) nucleic acids as compared to the usual structure (e.g., double-strandedness) of the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids. The undesired (or desired) nucleic acids are separated from the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids due to capture by methods including but not limited to immobilized metal affinity chromatography, immobilized single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein, and immobilized oligonucleotides. The invention is useful to: remove contaminating genomic DNA from plasmid DNA; remove genomic DNA from plasmids, BACs, and similar constructs; selectively separate oligonucleotides and similar DNA fragments from their partner strands; purification of aptamers, (deoxy)-ribozymes and other highly structured nucleic acids; Separation of restriction fragments without using agarose gels; manufacture recombinant Taq polymerase or similar products that are sensitive to host genomic DNA contamination; and other applications.

  18. Paracetamol and cytarabine binding competition in high affinity binding sites of transporting protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2006-07-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, AA) the most popular analgesic drug is commonly used in the treatment of pain in patients suffering from cancer. In our studies, we evaluated the competition in binding with serum albumin between paracetamol (AA) and cytarabine, antyleukemic drug (araC). The presence of one drug can alter the binding affinity of albumin towards the second one. Such interaction can result in changing of the free fraction of the one of these drugs in blood. Two spectroscopic methods were used to determine high affinity binding sites and the competition of the drugs. Basing on the change of the serum albumin fluorescence in the presence of either of the drugs the quenching ( KQ) constants for the araC-BSA and AA-BSA systems were calculated. Analysis of UV difference spectra allowed us to describe the changes in drug-protein complexes (araC-albumin and AA-albumin) induced by the presence of the second drug (AA and araC, respectively). The mechanism of competition between araC and AA has been proposed.

  19. Polysulfone affinity membranes for the treatment of amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodemann, K; Staude, E

    1995-06-20

    Affinity membranes for the treatment of solutions containing amino acids were obtained via lithiating polysulfone that was subsequently converted with glycidylether. From this polymer asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes were cast. The membranes were reacted with iminodiacetic acid yielding membranes fitted out with bidentate chelates. The same reaction path was applied to commercially available symmetric microfiltration membranes. The chelate-bearing membranes were complexed with Cu, Ni, and Zn ions. For the experiments with amino acids only the Cu-complexed membranes were used. The complexation constants for histidine and tryptophan for six different membranes were determined. Because of the affinity of these two amino acids for the complexed Cu ions, they could easily be separated from solutions containing amino acids such as alanine, glycine, and valine. Also, concentrating very dilute amino acid solutions was carried out successfully.

  20. Purification of L-( sup 3 H) Nicotine eliminates low affinity binding

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, E.; Marks, M.J.; Collins, A.C. ); Lippiello, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Some studies of L-({sup 3}H) nicotine binding to rodent and human brain tissue have detected two binding sites as evidenced by nonlinear Scatchard plots. Evidence presented here indicated that the low affinity binding site is not stereospecific, is not inhibited by low concentrations of cholinergic agonists and is probably due to breakdown products of nicotine since purification of the L-({sup 3}H)nicotine eliminates the low affinity site.

  1. Molecular determinants of affinity for aminoglycoside binding to the aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase(2'')-Ia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Edward; Serpersu, Engin H

    2006-08-29

    One of the most commonly occurring aminoglycoside resistance enzymes is aminoglycoside 2''-O-nucleotidyltransferase [ANT(2'')]. In the present study molecular determinants of affinity and specificity for aminoglycoside binding to this enzyme are investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Binding of aminoglycosides is enthalpically driven accompanied by negative entropy changes. The presence of metal-nucleotide increases the affinity for all but one of the aminoglycosides studied but has no effect on specificity. The substituents at positions 1, 2', and 6' are important determinants of substrate specificity. An amino group at these positions leads to greater affinity. No correlation is observed between the change in affinity and enthalpy. At the 2' position greater affinity results from a more negative enthalpy for an aminoglycoside containing an amino rather than a hydroxyl at that position. At the 6' position the greater affinity for an aminoglycoside containing an amino substituent results from a less disfavorable entropic contribution. The thermodynamic basis for the change in affinity at position 1 could not be determined because of the weak binding of one of the aminoglycoside substrates, amikacin. The effect of increasing osmotic stress on affinity was used to determine that a net release of approximately four water molecules occurs when tobramycin binds to ANT(2''). No measurable net change in the number of bound water molecules is observed when neomycin binds the enzyme. Data acquired in this work provide the rationale for the ability of ANT(2'') to confer resistance against kanamycins but not neomycins.

  2. Structural insights into the affinity of Cel7A carbohydrate-binding module for lignin.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Kathryn L; Pfeiffer, Katherine A; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2015-09-11

    The high cost of hydrolytic enzymes impedes the commercial production of lignocellulosic biofuels. High enzyme loadings are required in part due to their non-productive adsorption to lignin, a major component of biomass. Despite numerous studies documenting cellulase adsorption to lignin, few attempts have been made to engineer enzymes to reduce lignin binding. In this work, we used alanine-scanning mutagenesis to elucidate the structural basis for the lignin affinity of Trichoderma reesei Cel7A carbohydrate binding module (CBM). T. reesei Cel7A CBM mutants were produced with a Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A catalytic domain and screened for their binding to cellulose and lignin. Mutation of aromatic and polar residues on the planar face of the CBM greatly decreased binding to both cellulose and lignin, supporting the hypothesis that the cellulose-binding face is also responsible for lignin affinity. Cellulose and lignin affinity of the 31 mutants were highly correlated, although several mutants displayed selective reductions in lignin or cellulose affinity. Four mutants with increased cellulose selectivity (Q2A, H4A, V18A, and P30A) did not exhibit improved hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of lignin. Further reduction in lignin affinity while maintaining a high level of cellulose affinity is thus necessary to generate an enzyme with improved hydrolysis capability. This work provides insights into the structural underpinnings of lignin affinity, identifies residues amenable to mutation without compromising cellulose affinity, and informs engineering strategies for family one CBMs.

  3. Structural Insights into the Affinity of Cel7A Carbohydrate-binding Module for Lignin*

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Kathryn L.; Pfeiffer, Katherine A.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    The high cost of hydrolytic enzymes impedes the commercial production of lignocellulosic biofuels. High enzyme loadings are required in part due to their non-productive adsorption to lignin, a major component of biomass. Despite numerous studies documenting cellulase adsorption to lignin, few attempts have been made to engineer enzymes to reduce lignin binding. In this work, we used alanine-scanning mutagenesis to elucidate the structural basis for the lignin affinity of Trichoderma reesei Cel7A carbohydrate binding module (CBM). T. reesei Cel7A CBM mutants were produced with a Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A catalytic domain and screened for their binding to cellulose and lignin. Mutation of aromatic and polar residues on the planar face of the CBM greatly decreased binding to both cellulose and lignin, supporting the hypothesis that the cellulose-binding face is also responsible for lignin affinity. Cellulose and lignin affinity of the 31 mutants were highly correlated, although several mutants displayed selective reductions in lignin or cellulose affinity. Four mutants with increased cellulose selectivity (Q2A, H4A, V18A, and P30A) did not exhibit improved hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of lignin. Further reduction in lignin affinity while maintaining a high level of cellulose affinity is thus necessary to generate an enzyme with improved hydrolysis capability. This work provides insights into the structural underpinnings of lignin affinity, identifies residues amenable to mutation without compromising cellulose affinity, and informs engineering strategies for family one CBMs. PMID:26209638

  4. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine to rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    El-Maghrabi, E.A.; Calligaro, D.O.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    )/sup 3/H)cocaine bound reversible, with high affinity and stereospecificity to rat liver microsomes. Little binding was detected in the lysosomal, mitochondrial and nuclear fractions. The binding kinetics were slow and the kinetically calculated K/sub D/ was 2 nM. Induction of mixed function oxidases by phenobarbital did not produce significant change in (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding. On the other hand, chronic administration of cocaine reduced (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding drastically. Neither treatment affected the affinity of the liver binding protein for cocaine. Microsomes from mouse and human livers had less cocaine-binding protein and lower affinity for cocaine than those from rat liver. Binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine to rat liver microsomes was insensitive to monovalent cations and > 10 fold less sensitive to biogenic amines than the cocaine receptor in rat striatum. However, the liver protein had higher affinity for cocaine and metabolites except for norcocaine. Amine uptake inhibitors displaced (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding to liver with a different rank order of potency than their displacement of (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding to striatum. This high affinity (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding protein in liver is not likely to be monooxygenase, but may have a role in cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity

  5. Conformational Destabilization of Immunoglobulin G Increases the Low pH Binding Affinity with the Neonatal Fc Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Benjamin T.; Jensen, Pernille F.; Larraillet, Vincent; Lin, Kevin; Patapoff, Thomas; Schlothauer, Tilman; Rand, Kasper D.; Zhang, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Crystallographic evidence suggests that the pH-dependent affinity of IgG molecules for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) receptor primarily arises from salt bridges involving IgG histidine residues, resulting in moderate affinity at mildly acidic conditions. However, this view does not explain the diversity in affinity found in IgG variants, such as the YTE mutant (M252Y,S254T,T256E), which increases affinity to FcRn by up to 10×. Here we compare hydrogen exchange measurements at pH 7.0 and pH 5.5 with and without FcRn bound with surface plasmon resonance estimates of dissociation constants and FcRn affinity chromatography. The combination of experimental results demonstrates that differences between an IgG and its cognate YTE mutant vary with their pH-sensitive dynamics prior to binding FcRn. The conformational dynamics of these two molecules are nearly indistinguishable upon binding FcRn. We present evidence that pH-induced destabilization in the CH2/3 domain interface of IgG increases binding affinity by breaking intramolecular H-bonds and increases side-chain adaptability in sites that form intermolecular contacts with FcRn. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of pH-dependent affinity in IgG-FcRn interactions and exemplify the important and often ignored role of intrinsic conformational dynamics in a protein ligand, to dictate affinity for biologically important receptors. PMID:26627822

  6. Autoradiographic imaging and quantification of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in rodent brain using (3)H-HOCPCA.

    PubMed

    Klein, A B; Bay, T; Villumsen, I S; Falk-Petersen, C B; Marek, A; Frølund, B; Clausen, R P; Hansen, H D; Knudsen, G M; Wellendorph, P

    2016-11-01

    GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) is a compound endogenous to mammalian brain with high structural resemblance to GABA. GHB possesses nanomolar-micromolar affinity for a unique population of binding sites, but the exact nature of these remains elusive. In this study we utilized the highly selective GHB analogue, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) as a tritiated version ((3)H-HOCPCA) to radioactively label the specific GHB high-affinity binding site and gain further insight into the density, distribution and developmental profile of this protein. We show that, in low nanomolar concentrations, (3)H-HOCPCA displays excellent signal-to-noise ratios using rodent brain autoradiography, which makes it a valuable ligand for anatomical quantification of native GHB binding site levels. Our data confirmed that (3)H-HOCPCA labels only the high-affinity specific GHB binding site, found in high density in cortical and hippocampal regions. The experiments revealed markedly stronger binding at pH 6.0 (Kd 73.8 nM) compared to pH 7.4 (Kd 2312 nM), as previously reported for other GHB radioligands but similar Bmax values. Using (3)H-HOCPCA we analyzed the GHB binding protein profile during mouse brain development. Due to the high sensitivity of this radioligand, we were able to detect low levels of specific binding already at E15 in mouse brain, which increased progressively until adulthood. Collectively, we show that (3)H-HOCPCA is a highly sensitive radioligand, offering advantages over the commonly used radioligand (3)H-NCS-382, and thus a very suitable in vitro tool for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography of the GHB high-affinity site.

  7. Affinity chromatography reveals RuBisCO as an ecdysteroid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Kamlar, Marek; Kohout, Ladislav; Jezek, Rudolf; Harmatha, Juraj; Macek, Tomas

    2008-12-22

    The aim of this work was to isolate plant ecdysteroid-binding proteins using affinity chromatography. Ecdysteroids as insect hormones have been investigated thoroughly but their function and the mechanism of action in plants and other organisms is still unknown although ecdysteroids occur in some plants in a relatively large amount. Therefore, 20-hydroxyecdysone was immobilized on a polymeric carrier as a ligand for affinity chromatography in order to isolate plant ecdysteroid-binding proteins from the cytosolic extract of New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonoides). Non-specifically bound proteins were eluted with a rising gradient of concentration of sodium chloride, and 3% (v/v) acetic acid was used for the elution of the specifically bound proteins. Using this method, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) was isolated. The influence of ecdysteroids on RuBisCO was further studied. Our results show that ecdysteroids are able to increase the yield of RuBisCO-mediated reaction in which CO(2) is fixed into organic matter by more than 10%.

  8. Computational analysis of binding affinity and neural response at the l-alanine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venanzi, Thomas J.; Bryant, Bruce P.; Venanzi, Carol A.

    1995-10-01

    A model of analogue-receptor binding is developed for the l-alanine receptor in the channel catfish using the AM1-SM2 and ab initio SCRF computational methods. Besides interactions involving the zwitterionic moiety of the amino acid analogue and complementary subsites on the receptor, the model suggests the presence of a hydrophobic pocket with dispersion interactions between the receptor and the residue on the amino acid analogue. Conformational analysis suggests not only a small compact active site on the receptor, but also that the analogues with the highest affinity occupy nearly identical regions of space. Although the binding interaction is dominated by the ionic terms, AM1-SM2 calculations indicate that free energy terms associated with cavity formation, solvent reorganization, and dispersion interactions can be correlated to activation and neural response. From a consideration of this model, molecular features of the analogues that are important for binding and neural response were deduced and other analogues or ligands were developed and tested.

  9. Binding site on human immunoglobulin G for the affinity ligand HWRGWV

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiou; Gurgel, Patrick V.; Williams, D. Keith; Bobay, Benjamin G.; Cavanagh, John; Muddiman, David C.; Carbonell, Ruben G.

    2014-01-01

    Affinity ligand HWRGWV has demonstrated the ability to isolate human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) from mammalian cell culture media. The ligand specifically binds hIgG through its Fc portion. This work shows that deglycosylation of hIgG has no influence on its binding to the HWRGWV ligand and the ligand does not compete with Protein A or Protein G in binding hIgG. It is suggested by the mass spectrometry (MS) data and docking simulation that HWRGWV binds to the pFc portion of hIgG and interacts with the amino acids in the loop Ser383–Asn389 (SNGQPEN) located in the CH3 domain. Subsequent modeling has suggested a possible three-dimensional minimized solution structure for the interaction of hIgG and the HWRGWV ligand. The results support the fact that a peptide as small as a hexamer can have specific interactions with large proteins such as hIgG. PMID:20049844

  10. The Binding of Biotin to Sepharose-Avidin Column: Demonstration of the Affinity Chromatography Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, A. D.; Landman, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a biochemistry experiment that illustrates the methodology of affinity chromatography by attaching avidin, a glycoprotein in egg white, to a Sepharose matrix in order to bind biotin-containing proteins. (MLH)

  11. Functional transformations of bile acid transporters induced by high-affinity macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilal, Taslim A.; Chung, Seung Woo; Alam, Farzana; Park, Jooho; Lee, Kyung Eun; Jeon, Hyesung; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, In-San; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

    2014-01-01

    Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporters (ASBT) are the intestinal transporters that form intermediate complexes with substrates and its conformational change drives the movement of substrates across the cell membrane. However, membrane-based intestinal transporters are confined to the transport of only small molecular substrates. Here, we propose a new strategy that uses high-affinity binding macromolecular substrates to functionally transform the membrane transporters so that they behave like receptors, ultimately allowing the apical-basal transport of bound macromolecules. Bile acid based macromolecular substrates were synthesized and allowed to interact with ASBT. ASBT/macromolecular substrate complexes were rapidly internalized in vesicles, localized in early endosomes, dissociated and escaped the vesicular transport while binding of cytoplasmic ileal bile acid binding proteins cause exocytosis of macromolecules and prevented entry into lysosomes. This newly found transformation process of ASBT suggests a new transport mechanism that could aid in further utilization of ASBT to mediate oral macromolecular drug delivery. PMID:24566561

  12. (/sup 125/I)diiodoinsulins. Binding affinities, biologic potencies, and properties of their decay products

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Maceda, B.; Linde, S.; Sonne, O.; Gliemann, J.

    1982-07-01

    Insulin was iodinated with 0.3-0.4 mol /sup 125/I/mol insulin using the lactoperoxidase method. About one-third of the radioactivity incorporated into insulin was in diiodoinsulins and about 40% of these molecules contained diiodotyrosine in residue 14 of the A chain. Most of the remaining molecules contained one A14-monoiodotyrosine and one monoiodotyrosine in either position A19, B16, or B26. The binding affinity and biologic potency of this heterogeneous diiodoinsulin preparation was not significantly different from that of A14-(/sup 125/I)monoiodoinsulin in rat adipocytes, whereas it was slightly reduced in hepatocytes and IM-9 lymphocytes. From the iodine distribution and previous data on the binding affinity of each of the four monoiodoinsulin isomers it was calculated that A14-diiodotyrosine-insulin possesses full binding affinity and biologic potency in adipocytes. Diiodoinsulins isolated from another iodoinsulin preparation (iodate method) contained 58% A19-diiodotyrosine-insulin, and most remaining molecules contained one A19-monoiodotyrosine. The binding affinity of this mixed diiodoinsulin preparation was approximately one-fourth of that of A14-monoiodoinsulin in adipocytes, IM-9 lymphocytes, and hepatocytes. It was calculated that A19-diiodotyrosine-insulin is nearly devoid of binding affinity. The diiodoinsulins (lactoperoxidase method) decayed to iodide (probably from diiodotyrosine-insulin) or to polymers with little specific but a markedly increased nonspecific binding. In addition, the polymers had a marked tendency to adsorb to cellulose acetate filters. Conclusions: 1. The binding affinities of diiodoinsulins range from very low values to values at least as high as that of insulin depending on the positions of the iodine moieties. 2. The relative binding affinities vary among tissues. 3. Polymeric decay products give high nonspecific binding.

  13. Label-free microscale thermophoresis discriminates sites and affinity of protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Susanne A I; Wienken, Christoph J; Geissler, Sandra; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Duhr, Stefan; Reiter, Alwin; Trauner, Dirk; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp

    2012-10-15

    Look, no label! Microscale thermophoresis makes use of the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins to quantify the binding affinities of ligands and discriminate between binding sites. This method is suitable for studying binding interactions of very small amounts of protein in solution. The binding of ligands to iGluR membrane receptors, small-molecule inhibitorss to kinase p38, aptamers to thrombin, and Ca(2+) ions to synaptotagmin was quantified.

  14. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  15. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  16. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  17. Density-dependent cooperative non-specific binding in solid-phase SELEX affinity selection.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Abdullah; White, Brian S; Lis, John T; Shalloway, David

    2013-08-01

    The non-specific binding of undesired ligands to a target is the primary factor limiting the enrichment of tight-binding ligands in affinity selection. Solution-phase non-specific affinity is determined by the free-energy of ligand binding to a single target. However, the solid-phase affinity might be higher if a ligand bound concurrently to multiple adjacent immobilized targets in a cooperative manner. Cooperativity could emerge in this case as a simple consequence of the relationship between the free energy of binding, localization entropy and the spatial distribution of the immobilized targets. We tested this hypothesis using a SELEX experimental design and found that non-specific RNA aptamer ligands can concurrently bind up to four bead-immobilized peptide targets, and that this can increase their effective binding affinity by two orders-of-magnitude. Binding curves were quantitatively explained by a new statistical mechanical model of density-dependent cooperative binding, which relates cooperative binding to both the target concentration and the target surface density on the immobilizing substrate. Target immobilization plays a key role in SELEX and other ligand enrichment methods, particularly in new multiplexed microfluidic purification devices, and these results have strong implications for optimizing their performance.

  18. Proton affinity of methyl nitrate - Less than proton affinity of nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Rice, Julia E.

    1992-01-01

    Several state-of-the-art ab initio quantum mechanical methods were used to investigate the equilibrium structure, dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and IR intensities of methyl nitrate, methanol, and several structures of protonated methyl nitrate, using the same theoretical methods as in an earlier study (Lee and Rice, 1992) of nitric acid. The ab initio results for methyl nitrate and methanol were found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. The proton affinity (PA) of methyl nitrate was calculated to be 176.9 +/-5 kcal/mol, in excellent agreement with the experimental value 176 kcal/mol obtained by Attina et al. (1987) and less than the PA value of nitric acid. An explanation of the discrepancy of the present results with those of an earlier study on protonated nitric acid is proposed.

  19. Integrated microfluidic approach for quantitative high-throughput measurements of transcription factor binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Yair; Orenstein, Yaron; Chen, Dana; Avrahami, Dorit; Zor, Tsaffrir; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Protein binding to DNA is a fundamental process in gene regulation. Methodologies such as ChIP-Seq and mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites provide global information on this regulation in vivo. In vitro methodologies provide valuable complementary information on protein–DNA specificities. However, current methods still do not measure absolute binding affinities. There is a real need for large-scale quantitative protein–DNA affinity measurements. We developed QPID, a microfluidic application for measuring protein–DNA affinities. A single run is equivalent to 4096 gel-shift experiments. Using QPID, we characterized the different affinities of ATF1, c-Jun, c-Fos and AP-1 to the CRE consensus motif and CRE half-site in two different genomic sequences on a single device. We discovered that binding of ATF1, but not of AP-1, to the CRE half-site is highly affected by its genomic context. This effect was highly correlated with ATF1 ChIP-seq and PBM experiments. Next, we characterized the affinities of ATF1 and ATF3 to 128 genomic CRE and CRE half-site sequences. Our affinity measurements explained that in vivo binding differences between ATF1 and ATF3 to CRE and CRE half-sites are partially mediated by differences in the minor groove width. We believe that QPID would become a central tool for quantitative characterization of biophysical aspects affecting protein–DNA binding. PMID:26635393

  20. Integrated microfluidic approach for quantitative high-throughput measurements of transcription factor binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Glick, Yair; Orenstein, Yaron; Chen, Dana; Avrahami, Dorit; Zor, Tsaffrir; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-04-07

    Protein binding to DNA is a fundamental process in gene regulation. Methodologies such as ChIP-Seq and mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites provide global information on this regulation in vivo In vitro methodologies provide valuable complementary information on protein-DNA specificities. However, current methods still do not measure absolute binding affinities. There is a real need for large-scale quantitative protein-DNA affinity measurements. We developed QPID, a microfluidic application for measuring protein-DNA affinities. A single run is equivalent to 4096 gel-shift experiments. Using QPID, we characterized the different affinities of ATF1, c-Jun, c-Fos and AP-1 to the CRE consensus motif and CRE half-site in two different genomic sequences on a single device. We discovered that binding of ATF1, but not of AP-1, to the CRE half-site is highly affected by its genomic context. This effect was highly correlated with ATF1 ChIP-seq and PBM experiments. Next, we characterized the affinities of ATF1 and ATF3 to 128 genomic CRE and CRE half-site sequences. Our affinity measurements explained that in vivo binding differences between ATF1 and ATF3 to CRE and CRE half-sites are partially mediated by differences in the minor groove width. We believe that QPID would become a central tool for quantitative characterization of biophysical aspects affecting protein-DNA binding.

  1. Binding patterns and structure-affinity relationships of food azo dyes with lysozyme: a multitechnique approach.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei; Peng, Yu-Kui; Jiang, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Li

    2013-12-18

    Food dyes serve to beguile consumers: they are often used to imitate the presence of healthful, colorful food produce such as fruits and vegetables. But considering the hurtful impact of these chemicals on the human body, it is time to thoroughly uncover the toxicity of these food dyes at the molecular level. In the present contribution, we have examined the molecular reactions of protein lysozyme with model food azo compound Color Index (C.I.) Acid Red 2 and its analogues C.I. Acid Orange 52, Solvent Yellow 2, and the core structure of azobenzene using a combination of biophysical methods at physiological conditions. Fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), time-resolved fluorescence, UV-vis absorption as well as computer-aided molecular modeling were used to analyze food dye affinity, binding mode, energy transfer, and the effects of food dye complexation on lysozyme stability and conformation. Fluorescence emission spectra indicate complex formation at 10(-5) M dye concentration, and this corroborates time-resolved fluorescence results showing the diminution in the tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence mainly via a static type (KSV = 1.505 × 10(4) M(-1)) and Förster energy transfer. Structural analysis displayed the participation of several amino acid residues in food dye protein adducts, with hydrogen bonds, π-π and cation-π interactions, but the conformation of lysozyme was unchanged in the process, as derived from fluorescence emission, far-UV CD, and synchronous fluorescence spectra. The overall affinity of food dye is 10(4) M(-1) and there exists only one kind of binding domain in protein for food dye. These data are consistent with hydrophobic probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) displacement, and molecular modeling manifesting the food dye binding patch was near to Trp-62 and Trp-63 residues of lysozyme. On the basis of the computational analyses, we determine that the type of substituent on the azobenzene structure has a powerful influence on the

  2. PREDICTING RETINOID RECEPTOR BINDING AFFINITY: COREPA-M APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoic acid and associated vitamin A derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that activate different retinoic acid receptors RARs). Transcriptional events subsequent to this activation are key to controlling several aspects of vertebrate development. As such, identi...

  3. The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chung-ke; Wu, Tzong-Huah; Wu, Chu-Ya; Chiang, Ming-hui; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Hsu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Ku-Feng; Liao, Yu-heng; Huang, Tai-huang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter isolates from sediments and the association with phenanthrene binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    In this study, selected spectroscopic characteristics of sediment organic matter (SOM) were compared and discussed with respect to their different isolation methods, the source discrimination capabilities, and the association with the extent of phenanthrene binding. A total of 16 sediments were collected from three categorized locations including a costal lake, industrial areas, and upper streams, each of which is likely influenced by the organic sources of algal production, industrial effluent, and terrestrial input, respectively. The spectroscopic properties related to aromatic structures and terrestrial humic acids were more pronounced for alkaline extractable organic matter (AEOM) isolates than for the SOM isolates based on water soluble extracts and pore water. The three categorized sampling locations were the most differentiated in the AEOM isolates, suggesting AEOM may be the most representative SOM isolates in terms of describing the chemical properties and the organic sources of SOM. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) based on fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) showed that a combination of three fluorescent groups could represent all the fluorescence features of SOM. The three categorized sampling locations were well discriminated by the percent distributions of humic-like fluorescent groups of the AEOM isolates. The relative distribution of terrestrial humic-like fluorophores was well correlated with the extent of phenanthrene binding (r=0.571; p<0.05), suggesting that the presence of humic acids in SOM may contribute to the enhancement of binding with hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that the extent of SOM's binding affinity might be affected by the degree of biogeochemical transformation in SOM.

  5. Photoaffinity labelling of high affinity dopamine binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.M.; McCarry, B.E.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-03-01

    A photoactive analogue of the dopamine agonist 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) has been synthesized and used to photoaffinity label dopamine binding proteins prepared from bovine caudate nucleus. N-(3-)N'-4-azidobenzamidol)-aminopropyl)-aminopropyl)-ADTN (AzB-AP-ADTN) was incubated with caudate membranes and irradiated with UV light. Membranes were then repeatedly washed by centrifugation to remove excess photolabel. A binding assay, using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 (a D/sub 1/ specific antagonist), was then performed to evaluate the loss of receptor density in the photolyzed preparation. AzB-AP-ADTN irreversibly blocked (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis revealed a decrease in the B/sub max/, with no significant change in the K/sub d/, of (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding. Compounds which compete for D/sub 1/ receptor binding (such as dopamine, SKF 38393 or apomorphine), proteted the SCH 23390 binding site from inactivation. This data would suggest that the novel photoaffinity ligand, AzB-AP-ADTN, can covalently label the D/sub 1/ (adenylate cyclase linked) dopamine receptor.

  6. A simple, high-resolution method for establishing DNA binding affinity and sequence selectivity.

    PubMed

    Boger, D L; Fink, B E; Brunette, S R; Tse, W C; Hedrick, M P

    2001-06-27

    Full details of the development of a simple, nondestructive, and high-throughput method for establishing DNA binding affinity and sequence selectivity are described. The method is based on the loss of fluorescence derived from the displacement of ethidium bromide or thiazole orange from the DNA of interest or, in selected instances, the change in intrinsic fluorescence of a DNA binding agent itself and is applicable for assessing relative or absolute DNA binding affinities. Enlisting a library of hairpin deoxyoligonucleotides containing all five base pair (512 hairpins) or four base pair (136 hairpins) sequences displayed in a 96-well format, a compound's rank order binding to all possible sequences is generated, resulting in a high-resolution definition of its sequence selectivity using this fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay. As such, the technique complements the use of footprinting or affinity cleavage for the establishment of DNA binding selectivity and provides the information at a higher resolution. The merged bar graphs generated by this rank order binding provide a qualitative way to compare, or profile, DNA binding affinity and selectivity. The 96-well format assay (512 hairpins) can be conducted at a minimal cost (presently ca. $100 for hairpin deoxyoligonucleotides/assay with ethiduim bromide or less with thiazole orange), with a rapid readout using a fluorescent plate reader (15 min), and is adaptable to automation (Tecan Genesis Workstation 100 robotic system). Its use in generating a profile of DNA binding selectivity for several agents including distamycin A, netropsin, DAPI, Hoechst 33258, and berenil is described. Techniques for establishing binding constants from quantitative titrations are compared, and recommendations are made for use of a Scatchard or curve fitting analysis of the titration binding curves as a reliable means to quantitate the binding affinity.

  7. A robust assay to measure DNA topology-dependent protein binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Tamara R; Solà, Maria; Holt, Ian J; Neuman, Keir C

    2015-04-20

    DNA structure and topology pervasively influence aspects of DNA metabolism including replication, transcription and segregation. However, the effects of DNA topology on DNA-protein interactions have not been systematically explored due to limitations of standard affinity assays. We developed a method to measure protein binding affinity dependence on the topology (topological linking number) of supercoiled DNA. A defined range of DNA topoisomers at equilibrium with a DNA binding protein is separated into free and protein-bound DNA populations using standard nitrocellulose filter binding techniques. Electrophoretic separation and quantification of bound and free topoisomers combined with a simple normalization procedure provide the relative affinity of the protein for the DNA as a function of linking number. Employing this assay we measured topology-dependent DNA binding of a helicase, a type IB topoisomerase, a type IIA topoisomerase, a non-specific mitochondrial DNA binding protein and a type II restriction endonuclease. Most of the proteins preferentially bind negatively supercoiled DNA but the details of the topology-dependent affinity differ among proteins in ways that expose differences in their interactions with DNA. The topology-dependent binding assay provides a robust and easily implemented method to probe topological influences on DNA-protein interactions for a wide range of DNA binding proteins.

  8. Circular permutation of the starch-binding domain: inversion of ligand selectivity with increased affinity.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Preyesh; Tseng, Kai-Li; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2012-03-07

    Proteins containing starch-binding domains (SBDs) are used in a variety of scientific and technological applications. A circularly permutated SBD (CP90) with improved affinity and selectivity toward longer-chain carbohydrates was synthesized, suggesting that a new starch-binding protein may be developed for specific scientific and industrial applications.

  9. Relative binding affinity of carboxylate-, phosphonate-, and bisphosphonate-functionalized gold nanoparticles targeted to damaged bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Ryan D.; Cole, Lisa E.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2012-10-01

    Functionalized Au NPs have received considerable recent interest for targeting and labeling cells and tissues. Damaged bone tissue can be targeted by functionalizing Au NPs with molecules exhibiting affinity for calcium. Therefore, the relative binding affinity of Au NPs surface functionalized with either carboxylate ( l-glutamic acid), phosphonate (2-aminoethylphosphonic acid), or bisphosphonate (alendronate) was investigated for targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue in vitro. Targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue was qualitatively verified by visual observation and backscattered electron microscopy, and quantitatively measured by the surface density of Au NPs using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The surface density of functionalized Au NPs was significantly greater within damaged tissue compared to undamaged tissue for each functional group. Bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs exhibited a greater surface density labeling damaged tissue compared to glutamic acid- and phosphonic acid-functionalized Au NPs, which was consistent with the results of previous work comparing the binding affinity of the same functionalized Au NPs to synthetic hydroxyapatite crystals. Targeted labeling was enabled not only by the functional groups but also by the colloidal stability in solution. Functionalized Au NPs were stabilized by the presence of the functional groups, and were shown to remain well dispersed in ionic (phosphate buffered saline) and serum (fetal bovine serum) solutions for up to 1 week. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs have potential for targeted delivery to damaged bone tissue in vitro and provide motivation for in vivo investigation.

  10. Definition of the affinity of binding between human von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Ganz, P R; Atkins, J S; Palmer, D S; Dudani, A K; Hashemi, S; Luison, F

    1991-10-15

    Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor are two plasma proteins essential for effective hemostasis. In vivo, they form a non-covalent complex whose association appears to be metal ion dependent. However, a precise definition of the nature of the molecular forces governing their association remains to be defined, as does their binding affinity. In this paper we have determined the dissociation constant and stoichiometry for Factor VIII binding to immobilized von Willebrand factor. The data demonstrate that these proteins interact saturably and with relatively high affinity. Computer assisted analyses of the Scatchard data favour a two site binding model. The higher affinity site was found to have a Kd of 62 (+/- 13) x 10(-12) M while that of the lower affinity site was 380 (+/- 92) x 10(-12) M. The density of Factor VIII binding sites (Bmax) present on von Willebrand factor was 31 (+/- 3) pM for the high affinity binding site and 46 (+/- 6) pM for the lower site, corresponding to a calculated Factor VIII: von Willebrand factor binding ratio of 1:33 and 1:23, respectively.

  11. Increasing the affinity of selective bZIP-binding peptides through surface residue redesign

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jenifer B; Reinke, Aaron W; Keating, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    The coiled-coil dimer is a prevalent protein interaction motif that is important for many cellular processes. The basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are one family of proteins for which coiled-coil mediated dimerization is essential for function, and misregulation of bZIPs can lead to disease states including cancer. This makes coiled coils attractive protein–protein interaction targets to disrupt using engineered molecules. Previous work designing peptides to compete with native coiled-coil interactions focused primarily on designing the core residues of the interface to achieve affinity and specificity. However, folding studies on the model bZIP GCN4 show that coiled-coil surface residues also contribute to binding affinity. Here we extend a prior study in which peptides were designed to bind tightly and specifically to representative members of each of 20 human bZIP families. These “anti-bZIP” peptides were designed with an emphasis on target-binding specificity, with contributions to design-target specificity and affinity engineered considering only the coiled-coil core residues. High-throughput testing using peptide arrays indicated many successes. We have now measured the binding affinities and specificities of anti-bZIPs that bind to FOS, XBP1, ATF6, and CREBZF in solution and tested whether redesigning the surface residues can increase design–target affinity. Incorporating residues that favor helix formation into the designs increased binding affinities in all cases, providing low-nanomolar binders of each target. However, changes in surface electrostatic interactions sometimes changed the binding specificity of the designed peptides. Impact Statement Designing molecules to bind native proteins is a fundamental objective in protein engineering. Ideally, designs should bind their targets both tightly and selectively. This paper reports binding affinities and specificities for computationally designed peptides that interact with human b

  12. Protein-Polyelectrolyte Coacervation: Morphology Diagram, Binding Affinity, and Protein Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, David; Du, Xiaosong; Dubin, Paul

    2014-03-01

    For aqueous mixtures of negatively charged polysaccharide, hyaluronic acid (HA), and globular protein, either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a pH-ionic strength (I) morphology diagram, with regions of homogeneous solution, soluble complex, coacervation, precipitation, and redissolution, was developed by pH titrations performed at fixed I. The systems are models for coacervation, or liquid-liquid phase separation, between flexible and compact solutes of opposite charge. Protein charge here is tuned by pH, and titration keeps the mixtures close to equilibrium. At high I, only homogeneous solution is observed, as true at high and low pH. Diagrams for the proteins differ because HA affinity for BSA is higher than for BLG, traced to BSA's greater charge patchiness and higher net charge; isothermal solution titration calorimetry finds a factor of two difference in binding energy. Dependences of transition pH on protein charge Z and solution I offer additional insights into interactions underlying morphology transitions. At optimal conditions, the affinity disparity is sufficient to achieve highly selective BSA coacervation in a 1:1 protein mixture, suggesting coacervation to separate similar proteins under mild, non-denaturing conditions. Funding: NSF CBET-1133289, NSF (UMass MRSEC).

  13. De Novo Identification and Biophysical Characterization of Transcription Factor Binding Sites with Microfluidic Affinity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fordyce, Polly M.; Gerber, Doron; Tran, Danh; Zheng, Jiashun; Li, Hao; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated in part by protein transcription factors (TFs) that bind target regulatory DNA sequences. Predicting DNA binding sites and affinities from transcription factor sequence or structure is difficult; therefore, experimental data are required to link TFs to target sequences. We present a microfluidics-based approach for de novo discovery and quantitative biophysical characterization of DNA target sequences. We validated our technique by measuring sequence preferences for 28 S. cerevisiae TFs with a variety of DNA binding domains, including several that have proven difficult to study via other techniques. For each TF, we measured relative binding affinities to oligonucleotides covering all possible 8-bp DNA sequences to create a comprehensive map of sequence preferences; for 4 TFs, we also determined absolute affinities. We anticipate that these data and future use of this technique will provide information essential for understanding TF specificity, improving identification of regulatory sites, and reconstructing regulatory interactions. PMID:20802496

  14. Guanyl nucleotide interactions with dopaminergic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol in human caudate and putamen: guanyl nucleotides enhance ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and cause an apparent loss of high affinity binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andorn, A.C.; Bacon, B.R.; Nguyen-Hunh, A.T.; Parlato, S.J.; Stitts, J.A.

    1988-02-01

    The human caudate and putamen contain two high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol. Both of these affinity states exhibit dopaminergic selectivity. Ascorbic acid, at 0.1 mM, induces a slow loss of the low affinity component of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding in these tissues. The addition of guanyl nucleotides to the ascorbate produces a more rapid loss of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding which includes a loss of the highest affinity state for (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol. Ascorbate induces lipid peroxidation in human caudate and putamen, an effect that is further enhanced by guanyl and inosine nucleotides. In the absence of ascorbate, guanyl nucleotides have no effect on (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding but do decrease the affinity of dopamine at each affinity state greater than 60-fold. In the absence of ascorbate, guanyl nucleotides apparently decrease agonist affinity at human brain dopamine2-binding sites without causing an interconversion of agonist affinity states.

  15. Devices and approaches for generating specific high-affinity nucleic acid aptamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kylan; Craighead, Harold G.

    2014-09-01

    High-affinity and highly specific antibody proteins have played a critical role in biological imaging, medical diagnostics, and therapeutics. Recently, a new class of molecules called aptamers has emerged as an alternative to antibodies. Aptamers are short nucleic acid molecules that can be generated and synthesized in vitro to bind to virtually any target in a wide range of environments. They are, in principal, less expensive and more reproducible than antibodies, and their versatility creates possibilities for new technologies. Aptamers are generated using libraries of nucleic acid molecules with random sequences that are subjected to affinity selections for binding to specific target molecules. This is commonly done through a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, in which target-bound nucleic acids are isolated from the pool, amplified to high copy numbers, and then reselected against the desired target. This iterative process is continued until the highest affinity nucleic acid sequences dominate the enriched pool. Traditional selections require a dozen or more laborious cycles to isolate strongly binding aptamers, which can take months to complete and consume large quantities of reagents. However, new devices and insights from engineering and the physical sciences have contributed to a reduction in the time and effort needed to generate aptamers. As the demand for these new molecules increases, more efficient and sensitive selection technologies will be needed. These new technologies will need to use smaller samples, exploit a wider range of chemistries and techniques for manipulating binding, and integrate and automate the selection steps. Here, we review new methods and technologies that are being developed towards this goal, and we discuss their roles in accelerating the availability of novel aptamers.

  16. Prediction of SAMPL4 host-guest binding affinities using funnel metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Söderhjelm, Pär

    2014-04-01

    Accurately predicting binding affinities between ligands and macromolecules has been a much sought-after goal. A tremendous amount of resources can be saved in the pharmaceutical industry through accurate binding-affinity prediction and hence correct decision-making for the drug discovery processes. Owing to the structural complexity of macromolecules, one of the issues in binding affinity prediction using molecular dynamics is the adequate sampling of the conformational space. Recently, the funnel metadynamics method (Limongelli et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:6358, 2013) was developed to enhance the sampling of the ligand at the binding site as well as in the solvated state, and offer the possibility to predict the absolute binding free energy. We apply funnel metadynamics to predict host-guest binding affinities for the cucurbit[7]uril host as part of the SAMPL4 blind challenge. Using total simulation times of 300-400 ns per ligand, we show that the errors due to inadequate sampling are below 1 kcal/mol. However, despite the large investment in terms of computational time, the results compared to experiment are not better than a random guess. As we obtain differences of up to 11 kcal/mol when switching between two commonly used force fields (with automatically generated parameters), we strongly believe that in the pursuit of accurate binding free energies a more careful force-field parametrization is needed to address this type of system.

  17. Binding affinity of five PBPs to Ostrinia sex pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) of Lepidoptera function in chemical communication, mate attraction and recognition, and may be involved in reinforcement of sexual isolation between recently diverged species. Directional selection was previously predicted between PBP3 orthologs of the corn borer si...

  18. Current Understanding of the Binding Sites, Capacity, Affinity, and Biological Significance of Metals in Melanin

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Metal chelation is often invoked as one of the main biological functions of melanin. In order to understand the interaction between metals and melanin, extensive studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the metal binding sites, binding capacity and affinity. These data are central to efforts aimed at elucidating the role metal binding plays in determining the physical, structural, biological, and photochemical properties of melanin. This article examines the current state of understanding of this field. PMID:17580858

  19. Wheat germ poly(A) binding protein enhances the binding affinity of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and (iso)4F for cap analogues.

    PubMed

    Wei, C C; Balasta, M L; Ren, J; Goss, D J

    1998-02-17

    Most eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5' cap (m7GppX) and a 3' poly(A) tail to increase synergistically the translational efficiency. Recently, the poly(A) binding protein (PABP) and cap-binding protein, eIF-4F, were found to interact [Le et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 16247-16255; Tarun and Sachs (1996) EMBO J. 15, 7168-7177]. These data suggest that PABP may exert its effect on translational efficiency either by increasing the formation of initiation factor-mRNA complex or by enhancing ribosome recycling. To investigate the functional consequences of these interactions, the fluorescent cap analogue, ant-m7GTP, which is an environmentally sensitive fluorescent probe [Ren and Goss (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3629-3634] was used to investigate the cap-binding affinity. Our data show that the binding of eIF-(iso)4F or eIF-4F to cap analogue enhanced their binding affinity toward PABP approximately 40-fold. Similarly, the eIF-4F/PABP or eIF-(iso)4F/PABP complexes show a 40-fold enhancement of cap analogue binding as compared to eIF-4F or eIF-(iso)4F alone. At least part of the enhancement of the translational initiation by PABP can be accounted for by direct changes in cap-binding affinity. The interactions of these components also suggest a mechanism whereby the poly(A) tail is brought into close proximity with m7G cap. This effect was examined by fluorescence energy transfer, and it was determined that the PABP/eIF-4F complex could bind both poly(A) and 5' cap simultaneously.

  20. Kosmotropes enhance the yield of antibody purified by affinity chromatography using immobilized bacterial immunoglobulin binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ngo, That T; Narinesingh, Dyer

    2008-01-01

    The yield of antibody purified using affinity chromatography on immobilized Protein A or Protein G was increased up to 5-fold (500%) by including kosmotropic salts in the binding buffer. The binding buffer is used to equilibrate the affinity column before applying a sample to the column and also to dilute the sample prior to loading onto the affinity column to optimize conditions for a maximal binding of antibodies to affinity gels. In this study, the kosmotropic salts that were effective in greatly increasing antibody binding to Protein A included both inorganic and organic salts of ammonium; sodium; or potassium sulfate, phosphate, polycarboxylates; for example, succinate, citrate, isocitrate, N-(2-hydroxyethylene diamine triacetate (HEDTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), and ethylene glycol-O,O'-bis(2-aminoethyl)-N,N,N'N'-tetra acetate(EGTA). On an equal-molar basis, the greater the number of carboxylic groups within the polycarboxylate molecule, the greater the increase in the yield of the purified antibody that was observed. The data show that kosmotropes can be used as effective additives to enhance the binding of immunoglobulins to Protein A or Protein G gels with a resultant increase in the yield of the purified antibodies. Thus, it appears that strongly hydrated anions (citrate, sulfate, and phosphate) and weakly hydrated cations (ammonium, potassium) increase the yield of antibody purified on either Protein A or Protein G affinity gels.

  1. Probing the binding affinity of plasma proteins adsorbed on Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Junting; Zhang, Fan; Yu, Shaoning

    2017-04-06

    Nanoparticle (NP) surfaces are modified immediately by the adsorption of proteins when exposed to human blood, leading to the formation of a protein corona. The adsorption of serum proteins is the key process for exploring the bioapplication and biosafety of NPs. In this study, NP-protein binding affinity (Ka) was investigated. Some serum proteins, such as human serum albumin (HSA), trypsin (TRP), hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (MB), immunoglobulin G (IgG), carbonic anhydrase (CA), fibrinogen (FIB), chymotrypsin and r-globulin, were used with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to address binding affinity according to isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) combined with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence quenching. The NP protein binding affinities determined by the two methods were in agreement, and depended on the protein properties and size of the NPs. The two methods are convenient, and the results are highly comparable. These methods can be extended to determine the binding affinity of NP protein interactions. The adsorption of proteins upon the AuNP surface is a complex process and depends on several factors, but the binding affinities are higher for proteins with more cysteine residues located on the surface.

  2. A Low Affinity Ground State Conformation for the Dynein Microtubule Binding Domain*

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Lynn; Tikhonenko, Irina; Banavali, Nilesh K.; LeMaster, David M.; Koonce, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Dynein interacts with microtubules through a dedicated binding domain that is dynamically controlled to achieve high or low affinity, depending on the state of nucleotide bound in a distant catalytic pocket. The active sites for microtubule binding and ATP hydrolysis communicate via conformational changes transduced through a ∼10-nm length antiparallel coiled-coil stalk, which connects the binding domain to the roughly 300-kDa motor core. Recently, an x-ray structure of the murine cytoplasmic dynein microtubule binding domain (MTBD) in a weak affinity conformation was published, containing a covalently constrained β+ registry for the coiled-coil stalk segment (Carter, A. P., Garbarino, J. E., Wilson-Kubalek, E. M., Shipley, W. E., Cho, C., Milligan, R. A., Vale, R. D., and Gibbons, I. R. (2008) Science 322, 1691–1695). We here present an NMR analysis of the isolated MTBD from Dictyostelium discoideum that demonstrates the coiled-coil β+ registry corresponds to the low energy conformation for this functional region of dynein. Addition of sequence encoding roughly half of the coiled-coil stalk proximal to the binding tip results in a decreased affinity of the MTBD for microtubules. In contrast, addition of the complete coiled-coil sequence drives the MTBD to the conformationally unstable, high affinity binding state. These results suggest a thermodynamic coupling between conformational free energy differences in the α and β+ registries of the coiled-coil stalk that acts as a switch between high and low affinity conformations of the MTBD. A balancing of opposing conformations in the stalk and MTBD enables potentially modest long-range interactions arising from ATP binding in the motor core to induce a relaxation of the MTBD into the stable low affinity state. PMID:20351100

  3. Physicochemical aspects of the energetics of binding of sulphanilic acid with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banipal, Tarlok S.; Kaur, Amandeep; Banipal, Parampaul K.

    2017-01-01

    The thermodynamic study of the binding of sulphanilic acid with model transport protein bovine serum albumin is a promising approach in the area of synthesizing new sulfa drugs with improved therapeutic effect. Thus, such binding studies play an important role in the rational drug design process. The binding between sulphanilic acid and bovine serum albumin has been studied using calorimetry, light scattering in combination with spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The calorimetric data reveals the presence of two sequential nature of binding sites where the first binding site has stronger affinity ( 104 M- 1) and second binding site has weaker affinity ( 103 M- 1). However, the spectroscopic (absorption and fluorescence) results suggest the presence of single low affinity binding site ( 103 M- 1) on protein. The contribution of polar and non-polar interactions to the binding process has been explored in the presence of various additives. It is found that sulphanilic acid binds with high affinity at Sudlow site II and with low affinity at Sudlow site I of protein. Light scattering and circular dichroism measurements have been used to study the effect on the molecular topology and conformation of protein, respectively. Thus these studies provide important insights into the binding of sulphanilic acid with bovine serum albumin both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  4. Ganglioside embedded in reconstituted lipoprotein binds cholera toxin with elevated affinity.

    PubMed

    Bricarello, Daniel A; Mills, Emily J; Petrlova, Jitka; Voss, John C; Parikh, Atul N

    2010-09-01

    The ability to exogenously present cell-surface receptors in high-affinity conformations in a synthetic system offers an opportunity to provide host cells with protection from pathogenic toxins. This strategy requires improvement of the synthetic receptor binding affinity against its native counterpart, particularly with polyvalent toxins where clustering of membrane receptors can hinder binding. Here we demonstrate that reconstituted lipoprotein, nanometer-sized discoidal lipid bilayers bounded by apolipoprotein and functionalized by incorporation of pathogen receptors, provides a means to enhance toxin-receptor binding through molecular-level control over the receptor microenvironment (specifically, its rigidity, composition, and heterogeneity). Using a Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based assay, we found that reconstituted lipoprotein incorporating low concentrations of ganglioside monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) binds polymeric cholera toxin with significantly higher affinity than liposomes or supported lipid bilayers, most likely a result of the enhanced control over receptor clustering provided by the lipoprotein platform. Using wide-area epifluorescence, we found that this enhanced binding capacity can be effectively utilized to divert cholera toxin away from populations of healthy mammalian cells. In summary, we found that reconstitutions of high-density lipoprotein can be engineered to include specific pathogen receptors; that their pathogen binding affinity is altered, presumably due to attenuation of receptor aggregation; and that these assemblies are effective at protecting cells from biological toxins.

  5. Targeted protein engineering provides insights into binding mechanism and affinities of bacterial collagen adhesins.

    PubMed

    Ross, Caná L; Liang, Xiaowen; Liu, Qing; Murray, Barbara E; Höök, Magnus; Ganesh, Vannakambadi K

    2012-10-05

    The collagen-binding bacterial proteins, Ace and Cna, are well characterized on the biochemical and structural level. Despite overall structural similarity, recombinant forms of the Ace and Cna ligand-binding domains exhibit significantly different affinities and binding kinetics for collagen type I (CI) in vitro. In this study, we sought to understand, in submolecular detail, the bases for these differences. Using a structure-based approach, we engineered Cna and Ace variants by altering specific structural elements within the ligand-binding domains. Surface plasmon resonance-based binding analysis demonstrated that mutations that are predicted to alter the orientation of the Ace and Cna N(1) and N(2) subdomains significantly affect the interaction between the MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule) and CI in vitro, including affinity, association/dissociation rates and binding ratio. Moreover, we utilized this information to engineer an Ace variant with an 11,000-fold higher CI affinity than the parent protein. Finally, we noted that several engineered proteins that exhibited a weak interaction with CI recognized more sites on CI, suggesting an inverse correlation between affinity and specificity.

  6. Shark Attack: high affinity binding proteins derived from shark vNAR domains by stepwise in vitro affinity maturation.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Stefan; Weber, Niklas; Becker, Stefan; Doerner, Achim; Christmann, Andreas; Christmann, Christine; Uth, Christina; Fritz, Janine; Schäfer, Elena; Steinmann, Björn; Empting, Martin; Ockelmann, Pia; Lierz, Michael; Kolmar, Harald

    2014-12-10

    A novel method for stepwise in vitro affinity maturation of antigen-specific shark vNAR domains is described that exclusively relies on semi-synthetic repertoires derived from non-immunized sharks. Target-specific molecules were selected from a CDR3-randomized bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) vNAR library using yeast surface display as platform technology. Various antigen-binding vNAR domains were easily isolated by screening against several therapeutically relevant antigens, including the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), the Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), and the human serine protease HTRA1. Affinity maturation was demonstrated for EpCAM and HTRA1 by diversifying CDR1 of target-enriched populations which allowed for the rapid selection of nanomolar binders. EpCAM-specific vNAR molecules were produced as soluble proteins and more extensively characterized via thermal shift assays and biolayer interferometry. Essentially, we demonstrate that high-affinity binders can be generated in vitro without largely compromising the desirable high thermostability of the vNAR scaffold.

  7. Influence of the galloyl moiety in tea catechins on binding affinity for human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Kanako; Ichikawa, Tatsuya; Katsumata, Tomoharu; Onobori, Ken-ichi; Mori, Taiki; Suzuki, Yukiko; Ishii, Takeshi; Nakayama, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    The major catechins of green tea extract are (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg). Recent research has indicated that catechins form complexes with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood, and differences in their binding affinity toward HSA are believed to modulate their bioavailability. In this study, we kinetically investigated the interaction between the catechins and HSA immobilized on a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). The association constants obtained from the frequency changes of QCM revealed interactions of ECg and EGCg with HSA that are 100 times stronger than those of EC and EGC. Furthermore, comparisons of these catechins by native-gel electrophoresis/blotting with redox-cycling staining revealed that, in a phosphate buffer, ECg and EGCg have a higher binding affinity toward HSA than EC and EGC. These observations indicate that catechins with a galloyl moiety have higher binding affinities toward HSA than catechins lacking a galloyl moiety.

  8. A comparison of myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density and ligand binding affinity among selected teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Olsson, H I; Yee, N; Shiels, H A; Brauner, C; Farrell, A P

    2000-11-01

    This study quantified the cell surface beta-adrenoreceptor density and ligand binding affinity in the ventricular tissue of seven teleost species; skipjack tuna (Katsowonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), mahimahi (dolphin fish; Coryphaena hippurus), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and an Antarctic nototheniid (Trematomus bernacchii). Beta-Adrenoreceptor density varied by almost fourfold among these species, being highest for the athletic fish: sockeye salmon among the salmonids and skipjack tuna among the scombrids. Beta-Adrenoreceptor density was lowest for the Antarctic icefish. Beta-Adrenoreceptor binding affinity varied by almost threefold. We conclude that there is a significant species-specific variability in myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density and binding affinity and these interspecific differences cannot be attributed to temperature even though intraspecifically cold temperature can stimulate an increase in myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density. Instead, we suggest that interspecifically myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density is highest in fish that inhabit tropical water.

  9. High affinity binding of [3H]-tyramine in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, A.

    1986-01-01

    Optimum assay conditions for the association of [3H]-para-tyramine [( 3H]-pTA) with rat brain membranes were characterized, and a saturable, reversible, drug-specific, and high affinity binding mechanism for this trace amine was revealed. The binding capacity (Bmax) for [3H]-pTA in the corpus striatum was approximately 30 times higher than that in the cerebellum, with similar dissociation constants (KD). The binding process of [3H]-pTA involved the dopamine system, inasmuch as (a) highest binding capacity was associated with dopamine-rich regions; (b) dopamine and pTA equally displaced specifically bound [3H]-pTA; (c) there was a severe loss in striatal binding capacity for [3H]-pTA and, reportedly, for [3H]-dopamine, following unilateral nigrostriatal lesion; (d) acute in vivo reserpine treatment markedly decreased the density of [3H]-pTA and, reportedly, of [3H]-dopamine binding sites. In competition experiments [3H]-pTA binding sites, though displaying nanomolar affinity for dopamine, revealed micromolar affinities for the dopamine agonists apomorphine and pergolide, and for several dopamine antagonists, while having very high affinity for reserpine, a marker for the catecholamine transporter in synaptic vesicles. The binding process of [3H]-pTA was both energy-dependent (ouabain-sensitive), and ATP-Mg2+-insensitive; furthermore, the potencies of various drugs in competing for [3H]-pTA binding to rat striatal membranes correlated well (r = 0.96) with their reported potencies in inhibiting [3H]-dopamine uptake into striatal synaptosomes. It is concluded that [3H]-pTA binds at a site located on/within synaptic vesicles where it is involved in the transport mechanism of dopamine. PMID:3801770

  10. SELMAP - SELEX affinity landscape MAPping of transcription factor binding sites using integrated microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dana; Orenstein, Yaron; Golodnitsky, Rada; Pellach, Michal; Avrahami, Dorit; Wachtel, Chaim; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Shir-Shapira, Hila; Kedmi, Adi; Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-09-15

    Transcription factors (TFs) alter gene expression in response to changes in the environment through sequence-specific interactions with the DNA. These interactions are best portrayed as a landscape of TF binding affinities. Current methods to study sequence-specific binding preferences suffer from limited dynamic range, sequence bias, lack of specificity and limited throughput. We have developed a microfluidic-based device for SELEX Affinity Landscape MAPping (SELMAP) of TF binding, which allows high-throughput measurement of 16 proteins in parallel. We used it to measure the relative affinities of Pho4, AtERF2 and Btd full-length proteins to millions of different DNA binding sites, and detected both high and low-affinity interactions in equilibrium conditions, generating a comprehensive landscape of the relative TF affinities to all possible DNA 6-mers, and even DNA10-mers with increased sequencing depth. Low quantities of both the TFs and DNA oligomers were sufficient for obtaining high-quality results, significantly reducing experimental costs. SELMAP allows in-depth screening of hundreds of TFs, and provides a means for better understanding of the regulatory processes that govern gene expression.

  11. SELMAP - SELEX affinity landscape MAPping of transcription factor binding sites using integrated microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dana; Orenstein, Yaron; Golodnitsky, Rada; Pellach, Michal; Avrahami, Dorit; Wachtel, Chaim; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Shir-Shapira, Hila; Kedmi, Adi; Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) alter gene expression in response to changes in the environment through sequence-specific interactions with the DNA. These interactions are best portrayed as a landscape of TF binding affinities. Current methods to study sequence-specific binding preferences suffer from limited dynamic range, sequence bias, lack of specificity and limited throughput. We have developed a microfluidic-based device for SELEX Affinity Landscape MAPping (SELMAP) of TF binding, which allows high-throughput measurement of 16 proteins in parallel. We used it to measure the relative affinities of Pho4, AtERF2 and Btd full-length proteins to millions of different DNA binding sites, and detected both high and low-affinity interactions in equilibrium conditions, generating a comprehensive landscape of the relative TF affinities to all possible DNA 6-mers, and even DNA10-mers with increased sequencing depth. Low quantities of both the TFs and DNA oligomers were sufficient for obtaining high-quality results, significantly reducing experimental costs. SELMAP allows in-depth screening of hundreds of TFs, and provides a means for better understanding of the regulatory processes that govern gene expression. PMID:27628341

  12. On the binding affinity of macromolecular interactions: daring to ask why proteins interact

    PubMed Central

    Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between proteins are orchestrated in a precise and time-dependent manner, underlying cellular function. The binding affinity, defined as the strength of these interactions, is translated into physico-chemical terms in the dissociation constant (Kd), the latter being an experimental measure that determines whether an interaction will be formed in solution or not. Predicting binding affinity from structural models has been a matter of active research for more than 40 years because of its fundamental role in drug development. However, all available approaches are incapable of predicting the binding affinity of protein–protein complexes from coordinates alone. Here, we examine both theoretical and experimental limitations that complicate the derivation of structure–affinity relationships. Most work so far has concentrated on binary interactions. Systems of increased complexity are far from being understood. The main physico-chemical measure that relates to binding affinity is the buried surface area, but it does not hold for flexible complexes. For the latter, there must be a significant entropic contribution that will have to be approximated in the future. We foresee that any theoretical modelling of these interactions will have to follow an integrative approach considering the biology, chemistry and physics that underlie protein–protein recognition. PMID:23235262

  13. Single-experiment displacement assay for quantifying high-affinity binding by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 μM>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (ΔH) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions.

  14. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)neurotensin of rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Pettibone, D.J.; Totaro, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    (/sup 3/H)Neurotensin (NT) was found to bind specifically and with high affinity to crude membranes prepared from rat uterus. Scatchard analysis of saturation binding studies indicated that (/sup 3/H)NT apparently binds to two sites (high affinity Kd 0.5 nM; low affinity Kd 9 nM) with the density of high affinity sites (41 fmoles/mg prot.) being about one-third that of the low affinity sites (100 fmoles/mg prot.). In competition studies, NT and various fragments inhibited (/sup 3/H)NT binding with the following potencies (approximately IC50): NT 8-13 (0.4 nM), NT 1-13 (4 nM), NT 9-13 (130 nM), NT 1-11, NT 1-8 (greater than 100 microM). Quantitatively similar results were obtained using brain tissue. These findings raise the possibility of a role for NT in uterine function.

  15. Positive allosteric modulation of the GHB high-affinity binding site by the GABAA receptor modulator monastrol and the flavonoid catechin.

    PubMed

    Eghorn, Laura F; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Bay, Tina; Higgins, David; Frølund, Bente; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2014-10-05

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a proposed neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. We recently identified α4βδ GABAA receptors as possible high-affinity GHB targets. GABAA receptors are highly sensitive to allosteric modulation. Thus to investigate whether GHB high-affinity binding sites are also sensitive to allosteric modulation, we screened both known GABAA receptor ligands and a library of natural compounds in the rat cortical membrane GHB specific high-affinity [3H]NCS-382 binding assay. Two hits were identified: Monastrol, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA function at δ-containing GABAA receptors, and the naturally occurring flavonoid catechin. These compounds increased [3H]NCS-382 binding to 185-272% in high micromolar concentrations. Monastrol and (+)-catechin significantly reduced [3H]NCS-382 dissociation rates and induced conformational changes in the binding site, demonstrating a positive allosteric modulation of radioligand binding. Surprisingly, binding of [3H]GHB and the GHB high-affinity site-specific radioligands [125I]BnOPh-GHB and [3H]HOCPCA was either decreased or only weakly increased, indicating that the observed modulation was critically probe-dependent. Both monastrol and (+)-catechin were agonists at recombinant α4β3δ receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. When monastrol and GHB were co-applied no changes were seen compared to the individual responses. In summary, we have identified the compounds monastrol and catechin as the first allosteric modulators of GHB high-affinity binding sites. Despite their relatively weak affinity, these compounds may aid in further characterization of the GHB high-affinity sites that are likely to represent certain GABAA receptors.

  16. Drug design for protein kinases and phosphatases: flexible-receptor docking, binding affinity and specificity, and drug-binding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chung F; Bairy, Sneha

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews some of our experiences on applying computational techniques to aid the design of drugs targeting protein kinases and phosphatases. It is not a comprehensive review. Rather, it focuses on several less explored approaches or ideas that we have experiences on. It reviews some recent improvements on the Poisson-Boltzmann/Surface Area model for calculating binding affinity and discusses ways to perform calculations that are more tolerant to statistical and systematic errors. Several new ways to incorporate protein flexibility in molecular docking and estimating binding affinity are also discussed. Its discussions also go beyond binding affinity to considering drug-binding kinetics, not only on investigating protein-ligand interactions in isolation, but also on accounting for upstream and downstream influences that can occur in cells, through kinetic modeling of cell signaling. This review also describes a quick molecular simulation method for understanding drug-binding kinetics at the molecular level, with the hope of generating guiding principles for designing drugs with the desired kinetic properties. Sources of drug-binding selectivity that appear obvious but often overlooked are also discussed.

  17. Further characterization of the low and high affinity binding components of the thyrotropin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McQuade, R.; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Nayfeh, S.N.

    1986-05-29

    Following cross-linking with disuccinimdiyl suberate and analysis by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, both the high- and low-affinity TSH binding components exhibited two similar /sup 125/I-TSH-labeled bands, with Mr values of 80,000 and 68,000. IgG fractions from patients with Graves' disease inhibited /sup 125/I-TSH binding to both components, while normal IgG had no effect. Although not entirely conclusive, these results suggest that the high- and low-affinity components share similar subunit composition and antigenic determinants.

  18. Comparison of Relative Binding Affinities for Trout and Human Estrogen Receptor Based upon Different Competitive Binding Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a predictive model based upon a single aquatic species inevitably raises the question of whether this information is valid for other species. To partially address this question, relative binding affinities (RBA) for six alkylphenols (para-substituted, n- and b...

  19. Prolactin-binding components in rabbit mammary gland: characterization by partial purification and affinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-06-01

    The molecular characteristics of the PRL receptor isolated from rabbit mammary gland microsomes were investigated. Two approaches were employed: 1) affinity purification of PRL receptors and direct electrophoretic analysis, and 2) affinity cross-linking of microsomal receptors with (/sup 125/I)ovine PRL ((/sup 125/I)oPRL). PRL receptors were solubilized from mammary microsomes with 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)1-propane sulfonate and purified using an oPRL agarose affinity column. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of the gel revealed at least nine bands, including a 32,000 mol wt band which was most intensively labeled with /sup 125/I using the chloramine-T method. Covalent labeling of PRL receptors with (/sup 125/I)oPRL was performed using N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azido benzoate, disuccinimidyl suberate, or ethylene glycol bis (succinimidyl succinate). A single band of 59,000 mol wt was produced by all three cross-linkers when sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed under reducing conditions. Assuming 1:1 binding of hormone and binding subunit and by subtracting the mol wt of (/sup 125/I)oPRL, which was estimated from the migration distance on the gel, the mol wt of the binding subunit was calculated as 32,000. In the absence of dithiothreitol during electrophoresis, only one major hormone-receptor complex band was observed. The same mol wt binding components were also detected in microsomal fractions of rabbit kidney, ovary, and adrenal. A slightly higher mol wt binding subunit was observed in rat liver microsomes. Rabbit liver microsomes revealed five (/sup 125/I)oPRL-binding components, three of which were considered to be those of a GH receptor. Moreover, affinity labeling of detergent-solubilized and affinity purified mammary PRL receptors showed a similar major binding subunit.

  20. Tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Zishun; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-03-01

    Cell adhesion plays a crucial role in many biological processes of cells, e.g., immune responses, tissue morphogenesis, and stem cell differentiation. An essential problem in the molecular mechanism of cell adhesion is to characterize the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands under different physiological conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented to study the binding affinity between a large number of anchored receptors and ligands under both tensile and compressive stresses, and corroborated by demonstrating excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the binding affinity becomes lower as the magnitude of the applied stress increases, and drops to zero at a critical tensile or compressive stress. Interestingly, the critical compressive stress is found to be substantially smaller than the critical tensile stress for relatively long and flexible receptor-ligand complexes. This counterintuitive finding is explained by using the Euler instability theory of slender columns under compression. The tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of anchored receptors and ligands depends subtly on the competition between the breaking and instability of their complexes. This study helps in understanding the role of mechanical forces in cell adhesion mediated by specific binding molecules.

  1. Reconstitution of high-affinity opioid agonist binding in brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Remmers, A.E.; Medzihradsky, F. )

    1991-03-15

    In synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex, the {mu} selective agonist ({sup 3}H)dihydromorphine in the absence of sodium, and the nonselective antagonist ({sup 3}H)naltrexone in the presence of sodium, bound to two populations of opioid receptor sites with K{sub d} values of 0.69 and 8.7 nM for dihydromorphine, and 0.34 and 5.5 nM for naltrexone. The addition of 5 {mu}M guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)) strongly reduced high-affinity agonist but not antagonist binding. Exposure of the membranes to high pH reduced the number of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding sites by 90% and low K{sub m}, opioid-sensitive GTPase activity by 95%. In these membranes, high-affinity agonist binding was abolished and modulation of residual binding by GTP({gamma}S) was diminished. Alkali treatment of the glioma cell membranes prior to fusion inhibited most of the low K{sub m} GTPase activity and prevented the reconstitution of agonist binding. The results show that high-affinity opioid agonist binding reflects the ligand-occupied receptor - guanine nucleotide binding protein complex.

  2. Four-body atomic potential for modeling protein-ligand binding affinity: application to enzyme-inhibitor binding energy prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Models that are capable of reliably predicting binding affinities for protein-ligand complexes play an important role the field of structure-guided drug design. Methods Here, we begin by applying the computational geometry technique of Delaunay tessellation to each set of atomic coordinates for over 1400 diverse macromolecular structures, for the purpose of deriving a four-body statistical potential that serves as a topological scoring function. Next, we identify a second, independent set of three hundred protein-ligand complexes, having both high-resolution structures and known dissociation constants. Two-thirds of these complexes are randomly selected to train a predictive model of binding affinity as follows: two tessellations are generated in each case, one for the entire complex and another strictly for the isolated protein without its bound ligand, and a topological score is computed for each tessellation with the four-body potential. Predicted protein-ligand binding affinity is then based on an empirically derived linear function of the difference between both topological scores, one that appropriately scales the value of this difference. Results A comparison between experimental and calculated binding affinity values over the two hundred complexes reveals a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with a standard error of SE = 1.98 kcal/mol. To validate the method, we similarly generated two tessellations for each of the remaining protein-ligand complexes, computed their topological scores and the difference between the two scores for each complex, and applied the previously derived linear transformation of this topological score difference to predict binding affinities. For these one hundred complexes, we again observe a correlation of r = 0.79 (SE = 1.93 kcal/mol) between known and calculated binding affinities. Applying our model to an independent test set of high-resolution structures for three hundred diverse enzyme-inhibitor complexes

  3. Rapid and Reliable Binding Affinity Prediction of Bromodomain Inhibitors: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Binding free energies of bromodomain inhibitors are calculated with recently formulated approaches, namely ESMACS (enhanced sampling of molecular dynamics with approximation of continuum solvent) and TIES (thermodynamic integration with enhanced sampling). A set of compounds is provided by GlaxoSmithKline, which represents a range of chemical functionality and binding affinities. The predicted binding free energies exhibit a good Spearman correlation of 0.78 with the experimental data from the 3-trajectory ESMACS, and an excellent correlation of 0.92 from the TIES approach where applicable. Given access to suitable high end computing resources and a high degree of automation, we can compute individual binding affinities in a few hours with precisions no greater than 0.2 kcal/mol for TIES, and no larger than 0.34 and 1.71 kcal/mol for the 1- and 3-trajectory ESMACS approaches. PMID:28005370

  4. Pinealectomy increases ouabain high-affinity binding sites and dissociation constant in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Acuña Castroviejo, D; del Aguila, C M; Fernández, B; Gomar, M D; Castillo, J L

    1991-06-24

    The effect of the pineal gland on the ouabain high-affinity binding sites (Kd = 3.1 +/- 0.4 nM, Bmax = 246.4 +/- 18.4 fmol/mg protein) in rat cerebral cortex was studied. Pinealectomy increased Bmax (940.7 +/- 42.8 fmol/mg protein) and Kd (7.6 +/- 1.5 nM) while melatonin injection (100 micrograms/kg b.wt.) counteracted these effects, restoring kinetic parameters (Kd = 1.9 +/- 0.05 nM; Bmax = 262.2 +/- 29.6 fmol/mg prot) to control values. Melatonin activity on ouabain binding in vitro did not depend upon a direct effect on the binding sites themselves. However, in competition experiments, melatonin increased binding affinity of ouabain as shown by the decreased IC50 values.

  5. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  6. Binding affinities of anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, J.J.; Drachman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies directed against acetylcholine (ACh) receptors are present in the sera of nearly 90% of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), and are involved in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. However, the antibody titers measured by the standard radioimmunoassay correspond poorly with the clinical severity of the disease. To determine whether this disparity could be accounted for by differences in the binding affinities of anti-ACh receptor antibodies in different patients, we have measured the binding affinities of these autoantibodies in 15 sera from MG patients. The affinity constants (K/sub o/), as determined by Scatchard analysis, were all in the range of 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/, comparable to the highest values reported in immunized animals. The affinity constants were truly representative of the population of autoantibodies detected by the radioimmunoassay, as shown by the remarkable linearity of the Scatchard plots (r/sup 2/>0.90) and the close correlation between the antibody titers determined by extrapolation of the Scatchard plots and by saturation analysis (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). There was only a 6-fold variation in affinity constants measured in this series of patients despite widely differing antibody titers and severity of the disease. Factors other than the titer and affinity of anti-ACh receptor antibodies may correlate better with the clinical manifestations of MG.

  7. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}} and K{sup +} to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na{sup +}. Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}}, the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized, purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na{sup +} binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl{sup {minus}}. Cl{sup {minus}} enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na{sup +}. At concentrations in the range of its K{sub M} for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na{sup +}-independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding and ({sup 3}H)serotonin transport.

  8. Calculating protein-ligand binding affinities with MMPBSA: Method and error analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhao; Nguyen, Peter H; Pham, Kevin; Huynh, Danielle; Le, Thanh-Binh Nancy; Wang, Hongli; Ren, Pengyu; Luo, Ray

    2016-10-15

    Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MMPBSA) methods have become widely adopted in estimating protein-ligand binding affinities due to their efficiency and high correlation with experiment. Here different computational alternatives were investigated to assess their impact to the agreement of MMPBSA calculations with experiment. Seven receptor families with both high-quality crystal structures and binding affinities were selected. First the performance of nonpolar solvation models was studied and it was found that the modern approach that separately models hydrophobic and dispersion interactions dramatically reduces RMSD's of computed relative binding affinities. The numerical setup of the Poisson-Boltzmann methods was analyzed next. The data shows that the impact of grid spacing to the quality of MMPBSA calculations is small: the numerical error at the grid spacing of 0.5 Å is already small enough to be negligible. The impact of different atomic radius sets and different molecular surface definitions was further analyzed and weak influences were found on the agreement with experiment. The influence of solute dielectric constant was also analyzed: a higher dielectric constant generally improves the overall agreement with experiment, especially for highly charged binding pockets. The data also showed that the converged simulations caused slight reduction in the agreement with experiment. Finally the direction of estimating absolute binding free energies was briefly explored. Upon correction of the binding-induced rearrangement free energy and the binding entropy lost, the errors in absolute binding affinities were also reduced dramatically when the modern nonpolar solvent model was used, although further developments were apparently necessary to further improve the MMPBSA methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The statistical-thermodynamic basis for computation of binding affinities: a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, M K; Given, J A; Bush, B L; McCammon, J A

    1997-01-01

    Although the statistical thermodynamics of noncovalent binding has been considered in a number of theoretical papers, few methods of computing binding affinities are derived explicitly from this underlying theory. This has contributed to uncertainty and controversy in certain areas. This article therefore reviews and extends the connections of some important computational methods with the underlying statistical thermodynamics. A derivation of the standard free energy of binding forms the basis of this review. This derivation should be useful in formulating novel computational methods for predicting binding affinities. It also permits several important points to be established. For example, it is found that the double-annihilation method of computing binding energy does not yield the standard free energy of binding, but can be modified to yield this quantity. The derivation also makes it possible to define clearly the changes in translational, rotational, configurational, and solvent entropy upon binding. It is argued that molecular mass has a negligible effect upon the standard free energy of binding for biomolecular systems, and that the cratic entropy defined by Gurney is not a useful concept. In addition, the use of continuum models of the solvent in binding calculations is reviewed, and a formalism is presented for incorporating a limited number of solvent molecules explicitly. PMID:9138555

  10. Computational estimation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor binding affinities for environmental estrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, Conrad; Cavileer, Timothy D.; Nagler, James J.; Ytreberg, F. Marty

    2011-02-01

    Environmental estrogens have been the subject of intense research due to their documented detrimental effects on the health of fish and wildlife and their potential to negatively impact humans. A complete understanding of how these compounds affect health is complicated because environmental estrogens are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds. In this work, computational molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to predict the binding affinity of different compounds using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) estrogen receptors (ERs) as a model. Specifically, this study presents a comparison of the binding affinity of the natural ligand estradiol-17{beta} to the four rainbow trout ER isoforms with that of three known environmental estrogens 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, and raloxifene. Two additional compounds, atrazine and testosterone, that are known to be very weak or non-binders to ERs were tested. The binding affinity of these compounds to the human ER{alpha} subtype is also included for comparison. The results of this study suggest that, when compared to estradiol-17{beta}, bisphenol A binds less strongly to all four receptors, 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol binds more strongly, and raloxifene has a high affinity for the {alpha} subtype only. The results also show that atrazine and testosterone are weak or non-binders to the ERs. All of the results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the known in vivo estrogenicity of these compounds in the rainbow trout and other fishes. Computational estimation of binding affinities could be a valuable tool for predicting the impact of environmental estrogens in fish and other animals.

  11. Mapping the affinity landscape of Thrombin-binding aptamers on 2'F-ANA/DNA chimeric G-Quadruplex microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lietard, Jory; Abou Assi, Hala; Gómez-Pinto, Irene; González, Carlos; Somoza, Mark M; Damha, Masad J

    2017-01-18

    In situ fabricated nucleic acids microarrays are versatile and very high-throughput platforms for aptamer optimization and discovery, but the chemical space that can be probed against a given target has largely been confined to DNA, while RNA and non-natural nucleic acid microarrays are still an essentially uncharted territory. 2'-Fluoroarabinonucleic acid (2'F-ANA) is a prime candidate for such use in microarrays. Indeed, 2'F-ANA chemistry is readily amenable to photolithographic microarray synthesis and its potential in high affinity aptamers has been recently discovered. We thus synthesized the first microarrays containing 2'F-ANA and 2'F-ANA/DNA chimeric sequences to fully map the binding affinity landscape of the TBA1 thrombin-binding G-quadruplex aptamer containing all 32 768 possible DNA-to-2'F-ANA mutations. The resulting microarray was screened against thrombin to identify a series of promising 2'F-ANA-modified aptamer candidates with Kds significantly lower than that of the unmodified control and which were found to adopt highly stable, antiparallel-folded G-quadruplex structures. The solution structure of the TBA1 aptamer modified with 2'F-ANA at position T3 shows that fluorine substitution preorganizes the dinucleotide loop into the proper conformation for interaction with thrombin. Overall, our work strengthens the potential of 2'F-ANA in aptamer research and further expands non-genomic applications of nucleic acids microarrays.

  12. Bean peptides have higher in silico binding affinities than ezetimibe for the N-terminal domain of cholesterol receptor Niemann-Pick C1 Like-1.

    PubMed

    Real Hernandez, Luis M; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 like-1 (NPC1L1) mediates cholesterol absorption at the apical membrane of enterocytes through a yet unknown mechanism. Bean, pea, and lentil proteins are naturally hydrolyzed during digestion to produce peptides. The potential for pulse peptides to have high binding affinities for NPC1L1 has not been determined. In this study , in silico binding affinities and interactions were determined between the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1 and 14 pulse peptides (5≥ amino acids) derived through pepsin-pancreatin digestion. Peptides were docked in triplicate to the N-terminal domain using docking program AutoDock Vina, and results were compared to those of ezetimibe, a prescribed NPC1L1 inhibitor. Three black bean peptides (-7.2 to -7.0kcal/mol) and the cowpea bean dipeptide Lys-Asp (-7.0kcal/mol) had higher binding affinities than ezetimibe (-6.6kcal/mol) for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1. Lentil and pea peptides studied did not have high binding affinities. The common bean peptide Tyr-Ala-Ala-Ala-Thr (-7.2kcal/mol), which can be produced from black or navy bean proteins, had the highest binding affinity. Ezetimibe and peptides with high binding affinities for the N-terminal domain are expected to interact at different locations of the N-terminal domain. All high affinity black bean peptides are expected to have van der Waals interactions with SER130, PHE136, and LEU236 and a conventional hydrogen bond with GLU238 of NPC1L1. Due to their high affinity for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1, black and cowpea bean peptides produced in the digestive track have the potential to disrupt interactions between NPC1L1 and membrane proteins that lead to cholesterol absorption.

  13. Effects of acid diffusibility and affinity to cellulose on strength loss of polycarboxylic acid crosslinked fabrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bolin; Zhao, Cunyi; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-25

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) imparts good anti-wrinkle property to cotton fabrics and results in significant strength loss due to cross-linking and acid degradation of cellulose simultaneously. However, benzophenone-3,3',4,4'- tetracarboxylic acid (BPTCA), an aromatic acid, crosslinks cellulose effectively but causes less strength loss to the products under similar conditions. The difference in damages to cellulose fibers was analyzed by using diffusibility and corresponding affinity of the acids to cellulose fibers, which were estimated by their molecular sizes and Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). Both experimental results and theoretical speculations revealed consistent agreement, indicating that smaller acid molecules could diffuse into cellulose fiber more rapidly and deeply, resulting in more acid degradation. Besides, the aliphatic acid such as BTCA has higher molecular affinity than BPTCA to cellulose, causing additional more degradation of cellulose. Both factors are potential reasons of the observed more severe tensile strength loss of the BTCA treated cotton fabrics.

  14. The AVR4 elicitor protein of Cladosporium fulvum binds to fungal components with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Westerink, Nienke; Roth, Ronelle; Van den Burg, Harrold A; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2002-12-01

    The interaction between tomato and the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum complies with the gene-for-gene system. Strains of C. fulvum that produce race-specific elicitor AVR4 induce a hypersensitive response, leading to resistance, in tomato plants that carry the Cf-4 resistance gene. The mechanism of AVR4 perception was examined by performing binding studies with 125I-AVR4 on microsomal membranes of tomato plants. We identified an AVR4 high-affinity binding site (KD = 0.05 nM) which exhibited all the characteristics expected for ligand-receptor interactions, such as saturability, reversibility, and specificity. Surprisingly, the AVR4 high-affinity binding site appeared to originate from fungi present on infected tomato plants rather than from the tomato plants themselves. Detailed analysis showed that this fungus-derived, AVR4-specific binding site is heat- and proteinase K-resistant. Affinity crosslinking demonstrated that AVR4 specifically binds to a component of approximately 75 kDa that is of fungal origin. Our data suggest that binding of AVR4 to a fungal component or components is related to the intrinsic virulence function of AVR4 for C. fulvum.

  15. Routes to improve binding capacities of affinity resins demonstrated for Protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Müller, Egbert; Vajda, Judith

    2016-05-15

    Protein A chromatography is a well-established platform in downstream purification of monoclonal antibodies. Dynamic binding capacities are continuously increasing with almost every newly launched Protein A resin. Nevertheless, binding capacities of affinity chromatography resins cannot compete with binding capacities obtained with modern ion exchange media. Capacities of affinity resins are roughly 50% lower. High binding capacities of ion exchange media are supported by spacer technologies. In this article, we review existing spacer technologies of affinity chromatography resins. A yet known effective approach to increase the dynamic binding capacity of Protein A resins is oligomerization of the particular Protein A motifs. This resembles the tentacle technology used in ion exchange chromatography. Dynamic binding capacities of a hexameric ligand are roughly twice as high compared to capacities obtained with a tetrameric ligand. Further capacity increases up to 130mg/ml can be realized with the hexamer ligand, if the sodium phosphate buffer concentration is increased from 20 to 100mM. Equilibrium isotherms revealed a BET shape for the hexamer ligand at monoclonal antibody liquid phase concentrations higher than 9mg/ml. The apparent multilayer formation may be due to hydrophobic forces. Other quality attributes such as recovery, aggregate content, and overall purity of the captured monoclonal antibody are not affected.

  16. Soybean. beta. -glucan binding sites display maximal affinity for a heptaglucoside phytoalexin-elicitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cosio, E.G.; Waldmueller, T.; Frey, T.; Ebel, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The affinity of soybean {beta}-glucan-binding sites for a synthetic heptaglucan elicitor was tested in a ligand-competition assay against a {sup 125}I-labeled 1,3-1,6-{beta}-glucan preparation (avg. DP=20). Half-maximal displacement of label (IC{sub 50}) was obtained at 9nM heptaglucan, the highest affinity of all fractions tested to date. Displacement followed a uniform sigmoidal pattern and was complete at 1{mu}M indicating access of heptaglucan to all sites available to the labeled elicitor. A mathematical model was used to predict IC{sub 50} values according to the DP of glucan fragments obtained from fungal cell walls. The lowest IC{sub 50} predicted by this model is 3nM. Binding affinity of the glucans was compared with their elicitor activity in a bioassay.

  17. Calculation of Absolute Protein-Ligand Binding Affinity Using Path and Endpoint Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    solvent method (35) using an explicit solvent layer width of 10 Å. The hybrid solvent model (35) involves encapsulating a biological solute by a layer of...Gilson. 2004. Calculation of cyclodextrin binding affinities: energy, entropy, and implications for drug design. Biophys. J. 87:3035–3049. 42. Janezic, D

  18. Calculation of Absolute Protein-Ligand Binding Affinity Using Path and Endpoint Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    an explicit solvent layer width of 10 Å. The hybrid solvent model (35) involves encapsulating a biological solute by a layer of water molecules...of cyclodextrin binding affinities: energy, entropy, and implications for drug design. Biophys. J. 87:3035–3049. 42. Janezic, D., R. M. Venable, and

  19. Fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein and albumin are different

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin (ALB) are abundant serum proteins and both possess high-affinity binding for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. However, certain differences exist. We surmised that in cases where serum albumin level is low, DBP presumably can act as a transporter of fatty acids. To explore this possibility we synthesized several alkylating derivatives of 14C-palmitic acid to probe the fatty acid binding pockets of DBP and ALB. We observed that N-ethyl-5-phenylisooxazolium-3′-sulfonate-ester (WRK ester) of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled DBP; but p-nitrophenyl- and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-esters failed to do so. However, p-nitrophenyl ester of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled bovine ALB, indicating that the micro-environment of the fatty acid-binding domains of DBP and ALB may be different; and DBP may not replace ALB as a transporter of fatty acids. PMID:18374965

  20. Drug-binding properties of rat alpha 1-foetoprotein. Binding of warfarin, phenylbutazone, azapropazone, diazepam, digitoxin and cholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, F; Rajkowski, K; Martin, M T; Dessen, P; Cittanova, N

    1984-01-01

    As part of an investigation into whether alpha 1-foetoprotein (alpha 1-FP) plays the same transport role in foetal serum as albumin does in the adult, the binding properties of both proteins were compared with respect to the binding of a series of compounds known to be bound by albumin's specific drug-binding sites. The binding of warfarin, phenylbutazone, azapropazone, diazepam, digitoxin and cholic acid by rat alpha 1-FP and serum albumin was studied by equilibrium dialysis at 4 degrees C. Rat alpha 1-FP was shown to have neither albumin's high-affinity site II (diazepam as marker) nor its site III (digitoxin and cholic acid as markers). High-affinity binding by alpha 1-FP was found for the specific markers (warfarin, phenylbutazone, azapropazone) of albumin's drug-binding site I. However, instead of albumin's one high-affinity site/molecule, a mean value of 0.5 site/molecule was obtained with rat alpha 1-FP. Charcoal treatment at neutral pH of rat serum albumin did not affect its measured binding properties, but treatment of the alpha 1-FP led to an increased affinity for warfarin, phenylbutazone and azapropazone without a change in the measured number of sites, indicating competition for binding at this site by (an) endogenous ligand(s). These results are discussed in terms of the structures of the two proteins and with respect to the physiological implications of the differences found. PMID:6206846

  1. Ligand specificity and conformational stability of human fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, A W; van Moerkerk, H T; Veerkamp, J H

    2001-09-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins with virtually identical backbone structures that facilitate the solubility and intracellular transport of fatty acids. At least eight different types of FABP occur, each with a specific tissue distribution and possibly with a distinct function. To define the functional characteristics of all eight human FABPs, viz. heart (H), brain (B), myelin (M), adipocyte (A), epidermal (E), intestinal (I), liver (L) and ileal lipid-binding protein (I-LBP), we studied their ligand specificity, their conformational stability and their immunological crossreactivity. Additionally, binding of bile acids to I-LBP was studied. The FABP types showed differences in fatty acid binding affinity. Generally, the affinity for palmitic acid was lower than for oleic and arachidonic acid. All FABP types, except E-FABP, I-FABP and I-LBP interacted with 1-anilinonaphtalene-8-sulphonic acid (ANS). Only L-FABP, I-FABP and M-FABP showed binding of 11-((5-dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonyl)amino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA). I-LBP showed increasing binding of bile acids in the order taurine-conjugated>glycine-conjugated>unconjugated bile acids. A hydroxylgroup of bile acids at position 7 decreased and at position 12 increased the binding affinity to I-LBP. The fatty acid-binding affinity and the conformation of FABP types were differentially affected in the presence of urea. Our results demonstrate significant differences in ligand binding, conformational stability and surface properties between different FABP types which may point to a specific function in certain cells and tissues. The preference of I-LBP (but not L-FABP) for conjugated bile acids is in accordance with a specific role in bile acid reabsorption in the ileum.

  2. Binding affinity and capacities for ytterbium(3+) and hafinum(4+) by chemical entities of plant tissue fragments.

    PubMed

    Worley, R; Clearfield, A; Ellis, W C

    2002-12-01

    The binding affinity of ytterbium (Yb3+) and hafinum (Hf4+) to ligands of chemical entities of fragments of bermudagrass tissues and their resistance to exchanging Yb with other ligands and to displacement by protons were investigated. Chemical entities of acid resistant NDF (ARNDF), 0.1 N acid detergent fiber (0.1 N ADF), and permanganate cellulose (CELL) were prepared from fragments of bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) obtained by grinding to pass a 2-mm sieve. 175Ytterbium and Yb, as YbCl3, were initially bound to each preparation by soaking for 12 h in pH 5.5 borate buffer to obtain Yb bound onto ligands having affinity constants for Yb equal to or greater than that for the weakly stable borate ligand, Yb > or = borate. The fraction of Yb > or = borate was measured and fragments then sequentially exposed to acetate, citrate, nitrotriacetate (NTA), and EDTA ions to allow exchange of Yb from Yb > or = borate with ligands having affinity constants for Yb equal to or greater than acetate (Yb > or = acetate), citrate (Yb > or = citrate), NTA (Yb > or = NTA), and EDTA (Yb > or = EDTA) ions. Binding of Yb > or = borate indicated the existence of two species of ligands: strong ligands binding essentially 100% of added Yb at levels of 1 to 1,300 ppm (0.1 N ADF) and at 1 to 7,000 ppm (ARNDF); and weaker ligands binding 4 and 8% of the Yb, respectively, at levels of added Yb greater than 1,300 ppm and 7,000 ppm. Ytterbium > or = acetate of ARNDF, but not 0.1 N ADF, was as resistant to exchange as Yb > or = citrate. Ytterbium > or = borate was exchanged extensively (85% or greater) with soluble ligands having affinity constants > or = NTA. Ytterbium resistance to proton displacement at pH of 1.5 increased with Yb > or = EDTA > Yb > or = NTA > Yb > or = citrate > Yb > or = acetate. Very efficient binding of Yb to CELL suggested that such chemical preparations are not representative of native cellulose. Hafnium (4+) was strongly bound to plant tissues rendering

  3. Structure-Based Understanding of Binding Affinity and Mode of Estrogen Receptor α Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Mace G.

    2017-01-01

    The flexible hydrophobic ligand binding pocket (LBP) of estrogen receptor α (ERα) allows the binding of a wide variety of endocrine disruptors. Upon ligand binding, the LBP reshapes around the contours of the ligand and stabilizes the complex by complementary hydrophobic interactions and specific hydrogen bonds with the ligand. Here we present a framework for quantitative analysis of the steric and electronic features of the human ERα-ligand complex using three dimensional (3D) protein-ligand interaction description combined with 3D-QSAR approach. An empirical hydrophobicity density field is applied to account for hydrophobic contacts of ligand within the LBP. The obtained 3D-QSAR model revealed that hydrophobic contacts primarily determine binding affinity and govern binding mode with hydrogen bonds. Several residues of the LBP appear to be quite flexible and adopt a spectrum of conformations in various ERα-ligand complexes, in particular His524. The 3D-QSAR was combined with molecular docking based on three receptor conformations to accommodate receptor flexibility. The model indicates that the dynamic character of the LBP allows accommodation and stable binding of structurally diverse ligands, and proper representation of the protein flexibility is critical for reasonable description of binding of the ligands. Our results provide a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of binding affinity and mode of ERα agonists and antagonists that may be applicable to other nuclear receptors. PMID:28061508

  4. Characterization of a high affinity cocaine binding site in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Calligaro, D.; Eldefrawi, M.

    1986-03-05

    Binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine to synaptic membranes from whole rat brain was reversible and saturable. Nonlinear regression analysis of binding isotherms indicated two binding affinities: one with k/sub d/ = 16 nM, B/sub max/ = 0.65 pmoles/mg protein and the other with K/sub d/ = 660 nM, B/sub max/ = 5.1 pmoles/mg protein. The high-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine was sensitive to the actions of trypsin and chymotrypsin but not carboxypeptidase, and was eliminated by exposure of the membranes to 95/sup 0/C for 5 min. Specific binding at 2 nM was higher at pH 8.8 than at pH 7.0. Binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine (15 nM) was inhibited by increasing concentrations of Na/sup +/ ions. Several cocaine analogues, neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors and local anesthetics displaced specific (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding at 2 nM with various potencies. The cocaine analogue (-)-norcocaine was the most potent (IC/sub 50/ = 10 nM), while the local anesthetic tetracaine was the least potent in inhibiting (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding. Several biogenic amine uptake inhibitors, including tricyclic antidepressants and phencyclidine, had IC/sub 50/ values below ..mu..M concentrations.

  5. Combining transcription factor binding affinities with open-chromatin data for accurate gene expression prediction.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Florian; Gasparoni, Nina; Gasparoni, Gilles; Gianmoena, Kathrin; Cadenas, Cristina; Polansky, Julia K; Ebert, Peter; Nordström, Karl; Barann, Matthias; Sinha, Anupam; Fröhler, Sebastian; Xiong, Jieyi; Dehghani Amirabad, Azim; Behjati Ardakani, Fatemeh; Hutter, Barbara; Zipprich, Gideon; Felder, Bärbel; Eils, Jürgen; Brors, Benedikt; Chen, Wei; Hengstler, Jan G; Hamann, Alf; Lengauer, Thomas; Rosenstiel, Philip; Walter, Jörn; Schulz, Marcel H

    2017-01-09

    The binding and contribution of transcription factors (TF) to cell specific gene expression is often deduced from open-chromatin measurements to avoid costly TF ChIP-seq assays. Thus, it is important to develop computational methods for accurate TF binding prediction in open-chromatin regions (OCRs). Here, we report a novel segmentation-based method, TEPIC, to predict TF binding by combining sets of OCRs with position weight matrices. TEPIC can be applied to various open-chromatin data, e.g. DNaseI-seq and NOMe-seq. Additionally, Histone-Marks (HMs) can be used to identify candidate TF binding sites. TEPIC computes TF affinities and uses open-chromatin/HM signal intensity as quantitative measures of TF binding strength. Using machine learning, we find low affinity binding sites to improve our ability to explain gene expression variability compared to the standard presence/absence classification of binding sites. Further, we show that both footprints and peaks capture essential TF binding events and lead to a good prediction performance. In our application, gene-based scores computed by TEPIC with one open-chromatin assay nearly reach the quality of several TF ChIP-seq data sets. Finally, these scores correctly predict known transcriptional regulators as illustrated by the application to novel DNaseI-seq and NOMe-seq data for primary human hepatocytes and CD4+ T-cells, respectively.

  6. Combining transcription factor binding affinities with open-chromatin data for accurate gene expression prediction

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian; Gasparoni, Nina; Gasparoni, Gilles; Gianmoena, Kathrin; Cadenas, Cristina; Polansky, Julia K.; Ebert, Peter; Nordström, Karl; Barann, Matthias; Sinha, Anupam; Fröhler, Sebastian; Xiong, Jieyi; Dehghani Amirabad, Azim; Behjati Ardakani, Fatemeh; Hutter, Barbara; Zipprich, Gideon; Felder, Bärbel; Eils, Jürgen; Brors, Benedikt; Chen, Wei; Hengstler, Jan G.; Hamann, Alf; Lengauer, Thomas; Rosenstiel, Philip; Walter, Jörn; Schulz, Marcel H.

    2017-01-01

    The binding and contribution of transcription factors (TF) to cell specific gene expression is often deduced from open-chromatin measurements to avoid costly TF ChIP-seq assays. Thus, it is important to develop computational methods for accurate TF binding prediction in open-chromatin regions (OCRs). Here, we report a novel segmentation-based method, TEPIC, to predict TF binding by combining sets of OCRs with position weight matrices. TEPIC can be applied to various open-chromatin data, e.g. DNaseI-seq and NOMe-seq. Additionally, Histone-Marks (HMs) can be used to identify candidate TF binding sites. TEPIC computes TF affinities and uses open-chromatin/HM signal intensity as quantitative measures of TF binding strength. Using machine learning, we find low affinity binding sites to improve our ability to explain gene expression variability compared to the standard presence/absence classification of binding sites. Further, we show that both footprints and peaks capture essential TF binding events and lead to a good prediction performance. In our application, gene-based scores computed by TEPIC with one open-chromatin assay nearly reach the quality of several TF ChIP-seq data sets. Finally, these scores correctly predict known transcriptional regulators as illustrated by the application to novel DNaseI-seq and NOMe-seq data for primary human hepatocytes and CD4+ T-cells, respectively. PMID:27899623

  7. Predicting the relative binding affinity of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists by density functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Katarina; Hogner, Anders; Ogg, Derek; Packer, Martin J.; Hansson, Eva; Granberg, Kenneth L.; Evertsson, Emma; Nordqvist, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of binding affinity ahead of synthesis to aid compound prioritization is still hampered by the low throughput of the more accurate methods and the lack of general pertinence of one method that fits all systems. Here we show the applicability of a method based on density functional theory using core fragments and a protein model with only the first shell residues surrounding the core, to predict relative binding affinity of a matched series of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. Antagonists of MR are used for treatment of chronic heart failure and hypertension. Marketed MR antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, are also believed to be highly efficacious in treatment of chronic kidney disease in diabetes patients, but is contra-indicated due to the increased risk for hyperkalemia. These findings and a significant unmet medical need among patients with chronic kidney disease continues to stimulate efforts in the discovery of new MR antagonist with maintained efficacy but low or no risk for hyperkalemia. Applied on a matched series of MR antagonists the quantum mechanical based method gave an R2 = 0.76 for the experimental lipophilic ligand efficiency versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional in gas phase and an R2 = 0.64 for experimental binding affinity versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional including an implicit solvation model. The quantum mechanical approach using core fragments was compared to free energy perturbation calculations using the full sized compound structures.

  8. Binding of coumarins to site I of human serum albumin. Effect of the fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zatón, A M; Ferrer, J M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; Marquínez, M A

    1995-07-14

    It is known that binding site I on human serum albumin (HSA) consists of a zone of two overlapping regions: the specific binding region represented by warfarin binding and the specific binding region represented by azapropazone and phenylbutazone binding. In this paper binding parameters to defatted HSA and to HSA with fatty acids (molar ratio of fatty acid/HSA = 4) were compared. High-affinity binding sites for warfarin, 4-chromanol, 4-hydroxycoumarin, coumarin, 3-acetylcoumarin and phenylbutazone (759,549 M-1 > Ka > 67,024 M-1) constitute binding site I on HSA. In this binding area defatted HSA can bind two molecules of warfarin, but the presence of fatty acids diminish the binding capacity of warfarin to HSA (2 > n > 1).

  9. Application of Binding Free Energy Calculations to Prediction of Binding Modes and Affinities of MDM2 and MDMX Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Sun; Jo, Sunhwan; Lim, Hyun-Suk; Im, Wonpil

    2012-01-01

    Molecular docking is widely used to obtain binding modes and binding affinities of a molecule to a given target protein. Despite considerable efforts, however, prediction of both properties by docking remains challenging mainly due to protein’s structural flexibility and inaccuracy of scoring functions. Here, an integrated approach has been developed to improve the accuracy of binding mode and affinity prediction, and tested for small molecule MDM2 and MDMX antagonists. In this approach, initial candidate models selected from docking are subjected to equilibration MD simulations to further filter the models. Free energy perturbation molecular dynamics (FEP/MD) simulations are then applied to the filtered ligand models to enhance the ability in predicting the near-native ligand conformation. The calculated binding free energies for MDM2 complexes are overestimated compared to experimental measurements mainly due to the difficulties in sampling highly flexible apo-MDM2. Nonetheless, the FEP/MD binding free energy calculations are more promising for discriminating binders from nonbinders than docking scores. In particular, the comparison between the MDM2 and MDMX results suggests that apo-MDMX has lower flexibility than apo-MDM2. In addition, the FEP/MD calculations provide detailed information on the different energetic contributions to ligand binding, leading to a better understanding of the sensitivity and specificity of protein-ligand interactions. PMID:22731511

  10. Partitioning of fish and insect antifreeze proteins into ice suggests they bind with comparable affinity.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher B; Tomczak, Melanie M; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Kuiper, Michael J; Lankin, Christopher; Walker, Virginia K; Davies, Peter L

    2004-01-13

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit the growth of ice by binding to the surface of ice crystals, preventing the addition of water molecules to cause a local depression of the freezing point. AFPs from insects are much more effective at depressing the freezing point than fish AFPs. Here, we have investigated the possibility that insect AFPs bind more avidly to ice than fish AFPs. Because it is not possible to directly measure the affinity of an AFP for ice, we have assessed binding indirectly by examining the partitioning of proteins into a slowly growing ice hemisphere. AFP molecules adsorbed to the surface and became incorporated into the ice as they were overgrown. Solutes, including non-AFPs, were very efficiently excluded from ice, whereas AFPs became incorporated into ice at a concentration roughly equal to that of the original solution, and this was independent of the AFP concentration in the range (submillimolar) tested. Despite their >10-fold difference in antifreeze activity, fish and insect AFPs partitioned into ice to a similar degree, suggesting that insect AFPs do not bind to ice with appreciably higher affinity. Additionally, we have demonstrated that steric mutations on the ice binding surface that decrease the antifreeze activity of an AFP also reduce its inclusion into ice, supporting the validity of using partitioning measurements to assess a protein's affinity for ice.

  11. Ligand binding affinities of arctigenin and its demethylated metabolites to estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hattori, Masao

    2013-01-16

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (-)-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL) by Eubacterium (E.) sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (-)-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (-)-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC(50) value of (2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10⁻⁴ M.

  12. False positive RNA binding activities after Ni-affinity purification from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Tetyana; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Romeo, Alessandra; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-06-01

    A His-tag is often added by means of recombinant DNA technology to a heterologous protein of interest, which is then over-produced in Escherchia coli and purified by one-step immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC). Owing to the presence of 24 histidines at the C-termini of the hexameric E. coli RNA chaperone Hfq, the protein co-purifies with His-tagged proteins of interest. As Hfq can bind to distinct RNA substrates with high affinity, its presence can obscure studies performed with (putative) RNA binding activities purified by IMAC. Here, we present results for a seemingly positive RNA-binding activity, exemplifying that false-positive results can be avoided if the protein of interest is either subjected to further purification step(s) or produced in an E. coli hfq- strain.

  13. Studies on the binding affinity of anticancer drug mitoxantrone to chromatin, DNA and histone proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hajihassan, Zahra; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra

    2009-01-01

    Mitoxantrone is a potent antitumor drug, widely used in the treatment of various cancers. In the present study, we have investigated and compared the affinity of anticancer drug, mitoxantrone, to EDTA-soluble chromatin (SE-chromatin), DNA and histones employing UV/Vis, fluorescence, CD spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and equilibrium dialysis techniques. The results showed that the interaction of mitoxantrone with SE-chromatin proceeds into compaction/aggregation as revealed by reduction in the absorbencies at 608 and 260 nm (hypochromicity) and disappearance of both histones and DNA on the gels. Mitoxantrone interacts strongly with histone proteins in solution making structural changes in the molecule as shown by CD and fluorescence analysis. The binding isotherms demonstrate a positive cooperative binding pattern for the chromatin- mitoxantrone interaction. It is suggested higher binding affinity of mitoxantrone to chromatin compared to DNA implying that the histone proteins may play an important role in the chromatin- mitoxantrone interaction process. PMID:19284573

  14. Engineering Streptavidin and a Streptavidin-Binding Peptide with Infinite Binding Affinity and Reversible Binding Capability: Purification of a Tagged Recombinant Protein to High Purity via Affinity-Driven Thiol Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Fogen, Dawson; Wu, Sau-Ching; Ng, Kenneth Kai-Sing; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2015-01-01

    To extend and improve the utility of the streptavidin-binding peptide tag (SBP-tag) in applications ranging from affinity purification to the reversible immobilization of recombinant proteins, a cysteine residue was introduced to the streptavidin mutein SAVSBPM18 and the SBP-tag to generate SAVSBPM32 and SBP(A18C), respectively. This pair of derivatives is capable of forming a disulfide bond through the newly introduced cysteine residues. SAVSBPM32 binds SBP-tag and biotin with binding affinities (Kd ~ 10-8M) that are similar to SAVSBPM18. Although SBP(A18C) binds to SAVSBPM32 more weakly than SBP-tag, the binding affinity is sufficient to bring the two binding partners together efficiently before they are locked together via disulfide bond formation–a phenomenon we have named affinity-driven thiol coupling. Under the condition with SBP(A18C) tags in excess, two SBP(A18C) tags can be captured by a tetrameric SAVSBPM32. The stoichiometry of the disulfide-bonded SAVSBPM32-SBP(A18C) complex was determined using a novel two-dimensional electrophoresis method which has general applications for analyzing the composition of disulfide-bonded protein complexes. To illustrate the application of this reversible immobilization technology, optimized conditions were established to use the SAVSBPM32-affinity matrix for the purification of a SBP(A18C)-tagged reporter protein to high purity. Furthermore, we show that the SAVSBPM32-affinity matrix can also be applied to purify a biotinylated protein and a reporter protein tagged with the unmodified SBP-tag. The dual (covalent and non-covalent) binding modes possible in this system offer great flexibility to many different applications which need reversible immobilization capability. PMID:26406477

  15. Short-term desensitization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in mouse neuroblastoma cells: selective loss of agonist low-affinity and pirenzepine high-affinity binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cioffi, C.L.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of brief incubation with carbamylcholine on subsequent binding of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine were investigated in mouse neuroblastoma cells (clone N1E-115). This treatment demonstrated that the muscarinic receptors in this neuronal clone can be divided into two types; one which is readily susceptible to regulation by receptor agonists, whereas the other is resistant in this regard. In control cells, both pirenzepine and carbamylcholine interacted with high- and low-affinity subsets of muscarinic receptors. Computer-assisted analysis of the competition between pirenzepine and carbamylcholine with (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine showed that the receptor sites remaining upon desensitization are composed mainly of pirenzepine low-affinity and agonist high-affinity binding sites. Furthermore, there was an excellent correlation between the ability of various muscarinic receptor agonists to induce a decrease in consequent (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine binding and their efficacy in stimulating cyclic GMP synthesis in these cells. Thus, only the agonists that are known to recognize the receptor's low-affinity conformation in order to elicit increases in cyclic GMP levels were capable of diminishing ligand binding. Taken together, our present results suggest that the receptor population that is sensitive to regulation by agonists includes both the pirenzepine high-affinity and the agonist low-affinity receptor binding states. In addition, the sensitivity of these receptor subsets to rapid regulation by agonists further implicates their involvement in desensitization of muscarinic receptor-mediated cyclic GMP formation.

  16. Novel affinity membranes with macrocyclic spacer arms synthesized via click chemistry for lysozyme binding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligang; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhong, Yonghui; Cheng, Qi; Bian, Xihui; Xin, Qingping; Cheng, Bowen; Feng, Xianshe; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2017-04-05

    Affinity membrane has great potential for applications in bioseparation and purification. Disclosed herein is the design of a novel affinity membrane with macrocyclic spacer arms for lysozyme binding. The clickable azide-cyclodextrin (CD) arms and clickable alkyne ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVAL) chains are designed and prepared. By the azide-alkyne click reaction, the EVAL-CD-ligands affinity membranes with CD spacer arms in three-dimensional micro channels have been successfully fabricated. The FT-IR, XPS, NMR, SEM and SEM-EDS results give detailed information of structure evolution. The abundant pores in membrane matrix provide efficient working channels, and the introduced CD arms with ligands (affinity sites) provide supramolecular atmosphere. Compared with that of raw EVAL membrane, the adsorption capacity of EVAL-CD-ligands membrane (26.24mg/g) show a triple increase. The study indicates that three effects (inducing effect, arm effect, site effect) from CD arms render the enhanced performance. The click reaction happened in membrane matrix in bulk. The effective lysozyme binding and higher adsorption performance of affinity membranes described herein compared with other reported membranes are markedly related with the proposed strategy involving macrocyclic spacer arms and supramolecular working channels.

  17. Is There Consistency between the Binding Affinity and Inhibitory Potential of Natural Polyphenols as α-amylase Inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Rong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-26

    The inhibitory potential of natural polyphenols for α-amylases has attracted great interests among researchers. The structure-affinity properties of natural polyphenols binding to α-amylase and the structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting α-amylase were deeply investigated. There is a lack of consistency between the structure-affinity relationship and the structure-activity relationship of natural polyphenols as α-amylase inhibitors. Is it consistent between the binding affinity and inhibitory potential of natural polyphenols as with α-amylase inhibitors? It was found that the consistency between the binding affinity and inhibitory potential of natural polyphenols as with α-amylase inhibitors is not equivocal. For example, there is no consistency between the binding affinity and the inhibitory potential of quercetin and its glycosides as α-amylase inhibitors. However, catechins with higher α-amylase inhibitory potential exhibited higher affinity with α-amylase.

  18. Differences in receptor binding affinity of several phytocannabinoids do not explain their effects on neural cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rosenthaler, Sarah; Pöhn, Birgit; Kolmanz, Caroline; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Krewenka, Christopher; Huber, Alexandra; Kranner, Barbara; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Moldzio, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids are potential candidates for neurodegenerative disease treatment. Nonetheless, the exact mode of action of major phytocannabinoids has to be elucidated, but both, receptor and non-receptor mediated effects are discussed. Focusing on the often presumed structure-affinity-relationship, Ki values of phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), THC acid (THCA) and THC to human CB1 and CB2 receptors were detected by using competitive inhibition between radioligand [(3)H]CP-55,940 and the phytocannabinoids. The resulting Ki values to CB1 range from 23.5 nM (THCA) to 14711 nM (CBDV), whereas Ki values to CB2 range from 8.5 nM (THC) to 574.2 nM (CBDV). To study the relationship between binding affinity and effects on neurons, we investigated possible CB1 related cytotoxic properties in murine mesencephalic primary cell cultures and N18TG2 neuroblastoma cell line. Most of the phytocannabinoids did not affect the number of dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, whereas propidium iodide and resazurin formation assays revealed cytotoxic properties of CBN, CBDV and CBG. However, THC showed positive effects on N18TG2 cell viability at a concentration of 10 μM, whereas CBC and THCA also displayed slightly positive activities. These findings are not linked to the receptor binding affinity therewith pointing to another mechanism than a receptor mediated one. [Corrected

  19. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Background Antigen presenting cells (APCs) sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC) and three mouse H2-IA alleles. Results The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR), we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. Conclusion The SMM-align method was

  20. Quantifying high-affinity binding of hydrophobic ligands by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Georg; Broecker, Jana; Vargas, Carolyn; Fanghänel, Jörg; Keller, Sandro

    2012-12-18

    A fast and reliable quantification of the binding thermodynamics of hydrophobic high-affinity ligands employing a new calorimetric competition experiment is described. Although isothermal titration calorimetry is the method of choice for a quantitative characterization of intermolecular interactions in solution, a reliable determination of a dissociation constant (K(D)) is typically limited to the range 100 μM > K(D) > 1 nM. Interactions displaying higher or lower K(D) values can be assessed indirectly, provided that a suitable competing ligand is available whose K(D) falls within the directly accessible affinity window. This established displacement assay, however, requires the high-affinity ligand to be soluble at high concentrations in aqueous buffer and, consequently, poses serious problems in the study of protein binding involving small-molecule ligands dissolved in organic solvents--a familiar case in many drug-discovery projects relying on compound libraries. The calorimetric competition assay introduced here overcomes this limitation, thus allowing for a detailed thermodynamic description of high-affinity receptor-ligand interactions involving poorly water-soluble compounds. Based on a single titration of receptor into a dilute mixture of the two competing ligands, this competition assay provides accurate and precise values for the dissociation constants and binding enthalpies of both high- and moderate-affinity ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation and high-affinity protein-inhibitor interactions, and explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses.

  1. Blind prediction of host-guest binding affinities: A new SAMPL3 challenge

    PubMed Central

    Muddana, Hari S.; Varnado, C. Daniel; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Urbach, Adam R.; Isaacs, Lyle; Geballe, Matthew T.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    The computational prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities is of central interest in early-stage drug-discovery, and there is a widely recognized need for improved methods. Low molecular weight receptors and their ligands—i.e. host-guest systems – represent valuable test-beds for such affinity prediction methods, because their small size makes for fast calculations and relatively facile numerical convergence. The SAMPL3 community exercise included the first ever blind prediction challenge for host-guest binding affinities, through the incorporation of 11 new host-guest complexes. Ten participating research groups addressed this challenge with a variety of approaches. Statistical assessment indicates that, although most methods performed well at predicting some general trends in binding affinity, overall accuracy was not high, as all the methods suffered from either poor correlation or high RMS errors or both. There was no clear advantage in using explicit vs. implicit solvent models, any particular force field, or any particular approach to conformational sampling. In a few cases, predictions using very similar energy models but different sampling and/or free-energy methods resulted in significantly different results. The protonation states of one host and some guest molecules emerged as key uncertainties beyond the choice of computational approach. The present results have implications for methods development and future blind prediction exercises. PMID:22366955

  2. Characterization of high affinity binding motifs for the discoidin domain receptor DDR2 in collagen.

    PubMed

    Konitsiotis, Antonios D; Raynal, Nicolas; Bihan, Dominique; Hohenester, Erhard; Farndale, Richard W; Leitinger, Birgit

    2008-03-14

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by native triple-helical collagen. Here we have located three specific DDR2 binding sites by screening the entire triple-helical domain of collagen II, using the Collagen II Toolkit, a set of overlapping triple-helical peptides. The peptide sequence that bound DDR2 with highest affinity interestingly contained the sequence for the high affinity binding site for von Willebrand factor in collagen III. Focusing on this sequence, we used a set of truncated and alanine-substituted peptides to characterize the sequence GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) as the minimal collagen sequence required for DDR2 binding. Based on a recent NMR analysis of the DDR2 collagen binding domain, we generated a model of the DDR2-collagen interaction that explains why a triple-helical conformation is required for binding. Triple-helical peptides comprising the DDR2 binding motif not only inhibited DDR2 binding to collagen II but also activated DDR2 transmembrane signaling. Thus, DDR2 activation may be effected by single triple-helices rather than fibrillar collagen.

  3. Physiochemical studies on achatininH, a novel sialic acid-binding lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, C; Basu, S; Mandal, C

    1989-01-01

    We have purified a sialic acid-binding lectin, achatininH, in a single step by affinity chromatography, having high affinity for 9-O-acetylneuraminic acid. The physicochemical characterization of the interaction of achatininH with bivalent metal ions and sialic acid derivatives by the use of spectrofluorimetry, spectropolarimetry and precipitin reaction is reported. From fluorescence quenching studies the binding of Ca2+ (Ka = 251 +/- 9 M-1) and of Mn2+ (Ka = 86 +/- 5 M-1) was found to be weak, but their presence is absolutely necessary for sugar binding as well as biological activity. The nature and position of the substituent group play a very important role in the binding affinity. AchatininH shows a high affinity for 9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Ka = 1.20 x 10(3) +/- 0.07 x 10(3) M-1) compared with that for the 4-O-acetyl derivative. In oligomers the binding strength increases in the order monosaccharide less than disaccharide less than trisaccharide. The binding affinity of achatininH for the disaccharide was found to reach a peak around pH 8. From c.d. spectral studies achatininH was found to have a high beta-sheet content (46%) and a low alpha-helix content (24%). From precipitin analysis at least one sugar-binding site on each of the 16 monomer subunits of the protein is indicated. PMID:2920028

  4. Protein unfolding as a switch from self-recognition to high-affinity client binding

    PubMed Central

    Groitl, Bastian; Horowitz, Scott; Makepeace, Karl A. T.; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Borchers, Christoph H.; Reichmann, Dana; Bardwell, James C. A.; Jakob, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Stress-specific activation of the chaperone Hsp33 requires the unfolding of a central linker region. This activation mechanism suggests an intriguing functional relationship between the chaperone's own partial unfolding and its ability to bind other partially folded client proteins. However, identifying where Hsp33 binds its clients has remained a major gap in our understanding of Hsp33's working mechanism. By using site-specific Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance experiments guided by in vivo crosslinking studies, we now reveal that the partial unfolding of Hsp33's linker region facilitates client binding to an amphipathic docking surface on Hsp33. Furthermore, our results provide experimental evidence for the direct involvement of conditionally disordered regions in unfolded protein binding. The observed structural similarities between Hsp33's own metastable linker region and client proteins present a possible model for how Hsp33 uses protein unfolding as a switch from self-recognition to high-affinity client binding. PMID:26787517

  5. Specificity of O-glycosylation in enhancing the stability and cellulose binding affinity of Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqun; Drake, Matthew R; Resch, Michael G; Greene, Eric R; Himmel, Michael E; Chaffey, Patrick K; Beckham, Gregg T; Tan, Zhongping

    2014-05-27

    The majority of biological turnover of lignocellulosic biomass in nature is conducted by fungi, which commonly use Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for targeting enzymes to cellulose. Family 1 CBMs are glycosylated, but the effects of glycosylation on CBM function remain unknown. Here, the effects of O-mannosylation are examined on the Family 1 CBM from the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase at three glycosylation sites. To enable this work, a procedure to synthesize glycosylated Family 1 CBMs was developed. Subsequently, a library of 20 CBMs was synthesized with mono-, di-, or trisaccharides at each site for comparison of binding affinity, proteolytic stability, and thermostability. The results show that, although CBM mannosylation does not induce major conformational changes, it can increase the thermolysin cleavage resistance up to 50-fold depending on the number of mannose units on the CBM and the attachment site. O-Mannosylation also increases the thermostability of CBM glycoforms up to 16 °C, and a mannose disaccharide at Ser3 seems to have the largest themostabilizing effect. Interestingly, the glycoforms with small glycans at each site displayed higher binding affinities for crystalline cellulose, and the glycoform with a single mannose at each of three positions conferred the highest affinity enhancement of 7.4-fold. Overall, by combining chemical glycoprotein synthesis and functional studies, we show that specific glycosylation events confer multiple beneficial properties on Family 1 CBMs.

  6. Specificity of O-glycosylation in enhancing the stability and cellulose binding affinity of Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liqun; Drake, Matthew R.; Resch, Michael G.; Greene, Eric R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Chaffey, Patrick K.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Tan, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biological turnover of lignocellulosic biomass in nature is conducted by fungi, which commonly use Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for targeting enzymes to cellulose. Family 1 CBMs are glycosylated, but the effects of glycosylation on CBM function remain unknown. Here, the effects of O-mannosylation are examined on the Family 1 CBM from the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase at three glycosylation sites. To enable this work, a procedure to synthesize glycosylated Family 1 CBMs was developed. Subsequently, a library of 20 CBMs was synthesized with mono-, di-, or trisaccharides at each site for comparison of binding affinity, proteolytic stability, and thermostability. The results show that, although CBM mannosylation does not induce major conformational changes, it can increase the thermolysin cleavage resistance up to 50-fold depending on the number of mannose units on the CBM and the attachment site. O-Mannosylation also increases the thermostability of CBM glycoforms up to 16 °C, and a mannose disaccharide at Ser3 seems to have the largest themostabilizing effect. Interestingly, the glycoforms with small glycans at each site displayed higher binding affinities for crystalline cellulose, and the glycoform with a single mannose at each of three positions conferred the highest affinity enhancement of 7.4-fold. Overall, by combining chemical glycoprotein synthesis and functional studies, we show that specific glycosylation events confer multiple beneficial properties on Family 1 CBMs. PMID:24821760

  7. Protein purification with polymeric affinity membranes containing functionalized poly(acid) brushes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Vyas, Mukesh Kumar; Geiger, James H; Baker, Gregory L; Bruening, Merlin L

    2010-04-12

    Porous nylon membranes modified with poly(acid) brushes and their derivatives can rapidly purify proteins via ion-exchange and metal-ion affinity interactions. Membranes containing poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate) (poly(MES)) brushes bind 118 +/- 8 mg of lysozyme per cm(3) of membrane and facilitate purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Moreover, functionalization of the poly(MES) brushes with nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-Ni(2+) complexes yields membranes that bind poly(histidine)-tagged (His-tagged) ubiquitin with a capacity of 85 +/- 2 mg of protein per cm(3) of membrane. Most importantly, the membranes modified with poly(MES)-NTA-Ni(2+) allow isolation of His-tagged cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein directly from a cell extract in <10 min, and the protein purity is comparable to that achieved with commercial affinity columns. Therefore, porous nylon membranes containing functionalized poly(MES) brushes are attractive candidates for rapid, high-capacity purification of His-tagged proteins from cell extracts.

  8. Measurement of free glucocorticoids: quantifying corticosteroid-binding globulin binding affinity and its variation within and among mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    Delehanty, Brendan; Hossain, Sabrina; Jen, Chao Ching; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Boonstra, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Plasma glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used as measures of stress in wildlife. A great deal of evidence indicates that only free GC (GC not bound by the specific binding protein, corticosteroid-binding globulin, CBG) leaves the circulation and exerts biological effects on GC-sensitive tissues. Free hormone concentrations are difficult to measure directly, so researchers estimate free GC using two measures: the binding affinity and the binding capacity in plasma. We provide an inexpensive saturation binding method for calculating the binding affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd) of CBG that can be run without specialized laboratory equipment. Given that other plasma proteins, such as albumin, also bind GCs, the method compensates for this non-specific binding. Separation of bound GC from free GC was achieved with dextran-coated charcoal. The method provides repeatable estimates (12% coefficient of variation in the red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and there is little evidence of inter-individual variation in Kd (range 2.0–7.3 nM for 16 Richardson's ground squirrels, Urocitellus richardsonii). The Kd values of 28 mammalian species we assessed were mostly clustered around a median of 4 nM, but five species had values between 13 and 61 nM. This pattern may be distinct from birds, for which published values are more tightly distributed (1.5–5.1 nM). The charcoal separation method provides a reliable and robust method for measuring the Kd in a wide range of species. It uses basic laboratory equipment to provide rapid results at very low cost. Given the importance of CBG in regulating the biological activity of GCs, this method is a useful tool for physiological ecologists. PMID:27293705

  9. Modulating Uranium Binding Affinity in Engineered Calmodulin EF-Hand Peptides: Effect of Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pardoux, Romain; Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Lemaire, David; Delangle, Pascale; Guilloreau, Luc; Adriano, Jean-Marc; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To improve our understanding of uranium toxicity, the determinants of uranyl affinity in proteins must be better characterized. In this work, we analyzed the contribution of a phosphoryl group on uranium binding affinity in a protein binding site, using the site 1 EF-hand motif of calmodulin. The recombinant domain 1 of calmodulin from A. thaliana was engineered to impair metal binding at site 2 and was used as a structured template. Threonine at position 9 of the loop was phosphorylated in vitro, using the recombinant catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2. Hence, the T9TKE12 sequence was substituted by the CK2 recognition sequence TAAE. A tyrosine was introduced at position 7, so that uranyl and calcium binding affinities could be determined by following tyrosine fluorescence. Phosphorylation was characterized by ESI-MS spectrometry, and the phosphorylated peptide was purified to homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography. The binding constants for uranyl were determined by competition experiments with iminodiacetate. At pH 6, phosphorylation increased the affinity for uranyl by a factor of ∼5, from Kd = 25±6 nM to Kd = 5±1 nM. The phosphorylated peptide exhibited a much larger affinity at pH 7, with a dissociation constant in the subnanomolar range (Kd = 0.25±0.06 nM). FTIR analyses showed that the phosphothreonine side chain is partly protonated at pH 6, while it is fully deprotonated at pH 7. Moreover, formation of the uranyl-peptide complex at pH 7 resulted in significant frequency shifts of the νas(P-O) and νs(P-O) IR modes of phosphothreonine, supporting its direct interaction with uranyl. Accordingly, a bathochromic shift in νas(UO2)2+ vibration (from 923 cm−1 to 908 cm−1) was observed upon uranyl coordination to the phosphorylated peptide. Together, our data demonstrate that the phosphoryl group plays a determining role in uranyl binding affinity to proteins at physiological pH. PMID:22870263

  10. Relating structure to thermodynamics: the crystal structures and binding affinity of eight OppA-peptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Davies, T G; Hubbard, R E; Tame, J R

    1999-07-01

    The oligopeptide-binding protein OppA provides a useful model system for studying the physical chemistry underlying noncovalent interactions since it binds a variety of readily synthesized ligands. We have studied the binding of eight closely related tripeptides of the type Lysine-X-Lysine, where X is an abnormal amino acid, by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. The tripeptides fall into three series of ligands, which have been designed to examine the effects of small changes to the central side chain. Three ligands have a primary amine as the second side chain, two have a straight alkane chain, and three have ring systems. The results have revealed a definite preference for the binding of hydrophobic residues over the positively charged side chains, the latter binding only weakly due to unfavorable enthalpic effects. Within the series of positively charged groups, a point of lowest affinity has been identified and this is proposed to arise from unfavorable electrostatic interactions in the pocket, including the disruption of a key salt bridge. Marked entropy-enthalpy compensation is found across the series, and some of the difficulties in designing tightly binding ligands have been highlighted.

  11. Protein-binding affinity of leucaena condensed tannins of differing molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao Dan; Liang, Juan Boo; Tan, Hui Yin; Yahya, Rosiyah; Long, Ruijun; Ho, Yin Wan

    2011-10-12

    Depending on their source, concentration, chemical structure, and molecular weight, condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with protein, which could lead to ruminal bypass protein, benefiting animal production. In this study, CTs from Leuceana leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five fractions by a size exclusion chromatography procedure. The molecular weights of the CT fractions were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS, and the protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the standard protein. The calculated number-average molecular weights (M(n)) were 1348.6, 857.1, 730.1, 726.0, and 497.1, and b values (the b value represents the CT quantity that is needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable BSA) of the different molecular weight fractions were 0.381, 0.510, 0.580, 0.636, and 0.780 for fractions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The results indicated that, in general, CTs of higher molecular weight fractions have stronger protein-binding affinity than those of lower molecular weights. However, the number of hydroxyl units within the structure of CT polymers also affects the protein-binding affinity.

  12. The high-affinity peptidoglycan binding domain of Pseudomonas phage endolysin KZ144

    SciTech Connect

    Briers, Yves; Schmelcher, Mathias; Loessner, Martin J.; Hendrix, Jelle; Engelborghs, Yves; Volckaert, Guido; Lavigne, Rob

    2009-05-29

    The binding affinity of the N-terminal peptidoglycan binding domain of endolysin KZ144 (PBD{sub KZ}), originating from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage {phi}KZ, has been examined using a fusion protein of PBD{sub KZ} and green fluorescent protein (PBD{sub KZ}-GFP). A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis of bound PBD{sub KZ}-GFP molecules showed less than 10% fluorescence recovery in the bleached area within 15 min. Surface plasmon resonance analysis confirmed this apparent high binding affinity revealing an equilibrium affinity constant of 2.95 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1} for the PBD{sub KZ}-peptidoglycan interaction. This unique domain, which binds to the peptidoglycan of all tested Gram-negative species, was harnessed to improve the specific activity of the peptidoglycan hydrolase domain KMV36C. The chimeric peptidoglycan hydrolase (PBD{sub KZ}-KMV36C) exhibits a threefold higher specific activity than the native catalytic domain (KMV36C). These results demonstrate that the modular assembly of functional domains is a rational approach to improve the specific activity of endolysins from phages infecting Gram-negatives.

  13. A bidentate Lewis acid with a telluronium ion as an anion-binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Gabbaï, François P.

    2010-11-01

    The search for receptors that can selectively capture small and potentially toxic anions in protic media has sparked a renewed interest in the synthesis and anion-binding properties of polydentate Lewis acids. Seeking new paradigms to enhance the anion affinities of such systems, we synthesized a bidentate Lewis acid that contains a boryl and a telluronium moiety as Lewis acidic sites. Anion-complexation studies indicate that this telluronium borane displays a high affinity for fluoride in methanol. Structural and computational studies show that the unusual fluoride affinity of this bidentate telluronium borane can be correlated with the formation of a B-F --> Te chelate motif supported by a strong lone-pair(F) --> σ*(Te-C) donor-acceptor interaction. These results, which illustrate the viability of heavier chalcogenium centres as anion-binding sites, allow us to introduce a novel strategy for the design of polydentate Lewis acids with enhanced anion affinities.

  14. A bidentate Lewis acid with a telluronium ion as an anion-binding site.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyan; Gabbaï, François P

    2010-11-01

    The search for receptors that can selectively capture small and potentially toxic anions in protic media has sparked a renewed interest in the synthesis and anion-binding properties of polydentate Lewis acids. Seeking new paradigms to enhance the anion affinities of such systems, we synthesized a bidentate Lewis acid that contains a boryl and a telluronium moiety as Lewis acidic sites. Anion-complexation studies indicate that this telluronium borane displays a high affinity for fluoride in methanol. Structural and computational studies show that the unusual fluoride affinity of this bidentate telluronium borane can be correlated with the formation of a B-F → Te chelate motif supported by a strong lone-pair(F) → σ*(Te-C) donor-acceptor interaction. These results, which illustrate the viability of heavier chalcogenium centres as anion-binding sites, allow us to introduce a novel strategy for the design of polydentate Lewis acids with enhanced anion affinities.

  15. Cholera toxin binding affinity and specificity for gangliosides determined by surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kuziemko, G.M.; Stroh, M.; Stevens, R.C. |

    1996-05-21

    The present study determines the affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside series GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1A, GD1B, GT1B, asialo GM1, globotriosyl ceramide, and lactosyl ceramide using real time biospecific interaction analysis (surface plasmon resonance, SPR). SPR shows that cholera toxin preferably binds to gangliosides in the following sequence: GM1 > GM2 > GD1A > GM3 > GT1B > GD1B > asialo-GM1. The measured binding affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside sequence ranges from 4.61 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} M for GM1 to 1.88 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} M for asialo GM1. The picomolar values obtained by surface plasmon resonance are similar to K{sub d} values determined with whole-cell binding assays. Both whole-cell assays ans SPR measurements on synthetic membranes are higher than free solution measurements by several orders of magnitude. This difference may be caused by the effects of avidity and charged lipid head-groups, which may play a major role in the binding between cholera toxin, the receptor, and the membrane surface. The primary difference between free solution binding studies and surface plasmon resonance studies is that the latter technique is performed on surfaces resembling the cell membrane. Surface plasmon resonance has the further advantage of measuring apparent kinetic association and dissociation rates in real time, providing direct information about binding events at the membrane surface. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The Structure of the Amyloid-[beta] Peptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, Victor A.; Titmuss, Stephen J.; Epa, V. Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J.; Masters, Colin L.; Varghese, Joseph N.

    2008-11-03

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of A{beta}-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in A{beta} may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of A{beta} peptides complexed with Cu{sup 2+} in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu{sup 2+} binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to A{beta} can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  17. The structure of the amyloid-beta peptide high-affinity copper II binding site in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, Victor A; Titmuss, Stephen J; Epa, V Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J; Masters, Colin L; Varghese, Joseph N

    2008-10-01

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of Abeta-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in Abeta may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of Abeta peptides complexed with Cu(2+) in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length Abeta-Cu(2+) peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the Abeta-Cu(2+) complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu(2+) binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to Abeta can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  18. The Structure of the Amyloid-β Peptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Streltsov, Victor A.; Titmuss, Stephen J.; Epa, V. Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J.; Masters, Colin L.; Varghese, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of Aβ-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in Aβ may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of Aβ peptides complexed with Cu2+ in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length Aβ-Cu2+ peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the Aβ-Cu2+ complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu2+ binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to Aβ can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD. PMID:18599641

  19. Structural analysis of ibuprofen binding to human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    González, Javier M; Fisher, S Zoë

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. However, FABP4 displays a naturally low selectivity towards hydrophobic ligands, leading to the possibility of side effects arising from cross-inhibition of other FABP isoforms. In a search for structural determinants of ligand-binding selectivity, the binding of FABP4 towards a group of small molecules structurally related to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen was analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Several specific hydrophobic interactions are shown to enhance the binding affinities of these compounds, whereas an aromatic edge-to-face interaction is proposed to determine the conformation of bound ligands, highlighting the importance of aromatic interactions in hydrophobic environments.

  20. In vitro toxicological evaluation of NCS-382, a high-affinity antagonist of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) binding.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K R; Ainslie, G R; Roullet, J-B; McConnell, A; Gibson, K M

    2017-01-22

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a minor metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, can accumulate to significant concentrations in the heritable disorder of GABA degradation, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (SSADHD). Moreover, GHB may be employed in therapeutic settings (treatment of narcolepsy), as well as instances of illicit activity, including acquaintance sexual assault and the induction of euphoria. High-affinity binding sites for GHB in the brain have been identified, although the absolute identity of these receptors remains unclear. Pharmacological antagonism of GHB binding may have multiple instances of therapeutic relevance. The high affinity GHB receptor antagonist, NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzo-cyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid) has not been piloted in humans. To address the potential clinical utility of NCS-382, we have piloted initial studies of its toxicology in HepG2 and primary hepatocyte cells. At high dose (0.5mM), NCS-382 showed no capacity for inhibition of microsomal CYPs (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) and minimal potential for activation of xenobiotic nuclear receptors. Additional cellular integrity and functional assays (viability, oxidative stress, apoptosis, ATP production) revealed little evidence for cytotoxicity, and a low degree of dysregulation of >370 genes actively engaged in the mediation of cellular toxicity. In vitro testing indicates a low probability of cellular toxicity associated with NCS-382.

  1. Different Thermodynamic Binding Mechanisms and Peptide Fine Specificities Associated with a Panel of Structurally Similar High-Affinity T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.; Colf, L; Bankovich, A; Stone, J; Gao, Y; Chan, C; Huang, R; Garcia, K; Kranz, D

    2008-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms that govern T cell receptor (TCR)-peptide MHC (pMHC) binding and the role that different regions of the TCR play in affinity and antigen specificity, we have studied the TCR from T cell clone 2C. High-affinity mutants of the 2C TCR that bind QL9-L{sup d} as a strong agonist were generated previously by site-directed mutagenesis of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1{Beta}, 2{alpha}, 3{alpha}, or 3{Beta}. We performed isothermal titration calorimetry to assess whether they use similar thermodynamic mechanisms to achieve high affinity for QL9-L{sup d}. Four of the five TCRs examined bound to QL9-L{sup d} in an enthalpically driven, entropically unfavorable manner. In contrast, the high-affinity CDR1{Beta} mutant resembled the wild-type 2C TCR interaction, with favorable entropy. To assess fine specificity, we measured the binding and kinetics of these mutants for both QL9-L{sup d} and a single amino acid peptide variant of QL9, called QL9-Y5-Ld. While 2C and most of the mutants had equal or higher affinity for the Y5 variant than for QL9, mutant CDR1{Beta} exhibited 8-fold lower affinity for Y5 compared to QL9. To examine possible structural correlates of the thermodynamic and fine specificity signatures of the TCRs, the structure of unliganded QL9-L{sup d} was solved and compared to structures of the 2C TCR/QL9-L{sup d} complex and three high-affinity TCR/QL9-L{sup d} complexes. Our findings show that the QL9-L{sup d} complex does not undergo major conformational changes upon binding. Thus, subtle changes in individual CDRs account for the diverse thermodynamic and kinetic binding mechanisms and for the different peptide fine specificities.

  2. Specific high-affinity binding of high density lipoproteins to cultured human skin fibroblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Biesbroeck, R; Oram, J F; Albers, J J; Bierman, E L

    1983-03-01

    Binding of human high density lipoproteins (HDL, d = 1.063-1.21) to cultured human fibroblasts and human arterial smooth muscle cells was studied using HDL subjected to heparin-agarose affinity chromatography to remove apoprotein (apo) E and B. Saturation curves for binding of apo E-free 125I-HDL showed at least two components: low-affinity nonsaturable binding and high-affinity binding that saturated at approximately 20 micrograms HDL protein/ml. Scatchard analysis of high-affinity binding of apo E-free 125I-HDL to normal fibroblasts yielded plots that were significantly linear, indicative of a single class of binding sites. Saturation curves for binding of both 125I-HDL3 (d = 1.125-1.21) and apo E-free 125I-HDL to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-negative fibroblasts also showed high-affinity binding that yielded linear Scatchard plots. On a total protein basis, HDL2 (d = 1.063-1.10), HDL3 and very high density lipoproteins (VHDL, d = 1.21-1.25) competed as effectively as apo E-free HDL for binding of apo E-free 125I-HDL to normal fibroblasts. Also, HDL2, HDL3, and VHDL competed similarly for binding of 125I-HDL3 to LDL receptor-negative fibroblasts. In contrast, LDL was a weak competitor for HDL binding. These results indicate that both human fibroblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells possess specific high affinity HDL binding sites. As indicated by enhanced LDL binding and degradation and increased sterol synthesis, apo E-free HDL3 promoted cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts. These effects also saturated at HDL3 concentrations of 20 micrograms/ml, suggesting that promotion of cholesterol efflux by HDL is mediated by binding to the high-affinity cell surface sites.

  3. Regulation of protein-ligand binding affinity by hydrogen bond pairing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deliang; Oezguen, Numan; Urvil, Petri; Ferguson, Colin; Dann, Sara M.; Savidge, Tor C.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen (H)-bonds potentiate diverse cellular functions by facilitating molecular interactions. The mechanism and the extent to which H-bonds regulate molecular interactions are a largely unresolved problem in biology because the H-bonding process continuously competes with bulk water. This interference may significantly alter our understanding of molecular function, for example, in the elucidation of the origin of enzymatic catalytic power. We advance this concept by showing that H-bonds regulate molecular interactions via a hitherto unappreciated donor-acceptor pairing mechanism that minimizes competition with water. On the basis of theoretical and experimental correlations between H-bond pairings and their effects on ligand binding affinity, we demonstrate that H-bonds enhance receptor-ligand interactions when both the donor and acceptor have either significantly stronger or significantly weaker H-bonding capabilities than the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water. By contrast, mixed strong-weak H-bond pairings decrease ligand binding affinity due to interference with bulk water, offering mechanistic insight into why indiscriminate strengthening of receptor-ligand H-bonds correlates poorly with experimental binding affinity. Further support for the H-bond pairing principle is provided by the discovery and optimization of lead compounds targeting dietary melamine and Clostridium difficile toxins, which are not realized by traditional drug design methods. Synergistic H-bond pairings have therefore evolved in the natural design of high-affinity binding and provide a new conceptual framework to evaluate the H-bonding process in biological systems. Our findings may also guide wider applications of competing H-bond pairings in lead compound design and in determining the origin of enzymatic catalytic power. PMID:27051863

  4. Insights into the conformational equilibria of maltose-binding protein by analysis of high affinity mutants.

    PubMed

    Telmer, Patrick G; Shilton, Brian H

    2003-09-05

    The affinity of maltose-binding protein (MBP) for maltose and related carbohydrates was greatly increased by removal of groups in the interface opposite the ligand binding cleft. The wild-type protein has a KD of 1200 nM for maltose; mutation of residues Met-321 and Gln-325, both to alanine, resulted in a KD for maltose of 70 nM; deletion of 4 residues, Glu-172, Asn-173, Lys-175, and Tyr-176, which are part of a poorly ordered loop, results in a KD for maltose of 110 nM. Combining the mutations yields an increased affinity for maltodextrins and a KD of 6 nM for maltotriose. Comparison of ligand binding by the mutants, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, indicates that decreases in the off-rate are responsible for the increased affinity. Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to demonstrate that the mutations do not significantly affect the solution conformation of MBP in either the presence or absence of maltose. The crystal structures of selected mutants showed that the mutations do not cause significant structural changes in either the closed or open conformation of MBP. These studies show that interactions in the interface opposite the ligand binding cleft, which we term the "balancing interface," are responsible for modulating the affinity of MBP for its ligand. Our results are consistent with a model in which the ligand-bound protein alternates between the closed and open conformations, and removal of interactions in the balancing interface decreases the stability of the open conformation, without affecting the closed conformation.

  5. RNA containing pyrrolocytidine base analogs: increased binding affinity and fluorescence that responds to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Alexander S; Damha, Masad J; Hudson, Robert H E

    2008-01-01

    6-Phenylpyrrolocytidine and 6-methoxymethylene-pyrrolocytidine are base-modified nucleosides with remarkable fluorescence properties. These analogs produce increased binding affinity to both RNA and DNA targets when incorporated into oligoribonucleotides. The fluorescence observed for the single-stranded oligomers is quenched upon duplex formation with either RNA or DNA targets. The fluorescence response depends on the nature of the 6-substituent and the sequence position of the modified nucleoside.

  6. Receptor affinity purification of a lipid-binding adhesin from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Lingwood, C A; Wasfy, G; Han, H; Huesca, M

    1993-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Helicobacter pylori specifically recognizes gangliotetraosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, and phosphatidylethanolamine in vitro. This binding specificity is shared by exoenzyme S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and monoclonal antibodies against this adhesin prevent the attachment of H. pylori to its lipid receptors. We now report the use of a novel, versatile affinity matrix to purify a 63-kDa exoenzyme S-like adhesin from H. pylori which is responsible for the lipid-binding specificity of this organism. Images PMID:8500882

  7. Entropy and Mg2+ control ligand affinity and specificity in the malachite green binding RNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Bernard Da Costa, Jason; Dieckmann, Thorsten

    2011-07-01

    The binding of small molecule targets by RNA aptamers provides an excellent model to study the versatility of RNA function. The malachite green aptamer binds and recognizes its ligand via stacking and electrostatic interactions. The binding of the aptamer to its original selection target and three related molecules was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, equilibrium dialysis, and fluorescence titration. The results reveal that the entropy of complex formation plays a large role in determining binding affinity and ligand specificity. These data combined with previous structural studies show that metal ions are required to stabilize the complexes with non-native ligands whereas the complex with the original selection target is stable at low salt and in the absence of divalent metal ions.

  8. Correlation between conformational equilibria of free host and guest binding affinity in non-preorganized receptors.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Romen; Morales, Ezequiel Q; Martín, Víctor S; Martín, Tomás

    2013-08-16

    Positive cooperativity between host conformational equilibria and guest binding has been widely reported in protein receptors. However, reported examples of this kind of cooperativity in synthetic hosts are scarce and largely serendipitous, among other things because it is hard to envision systems which display this kind of cooperativity. In order to shed some light on the correlation between conformational equilibria of free host and guest binding, selected structural modifications have been performed over a family of nonpreorganized hosts in order to induce conformational changes and to analyze their effect on the binding affinity. The conformational effect was evaluated by a theoretical conformational search and correlated with the ability of the receptors. All data suggest that those receptors that display the best association constants are able to sample folded conformations analogous to the conformational requirements for the binding of the guests. On the contrary, for those receptors where folded conformers are scarce, then the association constant and enantioselectivity clearly drop.

  9. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding.

    PubMed

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2014-10-21

    Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ζ-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications.

  10. Variation in Vector Competence for Dengue Viruses Does Not Depend on Mosquito Midgut Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jonathan; Brown, Heidi E.; Rico-Hesse, Rebeca

    2011-01-01

    Background Dengue virus genotypes of Southeast Asian origin have been associated with higher virulence and transmission compared to other genotypes of serotype 2 (DEN-2). We tested the hypothesis that genetic differences in dengue viruses may result in differential binding to the midgut of the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, resulting in increased transmission or vectorial capacity. Methodology/Principal Finding Two strains of each of the four DEN-2 genotypes (Southeast Asian, American, Indian, and West African) were tested to determine their binding affinity for mosquito midguts from two distinct populations (Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico and McAllen, Texas, USA). Our previous studies demonstrated that Southeast Asian viruses disseminated up to 65-fold more rapidly in Ae. aegypti from Texas and were therefore more likely to be transmitted to humans. Results shown here demonstrate that viruses from all four genotypes bind to midguts at the same rate, in a titer-dependent manner. In addition, we show population differences when comparing binding affinity for DEN-2 between the Tapachula and McAllen mosquito colonies. Conclusions If midgut binding potential is the same for all DEN-2 viruses, then viral replication differences in these tissues and throughout the mosquito can thus probably explain the significant differences in dissemination and vector competence. These conclusions differ from the established paradigms to explain mosquito barriers to infection, dissemination, and transmission. PMID:21610852

  11. Evolution of binding affinity in a WW domain probed by phage display.

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, P. A.; Hoess, R. H.; DeGrado, W. F.

    2000-01-01

    The WW domain is an approximately 38 residue peptide-binding motif that binds a variety of sequences, including the consensus sequence xPPxY. We have displayed hYAP65 WW on the surface of M13 phage and randomized one-third of its three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. Improved binding to the hydrophobic peptide, GTPPPPYTVG (WW1), was selected in the presence of three different concentrations of proteinase K to simultaneously drive selection for improved stability as well as high-affinity binding. While some of the selected binders show cooperative unfolding transitions, others show noncooperative thermal unfolding curves. Two novel WW consensus sequences have been identified, which bind to the xPPxY motif with higher affinity than the wild-type hYAP65 WW domain. These WW domain sequences are not precedented in any natural WW domain sequence. Thus, there appear to be a large number of motifs capable of recognizing the target peptide sequence, only a subset of which appear to be used in natural proteins. PMID:11206058

  12. Salicylhydroxamic acid functionalized affinity membranes for specific immobilization of proteins and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Springer, Amy L; Gall, Anna S; Hughes, Karin A; Kaiser, Robert J; Li, Guisheng; Lund, Kevin P

    2003-09-01

    Immobilization of proteins and other biological macromolecules on solid supports is a method suitable for purification or screening applications in life science research. Prolinx, Inc. has developed a novel chemical affinity system that can be used for specific immobilization of proteins and other macromolecules via interaction of two small synthetic molecules, phenyldiboronic acid (PDBA) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA). This report describes immobilization applications of activated microporous membranes that have been functionalized with SHA derivatives. These SHA-membranes exhibit high capacity and specificity for binding of PDBA-labeled nucleic acids and proteins. Conjugation of active protein with PDBA is performed in solution independent of the immobilization step on SHA membranes. The resulting PDBA-protein conjugate is immobilized directly without purification and retains biological activity. PDBA conjugates may also be released from these SHA-affinity membranes in a controlled manner. Capture and release of PBA-modified oligonucleotides is also demonstrated. SHA-membranes can be used as surfaces for microarrays, and are therefore compatible with high-throughput analyses. These properties make them useful for development of numerous preparative or screening applications.

  13. New ursane triterpenoids from Ficus pandurata and their binding affinity for human cannabinoid and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Amgad I M; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Ahmed, Hany E A; Ahmad, Amany S; Ramadan, Mahmoud A; El-Baky, Atef E Abd; Yamada, Koji; Ross, Samir A

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Ficus pandurata Hance (Moraceae) fruits has led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, ficupanduratin A [1β-hydroxy-3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-urs-12-ene] (11) and ficupanduratin B [21α-hydroxy-3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-urs-12-ene] (17), along with 20 known compounds: α-amyrin acetate (1), α-amyrin (2), 3β-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-12-ursene (5), 11-oxo-α-amyrin acetate (6), 11-oxo-β-amyrin acetate (7), palmitic acid (8), stigmast-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (9), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (10), stigmasterol (12), β-sitosterol (13), stigmast-22-ene-3,6-dione (14), stigmastane-3,6-dione (15), 3β,21β-dihydroxy-11α-methoxy-olean-12-ene (16), 3β-hydroxy-11α-methoxyurs-12-ene (18), 6-hydroxystigmast-4,22-diene-3-one (19), 6-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (20), 11α,21α-dihydroxy-3β-acetoxy-urs-12-ene (21), and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (22). Compound 21 is reported for the first time from a natural source. The structures of the 20 compounds were elucidated on the basis of IR, 1D ((1)H and (13)C), 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-microbial, anti-malarial, anti-leishmanial, and cytotoxic activities. In addition, their radioligand displacement affinity on opioid and cannabinoid receptors was assessed. Compounds 4, 11, and 15 exhibited good affinity towards the CB2 receptor, with displacement values of 69.7, 62.5 and 86.5 %, respectively. Furthermore, the binding mode of the active compounds in the active site of the CB2 cannabinoid receptors was investigated through molecular modelling.

  14. Correlation analyses on binding affinity of sialic acid analogues and anti-influenza drugs with human neuraminidase using ab initio MO calculations on their complex structures--LERE-QSAR analysis (IV).

    PubMed

    Hitaoka, Seiji; Matoba, Hiroshi; Harada, Masataka; Yoshida, Tatsusada; Tsuji, Daisuke; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Itoh, Kohji; Chuman, Hiroshi

    2011-10-24

    We carried out full ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations for complexes comprising human neuraminidase-2 (hNEU2) and sialic acid analogues including anti-influenza drugs zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in order to examine the variation in the observed inhibitory activity toward hNEU2 at the atomic and electronic levels. We recently proposed the LERE (linear expression by representative energy terms)-QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) procedure. LERE-QSAR analysis quantitatively revealed that the complex formation is driven by hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interaction of hNEU2 with sialic acid analogues. The most potent inhibitory activity, that of zanamivir, is attributable to the strong electrostatic interaction of a positively charged guanidino group in zanamivir with negatively charged amino acid residues in hNEU2. After we confirmed that the variation in the observed inhibitory activity among sialic acid analogues is excellently reproducible with the LERE-QSAR equation, we examined the reason for the remarkable difference between the inhibitory potencies of oseltamivir as to hNEU2 and influenza A virus neuraminidase-1 (N1-NA). Several amino acid residues in close contact with a positively charged amino group in oseltamivir are different between hNEU2 and N1-NA. FMO-IFIE (interfragment interaction energy) analysis showed that the difference in amino acid residues causes a remarkably large difference between the overall interaction energies of oseltamivir with hNEU2 and N1-NA. The current results will be useful for the development of new anti-influenza drugs with high selectivity and without the risk of adverse side effects.

  15. Assessing high affinity binding to HLA-DQ2.5 by a novel peptide library based approach.

    PubMed

    Jüse, Ulrike; Arntzen, Magnus; Højrup, Peter; Fleckenstein, Burkhard; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2011-04-01

    Here we report on a novel peptide library based method for HLA class II binding motif identification. The approach is based on water soluble HLA class II molecules and soluble dedicated peptide libraries. A high number of different synthetic peptides are competing to interact with a limited amount of HLA molecules, giving a selective force in the binding. The peptide libraries can be designed so that the sequence length, the alignment of binding registers, the numbers and composition of random positions are controlled, and also modified amino acids can be included. Selected library peptides bound to HLA are then isolated by size exclusion chromatography and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry online coupled to liquid chromatography. The MS/MS data are subsequently searched against a library defined database using a search engine such as Mascot, followed by manual inspection of the results. We used two dodecamer and two decamer peptide libraries and HLA-DQ2.5 to test possibilities and limits of this method. The selected sequences which we identified in the fraction eluted from HLA-DQ2.5 showed a higher average of their predicted binding affinity values compared to the original peptide library. The eluted sequences fit very well with the previously described HLA-DQ2.5 peptide binding motif. This novel method, limited by library complexity and sensitivity of mass spectrometry, allows the analysis of several thousand synthetic sequences concomitantly in a simple water soluble format.

  16. Genetically encoded photocrosslinkers locate the high-affinity binding site of antidepressant drugs in the human serotonin transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Andersen, Jacob; Sørensen, Lena; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Park, Minyoung; Huber, Thomas; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-established role of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) in the treatment of depression, the molecular details of antidepressant drug binding are still not fully understood. Here we utilize amber codon suppression in a membrane-bound transporter protein to encode photocrosslinking unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into 75 different positions in hSERT. UAAs are incorporated with high specificity, and functionally active transporters have similar transport properties and pharmacological profiles compared with wild-type transporters. We employ ultraviolet-induced crosslinking with p-azido-L-phenylalanine (azF) at selected positions in hSERT to map the binding site of imipramine, a prototypical tricyclic antidepressant, and vortioxetine, a novel multimodal antidepressant. We find that the two antidepressants crosslink with azF incorporated at different positions within the central substrate-binding site of hSERT, while no crosslinking is observed at the vestibular-binding site. Taken together, our data provide direct evidence for defining the high-affinity antidepressant binding site in hSERT. PMID:27089947

  17. Biochemical characterization of high-affinity 3H-opioid binding. Further evidence for Mu1 sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.L.; Recht, L.D.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    In saturation studies with (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine, unlabeled D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (1 nM) inhibited the high-affinity binding component far more potently than the lower-affinity one. Similarly, morphine (1 nM) inhibited the higher-affinity binding of /sup 3/H-D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin to a greater extent than its lower-affinity binding component, consistent with a common high-affinity binding site for opiates and enkephalins. Treatment of tissue with either trypsin (1 microgram/ml) or N-ethylmaleimide (25 microM) effectively eliminated the high-affinity binding component of a series of /sup 3/H-opiates and opioid peptides. Competition studies following both treatments were consistent with a common high-affinity binding site. Both treatments also eliminated the ability of low morphine concentrations (less than 1 nM) to inhibit /sup 3/H-D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin binding and of low D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin concentrations (less than 1 nM) to inhibit (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine binding. Protection experiments examining N-ethylmaleimide (25 microM) inhibition of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine binding showed significant protection (p less than 0.002) by both unlabeled D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin and morphine (both at 1 nM). When studied together, both naloxonazine and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine binding to a similar extent. Equally important, tissue previously treated with naloxonazine was far less sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide than was untreated control tissue, consistent with the possibility that both treatments affected the same site. Together, these results support the concept of a common high-affinity binding site for opiates and opioid peptides.

  18. Radiotracers for Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation: Transport Kinetics and Binding Affinities for the Human Norepinephrine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, David M.; Chen, Wei; Jung, Yong-Woon; Jang, Keun Sam; Gu, Guie; Cozzi, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Most radiotracers for imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation are substrates of the norepinephrine transporter (NET). The goal of this study was to characterize the NET transport kinetics and binding affinities of several sympathetic nerve radiotracers, including [11C]-(−)-meta-hydroxyephedrine, [11C]-(−)-epinephrine, and a series of [11C]-labeled phenethylguanidines under development in our laboratory. For comparison, the NET transport kinetics and binding affinities of some [3H]-labeled biogenic amines were also determined. Methods Transport kinetics studies were performed using rat C6 glioma cells stably transfected with the human norepinephrine transporter (C6-hNET cells). For each radiolabeled NET substrate, saturation transport assays with C6-hNET cells measured the Michaelis-Menten transport constants Km and Vmax for NET transport. Competitive inhibition binding assays with homogenized C6-hNET cells and [3H]mazindol provided estimates of binding affinities (KI) for NET. Results Km, Vmax and KI values were determined for each NET substrate with a high degree of reproducibility. Interestingly, C6-hNET transport rates for ‘tracer concentrations’ of substrate, given by the ratio Vmax/Km, were found to be highly correlated with neuronal transport rates measured previously in isolated rat hearts (r2 = 0.96). This suggests that the transport constants Km and Vmax measured using the C6-hNET cells accurately reflect in vivo transport kinetics. Conclusion The results of these studies show how structural changes in NET substrates influence NET binding and transport constants, providing valuable insights that can be used in the design of new tracers with more optimal kinetics for quantifying regional sympathetic nerve density. PMID:23306137

  19. Specific Internalisation of Gold Nanoparticles into Engineered Porous Protein Cages via Affinity Binding

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tao; Free, Paul; Fernig, David G.; Lim, Sierin; Tomczak, Nikodem

    2016-01-01

    Porous protein cages are supramolecular protein self-assemblies presenting pores that allow the access of surrounding molecules and ions into their core in order to store and transport them in biological environments. Protein cages’ pores are attractive channels for the internalisation of inorganic nanoparticles and an alternative for the preparation of hybrid bioinspired nanoparticles. However, strategies based on nanoparticle transport through the pores are largely unexplored, due to the difficulty of tailoring nanoparticles that have diameters commensurate with the pores size and simultaneously displaying specific affinity to the cages’ core and low non-specific binding to the cages’ outer surface. We evaluated the specific internalisation of single small gold nanoparticles, 3.9 nm in diameter, into porous protein cages via affinity binding. The E2 protein cage derived from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus presents 12 pores, 6 nm in diameter, and an empty core of 13 nm in diameter. We engineered the E2 protein by site-directed mutagenesis with oligohistidine sequences exposing them into the cage’s core. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy analysis show that the structures of E2 protein cages mutated with bis- or penta-histidine sequences are well conserved. The surface of the gold nanoparticles was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer made of a mixture of short peptidols and thiolated alkane ethylene glycol ligands. Such monolayers are found to provide thin coatings preventing non-specific binding to proteins. Further functionalisation of the peptide coated gold nanoparticles with Ni2+ nitrilotriacetic moieties enabled the specific binding to oligohistidine tagged cages. The internalisation via affinity binding was evaluated by electron microscopy analysis. From the various mutations tested, only the penta-histidine mutated E2 protein cage showed repeatable and stable internalisation. The present work overcomes the limitations of

  20. Mapping of the high affinity Fc epsilon receptor binding site to the third constant region domain of IgE.

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, A; Jouvin, M H; Eshhar, Z

    1991-01-01

    Identification of the precise region(s) on the IgE molecule that take part in the binding of IgE to its high affinity receptor (Fc epsilon RI) may lead to the design of IgE analogues able to block the allergic response. To localize the Fc epsilon RI-binding domain of mouse IgE, we attempted to confer on human IgE, which normally does not bind to the rodent receptor, the ability to bind to the rat Fc epsilon RI. Employing exon shuffling, we have expressed chimeric epsilon-heavy chain genes composed of a mouse (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetic acid (NP)-binding VH domain, and human C epsilon in which various domains were replaced by their murine counterparts. This has enabled us to test the Fc epsilon RI-binding of each mouse IgE domain while maintaining the overall conformation of the molecule. All of the chimeric IgE molecules which contain the murine C epsilon 3, bound equally to both the rodent and human receptor, as well as to monoclonal antibodies recognizing a site on IgE which is identical or very close to the Fc epsilon RI binding site. Deletion of the second constant region domain did not impair either the binding capacity of the mutated IgE or its ability to mediate mast cell degradation. These results assign the third epsilon domain of IgE as the principal region involved in the interaction with the Fc epsilon RI. Images PMID:1824934

  1. Subcutaneous bioavailability of therapeutic antibodies as a function of FcRn binding affinity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Y Gloria; Hoyte, Kwame; Lutman, Jeff; Lu, Yanmei; Iyer, Suhasini; DeForge, Laura E; Theil, Frank-Peter; Fielder, Paul J; Prabhu, Saileta

    2012-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important and well-known role in immunoglobulin G (IgG) catabolism; however, its role in the disposition of IgG after subcutaneous (SC) administration, including bioavailability, is relatively unknown. To examine the potential effect of FcRn on IgG SC bioavailability, we engineered three anti-amyloid β monoclonal antibody (mAb) reverse chimeric mouse IgG2a (mIgG2a) Fc variants (I253A.H435A, N434H and N434Y) with different binding affinities to mouse FcRn (mFcRn) and compared their SC bioavailability to that of the wild-type (WT) mAb in mice. Our results indicated that the SC bioavailability of mIgG2a was affected by mFcRn-binding affinity. Variant I253A.H435A, which did not bind to mFcRn at either pH 6.0 or pH 7.4, had the lowest bioavailability (41.8%). Variant N434Y, which had the greatest increase in binding affinity at both pH 6.0 and pH 7.4, had comparable bioavailability to the WT antibody (86.1% vs. 76.3%), whereas Variant N434H, which had modestly increased binding affinity at pH 6.0 to mFcRn and affinity comparable to the WT antibody at pH 7.4, had the highest bioavailability (94.7%). A semi-mechanism-based pharmacokinetic model, which described well the observed data with the WT antibody and variant I253A.H435A, is consistent with the hypothesis that the decreased bioavailability of variant I253A.H435A was due to loss of the FcRn-mediated protection from catabolism at the absorption site. Together, these data demonstrate that FcRn plays an important role in SC bioavailability of therapeutic IgG antibodies. PMID:22327433

  2. Towards the chemometric dissection of peptide - HLA-A*0201 binding affinity: comparison of local and global QSAR models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doytchinova, Irini A.; Walshe, Valerie; Borrow, Persephone; Flower, Darren R.

    2005-03-01

    The affinities of 177 nonameric peptides binding to the HLA-A*0201 molecule were measured using a FACS-based MHC stabilisation assay and analysed using chemometrics. Their structures were described by global and local descriptors, QSAR models were derived by genetic algorithm, stepwise regression and PLS. The global molecular descriptors included molecular connectivity χ indices, κ shape indices, E-state indices, molecular properties like molecular weight and log P, and three-dimensional descriptors like polarizability, surface area and volume. The local descriptors were of two types. The first used a binary string to indicate the presence of each amino acid type at each position of the peptide. The second was also position-dependent but used five z-scales to describe the main physicochemical properties of the amino acids forming the peptides. The models were developed using a representative training set of 131 peptides and validated using an independent test set of 46 peptides. It was found that the global descriptors could not explain the variance in the training set nor predict the affinities of the test set accurately. Both types of local descriptors gave QSAR models with better explained variance and predictive ability. The results suggest that, in their interactions with the MHC molecule, the peptide acts as a complicated ensemble of multiple amino acids mutually potentiating each other.

  3. The binding of pentapeptides to biological and synthetic high affinity heparin.

    PubMed

    Flengsrud, Ragnar; Antonsen, Simen Gjelseth

    2015-11-01

    Pentapeptides have been shown to bind the synthetic heparin fondaparinux (Arixtra) as well the biological heparins dalteparin (Fragmin) and salmon heparin. In contrast to heparin binding consensus sequences, the pentapeptides are acidic or neutral, with no arginine or histidine residue. The peptides showed an effect on in vitro heparin anti-factor X activity with a reduction of fondaparinux activity by 65-95%. Heparin binding was further studied by using peptide solid phase chromatography and NMR analysis.

  4. Binding site number variation and high-affinity binding consensus of Myb-SANT-like transcription factor Adf-1 in Drosophilidae

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Michael; Juan, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the evolution of transcription factor binding sites and corresponding functional change of transcriptional regulation. In this context, we have examined the structural changes of the ADF-1 binding sites at the Adh promoters of Drosophila funebris and D. virilis. We detected an expanded footprinted region in D. funebris that contains various adjacent binding sites with different binding affinities. ADF-1 was described to direct sequence-specific DNA binding to sites consisting of the multiple trinucleotide repeat . The ADF-1 recognition sites with high binding affinity differ from this trinucleotide repeat consensus sequence and a new consensus sequence is proposed for the high-affinity ADF-1 binding sites. In vitro transcription experiments with the D. funebris and D. virilis ADF-1 binding regions revealed that stronger ADF-1 binding to the expanded D. funebris ADF-1 binding region only moderately lead to increased transcriptional activity of the Adh gene. The potential of this regional expansion is discussed in the context of different ADF-1 cellular concentrations and maintenance of the ADF-1 stimulus. Altogether, evolutionary change of ADF-1 binding regions involves both, rearrangements of complex binding site cluster and also nucleotide substitutions within sites that lead to different binding affinities. PMID:20542916

  5. Neurotensin decreases high affinity [3H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Carina; Ordieres, María Graciela López; Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores

    2011-12-10

    Previous work from this laboratory showed the ability of neurotensin to inhibit synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, the effect being blocked by SR 48692, a non-peptidic antagonist for high affinity neurotensin receptor (NTS1) [López Ordieres and Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz 2000; 2001]. To further study neurotensin interaction with Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, peptide effect on high affinity [(3)H]-ouabain binding was studied in cerebral cortex membranes. It was observed that neurotensin modified binding in a dose-dependent manner, leading to 80% decrease with 1 × 10(-4)M concentration. On the other hand, the single addition of 1 × 10(-6)M, 1 × 10(-5)M and 1 × 10(-4)M SR 48692 (Sanofi-Aventis, U.S., Inc.) decreased [(3)H]-ouabain binding (in %) to 87 ± 16; 74 ± 16 and 34 ± 17, respectively. Simultaneous addition of neurotensin and SR 48692 led to additive or synergic effects. Partial NTS2 agonist levocabastine inhibited [(3)H]-ouabain binding likewise. Saturation assays followed by Scatchard analyses showed that neurotensin increased K(d) value whereas failed to modify B(max) value, indicating a competitive type interaction of the peptide at Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ouabain site. At variance, SR 48692 decreased B(max) value whereas it did not modify K(d) value. [(3)H]-ouabain binding was also studied in cerebral cortex membranes obtained from rats injected i. p. 30 min earlier with 100 μg and 250 μg/kg SR 48692. It was observed that the 250 μg/kg SR 48692 dose led to 19% decrease in basal [(3)H]-ouabain binding. After SR 48692 treatments, addition of 1 × 10(-6)M led to additive or synergic effect. Results suggested that [(3)H]-ouabain binding inhibition by neurotensin hardly involves NTS1 receptor.

  6. Measurement of Cationic and Intracellular Modulation of Integrin Binding Affinity by AFM-Based Nanorobot

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Kevin C.; Yang, Ruiguo; Zeng, Bixi; Song, Bo; Wang, Shouye; Xi, Ning; Basson, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Integrins are dynamic transmembrane cation-dependent heterodimers that both anchor cells in position and transduce signals into and out of cells. We used an atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanorobotic system to measure integrin-binding forces in intact human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The AFM-based nanorobot enables human-directed, high-accuracy probe positioning and site-specific investigations. Functionalizing the AFM probe with an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-containing sequence (consensus binding sequence for integrins) allowed us to detect a series of peptide-cell membrane interactions with a median binding force of 115.1 ± 4.9 pN that were not detected in control interactions. Chelating divalent cations from the culture medium abolished these interactions, as did inhibiting intracellular focal adhesion kinase (FAK) using Y15. Adding 1 mM Mg2+ to the medium caused a rightward shift in the force-binding curve. Adding 1 mM Ca2+ virtually abolished the RGD-membrane specific interactions and blocked the Mg2+ effects. Cell adhesion assays demonstrated parallel effects of divalent cations and the FAK inhibitor on cell adhesion. These results demonstrate direct modulation of integrin-binding affinity by both divalent cations and intracellular signal inhibition. Additionally, three binding states (nonspecific, specific inactivated, and specific activated) were delineated from affinity measurements. Although other research has assumed that this process of integrin conformational change causes altered ligand binding, in this work we directly measured these three states in individual integrins in a physiologically based study. PMID:23823222

  7. Measurement of cationic and intracellular modulation of integrin binding affinity by AFM-based nanorobot.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Kevin C; Yang, Ruiguo; Zeng, Bixi; Song, Bo; Wang, Shouye; Xi, Ning; Basson, Marc D

    2013-07-02

    Integrins are dynamic transmembrane cation-dependent heterodimers that both anchor cells in position and transduce signals into and out of cells. We used an atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanorobotic system to measure integrin-binding forces in intact human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The AFM-based nanorobot enables human-directed, high-accuracy probe positioning and site-specific investigations. Functionalizing the AFM probe with an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-containing sequence (consensus binding sequence for integrins) allowed us to detect a series of peptide-cell membrane interactions with a median binding force of 115.1 ± 4.9 pN that were not detected in control interactions. Chelating divalent cations from the culture medium abolished these interactions, as did inhibiting intracellular focal adhesion kinase (FAK) using Y15. Adding 1 mM Mg(2+) to the medium caused a rightward shift in the force-binding curve. Adding 1 mM Ca(2+) virtually abolished the RGD-membrane specific interactions and blocked the Mg(2+) effects. Cell adhesion assays demonstrated parallel effects of divalent cations and the FAK inhibitor on cell adhesion. These results demonstrate direct modulation of integrin-binding affinity by both divalent cations and intracellular signal inhibition. Additionally, three binding states (nonspecific, specific inactivated, and specific activated) were delineated from affinity measurements. Although other research has assumed that this process of integrin conformational change causes altered ligand binding, in this work we directly measured these three states in individual integrins in a physiologically based study.

  8. Stimulation and binding of myocardial phospholipase C by phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Henry, R A; Boyce, S Y; Kurz, T; Wolf, R A

    1995-08-01

    Exposure of adult ventricular myocytes to exogenous natural phosphatidic acid results in the production of inositol phosphates by unknown mechanism(s). We characterized stimulation of myocytic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) by synthetic dioleoyl phosphatidic acid (PA) as a potential mechanism for modulation of inositol phosphate production. Our data demonstrate that exogenous PA, at 10(-8)-10(-5) M, caused a concentration-dependent increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. PA also caused a concentration-dependent increase in in vitro activity of myocytic PLC in the presence or absence of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). PLC-delta 1, the predominant isozyme of PLC expressed in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes, bound to liposomes of PA with high affinity in the presence of EGTA. The phosphomonoester group of PA was critical to in vitro stimulation of myocytic PLC activity and high-affinity binding of PLC-delta 1. We propose that binding of PLC-delta 1 to phosphatidic acid may be a novel mechanism for dynamic membrane association and modulation of PLC in adult ventricular myocytes.

  9. High-energy water sites determine peptide binding affinity and specificity of PDZ domains.

    PubMed

    Beuming, Thijs; Farid, Ramy; Sherman, Woody

    2009-08-01

    PDZ domains have well known binding preferences for distinct C-terminal peptide motifs. For most PDZ domains, these motifs are of the form [S/T]-W-[I/L/V]. Although the preference for S/T has been explained by a specific hydrogen bond interaction with a histidine in the PDZ domain and the (I/L/V) is buried in a hydrophobic pocket, the mechanism for Trp specificity at the second to last position has thus far remained unknown. Here, we apply a method to compute the free energies of explicit water molecules and predict that potency gained by Trp binding is due to a favorable release of high-energy water molecules into bulk. The affinities of a series of peptides for both wild-type and mutant forms of the PDZ domain of Erbin correlate very well with the computed free energy of binding of displaced waters, suggesting a direct relationship between water displacement and peptide affinity. Finally, we show a correlation between the magnitude of the displaced water free energy and the degree of Trp-sensitivity among subtypes of the HTRA PDZ family, indicating a water-mediated mechanism for specificity of peptide binding.

  10. Induced binding of proteins by ammonium sulfate in affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ejima, Daisuke; Kita, Yoshiko; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Tokunaga, Masao

    2007-04-10

    In general, proteins bind to affinity or ion-exchange columns at low salt concentrations, and the bound proteins are eluted by raising the salt concentration, changing the solvent pH, or adding competing ligands. Blue-Sepharose is often used to remove bovine serum albumin (BSA) from samples, but when we applied BSA to Blue-Sepharose in 20 mM phosphate, pH 7.0, 50%-60% of the protein flowed through the column; however, complete binding of BSA was achieved by the addition of 2 M ammonium sulfate (AS) to the column equilibration buffer and the sample. The bound protein was eluted by decreasing the AS concentration or by adding 1 M NaCl or arginine. AS at high concentrations resulted in binding of BSA even to an ion-exchange column, Q-Sepharose, at pH 7.0. Thus, although moderate salt concentrations elute proteins from Blue-Sepharose or ion-exchange columns, proteins can be bound to these columns under extreme salting-out conditions. Similar enhanced binding of proteins by AS was observed with an ATP-affinity column.

  11. Relative penicillin G resistance in Neisseria meningitidis and reduced affinity of penicillin-binding protein 3.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelman, P M; Campos, J; Chaffin, D O; Serfass, D A; Smith, A L; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    1988-01-01

    We examined clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis relatively resistant to penicillin G (mean MIC, 0.3 micrograms/ml; range, 0.1 to 0.7 micrograms/ml), which were isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid for resistance mechanisms, by using susceptible isolates (mean MIC, less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml) for comparison. The resistant strains did not produce detectable beta-lactamase activity, otherwise modify penicillin G, or bind less total penicillin. Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3 of the six resistant isolates tested uniformly bound less penicillin G in comparison to the same PBP of four susceptible isolates. Reflecting the reduced binding affinity of PBP 3 of the two resistant strains tested, the amount of 3H-labeled penicillin G required for half-maximal binding was increased in comparison with that of PBP 3 of the two susceptible isolates. We conclude that the mechanism of resistance in these meningococci relatively resistant to penicillin G was decreased affinity of PBP 3. Images PMID:3134848

  12. Path integral method for predicting relative binding affinities of protein-ligand complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mulakala, Chandrika; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel approach for computing biomolecular interaction binding affinities based on a simple path integral solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. Computing the free energy of protein-ligand interactions can expedite structure-based drug design. Traditionally, the problem is seen through the lens of statistical thermodynamics. The computations can become, however, prohibitively long for the change in the free energy upon binding to be determined accurately. In this work we present a different approach based on a stochastic kinetic formalism. Inspired by Feynman's path integral formulation, we extend the theory to classical interacting systems. The ligand is modeled as a Brownian particle subjected to the effective non-bonding interaction potential of the receptor. This allows the calculation of the relative binding affinities of interacting biomolecules in water to be computed as a function of the ligand's diffusivity and the curvature of the potential surface in the vicinity of the binding minimum. The calculation is thus exceedingly rapid. In test cases, the correlation coefficient between actual and computed free energies is >0.93 for accurate data-sets. PMID:19275144

  13. Determining the Ice-binding Planes of Antifreeze Proteins by Fluorescence-based Ice Plane Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P.; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms. PMID:24457629

  14. Amino acid ester prodrugs conjugated to the α-carboxylic acid group do not display affinity for the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1).

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Kärkkäinen, Jussi; Huttunen, Kristiina M; Gynther, Mikko

    2015-01-23

    L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1) is an intriguing target for carrier-mediated transport of drugs as it is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier and also in various types of cancer. Several studies have proposed that in order for compounds to act as LAT1 substrates they should possess both negatively charged α-carboxyl and positively charged α-amino groups. However, in some reports, such as in two recent publications describing an isoleucine-quinidine ester prodrug (1), compounds having no free α-carboxyl group have been reported to exhibit high affinity for LAT1 in vitro. In the present study, 1 was synthesized and its affinity for LAT1 was evaluated both with an in situ rat brain perfusion technique and in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. 1 showed no affinity for LAT1 in either model nor did it show any affinity for LAT2 in an in vitro study. Our results confirm the earlier reported requirements for LAT1 substrates. Thus drugs or prodrugs with substituted α-carboxyl group cannot bind to LAT with high affinity.

  15. Acidity and metal (Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+) affinity of L-γ-carboxyglutamic acid and its peptide analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Remková, Anna; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2014-10-01

    Density functional theory methods with the B3LYP and B97D functionals with triple-zeta 6-311++G(d,p) basis set have been used to study the acidity, basicity and metal affinity of L-γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) and its peptide derivative [2-acetylamino-3-(methylamino)-3-oxopropyl]malonic acid (AMD-GLA). The Gibbs interaction energies of the GLA2-…M2+ and AMD-GLA2-…M2+ (M = Mg, Ca, Zn) complexes show an increasing binding affinity in the order Ca2+ < Mg2+ < Zn2+ The transition metal Zn2+ is most effectively recognized by the dianions of GLA and AMD-GLA. Of the dianions studied the AMD-GLA dianion is the strongest Lewis base. Computations that include the effect of solvation showed that in water the relative stability of GLA2-…M2+ and AMD-GLA2-…M2+ ionic bonds is rapidly diminished. The computed interaction Gibbs energy in water is small and negative.

  16. High-affinity RNA binding by a hyperthermophilic single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Morten, Michael J; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Cubeddu, Liza; Kariawasam, Ruvini; Peregrina, Jose; Penedo, J Carlos; White, Malcolm F

    2017-03-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs), including replication protein A (RPA) in eukaryotes, play a central role in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. SSBs utilise an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain to bind DNA, and typically oligomerise in solution to bring multiple OB fold domains together in the functional SSB. SSBs from hyperthermophilic crenarchaea, such as Sulfolobus solfataricus, have an unusual structure with a single OB fold coupled to a flexible C-terminal tail. The OB fold resembles those in RPA, whilst the tail is reminiscent of bacterial SSBs and mediates interaction with other proteins. One paradigm in the field is that SSBs bind specifically to ssDNA and much less strongly to RNA, ensuring that their functions are restricted to DNA metabolism. Here, we use a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to demonstrate that the binding properties of S. solfataricus SSB are essentially identical for ssDNA and ssRNA. These features may represent an adaptation to a hyperthermophilic lifestyle, where DNA and RNA damage is a more frequent event.

  17. Elucidating the influence of gold nanoparticles on the binding of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xin; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid are two main water-soluble active ingredients from Salvia miltiorrhiza with important pharmacological activities and clinical applications. The interactions between salvianolic acid B (or rosmarinic acid) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence and absence of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with three different sizes were investigated by using biophysical methods for the first time. Experimental results proved that two components quenched the fluorescence of BSA mainly through a static mechanism irrespective of the absence or presence of Au NPs. The presence of Au NPs decreased the binding constants of salvianolic acid B with BSA from 27.82% to 10.08%, while Au NPs increased the affinities of rosmarinic acid for BSA from 0.4% to 14.32%. The conformational change of BSA in the presence of Au NPs (caused by a noncompetitive binding between Au NPs and drugs at different albumin sites) induced changeable affinity and binding distance between drugs and BSA compared with no Au NPs. The competitive experiments revealed that the site I (subdomain IIA) of BSA was the primary binding site for salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid. Additionally, two compounds may induce conformational and micro-environmental changes of BSA. The results would provide valuable binding information between salvianolic acid B (or rosmarinic acid) and BSA, and also indicated that the Au NPs could alter the interaction mechanism and binding capability of drugs to BSA, which might be beneficial to understanding the pharmacokinetics and biological activities of the two drugs.

  18. High affinity of acid phosphatase encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for thiamin phosphates.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, K

    1990-02-09

    The enzymatic properties of acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is repressed by thiamin and has thiamin-binding activity at pH 5.0, were investigated to study physiological functions. The following results led to the conclusion that thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase physiologically catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiamin phosphates in the periplasmic space of S. cerevisiae, thus participating in utilization of the thiamin moiety of the phosphates by yeast cells: (a) thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase showed Km values of 1.6 and 1.7 microM at pH 5.0 for thiamin monophosphate and thiamin pyrophosphate, respectively. These Km values were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those (0.61 and 1.7 mM) for p-nitrophenyl phosphate; (b) thiamin exerted remarkable competitive inhibition in the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate (Ki 2.2 microM at pH 5.0), whereas the activity for p-nitrophenyl phosphate was slightly affected by thiamin; (c) the inhibitory effect of inorganic phosphate, which does not repress the thiamin-repressible enzyme, on the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate was much smaller than that of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Moreover, the modification of thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase of S. cerevisiae with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide resulted in the complete loss of thiamin-binding activity and the Km value of the modified enzyme for thiamin monophosphate increased nearly to the value of the native enzyme for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. These results also indicate that the high affinity of the thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase for thiamin phosphates is due to the thiamin-binding properties of this enzyme.

  19. High-affinity VEGF antagonists by oligomerization of a minimal sequence VEGF-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Stefano, James E; Bird, Julie; Kyazike, Josephine; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Dwyer, Markryan; Hou, Lihui; Qiu, Huawei; Matthews, Gloria; O'Callaghan, Michael; Pan, Clark Q

    2012-12-19

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) neutralizing antagonists including antibodies or receptor extracellular domain Fc fusions have been applied clinically to control angiogenesis in cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration, and edema. We report here the generation of high-affinity VEGF-binding domains by chemical linkage of the second domain of the VEGF receptor Flt-1 (D2) in several configurations. Recombinant D2 was expressed with a 13 a.a. C-terminal tag, including a C-terminal cysteine to enable its dimerization by disulfide bond formation or by attachment to divalent PEGs and oligomerization by coupling to multivalent PEGs. Disulfide-linked dimers produced by Cu(2+) oxidation of the free-thiol form of the protein demonstrated picomolar affinity for VEGF in solution, comparable to that of a D2-Fc fusion (sFLT01) and ~50-fold higher than monomeric D2, suggesting the 26 a.a. tag length between the two D2 domains permits simultaneous interaction of both faces of the VEGF homodimer. Extending the separation between the D2 domains by short PEG spacers from 0.35 kD to 5 kD produced a modest ~2-fold increase in affinity over the disulfide, thus defining the optimal distance between the two D2 domains for maximum affinity. By surface plasmon resonance (SPR), a larger (~5-fold) increase in affinity was observed by conjugation of the D2 monomer to the termini of 4-arm PEG, and yielding a product with a larger hydrodynamic radius than sFLT01. The higher affinity displayed by these D2 PEG tetramers than either D2 dimer or sFLT01 was largely a consequence of a slower rate of dissociation, suggesting the simultaneous binding by these tetramers to neighboring surface-bound VEGF. Finally, disulfide-linked D2 dimers showed a greater resistance to autocatalytic fragmentation than sFLT01 under elevated temperature stress, indicating such minimum-sequence constructs may be better suited for sustained-release formulations. Therefore, these constructs represent novel Fc

  20. The N-terminal domain determines the affinity and specificity of H1 binding to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Christine; Belikov, Sergey

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer wt Human histone H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of N-terminal domain, {Delta}N-hH1.4, were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both histones bind to chromatin, however, {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays lower binding affinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of {Delta}N-hH1.4 with chromatin includes a significant unspecific component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal domain is a determinant of specificity of histone H1 binding to chromatin. -- Abstract: Linker histone H1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins in multicellular eukaryotes, is a key component of the chromatin structure mainly due to its role in the formation and maintenance of the 30 nm chromatin fiber. It has a three-domain structure; a central globular domain flanked by a short N-terminal domain and a long, highly basic C-terminal domain. Previous studies have shown that the binding abilities of H1 are at large determined by the properties of the C-terminal domain; much less attention has been paid to role of the N-terminal domain. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted via cytoplasmic mRNA injection in Xenopus oocytes, cells that lack somatic H1. The heterologously expressed H1 proteins are incorporated into in vivo assembled chromatin at specific sites and the binding event is monitored as an increase in nucleosomal repeat length (NRL). Using this setup we have here compared the binding properties of wt-H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of its N-terminal domain ({Delta}N-hH1.4). The {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays a drastically lower affinity for chromatin binding as compared to the wild type hH1.4. Our data also indicates that {Delta}N-hH1.4 is more prone to unspecific chromatin binding than the wild type. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of H1 is an important determinant of affinity and specificity of H1-chromatin interactions.

  1. Quinine binding by the cocaine-binding aptamer. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic analysis of high-affinity binding of an off-target ligand.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Oren; Yoo, Mina; Han, Chris; Palmo, Tsering; Beckham, Simone A; Wilce, Matthew C J; Johnson, Philip E

    2013-12-03

    The cocaine-binding aptamer is unusual in that it tightly binds molecules other than the ligand it was selected for. Here, we study the interaction of the cocaine-binding aptamer with one of these off-target ligands, quinine. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to quantify the quinine-binding affinity and thermodynamics of a set of sequence variants of the cocaine-binding aptamer. We find that the affinity of the cocaine-binding aptamer for quinine is 30-40 times stronger than it is for cocaine. Competitive-binding studies demonstrate that both quinine and cocaine bind at the same site on the aptamer. The ligand-induced structural-switching binding mechanism of an aptamer variant that contains three base pairs in stem 1 is retained with quinine as a ligand. The short stem 1 aptamer is unfolded or loosely folded in the free form and becomes folded when bound to quinine. This folding is confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and by the short stem 1 construct having a more negative change in heat capacity of quinine binding than is seen when stem 1 has six base pairs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of the free aptamer and both the quinine- and the cocaine-bound forms show that, for the long stem 1 aptamers, the three forms display similar hydrodynamic properties, and the ab initio shape reconstruction structures are very similar. For the short stem 1 aptamer there is a greater variation among the SAXS-derived ab initio shape reconstruction structures, consistent with the changes expected with its structural-switching binding mechanism.

  2. Penem derivatives: beta-lactamase stability and affinity for penicillin-binding proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Sugawara, S; Yamazaki, M

    1982-03-01

    Penem derivatives, a new group of beta-lactam antibiotics with potent activities against a wide range of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were tested for their stability against hydrolysis by beta-lactamases purified from clinical isolates of Morganella morganii. Proteus vulgaris, and Escherichia coli and by a penicillinase from Bacillus cereus. Penems having 6 alpha substituents, such as hydroxyethyl, hydroxymethyl, and ethyl groups, were very stable against hydrolysis by each of the enzymes. Penems having no 6 alpha substituents were easily hydrolyzed by P. vulgaris and E. coli enzymes, whereas they were rather stable against hydrolysis by M. morganii and B. cereus enzymes, a typical cephalosporinase and penicillinase, respectively. Affinity of the penems for E. coli penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) was also tested. beta-Lactamase-stable penems having a 6 alpha-hydroxyethyl group showed high affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 as well as for PBP-1A, -1Bs, and -2. However, the penems having no 6 alpha substituents showed a far lower affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 than that shown by the corresponding 6 alpha-hydroxyethyl penems. Among the penems tested, affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 was closely related to their beta-lactamase stability, as was the case among cephamycins and cephalosporins. Effects of the penems on the morphology of a strain of E. coli are also described.

  3. Importin {beta}-type nuclear transport receptors have distinct binding affinities for Ran-GTP

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Silvia; Schlenstedt, Gabriel

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} Determination of binding properties of nuclear transport receptor/Ran-GTP complexes. {yields} Biosensor measurements provide constants for dissociation, on-rates, and off-rates. {yields} The affinity of receptors for Ran-GTP is widely divergent. {yields} Dissociation constants differ for three orders of magnitude. {yields} The cellular concentration of yeast Ran is not limiting. -- Abstract: Cargos destined to enter or leave the cell nucleus are typically transported by receptors of the importin {beta} family to pass the nuclear pore complex. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 14 members of this protein family, which can be divided in importins and exportins. The Ran GTPase regulates the association and dissociation of receptors and cargos as well as the transport direction through the nuclear pore. All receptors bind to Ran exclusively in its GTP-bound state and this event is restricted to the nuclear compartment. We determined the Ran-GTP binding properties of all yeast transport receptors by biosensor measurements and observed that the affinity of importins for Ran-GTP differs significantly. The dissociation constants range from 230 pM to 270 nM, which is mostly based on a variability of the off-rate constants. The divergent affinity of importins for Ran-GTP suggests the existence of a novel mode of nucleocytoplasmic transport regulation. Furthermore, the cellular concentration of {beta}-receptors and of other Ran-binding proteins was determined. We found that the number of {beta}-receptors altogether about equals the amounts of yeast Ran, but Ran-GTP is not limiting in the nucleus. The implications of our results for nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Halogen bond: its role beyond drug-target binding affinity for drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijian; Yang, Zhuo; Liu, Yingtao; Lu, Yunxiang; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang

    2014-01-27

    Halogen bond has attracted a great deal of attention in the past years for hit-to-lead-to-candidate optimization aiming at improving drug-target binding affinity. In general, heavy organohalogens (i.e., organochlorines, organobromines, and organoiodines) are capable of forming halogen bonds while organofluorines are not. In order to explore the possible roles that halogen bonds could play beyond improving binding affinity, we performed a detailed database survey and quantum chemistry calculation with close attention paid to (1) the change of the ratio of heavy organohalogens to organofluorines along the drug discovery and development process and (2) the halogen bonds between organohalogens and nonbiopolymers or nontarget biopolymers. Our database survey revealed that (1) an obviously increasing trend of the ratio of heavy organohalogens to organofluorines was observed along the drug discovery and development process, illustrating that more organofluorines are worn and eliminated than heavy organohalogens during the process, suggesting that heavy halogens with the capability of forming halogen bonds should have priority for lead optimization; and (2) more than 16% of the halogen bonds in PDB are formed between organohalogens and water, and nearly 20% of the halogen bonds are formed with the proteins that are involved in the ADME/T process. Our QM/MM calculations validated the contribution of the halogen bond to the binding between organohalogens and plasma transport proteins. Thus, halogen bonds could play roles not only in improving drug-target binding affinity but also in tuning ADME/T property. Therefore, we suggest that albeit halogenation is a valuable approach for improving ligand bioactivity, more attention should be paid in the future to the application of the halogen bond for ligand ADME/T property optimization.

  5. Protein Affinity Chromatography with Purified Yeast DNA Polymerase α Detects Proteins that Bind to DNA Polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jeff; Formosa, Tim

    1992-02-01

    We have overexpressed the POL1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified the resulting DNA polymerase α polypeptide in an apparently intact form. We attached the purified DNA polymerase covalently to an agarose matrix and used this matrix to chromatograph extracts prepared from yeast cells. At least six proteins bound to the yeast DNA polymerase α matrix that did not bind to a control matrix. We speculate that these proteins might be DNA polymerase α accessory proteins. Consistent with this interpretation, one of the binding proteins, which we have named POB1 (polymerase one binding), is required for normal chromosome transmission. Mutations in this gene cause increased chromosome loss and an abnormal cell morphology, phenotypes that also occur in the presence of mutations in the yeast α or δ polymerase genes. These results suggest that the interactions detected by polymerase affinity chromatography are biologically relevant and may help to illuminate the architecture of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery.

  6. Affinity purification of proteins binding to kinase inhibitors immobilized on self-assembling monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bantscheff, Marcus; Hobson, Scott; Kuster, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors represent a relatively new class of drugs that offer novel therapies targeting specific -malfunctioning kinase-mediated signaling pathways in oncology and potentially inflammation. As the ATP binding sites of the ∼500 human kinases are structurally conserved and because most current drugs target the ATP binding site, there is a need to profile all the kinases that a drug may bind and/or inhibit. We have developed a chemical proteomics method that affinity purifies kinases from cell or tissue lysates using kinase inhibitors immobilized on self-assembling monolayers. The method can be applied to assess the selectivity of a given kinase inhibitor and thus to guide its preclinical or clinical development.

  7. Polymerization degrees, molecular weights and protein-binding affinities of condensed tannin fractions from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Mookiah; Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Wong, Clemente Michael Vui Ling; Abdulmalek, Emilia; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-06-12

    Condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with proteins and are able to protect them from degradation, which could lead to rumen bypass proteins. Depending on their degrees of polymerization (DP) and molecular weights, CT fractions vary in their capability to bind proteins. In this study, purified condensed tannins (CTs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five different molecular weight fractions. The structures of the CT fractions were investigated using 13C-NMR. The DP of the CT fractions were determined using a modified vanillin assay and their molecular weights were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS. The protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay. The DP of the five CT fractions (fractions F1-F5) measured by the vanillin assay in acetic acid ranged from 4.86 to 1.56. The 13C-NMR results showed that the CT fractions possessed monomer unit structural heterogeneity. The number-average molecular weights (Mn) of the different fractions were 1265.8, 1028.6, 652.2, 562.2, and 469.6 for fractions F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5, respectively. The b values representing the CT quantities needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable bovine serum albumin increased with decreasing molecular weight--from fraction F1 to fraction F5 with values of 0.216, 0.295, 0.359, 0.425, and 0.460, respectively. This indicated that higher molecular weight fractions of CTs from L. leucocephala have higher protein-binding affinities than those with lower molecular weights.

  8. Crystal structure and substrate specificity of plant adenylate isopentenyltransferase from Humulus lupulus: distinctive binding affinity for purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsing-Mao; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2010-03-01

    Cytokinins are important plant hormones, and their biosynthesis most begins with the transfer of isopentenyl group from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to the N6-amino group of adenine by either adenylate isopentenyltransferase (AIPT) or tRNA-IPT. Plant AIPTs use ATP/ADP as an isopentenyl acceptor and bacterial AIPTs prefer AMP, whereas tRNA-IPTs act on specific sites of tRNA. Here, we present the crystal structure of an AIPT-ATP complex from Humulus lupulus (HlAIPT), which is similar to the previous structures of Agrobacterium AIPT and yeast tRNA-IPT. The enzyme is structurally homologous to the NTP-binding kinase family of proteins but forms a solvent-accessible channel that binds to the donor substrate DMAPP, which is directed toward the acceptor substrate ATP/ADP. When measured with isothermal titration calorimetry, some nucleotides displayed different binding affinities to HlAIPT with an order of ATP > dATP approximately ADP > GTP > CTP > UTP. Two basic residues Lys275 and Lys220 in HlAIPT interact with the beta and gamma-phosphate of ATP. By contrast, the interactions are absent in Agrobacterium AIPT because they are replaced by the acidic residues Asp221 and Asp171. Despite its structural similarity to the yeast tRNA-IPT, HlAIPT has evolved with a different binding strategy for adenylate.

  9. Quality control of coated antibodies: new, rapid determination of binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Ricoux, R; Chazaud, B; Tresca, J P; Pontet, M

    2000-03-01

    A procedure is described for the determination of the affinity constant between a fluid-phase biotinylated antigen and a solid-phase monoclonal antibody. This procedure allows evaluation of the efficiency of an antibody as a coated tool for an immunoassay. For this purpose, the biotinylation of the antigen and its further quantitative measurement by streptavidin-peroxidase led to a single reversible interaction, the binding affinity of which greatly determines the quality of the assay. The free and bound fractions of the biotinylated antigen were obtained in wells coated with a low level of immobilized antibodies. At the equilibrium state, the free antigen present in the supernatant of these wells was further transferred to high level antibody coated wells which captured all the free antigen molecules. These molecules were quantified using a standard curve established with known concentrations of biotinylated antigen, also incubated in wells coated with the high level of antibody.

  10. Poly(zwitterionic)protein conjugates offer increased stability without sacrificing binding affinity or bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Andrew J.; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with therapeutic proteins is an attractive approach to targeting a number of challenging diseases. Unfortunately, the native proteins themselves are often unstable in physiological conditions, reducing bioavailability and therefore increasing the dose that is required. Conjugation with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often used to increase stability, but this has a detrimental effect on bioactivity. Here, we introduce conjugation with zwitterionic polymers such as poly(carboxybetaine). We show that poly(carboxybetaine) conjugation improves stability in a manner similar to PEGylation, but that the new conjugates retain or even improve the binding affinity as a result of enhanced protein–substrate hydrophobic interactions. This chemistry opens a new avenue for the development of protein therapeutics by avoiding the need to compromise between stability and affinity. PMID:22169873

  11. Accurate electron affinity of Pb and isotope shifts of binding energies of Pb-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Ning, Chuangang

    2016-08-01

    Lead (Pb) was the last element of the group IVA whose electron affinity had a low accuracy around 10 meV before the present work. This was due to the generic threshold photodetachment measurement that cannot extent well below 0.5 eV due to the light source limitation. In the present work, the electron affinity of Pb was determined to be 2877.33(13) cm-1 or 0.356 743(16) eV for the isotope m = 208. The accuracy was improved by a factor of 500 with respect to the previous laser photodetachment electron spectroscopy. Moreover, remarkable isotope shifts of the binding energy of Pb- 6p3 4S3/2 - Pb 6p2 3P2 were observed for m = 206, 207, and 208.

  12. Accurate electron affinity of Pb and isotope shifts of binding energies of Pb(.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; Ning, Chuangang

    2016-08-28

    Lead (Pb) was the last element of the group IVA whose electron affinity had a low accuracy around 10 meV before the present work. This was due to the generic threshold photodetachment measurement that cannot extent well below 0.5 eV due to the light source limitation. In the present work, the electron affinity of Pb was determined to be 2877.33(13) cm(-1) or 0.356 743(16) eV for the isotope m = 208. The accuracy was improved by a factor of 500 with respect to the previous laser photodetachment electron spectroscopy. Moreover, remarkable isotope shifts of the binding energy of Pb(-) 6p(3) (4)S3/2 - Pb 6p(2) (3)P2 were observed for m = 206, 207, and 208.

  13. Protein purification-free method of binding affinity determination by microscale thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Yeh, Joanna; Timofeeva, Olga; Tarasov, Sergey G; Pritt, Samuel; Stefanisko, Karen; Tarasova, Nadya

    2013-08-15

    Quantitative characterization of protein interactions is essential in practically any field of life sciences, particularly drug discovery. Most of currently available methods of KD determination require access to purified protein of interest, generation of which can be time-consuming and expensive. We have developed a protocol that allows for determination of binding affinity by microscale thermophoresis (MST) without purification of the target protein from cell lysates. The method involves overexpression of the GFP-fused protein and cell lysis in non-denaturing conditions. Application of the method to STAT3-GFP transiently expressed in HEK293 cells allowed to determine for the first time the affinity of the well-studied transcription factor to oligonucleotides with different sequences. The protocol is straightforward and can have a variety of application for studying interactions of proteins with small molecules, peptides, DNA, RNA, and proteins.

  14. High-affinity cannabinoid binding site in brain: A possible marijuana receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which delta{sup 9} tetrahydrocannabinol (delta{sup 9}THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana or hashish, produces its potent psychological and physiological effects is unknown. To find receptor binding sites for THC, we designed a water-soluble analog for use as a radioligand. 5{prime}-Trimethylammonium-delta{sup 8}THC (TMA) is a positively charged analog of delta-{sup 8}THC modified on the 5{prime} carbon, a portion of the molecule not important for its psychoactivity. We have studied the binding of ({sup 3}H)-5{prime}-trimethylammonium-delta-{sup 8}THC (({sup 3}H)TMA) to rat neuronal membranes. ({sup 3}H)TMA binds saturably and reversibly to brain membranes with high affinity to apparently one class of sites. Highest binding site density occurs in brain, but several peripheral organs also display specific binding. Detergent solubilizes the sites without affecting their pharmacologial properties. Molecular sieve chromatography reveals a bimodal peak of ({sup 3}H)TMA binding activity of approximately 60,000 daltons apparent molecular weight.

  15. α4βδ GABA(A) receptors are high-affinity targets for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).

    PubMed

    Absalom, Nathan; Eghorn, Laura F; Villumsen, Inge S; Karim, Nasiara; Bay, Tina; Olsen, Jesper V; Knudsen, Gitte M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Frølund, Bente; Clausen, Rasmus P; Chebib, Mary; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2012-08-14

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) binding to brain-specific high-affinity sites is well-established and proposed to explain both physiological and pharmacological actions. However, the mechanistic links between these lines of data are unknown. To identify molecular targets for specific GHB high-affinity binding, we undertook photolinking studies combined with proteomic analyses and identified several GABA(A) receptor subunits as possible candidates. A subsequent functional screening of various recombinant GABA(A) receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique showed GHB to be a partial agonist at αβδ- but not αβγ-receptors, proving that the δ-subunit is essential for potency and efficacy. GHB showed preference for α4 over α(1,2,6)-subunits and preferably activated α4β1δ (EC(50) = 140 nM) over α4β(2/3)δ (EC(50) = 8.41/1.03 mM). Introduction of a mutation, α4F71L, in α4β1(δ)-receptors completely abolished GHB but not GABA function, indicating nonidentical binding sites. Radioligand binding studies using the specific GHB radioligand [(3)H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid showed a 39% reduction (P = 0.0056) in the number of binding sites in α4 KO brain tissue compared with WT controls, corroborating the direct involvement of the α4-subunit in high-affinity GHB binding. Our data link specific GHB forebrain binding sites with α4-containing GABA(A) receptors and postulate a role for extrasynaptic α4δ-containing GABA(A) receptors in GHB pharmacology and physiology. This finding will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the proposed function of GHB as a neurotransmitter and its unique therapeutic effects in narcolepsy and alcoholism.

  16. Fluorescence measurements of the binding of cations to high-affinity and low-affinity sites on ATP-G-actin.

    PubMed

    Carlier, M F; Pantaloni, D; Korn, E D

    1986-08-15

    The binding of cations to ATP-G-actin has been assessed by measuring the kinetics of the increase in fluorescence of N-acetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine-labeled actin. Ca2+ and Mg2+ compete for a single high-affinity site on ATP-G-actin with KD values of 1.5-15 nM for Ca2+ and 0.1-1 microM for Mg2+, i.e. with affinities 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported (Frieden, C., Lieberman, D., and Gilbert, H. R. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 8991-8993). As proposed by Frieden (Frieden, C. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2882-2886), the Mg-actin complex undergoes a slow isomerization (Kis = 0.03-0.1) to a higher affinity state (K'D = 4-40 nM). The replacement of Ca2+ by Mg2+ at this high-affinity site causes a slow 10% increase in fluorescence that is 90% complete in about 200 s at saturating concentrations of Mg2+. Independently, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ bind to low-affinity sites (KD values of 0.15 mM for Ca2+ and Mg2+ and 10 mM for K+) which causes a rapid 6-8% increase in fluorescence (complete in less than 5 s). We propose that the activation step that converts Ca-G-actin to a polymerizable species upon addition of Mg2+ is the binding of Mg2+ to the low-affinity sites and not the replacement of Ca2+ by Mg2+ at the high-affinity site.

  17. HLA class I alleles are associated with peptide-binding repertoires of different size, affinity, and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sinu; Weiskopf, Daniela; Angelo, Michael A; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-12-15

    Prediction of HLA binding affinity is widely used to identify candidate T cell epitopes, and an affinity of 500 nM is routinely used as a threshold for peptide selection. However, the fraction (percentage) of peptides predicted to bind with affinities of 500 nM varies by allele. For example, of a large collection of ~30,000 dengue virus-derived peptides only 0.3% were predicted to bind HLA A*0101, whereas nearly 5% were predicted for A*0201. This striking difference could not be ascribed to variation in accuracy of the algorithms used, as predicted values closely correlated with affinity measured in vitro with purified HLA molecules. These data raised the question whether different alleles would also vary in terms of epitope repertoire size, defined as the number of associated epitopes or, alternatively, whether alleles vary drastically in terms of the affinity threshold associated with immunogenicity. To address this issue, strains of HLA transgenic mice with wide (A*0201), intermediate (B*0702), or narrow (A*0101) repertoires were immunized with peptides of varying binding affinity and relative percentile ranking. The results show that absolute binding capacity is a better predictor of immunogenicity, and analysis of epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database revealed that predictive efficacy is increased using allele-specific affinity thresholds. Finally, we investigated the genetic and structural basis of the phenomenon. Although no stringent correlate was defined, on average HLA B alleles are associated with significantly narrower repertoires than are HLA A alleles.

  18. NADP+ binding to the regulatory subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase II increases intersubunit binding affinity in the hetero-trimer.

    PubMed

    González, Beatriz; Garrido, Francisco; Ortega, Rebeca; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Pajares, María A

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II) is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP(+) with a 1:1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP(+) binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells.

  19. NADP+ Binding to the Regulatory Subunit of Methionine Adenosyltransferase II Increases Intersubunit Binding Affinity in the Hetero-Trimer

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Rebeca; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Pajares, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II) is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP+ with a 1∶1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP+ binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells. PMID:23189196

  20. Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Lee, Yuarn-Jang; Wang, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Chien-Ting; Tsai, Jing-Shin; Wu, Chien-Ming; Ou, Keng-Liang; and others

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. {yields} The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. {yields} Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M). {yields} The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol{sup -1} at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (K{sub A}) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining K{sub A} for PD153035, where K{sub A} is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that K{sub A} = 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M) at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

  1. Interactions of helquats with chiral acidic aromatic analytes investigated by partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Růžička, Martin; Koval, Dušan; Vávra, Jan; Reyes-Gutiérrez, Paul E; Teplý, Filip; Kašička, Václav

    2016-10-07

    Noncovalent molecular interactions between helquats, a new class of dicationic helical extended diquats, and several chiral acidic aromatic drugs and catalysts have been investigated using partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PF-ACE). Helquats dissolved at 1mM concentration in the aqueous background electrolyte (40mM Tris, 20mM acetic acid, pH 8.1) were introduced as ligand zones of variable length (0-130mm) into the hydroxypropylcellulose coated fused silica capillary whereas 0.1mM solutions of negatively charged chiral drugs or catalysts (warfarin, ibuprofen, mandelic acid, etodolac, binaphthyl phosphate and 11 other acidic aromatic compounds) were applied as a short analyte zone at the injection capillary end. After application of electric field, analyte and ligand migrated against each other and in case of their interactions, migration time of the analyte was increasing with increasing length of the ligand zone. From the tested compounds, only isomers of those exhibiting helical chirality and/or possessing conjugated aromatic systems were enantioselectively separated through their differential interactions with helquats. Some compounds with conjugated aromatic groups interacted with helquats moderately strongly but non-enantiospecifically. Small compounds with single benzene ring exhibited no or very weak non-enantiospecific interactions. PF-ACE method allowed to determine binding constants of the analyte-helquat complexes from the changes of migration times of the analytes. Binding constants of the weakest complexes of the analytes with helquats were less than 50L/mol, whereas binding constants of the strongest complexes were in the range 1 000-1 400L/mol.

  2. A machine learning approach to predicting protein-ligand binding affinity with applications to molecular docking

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Pedro J.; Mitchell, John B.O.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation Accurately predicting the binding affinities of large sets of diverse protein-ligand complexes is an extremely challenging task. The scoring functions that attempt such computational prediction are essential for analysing the outputs of Molecular Docking, which is in turn an important technique for drug discovery, chemical biology and structural biology. Each scoring function assumes a predetermined theory-inspired functional form for the relationship between the variables that characterise the complex, which also include parameters fitted to experimental or simulation data, and its predicted binding affinity. The inherent problem of this rigid approach is that it leads to poor predictivity for those complexes that do not conform to the modelling assumptions. Moreover, resampling strategies, such as cross-validation or bootstrapping, are still not systematically used to guard against the overfitting of calibration data in parameter estimation for scoring functions. Results We propose a novel scoring function (RF-Score) that circumvents the need for problematic modelling assumptions via non-parametric machine learning. In particular, Random Forest was used to implicitly capture binding effects that are hard to model explicitly. RF-Score is compared with the state of the art on the demanding PDBbind benchmark. Results show that RF-Score is a very competitive scoring function. Importantly, RF-Score’s performance was shown to improve dramatically with training set size and hence the future availability of more high quality structural and interaction data is expected to lead to improved versions of RF-Score. PMID:20236947

  3. Water-Hydrogel Binding Affinity Modulates Freeze-Drying-Induced Micropore Architecture and Skeletal Myotube Formation.

    PubMed

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Marshall, Nicholas; Clay, Nicholas; Chen, Jinrong; Mahmassani, Ziad; Boppart, Marni; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-08-10

    Freeze-dried hydrogels are increasingly used to create 3D interconnected micropores that facilitate biomolecular and cellular transports. However, freeze-drying is often plagued by variance in micropore architecture based on polymer choice. We hypothesized that water-polymer binding affinity plays a significant role in sizes and numbers of micropores formed through freeze-drying, influencing cell-derived tissue quality. Poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels with alginate methacrylate (AM) were used due to AM's higher binding affinity for water than PEGDA. PEGDA-AM hydrogels with larger AM concentrations resulted in larger sizes and numbers of micropores than pure PEGDA hydrogels, attributed to the increased mass of water binding to the PEGDA-AM gel. Skeletal myoblasts loaded in microporous PEGDA-AM hydrogels were active to produce 3D muscle-like tissue, while those loaded in pure PEGDA gels were localized on the gel surface. We propose that this study will be broadly useful in designing and improving the performance of various microporous gels.

  4. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F. )

    1990-12-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30{degree}C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus.

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to MUC3 component of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with highest affinity.

    PubMed

    Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Patro, Shubhransu; Goswami, Chandan; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus strains have been shown to adhere to the mucosal components of intestinal epithelial cells. However, established in vitro adhesion assays have several drawbacks in assessing the adhesion of new Lactobacillus strains. The present study aimed to compare the adhesion of four different Lactobacillus strains and select the most adherent microbe, based on in silico approach supported by in vitro results. The mucus-binding proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. fermentum were identified and their capacities to interact with intestinal mucin were compared by molecular docking analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus had the maximal affinity of binding to mucin with predicted free energy of -6.066 kcal mol(-1) Further, in vitro experimental assay of adhesion was performed to validate the in silico results. The adhesion of L. acidophilus to mucous secreting colon epithelial HT-29 MTX cells was highest at 12%, and it formed biofilm with maximum depth (Z = 84 μm). Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined to be the most adherent strain in the study. All the Lactobacillus strains tested in this study, displayed maximum affinity of binding to MUC3 component of mucus as compared to other gastrointestinal mucins. These findings may have importance in the design of probiotics and health care management.

  6. Phenylalanine-780 near the C-terminus of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor is important for ligand binding affinity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Kohli, K; Zhang, S; Danielsen, M; Stallcup, M R

    1994-04-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to make two single amino acid substitutions for highly conserved amino acid residues near the C-terminus of the 783-amino acid mouse glucocorticoid receptor. Substitution of leucine for histidine-781 caused little or no change in the concentration of dexamethasone required for half-maximal activation of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene expressed from a mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. However, when phenylalanine-780 was changed to alanine, the half-maximal concentrations of various agonists were increased as follows, compared with the wild-type glucocorticoid receptor: triamcinolone acetonide by 7-fold, dexamethasone by 25-fold, and hydrocortisone and deoxycorticosterone by more than 150-fold. Binding of labeled steroids by the mutant receptor in vitro and in vivo was also decreased. In contrast, this mutation caused a small decrease in the concentration of RU486 required for antagonist or partial agonist activity. Thus, the phenyl group of phenylalanine-780 of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor is an important determinant of ligand binding affinity and specificity.

  7. Affinity electrophoresis as a method for determining substrate-binding specificity of carbohydrate-active enzymes for soluble polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Moraïs, Sarah; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis is a simple and rapid tool for the analysis of protein-binding affinities to soluble polysaccharides. This approach is particularly suitable for the characterization of the carbohydrate-active enzymes that contain a carbohydrate-binding module and for their mutants and chimeras. Knowledge of the binding characteristics of these enzymes can be the first step to elucidate the enzymatic activity of a putative enzyme; moreover in some cases, enzymes are able to bind polysaccharides targets other than their specified substrate, and this knowledge can be essential to understand the basics of the intrinsic mechanism of these enzymes in their natural environment.

  8. Analysis of Free Drug Fractions in Serum by Ultrafast Affinity Extraction and Two-Dimensional Affinity Chromatography using α1-Acid Glycoprotein Microcolumns

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Hage, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In the circulatory system, many drugs are reversibly bound to serum proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), resulting in both free and protein-bound fractions for these drugs. This report examined the use of microcolumns containing immobilized AGP for the measurement of free drug fractions by ultrafast affinity extraction and a two-dimensional affinity system. Several drugs known to bind AGP were used as models to develop and evaluate this approach. Factors considered during the creation of this method included the retention of the drugs on the microcolumns, the injection flow rate, the microcolumn size, and the times at which a second AGP column was placed on-line with the microcolumn. The final system had residence times of only 110–830 ms during sample passage through the AGP microcolumns and allowed free drug fractions to be determined within 10–20 min when using only 3–10 µL of sample per injection. This method was used to measure the free fractions of the model drugs at typical therapeutic levels in serum, giving good agreement with the results obtained by ultrafiltration. This approach was also used to estimate the binding constants for each drug with AGP in serum, even for drugs that had significant interactions with both AGP and HSA in such samples. These results indicated that AGP microcolumns could be used with ultrafast affinity extraction to measure free drug fractions in a label-free manner and to study the binding of drugs with AGP in complex samples such as serum. PMID:26797422

  9. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R.; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2014-09-01

    Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ζ-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications.Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface

  10. Relations between high-affinity binding sites for L-tryptophan, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red on human serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U

    1983-01-01

    Binding of L-tryptophan, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red to defatted human serum albumin was studied by ultrafiltration at pH 7.0. All ligands bind to one high-affinity binding site with association constants of the order of 10(4)-10(5)M-1. The number of secondary binding sites was found to vary from zero to five, with association constants about 10(3)M-1. Competitive binding studies with different pairs of the ligands were performed. Binding of both ligands was determined simultaneously. L-Tryptophan and diazepam were found to compete for a common high-affinity binding site on albumin. The following combinations of ligands do not bind competitively to albumin: L-tryptophan-Phenol Red, L-tryptophan-salicylate and Phenol Red-salicylate. On the other hand, high-affinity bindings of the three ligands do not take place independently but in such a way that binding of one of the ligands results in a decrease in binding of the other ligands. The decreases in binding are reciprocal and can be accounted for by introducing a coupling constant. The magnitude of the constant is dependent on the ligands being bound. In the present study, the mutual decrease in binding was more pronounced with L-tryptophan-salicylate and Phenol Red-salicylate than with L-tryptophan-Phenol Red. PMID:6847607

  11. Relative binding affinity does not predict biological response to xenoestrogens in rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Strunck, E; Stemmann, N; Hopert, A; Wünsche, W; Frank, K; Vollmer, G

    2000-10-01

    The possible adverse effects of the so-called environmental estrogens have raised considerable concern. Developmental, endocrine and reproductive disorders in wildlife animals have been linked to high exposure to persistent environmental chemicals with estrogen-like activity (xenoestrogens); yet, the potential impact of environmental estrogens on human health is currently under debate also due to lack of data. A battery of in vitro assays exist for identifying compounds with estrogenic activity, but only a few models are available to assess estrogenic potency in a multiparametric analysis. We have recently established the endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line RUCA-I; it enables us to compare estrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo as these cells are estrogen responsive in vitro and grow estrogen sensitive tumors if inoculated in syngeneic animals in vivo. Here we report in vitro data concerning (a) the relative binding affinity of the selected synthetic chemicals Bisphenol A, nonylphenol, p-tert-octylphenol, and o,p-DDT to the estrogen receptor of RUCA-I cells and (b) the relative potency of these compounds in inducing increased production of complement C3, an endogenous estrogen-responsive gene. Competitive Scatchard analysis revealed that xenoestrogens bound with an at least 1000-fold lower affinity to the estrogen receptor of RUCA-I cells than estradiol itself, thereby exhibiting the following affinity ranking, estradiol>nonylphenol>bisphenol A approximately p-tert-octylphenol>o,p-DDT. Despite these low binding affinities, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and p-tert-octylphenol increased production of complement C3 in a dose dependent manner. Compared with estradiol, only 100-fold higher concentrations were needed for all the compounds to achieve similar levels of induction, except o,p-DDT which was by far less potent. Northern blot analyses demonstrated that the increased production of complement C3 was mediated by an increased transcription. In summary, cultured

  12. Modeling the binding affinity of structurally diverse industrial chemicals to carbon using the artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The

  13. CD36 binds oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) in a mechanism dependent upon fatty acid binding.

    PubMed

    Jay, Anthony G; Chen, Alexander N; Paz, Miguel A; Hung, Justin P; Hamilton, James A

    2015-02-20

    The association of unesterified fatty acid (FA) with the scavenger receptor CD36 has been actively researched, with focuses on FA and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake. CD36 has been shown to bind FA, but this interaction has been poorly characterized to date. To gain new insights into the physiological relevance of binding of FA to CD36, we characterized FA binding to the ectodomain of CD36 by the biophysical method surface plasmon resonance. Five structurally distinct FAs (saturated, monounsaturated (cis and trans), polyunsaturated, and oxidized) were pulsed across surface plasmon resonance channels, generating association and dissociation binding curves. Except for the oxidized FA HODE, all FAs bound to CD36, with rapid association and dissociation kinetics similar to HSA. Next, to elucidate the role that each FA might play in CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake, we used a fluorescent oxLDL (Dii-oxLDL) live cell assay with confocal microscopy imaging. CD36-mediated uptake in serum-free medium was very low but greatly increased when serum was present. The addition of exogenous FA in serum-free medium increased oxLDL binding and uptake to levels found with serum and affected CD36 plasma membrane distribution. Binding/uptake of oxLDL was dependent upon the FA dose, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which exhibited binding to CD36 but did not activate the uptake of oxLDL. HODE also did not affect oxLDL uptake. High affinity FA binding to CD36 and the effects of each FA on oxLDL uptake have important implications for protein conformation, binding of other ligands, functional properties of CD36, and high plasma FA levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  14. High affinity binding of 125I-angiotensin II to rat glomerular basement membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Sraer, J; Baud, L; Cosyns, J P; Verroust, P; Nivez, M P; Ardaillou, R

    1977-01-01

    125I-angiotensin II (AII) specifically bound to rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The kinetics of binding were similar to those obtained with the total glomeruli. The apparent dissociation constant was close to 50 pM with both preparations. The number of sites related to the amount of protein was two times greater with GBM than with total glomeruli. Since the amount of GBM protein extracted from a given amount of glomerular protein was about 10%, it was possible to estimate the share of the GBM binding sites for AII as representing 20% of the total number present in the entire glomerulus. Binding studies at equilibrium as a function of 125I-AII concentration and competitive binding experiments suggested either multiplicity of the binding sites or cooperativity in the binding reaction. Degradation of 125I-AII in the presence of GBM was slight and did not increase with time. The difference in the degrees of degradation of 125I-AII was too small to account for the observed difference in binding when the results obtained with GBM and isolated glomeruli preparations were compared. 125I-AII binding to GBM was increased after treatment of these membranes with collagenase, slightly diminished with neuraminidase, and almost completely abolished with trypsin suggesting the proteic nature of the receptor. 125I-AII binding to GBM was diminished after incubation of GBM with anti-GBM antibodies as a result of a decrease in the number of binding sites. 125I-AII binding was even more diminished in preparations of glomeruli isolated from rats passively immunized with anti-GBM antibodies when compared with glomeruli from control animals. This resulted from both smaller affinity for AII and decrease in the number of the binding sites. The present data provides evidence for specific binding sites for AII localized on GBM. This is noteworthy since receptors for polypeptide hormones are currently observed on the surface of cell membranes. These findings also suggest a new

  15. FCA does not bind abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Risk, Joanna M; Macknight, Richard C; Day, Catherine L

    2008-12-11

    The RNA-binding protein FCA promotes flowering in Arabidopsis. Razem et al. reported that FCA is also a receptor for the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). However, we find that FCA does not bind ABA, suggesting that the quality of the proteins assayed and the sensitivity of the ABA-binding assay have led Razem et al. to erroneous conclusions. Because similar assays have been used to characterize other ABA receptors, our results indicate that the ABA-binding properties of these proteins should be carefully re-evaluated and that alternative ABA receptors are likely to be discovered.

  16. Asparagine deamidation reduces DNA-binding affinity of the Drosophila melanogaster Scr homeodomain.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Nichole E; Lelli, Katherine; Mann, Richard S; Palmer, Arthur G

    2015-10-24

    Spontaneous deamidation of asparagine is a non-enzymatic post-translational modification of proteins. Residue Asn 321 is the main site of deamidation of the Drosophila melanogaster Hox transcription factor Sex Combs Reduced (Scr). Formation of iso-aspartate, the major deamidation product, is detected by HNCACB triple-resonance NMR spectroscopy. The rate of deamidation is quantified by fitting the decay of Asn NH2 side-chain signals in a time-series of (15)N-(1)H HSQC NMR spectra. The deamidated form of Scr binds to specific DNA target sequences with reduced affinity as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay.

  17. Copper(II) ions and the Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide: Affinity and stoichiometry of binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõugu, Vello; Friedemann, Merlin; Tiiman, Ann; Palumaa, Peep

    2014-10-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides into amyloid plaques is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis this deposition is an early event and primary cause of the disease, however, the mechanisms that cause this deposition remain elusive. An increasing amount of evidence shows that the interactions of biometals can contribute to the fibrillization and amyloid formation by amyloidogenic peptides. From different anions the copper ions deserve the most attention since it can contribute not only toamyloid formation but also to its toxicity due to the generation of ROS. In this thesis we focus on the affinity and stoichiometry of copper(II) binding to the Aβ molecule.

  18. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding sites differentiated by their affinity for pirenzepine do not interconvert

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, D.W.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1986-05-01

    Although it has been suggested by many investigators that subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors exist, physical studies of solubilized receptors have indicated that only a single molecular species may exist. To test the hypothesis that the putative muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat forebrain are interconvertible states of the same receptor, the selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZ) was used to protect muscarinic receptors from blockade by the irreversible muscarinic receptor antagonist propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM). If interconversion of high (M1) and low (M2) affinity binding sites for PZ occurs, incubation of cerebral cortical membranes with PBCM in the presence of PZ should not alter the proportions of M1 and M2 binding sites that are unalkylated (i.e., protected). If, on the other hand, the binding sites are not interconvertible, PZ should be able to selectively protect M1 sites and alter the proportions of unalkylated M1 and M2 binding sites. In the absence of PZ, treatment of cerebral cortical membranes with 20 nM PBCM at 4 degrees C for 50 min resulted in a 69% reduction in the density of M1 binding sites and a 55% reduction in the density of M2 binding sites with no change in the equilibrium dissociation constants of the radioligands (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (/sup 3/H)PZ. The reasons for this somewhat selective effect of PBCM are not apparent. In radioligand binding experiments using cerebral cortical membranes, PZ inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in a biphasic manner.

  19. Conjugation of a dipicolyl chelate to polypeptide conjugates increases binding affinities for human serum albumin and survival times in human serum.

    PubMed

    Balliu, Aleksandra; Baltzer, Lars

    2017-03-16

    The affinity for human serum albumin (HSA) of a series of 2-5 kDa peptides covalently linked to 3,5-bis[[bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]methyl]benzoic acid, a dipicolyl chelator with μM affinity for Zn2+, was found by surface plasmon resonance to increase in the presence of 1μM ZnCl2 at physiological pH. The dependence on polypeptide hydrophobicity was found to be minor, suggesting that the conjugates bound to the metal binding site and not to the fatty acid binding site. The affinity of the conjugates increased strongly with the positive charge of the polypeptides suggesting proximity to the negatively charged protein surface surrounding the metal binding site. The survival times of the peptides in human serum were extended as a consequence of stronger binding to HSA suggesting that Zn2+ ion chelating agents may provide a general route to increased survival times of peptides in serum in therapeutic and diagnostic applications without significantly increasing their molecular weights.

  20. Additive method for the prediction of protein-peptide binding affinity. Application to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A*0201.

    PubMed

    Doytchinova, Irini A; Blythe, Martin J; Flower, Darren R

    2002-01-01

    A method has been developed for prediction of binding affinities between proteins and peptides. We exemplify the method through its application to binding predictions of peptides with affinity to major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-A*0201. The method is named "additive" because it is based on the assumption that the binding affinity of a peptide could be presented as a sum of the contributions of the amino acids at each position and the interactions between them. The amino acid contributions and the contributions of the interactions between adjacent side chains and every second side chain were derived using a partial least squares (PLS) statistical methodology using a training set of 420 experimental IC50 values. The predictive power of the method was assessed using rigorous cross-validation and using an independent test set of 89 peptides. The mean value of the residuals between the experimental and predicted pIC50 values was 0.508 for this test set. The additive method was implemented in a program for rapid T-cell epitope search. It is universal and can be applied to any peptide-protein interaction where binding data is known.

  1. A protein engineered to bind uranyl selectively and with femtomolar affinity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Bosscher, Mike; Zhang, Changsheng; Ozçubukçu, Salih; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Wen; Li, Charles J; Liu, Jianzhao; Jensen, Mark P; Lai, Luhua; He, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    Uranyl (UO2(2+)), the predominant aerobic form of uranium, is present in the ocean at a concentration of ~3.2 parts per 10(9) (13.7 nM); however, the successful enrichment of uranyl from this vast resource has been limited by the high concentrations of metal ions of similar size and charge, which makes it difficult to design a binding motif that is selective for uranyl. Here we report the design and rational development of a uranyl-binding protein using a computational screening process in the initial search for potential uranyl-binding sites. The engineered protein is thermally stable and offers very high affinity and selectivity for uranyl with a Kd of 7.4 femtomolar (fM) and >10,000-fold selectivity over other metal ions. We also demonstrated that the uranyl-binding protein can repeatedly sequester 30-60% of the uranyl in synthetic sea water. The chemical strategy employed here may be applied to engineer other selective metal-binding proteins for biotechnology and remediation applications.

  2. Partial purification of fatty-acid binding protein by ammonium sulphate fractionation.

    PubMed

    Avanzati, B; Catalá, A

    1983-07-01

    By fractionation of rat liver cytosol with 70% saturation ammonium sulphate, a soluble fraction showing high affinity for oleic acid was obtained. The binding of oleic acid to this fraction was inhibited by flavaspidic acid. The molecular weight of the main protein present in this fraction was 12 000 as determined by SDS-poly-acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This soluble fraction stimulated the transfer of oleic acid from microsomes to phosphatidylcholine liposomes as demonstrated by a transfer assay in vitro. The behaviour of this fraction is similar to that described for fatty-acid binding protein.

  3. New neoclerodane diterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum and their binding affinities for human kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, David Y W; Ma, Zhongze; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Yong; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce

    2005-10-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the leaves of Salvia divinorum has resulted in the isolation of three new neoclerodane diterpenoids: divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), together with 10 known terpenoids, divinatorin C (4), hardwickiic acid (5), salvinorin-A (6), -B (7), -C (8), -D (9), -E (10), and -F (11), presqualene alcohol (12), and (E)-phytol (13). The structures of these three new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. All these compounds were evaluated for their binding affinities to the human kappa opioid receptors. In comparison with divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), salvinorin A (6) is still the most potent kappa agonist.

  4. Separation of Binding Protein of Celangulin V from the Midgut of Mythimna separata Walker by Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lina; Qi, Zhijun; Zhang, Jiwen; Wu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Celangulin V, an insecticidal compound isolated from the root bark of Chinese bittersweet, can affect the digestive system of insects. However, the mechanism of how Celangulin V induces a series of symptoms is still unknown. In this study, affinity chromatography was conducted through coupling of Celangulin V-6-aminoacetic acid ester to the CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the collected fraction eluted by Celangulin V. Eight binding proteins (Zinc finger protein, Thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), SUMO E3 ligase RanBP2, Transmembrane protein 1, Actin, APN and V-ATPase) were obtained and identified by LC/Q-TOF-MS from the midgut of Mythimna separata larvae. The potential of these proteins to serve as target proteins involved in the insecticidal activity of Celangulin V is discussed. PMID:25996604

  5. Low- and high-affinity transport systems for citric acid in the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed Central

    Cássio, F; Leáo, C

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid-grown cells of the yeast Candida utilis induced two transport systems for citric acid, presumably a proton symport and a facilitated diffusion system for the charged and the undissociated forms of the acid, respectively. Both systems could be observed simultaneously when the transport was measured at 25 degrees C with labelled citric acid at pH 3.5 with the following kinetic parameters: for the low-affinity system, Vmax, 1.14 nmol of undissociated citric acid s-1 mg (dry weight) of cells-1, and Km, 0.59 mM undissociated acid; for the high-affinity system, Vmax, 0.38 nmol of citrate s-1 mg (dry weight) of cells-1, and Km, 0.056 mM citrate. At high pH values (above 5.0), the low-affinity system was absent or not measurable. The two transport systems exhibited different substrate specificities. Isocitric acid was a competitive inhibitor of citric acid for the high-affinity system, suggesting that these tricarboxylic acids used the same transport system, while aconitic, tricarballylic, trimesic, and hemimellitic acids were not competitive inhibitors. With respect to the low-affinity system, isocitric acid, L-lactic acid, and L-malic acid were competitive inhibitors, suggesting that all of these mono-, di-, and tricarboxylic acids used the same low-affinity transport system. The two transport systems were repressed by glucose, and as a consequence diauxic growth was observed. Both systems were inducible, and not only citric acid but also lactic acid and malic acid may induce those transport systems. The induction of both systems was not dependent on the relative concentration of the anionic form(s) and of undissociated citric acid in the culture medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1664712

  6. A β-hairpin structure in a 13-mer peptide that binds α-bungarotoxin with high affinity and neutralizes its toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, Tali; Kasher, Roni; Balass, Moshe; Fridkin, Mati; Fuchs, Sara; Katchalski-Katzir, Ephraim

    2001-01-01

    Snake-venom α-bungarotoxin is a member of the α-neurotoxin family that binds with very high affinity to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. The structure of the complex between α-bungarotoxin and a 13-mer peptide (WRYYESSLEPYPD) that binds the toxin with high affinity, thus inhibiting its interactions with AChR with an IC50 of 2 nM, has been solved by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The bound peptide folds into a β-hairpin structure created by two antiparallel β-strands, which combine with the already existing triple-stranded β-sheet of the toxin to form a five-stranded intermolecular, antiparallel β-sheet. Peptide residues Y3P, E5P, and L8P have the highest intermolecular contact area, indicating their importance in the binding of α-bungarotoxin; W1P, R2P, and Y4P also contribute significantly to the binding. A large number of characteristic hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are observed in the complex. The high-affinity peptide exhibits inhibitory potency that is better than any known peptide derived from AChR, and is equal to that of the whole α-subunit of AChR. The high degree of sequence similarity between the peptide and various types of AChRs implies that the binding mode found within the complex might possibly mimic the receptor binding to the toxin. The design of the high-affinity peptide was based on our previous findings: (i) the detection of a lead peptide (MRYYESSLKSYPD) that binds α-bungarotoxin, using a phage-display peptide library, (ii) the information about the three-dimensional structure of α-bungarotoxin/lead-peptide complex, and (iii) the amino acid sequence analysis of different AChRs. PMID:11381118

  7. Purification of Capping Protein Using the Capping Protein Binding Site of CARMIL as an Affinity Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Remmert, Kirsten; Uruno, Takehito; Hammer, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Capping Protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric actin binding protein that is essential for normal actin dynamics in cells. The existing methods for purifying native CP from tissues and recombinant CP from bacteria are time-consuming processes that involve numerous conventional chromatographic steps and functional assays to achieve a homogeneous preparation of the protein. Here we report the rapid purification of Acanthamoeba CP from amoeba extracts and recombinant mouse CP from E. coli extracts using as an affinity matrix GST fusion proteins containing the CP binding site from Acanthamoeba CARMIL and mouse CARMIL-1, respectively. This improved method for CP purification should facilitate the in vitro analysis of CP structure, function and regulation. PMID:19427903

  8. Purification of capping protein using the capping protein binding site of CARMIL as an affinity matrix.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Kirsten; Uruno, Takehito; Hammer, John A

    2009-10-01

    Capping protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric actin binding protein that is essential for normal actin dynamics in cells. The existing methods for purifying native CP from tissues and recombinant CP from bacteria are time-consuming processes that involve numerous conventional chromatographic steps and functional assays to achieve a homogeneous preparation of the protein. Here, we report the rapid purification of Acanthamoeba CP from amoeba extracts and recombinant mouse CP from E. coli extracts using as an affinity matrix GST-fusion proteins containing the CP binding site from Acanthamoeba CARMIL and mouse CARMIL-1, respectively. This improved method for CP purification should facilitate the in vitro analysis of CP structure, function, and regulation.

  9. Neutrophil recruitment limited by high-affinity bent β2 integrin binding ligand in cis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhichao; McArdle, Sara; Marki, Alex; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Gutierrez, Edgar; Engelhardt, Britta; Deutsch, Urban; Ginsberg, Mark; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for innate immunity and inflammation and many neutrophil functions are β2 integrin-dependent. Integrins can extend (E+) and acquire a high-affinity conformation with an ‘open' headpiece (H+). The canonical switchblade model of integrin activation proposes that the E+ conformation precedes H+, and the two are believed to be structurally linked. Here we show, using high-resolution quantitative dynamic footprinting (qDF) microscopy combined with a homogenous conformation-reporter binding assay in a microfluidic device, that a substantial fraction of β2 integrins on human neutrophils acquire an unexpected E−H+ conformation. E−H+ β2 integrins bind intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) in cis, which inhibits leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo. This endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanism inhibits neutrophil aggregation, accumulation and inflammation. PMID:27578049

  10. A carbohydrate-binding affinity ligand for the specific enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; El Khoury, Graziella; Zhang, Peiqing; Rudd, Pauline M; Lowe, Christopher R

    2016-04-29

    One challenge facing the production of glycoprotein therapeutics is the lack of stable and selective affinity ligands for their enrichment. Synthetic affinity ligands based on the solid phase multi-component Ugi reaction represent a desirable option, particularly those incorporating benzoboroxole and its derivatives, which have been shown to enrich glycoproteins under physiological conditions. Thus, an Ugi ligand, A21C11I8, comprising 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenylboronic acid was synthesised on aldehyde-functionalised Sepharose™. Immobilised A21C11I8 displayed affinity for the glycosylated protein, glucose oxidase (GOx), which bound primarily through its glycan moiety. The ligand had a preference for sugar alcohols and the furanose form of the monosaccharides tested. Compared with immobilised 3-aminophenylboronic acid and Concanavalin A, the Ugi ligand was able to purify GOx from spiked Escherichia coli supernatants with retention of its maximum enzymatic activity and protein recovery. Glycan profiles of human immunoglobulin G tested on A21C11I8 columns suggested that the adsorbent possesses the potential to resolve sialylated and neutral glycoforms. The benzoboroxole-functionalised Ugi ligand may find application in selective glycoform separation.

  11. A cleavable silica-binding affinity tag for rapid and inexpensive protein purification.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Brandon L; Baneyx, François

    2014-10-01

    We describe a new affinity purification tag called Car9 that confers proteins to which it is fused micromolar affinity for unmodified silica. When appended to the C-terminus of GFPmut2 through a flexible linker, Car9 promotes efficient adsorption to silica gel and the fusion protein can be released from the particles by incubation with L-lysine. Using a silica gel column and the lysine elution approach in fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) mode, Car9-tagged versions of GFPmut2, mCherry and maltose binding protein (MBP) can be recovered from clarified lysates with a purity of 80-90%. Capitalizing on silica's ability to handle large pressure drops, we further show that it is possible to go from cell lysates to purified protein in less than 15 min using a fully disposable device. Finally, we demonstrate that the linker-Car9 region is susceptible to proteolysis by E. coli OmpT and take advantage of this observation to excise the C-terminal extension of GFPmut2-Car9 by incubating purified fusion protein with cells that overproduce the outer membrane protease OmpT. The set of strategies described herein, should reduce the cost of affinity purification by at least 10-fold, cut down purification times to minutes, and allow for the production of proteins with native (or nearly native) termini from their C-terminally-tagged versions.

  12. Structure-based identification of new high-affinity nucleosome binding sequences.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Federica; Hunter, Christopher A; Moore, Irene K; Widom, Jonathan

    2012-06-29

    The substrate for the proteins that express genetic information in the cell is not naked DNA but an assembly of nucleosomes, where the DNA is wrapped around histone proteins. The organization of these nucleosomes on genomic DNA is influenced by the DNA sequence. Here, we present a structure-based computational approach that translates sequence information into the energy required to bend DNA into a nucleosome-bound conformation. The calculations establish the relationship between DNA sequence and histone octamer binding affinity. In silico selection using this model identified several new DNA sequences, which were experimentally found to have histone octamer affinities comparable to the highest-affinity sequences known. The results provide insights into the molecular mechanism through which DNA sequence information encodes its organization. A quantitative appreciation of the thermodynamics of nucleosome positioning and rearrangement will be one of the key factors in understanding the regulation of transcription and in the design of new promoter architectures for the purposes of tuning gene expression dynamics.

  13. Characterization of high affinity (/sup 3/H)triazolam binding in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, M.; Concas, A.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-01

    The hypnotic Triazolam (TZ), a triazolo (1,4)-benzodiazepine, displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. Specific binding properties of this recently tritiated TZ were characterized. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the GABA effect on (/sup 3/H)TZ binding. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity at 37/sup 0/C (K/sub d/ = 0.25 +/- 0.01 nM at O/sup 0/C; K/sub d/ = 1.46 +/- 0.03 nM at 37/sup 0/C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1003 +/- 37 fmoles/mg prot. at 0/sup 0/C and 1001 +/- 43 fmoles/mg prot. at 37/sup 0/C). Inhibition studies showed that (/sup 3/H)TZ binding displayed no GABA shift at 0/sup 0/C(K/sub i/ 0.37 +/- 0.03 nM/- GABA and K/sub i/ = 0.55 +/- 0.13 nM/+GABA) but a nearly two-fold shift was apparent at 37/sup 0/C (K/sub i/ = 2.92 +/- 0.2 nM/-GABA; K/sub i/ = 1.37 +/- 0.11 mM/+GABA). These results were also confirmed by saturation studies in the presence or absence of GABA showing a shift to higher affinity in the presence of GABA only at 37/sup 0/C. In Ro 15-1788/(/sup 3/H)TZ competition experiments the presence of GABA did not affect the inhibitory potency of Ro 15-1788 on (/sup 3/H)TZ binding at both temperatures. In conclusion (/sup 3/H)TZ binding showed an extremely high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors. In contrast to reported literature, the findings suggest that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors similar to other benzodiazepine agonists.

  14. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  15. Molecular Switch Controlling the Binding of Anionic Bile Acid Conjugates to Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Acharya, Chayan; Tririya, Gasirat; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) may serve as a prodrug target for oral drug absorption. Synthetic, biological, NMR and computational approaches identified the structure-activity relationships of mono- and dianionic bile acid conjugates for hASBT binding. Experimental data combined with a conformationally-sampled pharmacophore/QSAR modeling approach (CSP-SAR) predicted that dianionic substituents with intramolecular hydrogen bonding between hydroxyls on the cholane skeleton and the acid group on the conjugate's aromatic ring increased conjugate hydrophobicity and improved binding affinity. Notably, the model predicted the presence of a conformational molecular switch, where shifting the carboxylate substituent on an aromatic ring by a single position controlled binding affinity. Model validation was performed by effectively shifting the spatial location of the carboxylate by inserting a methylene adjacent to the aromatic ring, resulting in the predicted alteration in binding affinity. This work illustrates conformation as a determinant of ligand binding affinity to a biological transporter. PMID:20504026

  16. Identification of an Orthogonal Peptide Binding Motif for Biarsenical Multiuse Affinity Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Cao, Haishi; Yan, Ping; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2007-07-01

    Biarsenical multiuse affinity probes (MAPs) complexed with ethanedithiol (EDT) permit the selective cellular labeling of proteins engineered with tetracysteine motifs, but are limited by the availability of a single binding motif (i.e., CCPGCC or PG tag) that prevents the differential labeling of co-expressed proteins. To overcome this problem, we have used a high-throughput peptide screen to identify an alternate binding motif (i.e., CCKACC or KA tag), which has a similar brightness to the classical sequence upon MAP binding, but displays altered rates and affinities of association that permit the differential labeling of these peptide sequences by the red probe 4,5-bis(1,3,2-dithiarsolan-2-yl)-resorufin (ReAsH-EDT2) or its green cognate 4’,5’-bis(1,3,2-dithoarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein-(1,2-ethanedithiol)2 (FLAsH-EDT2). The utility of this labeling strategy was demonstrated following the expression of PG- and KA-tagged subunits of RNA polymerase expressed in E. coli. Specific labeling of two subunits of RNA polymerase in cellular lysates was achieved, whereby ReAsH-EDT2 is shown to selectively label the PG-tag on RNA polymerase alpha subunit prior to the labeling of the KA-tag sequence of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase with FlAsH-EDT2. These results demonstrate the ability to selectively label multiple individual proteins with orthogonal sequence tags in complex cellular lystates with spectroscopically distinct MAPs, and indicate the absolute specificity of ReAsH to target expressed proteins with essentially no nonspecific binding interactions.

  17. Water channel in the binding site of a high affinity anti-methotrexate antibody.

    PubMed

    Gayda, Susan; Longenecker, Kenton L; Manoj, Sharmila; Judge, Russell A; Saldana, Sylvia C; Ruan, Qiaoqiao; Swift, Kerry M; Tetin, Sergey Y

    2014-06-17

    In the present study, we report the structure of the free and drug-bound Fab fragment of a high affinity anti-methotrexate antibody and perform a thermodynamic analysis of the binding process. The anti-methotrexate Fab fragment features a remarkably rigid tunnel-like binding site that extends into a water channel serving as a specialized route to move solvent out and into the site upon ligand binding and dissociation. This new finding in antibody structure-function relationships directly relates to the fast association (1 × 10⁷ M⁻¹ s⁻¹) and slow dissociation (4 × 10⁻⁵ s⁻¹) rates determined for mAb ADD056, resulting in a very strong binding with a K(D) ~ 3.6 pM at 20 °C. As follows from the X-ray data analysis, the methotrexate-antibody complex is stabilized by an extended network of hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions. The analysis also shows structural involvement of the CDR H3 in formation of the water channel revealing another important role of this hypervariable region. This suggests a new direction in natural affinity maturation and opens a new possibility in antibody engineering. Methotrexate is a widely used therapeutic agent for many malignant diseases and inflammatory disorders. Unfortunately, it may also interfere with central aspects of metabolism and thereby cause inevitable side effects. Therefore, methotrexate therapy requires careful monitoring of drug blood levels, which is traditionally done by immunoassays. An understanding of the structure-function properties of antibodies selected for drug monitoring substantiates the performance and robustness of such tests.

  18. Chemical modification of human albumin at cys34 by ethacrynic acid: structural characterisation and binding properties.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, C; Nanni, B; Raffaelli, A; Salvadori, P

    1998-10-01

    Derivatization of the free cys3,4 in human albumin, which is reported to occur under physiological conditions, has been performed in vitro by reaction of the protein with ethacrynic acid. This modification has been investigated by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism. Ethacrynic acid has been proven to bind human albumin either covalently and non-covalently. This post-translational modification does not determine significant changes in the secondary structure of the protein, as shown by the comparable circular dichroism spectra of the native and the modified proteins. Furthermore, the binding properties of the human albumin samples have been investigated by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. The affinity to the higher affinity binding sites does not change either for drugs binding to site I, like phenylbutazone, or to site II, like diazepam, while a small but significant increase has been observed for bilirubin, known to bind to site III. Nevertheless significant decreases of the affinity at the lower affinity binding sites of the modified protein were observed for both drugs binding to site I or to site II.

  19. Structural analogs of human insulin-like growth factor I with reduced affinity for serum binding proteins and the type 2 insulin-like growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, M.L.; Applebaum, J.; Chicchi, G.G.; Hayes, N.S.; Green, B.G.; Cascieri, M.A.

    1988-05-05

    Four structural analogs of human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) have been prepared by site-directed mutagenesis of a synthetic IGF-I gene and subsequent expression and purification of the mutant protein from the conditioned media of transformed yeast. (Phe/sup -1/, Val/sup 1/, Asn/sup 2/, Gln/sup 3/, His/sup 4/, Ser/sup 8/, His/sup 9/, Glu/sup 12/, Tyr/sup 15/, Leu/sup 16/)IGF-I (B-chain mutant), in which the first 16 amino acids of hIGF-I were replaced with the first 17 amino acids of the B-chain of insulin, has >1000-, 100-, and 2-fold reduced potency for human serum binding proteins, the rat liver type 2 IGF receptor, and the human placental type 1 IGF receptor, respectively. The B-chain mutant also has 4-fold increased affinity for the human placental insulin receptor. (Gln/sup 3/, Ala/sup 4/) IGF-I has 4-fold reduced affinity for human serum binding proteins, but is equipotent to hIGF-I at the types 1 and 2 IGF and insulin receptors. (Tyr/sup 15/, Leu/sup 16/) IGH-I has 4-fold reduced affinity for human serum binding proteins and 10-fold increased affinity for the insulin receptor. The peptide in which these four-point mutations are combined, (Gln/sup 3/, Ala/sup 4/, Tyr/sup 15/,Leu/sup 16/)IGF-I, has 600-fold reduced affinity for the serum binding proteins. All four of these mutants stimulate DNA synthesis in the rat vascular smooth muscle cell line A10 with potencies reflecting their potency at the type 1 IGF receptor. These studies identify some of the domains of hIGF-I which are responsible for maintaining high affinity binding with the serum binding protein and the type 2 IGF receptor. In addition, These peptides will be useful in defining the role of the type 2 IGF receptor and serum binding proteins in the physiological actions of hIGF-I.

  20. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Lyn Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain Modulates Its Binding Affinity and Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lily L.; Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E.; Tong, Jiefei; Taylor, Paul; Minden, Mark D.; Trudel, Suzanne; McGlade, C. Jane; Moran, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are modular protein structures that bind phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing polypeptides and regulate cellular functions through protein-protein interactions. Proteomics analysis showed that the SH2 domains of Src family kinases are themselves tyrosine phosphorylated in blood system cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. Using the Src family kinase Lyn SH2 domain as a model, we found that phosphorylation at the conserved SH2 domain residue Y194 impacts the affinity and specificity of SH2 domain binding to pY-containing peptides and proteins. Analysis of the Lyn SH2 domain crystal structure supports a model wherein phosphorylation of Y194 on the EF loop modulates the binding pocket that engages amino acid side chains at the pY+2/+3 position. These data indicate another level of regulation wherein SH2-mediated protein-protein interactions are modulated by SH2 kinases and phosphatases. PMID:25587033

  1. Isomer-Specific Binding Affinity of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Serum Proteins.

    PubMed

    Beesoon, Sanjay; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-05-05

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are among the most prominent contaminants in human serum, and these were historically manufactured as technical mixtures of linear and branched isomers. The isomers display unique pharmacokinetics in humans and in animal models, but molecular mechanisms underlying isomer-specific PFOS and PFOA disposition have not previously been studied. Here, ultrafiltration devices were used to examine (i) the dissociation constants (Kd) of individual PFOS and PFOA isomers with human serum albumin (HSA) and (ii) relative binding affinity of isomers in technical mixtures spiked to whole calf serum and human serum. Measurement of HSA Kd's demonstrated that linear PFOS (Kd=8(±4)×10(-8) M) was much more tightly bound than branched PFOS isomers (Kd range from 8(±1)×10(-5) M to 4(±2)×10(-4) M). Similarly, linear PFOA (Kd=1(±0.9)×10(-4) M) was more strongly bound to HSA compared to branched PFOA isomers (Kd range from 4(±2)×10(-4) M to 3(±2)×10(-4) M). The higher binding affinities of linear PFOS and PFOA to total serum protein were confirmed when both calf serum and human serum were spiked with technical mixtures. Overall, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for the longer biological half-life of PFOS in humans, compared to PFOA, and for the higher transplacental transfer efficiencies and renal clearance of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers, compared to the respective linear isomer.

  2. Analysis of (/sup 3/H) Kainic acid binding with rat and Frog brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyzes the binding of (H 3)-KA with membrances in vitro and the effect of various neuroactive amino acids, suggested as endogenous ligands for binding sites of (H 3)-KA, on binding. Experiments were carried out on male albino rats and on winter frogs. Choice of the frog's brain was determined by the high density of high-affinity binding sites of (H 3)-KA. The concentrations of substances inhibiting binding (H 3)-KA by 50% were calculated by logit-probit analysis, and inhibition constants were also calculated. It is shown that although L-glutamate and folic acid inhibit binding of (H 3)-KA, they do not satisfy the criteria to be met by endogenous ligands, and this inhibition of binding is noncompetitive in character. This suggests that KA binding sites and glutamate receptors are not identical, although they may perhaps be subunits of a single complex.

  3. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  4. A homogeneous assay for relative affinity of binding proteins using a green fluorescent protein tag and membrane disk.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takashi; Kazama, Hitoshi; Satoh, Marie; Mizuki, Kazuhiro; Watabe, Hiroyuki

    2005-09-01

    When the association between a ligand immobilized on a membrane disk and a fluorescence-labeled analyte was monitored with a fluorescent microplate reader, the time-dependent increase in fluorescence intensity of the reaction mixture was observed. A novel assay system for the specific interaction based on this phenomenon was designated the homogeneous assay for fluorescence concentrated on membrane (HAFCOM). In this study, streptococcal protein G (SpG) and glycogen-binding subunit R5 of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R5) tagged by green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used as the fluorescence-labeled analytes, and the affinity change caused by various amino acid substitutions was measured with HAFCOM. From the site-directed mutagenesis of SpG and PPP1R5, it was clarified that (i) the association rate constant of the Lys454Pro/Glu456Gln mutant of SpG to goat immunoglobulin G was almost equivalent to that of the wild-type but its dissociation rate constant was about 2.7 times that of the wild-type and (ii) the amino acid substitutions of Phe180 in PPP1R5 reduced glycogen-binding by 30-50%. Since HAFCOM using the GFP-tagged analyte requires no special chemicals and instruments, this system can easily and economically assay the specific interaction between target protein and ligand.

  5. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  6. Determinants of binding affinity and specificity for the interaction of TEM-1 and SME-1 beta-lactamase with beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-11-14

    The hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics by class A beta-lactamases is a common cause of bacterial resistance to these agents. The beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) is able to bind and inhibit several class A beta-lactamases, including TEM-1 beta-lactamase and SME-1 beta-lactamase. Although the TEM-1 and SME-1 enzymes share 33% amino acid sequence identity and a similar fold, they differ substantially in surface electrostatic properties and the conformation of a loop-helix region that BLIP binds. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was performed to identify the residues on BLIP that contribute to its binding affinity for each of these enzymes. The results indicate that the sequence requirements for binding are similar for both enzymes with most of the binding free energy provided by two patches of aromatic residues on the surface of BLIP. Polar residues such as several serines in the interface do not make significant contributions to affinity for either enzyme. In addition, the specificity of binding is significantly altered by mutation of two charged residues, Glu73 and Lys74, that are buried in the structure of the TEM-1.BLIP complex as well as by residues located on two loops that insert into the active site pocket. Based on the results, a E73A/Y50A double mutant was constructed that exhibited a 220,000-fold change in binding specificity for the TEM-1 versus SME-1 enzymes.

  7. SNP2TFBS – a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/. PMID:27899579

  8. SNP2TFBS - a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-04

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/.

  9. Exploring the interplay between experimental methods and the performance of predictors of binding affinity change upon mutations in protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Geng, Cunliang; Vangone, Anna; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    2016-08-01

    Reliable prediction of binding affinity changes (ΔΔG) upon mutations in protein complexes relies not only on the performance of computational methods but also on the availability and quality of experimental data. Binding affinity changes can be measured by various experimental methods with different accuracies and limitations. To understand the impact of these on the prediction of binding affinity change, we present the Database of binding Affinity Change Upon Mutation (DACUM), a database of 1872 binding affinity changes upon single-point mutations, a subset of the SKEMPI database (Moal,I.H. and Fernández-Recio,J. Bioinformatics, 2012;28:2600-2607) extended with information on the experimental methods used for ΔΔG measurements. The ΔΔG data were classified into different data sets based on the experimental method used and the position of the mutation (interface and non-interface). We tested the prediction performance of the original HADDOCK score, a newly trained version of it and mutation Cutoff Scanning Matrix (Pires,D.E.V., Ascher,D.B. and Blundell,T.L. Bioinformatics 2014;30:335-342), one of the best reported ΔΔG predictors so far, on these various data sets. Our results demonstrate a strong impact of the experimental methods on the performance of binding affinity change predictors for protein complexes. This underscores the importance of properly considering and carefully choosing experimental methods in the development of novel binding affinity change predictors. The DACUM database is available online at https://github.com/haddocking/DACUM.

  10. Substrate and Substrate-Mimetic Chaperone Binding Sites in Human α-Galactosidase A Revealed by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Adrian; Maeser, Stefan; Rawer, Stephan; Eggers, Frederike; Murphy, Mary; Bornheim, Jeff; Przybylski, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare metabolic disorder of a group of lysosomal storage diseases, caused by deficiency or reduced activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase. Human α-galactosidase A (hαGAL) hydrolyses the terminal α-galactosyl moiety from glycosphingolipids, predominantly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Enzyme deficiency leads to incomplete or blocked breakdown and progressive accumulation of Gb3, with detrimental effects on normal organ functions. FD is successfully treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with purified recombinant hαGAL. An emerging treatment strategy, pharmacologic chaperone therapy (PCT), employs small molecules that can increase and/or reconstitute the activity of lysosomal enzyme trafficking by stabilizing misfolded isoforms. One such chaperone, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), is a structural galactose analogue currently validated in clinical trials. DGJ is an active-site-chaperone that binds at the same or similar location as galactose; however, the molecular determination of chaperone binding sites in lysosomal enzymes represents a considerable challenge. Here we report the identification of the galactose and DGJ binding sites in recombinant α-galactosidase through a new affinity-mass spectrometry-based approach that employs selective proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-galactose or -inhibitor complex. Binding site peptides identified by mass spectrometry, [39-49], [83-100], and [141-168], contain the essential ligand-contacting amino acids, in agreement with the known X-ray crystal structures. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on galactose recognition was directly characterized through competitive binding experiments and mass spectrometry. The methods successfully employed in this study should have high potential for the characterization of (mutated) enzyme-substrate and -chaperone interactions, and for identifying chaperones without inhibitory effects.

  11. Identification and Tumour-Binding Properties of a Peptide with High Affinity to the Disialoganglioside GD2

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jan; Reichel, Robin; Vogt, Sebastian; Müller, Stefan P.; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brandau, Wolfgang; Eggert, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Neuroectodermal tumours are characterized by aberrant processing of disialogangliosides concomitant with high expression of GD2 or GD3 on cell surfaces. Antibodies targeting GD2 are already in clinical use for therapy of neuroblastoma, a solid tumour of early childhood. Here, we set out to identify peptides with high affinity to human disialoganglioside GD2. To this end, we performed a combined in vivo and in vitro screen using a recombinant phage displayed peptide library. We isolated a phage displaying the peptide sequence WHWRLPS that specifically binds to the human disialoganglioside GD2. Binding specificity was confirmed by mutational scanning and by comparative analyses using structurally related disialogangliosides. In vivo, significant enrichment of phage binding to xenografts of human neuroblastoma cells in mice was observed. Tumour-specific phage accumulation could be blocked by intravenous coinjection of the corresponding peptide. Comparative pharmacokinetic analyses revealed higher specific accumulation of 68Ga-labelled GD2-binding peptide compared to 111In-labelled peptide in xenografts of human neuroblastoma. In contrast to 124I-MIBG, which is currently evaluated as a neuroblastoma marker in PET/CT, 68Ga-labelled GD2-specific peptide spared the thyroid but was enriched in the kidneys, which could be partially blocked by infusion of amino acids.In summary, we here report on a novel tumour-homing peptide that specifically binds to the disialoganglioside GD2, accumulates in xenografts of neuroblastoma cells in mice and bears the potential for tumour detection using PET/CT. Thus, this peptide may serve as a new scaffold for diagnosing GD2-positive tumours of neuroectodermal origin. PMID:27716771

  12. Exploring binding affinity of oxaliplatin and carboplatin, to nucleoprotein structure of chromatin: spectroscopic study and histone proteins as a target.

    PubMed

    Soori, Hosna; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Davoodi, Jamshid

    2015-01-07

    Platinum drugs are potent chemotherapeutic agents widely used in cancer therapy. They exert their biological activity by binding to DNA, producing DNA adducts; however, in the cell nucleus, DNA is complexed with histone proteins into a nucleoprotein structure known as chromatin. The aim of this study was to explore the binding affinity of oxaliplatin and carboplatin to chromatin using spectroscopic as well as thermal denaturation and equilibrium dialysis techniques. The results showed that the drugs quenched with chromophores of chromatin and the quenching effect for oxaliplatin (Ksv = 3.156) was higher than carboplatin (Ksv = 0.28). The binding of the drugs exhibited hypochromicity both in thermal denaturation profiles and UV absorbance at 210 nm. The binding was positive cooperation with spontaneous reaction and oxaliplatin (Ka = 5.3 × 10(3) M(-1), n = 1.7) exhibited higher binding constant and number of binding sites than carboplatin (Ka = 0.33 × 10(3) M(-1), n = 1.0) upon binding to chromatin. Also secondary structure of chromatin proteins was altered upon drugs binding. It is concluded that oxaliplatin represents higher binding affinity to chromatin compared to carboplatin. In chromatin where DNA is compacted into nucleosomes structure with histones, the affinity of the platinated drugs is reduced and histone proteins may play a fundamental role in this binding process.

  13. A dielectric affinity microbiosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Schultz, Jerome S.; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2010-01-01

    We present an affinity biosensing approach that exploits changes in dielectric properties of a polymer due to its specific, reversible binding with an analyte. The approach is demonstrated using a microsensor comprising a pair of thin-film capacitive electrodes sandwiching a solution of poly(acrylamide-ran-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid), a synthetic polymer with specific affinity to glucose. Binding with glucose induces changes in the permittivity of the polymer, which can be measured capacitively for specific glucose detection, as confirmed by experimental results at physiologically relevant concentrations. The dielectric affinity biosensing approach holds the potential for practical applications such as long-term continuous glucose monitoring.

  14. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages.

  15. Machine-learning scoring functions to improve structure-based binding affinity prediction and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ain, Qurrat Ul; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; Roessler, Florian D; Ballester, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Docking tools to predict whether and how a small molecule binds to a target can be applied if a structural model of such target is available. The reliability of docking depends, however, on the accuracy of the adopted scoring function (SF). Despite intense research over the years, improving the accuracy of SFs for structure-based binding affinity prediction or virtual screening has proven to be a challenging task for any class of method. New SFs based on modern machine-learning regression models, which do not impose a predetermined functional form and thus are able to exploit effectively much larger amounts of experimental data, have recently been introduced. These machine-learning SFs have been shown to outperform a wide range of classical SFs at both binding affinity prediction and virtual screening. The emerging picture from these studies is that the classical approach of using linear regression with a small number of expert-selected structural features can be strongly improved by a machine-learning approach based on nonlinear regression allied with comprehensive data-driven feature selection. Furthermore, the performance of classical SFs does not grow with larger training datasets and hence this performance gap is expected to widen as more training data becomes available in the future. Other topics covered in this review include predicting the reliability of a SF on a particular target class, generating synthetic data to improve predictive performance and modeling guidelines for SF development. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:405-424. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1225 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  16. Kinetics of ligand binding to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Arakelyan, V B; Babayan, S Y; Tairyan, V I; Arakelyan, A V; Parsadanyan, M A; Vardevanyan, P O

    2006-02-01

    Ligand binding to nucleic acids (NA) is considered as a stationary Markov process. It is shown that the probabilistic description of ligand-NA binding allows one to describe not only the kinetics of the change of number of bound ligands at arbitrary fillings but also to calculate stationary values of the number of bound ligands and its dispersion. The general analysis of absorption isotherms and kinetics of ligand binding to NA make it possible to determine of rate constants of ligand-NA complex formation and dissociation.

  17. Proteome-wide Discovery and Characterizations of Nucleotide-binding Proteins with Affinity-labeled Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Jiang, Xinning; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding proteins play pivotal roles in many cellular processes including cell signaling. However, targeted study of sub-proteome of nucleotide-binding proteins, especially protein kinases and GTP-binding proteins, remained challenging. Here, we reported a general strategy in using affinity-labeled chemical probes to enrich, identify, and quantify ATP- and GTP-binding proteins in the entire human proteome. Our results revealed that the ATP/GTP affinity probes facilitated the identification of 100 GTP-binding proteins and 206 kinases with the use of low mg quantities of lysate of HL-60 cells. In combination with the use of SILAC-based quantitative proteomics method, we assessed the ATP/GTP binding selectivities of nucleotide-binding proteins at the global proteome scale. Our results confirmed known and, more importantly, unveiled new ATP/GTP-binding preferences of hundreds of nucleotide-binding proteins. Additionally, our strategy led to the identification of three and one unique nucleotide-binding motifs for kinases and GTP-binding proteins, respectively, and the characterizations of the nucleotide binding selectivities of individual motifs. Our strategy for capturing and characterizing ATP/GTP-binding proteins should be generally applicable for those proteins that can interact with other nucleotides. PMID:23413923

  18. Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Weih, F; Schmid, W; DeVack, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Luckow, B; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein is interacting with both of these sites. Two classes of CRE with different affinity for CREB are described. One class, including the TATCRE, is characterized by asymmetric and weak binding sites (CGTCA), whereas the second class containing symmetrical TGACGTCA sites shows a much higher binding affinity for CREB. Both classes show an increase in binding after phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA). An in vivo phosphorylation-dependent change in binding of CREB increases the occupancy of weak binding sites used for transactivation, such as the TATCRE, while high affinity sites may have constitutive binding of transcriptionally active and inactive CREB dimers, as demonstrated by in vivo footprinting at the PEPCK CRE. Thus, lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Images PMID:1354612

  19. Overcoming drug resistance by cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of a doxorubicin dimer with high DNA-binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Lelle, Marco; Freidel, Christoph; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Tabujew, Ilja; Schramm, Alexander; Musheev, Michael; Niehrs, Christof; Müllen, Klaus; Peneva, Kalina

    2017-04-21

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel bioconjugate, consisting of an octaarginine cell-penetrating peptide and a highly DNA-affine doxorubicin dimer. The linkage between the two components is composed of a cleavable disulfide bond, which enables the efficient intracellular delivery of the cytotoxic payload within the reductive environment of the cytosol, mediated through glutathione. To determine the DNA-binding affinity of the dimeric drug molecule, microscale thermophoresis was applied. This is the first utilization of this method to assess the binding interactions of an anthracycline drug with nucleic acids. The cytotoxic effect of the peptide-drug conjugate, studied with drug-sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant cancer cells, demonstrates that the bioconjugate can successfully overcome drug resistance in neuroblastoma cells.

  20. Phenylboronic acid-salicylhydroxamic acid bioconjugates. 2. Polyvalent immobilization of protein ligands for affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wiley, J P; Hughes, K A; Kaiser, R J; Kesicki, E A; Lund, K P; Stolowitz, M L

    2001-01-01

    Phenylboronic acid bioconjugates prepared from alkaline phosphatase by reaction with either 2,5-dioxopyrrolidinyl 3-[N-[3-(1,3,2-dioxaboran-2-yl)phenyl]carbamoyl]propanoate (PBA-XX-NHS) or 2,5-dioxopyrrolidinyl 6-[[3,5-di-(1,3,2-dioxaboran-2-yl)phenyl]carbonylamino]hexanoate (PDBA-X-NHS) were compared with respect to the efficiency with which they were immobilized on salicylhydroxamic acid-modified Sepharose (SHA-X-Sepharose) by boronic acid complex formation. When immobilized on moderate capacity SHA-X-Sepharose (5.4 micromol of SHA/mL of gel), PDBA-alkaline phosphatase conjugates were shown to be stable with respect to both the alkaline (pH 11.0) and acidic (pH 2.5) buffers utilized to recover anti-alkaline phosphatase during affinity chromatography. Boronic acid complex formation was compared to covalent immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on Affi-Gel 10 and Affi-Gel 15. PDBA-AP.SHA-X-Sepharose was shown to afford superior performance to both Affi-Gel 10 and Affi-Gel 15 with respect to immobilization of alkaline phosphatase, retention of anti-alkaline phosphatase and recovery of anti-alkaline phosphatase under alkaline conditions. High capacity SHA-X-Sepharose (> or = 7 micromol of SHA/mL of gel) was shown to afford superior performance to moderate capacity SHA-X-Sepharose (4.5 micromol of SHA/mL of gel) with respect to stability at pH 11.0 and pH 2.5 when a PDBA-alphaHuman IgG conjugate with a low incorporation ratio of only 1.5:1 was immobilized on SHA-X-Sepharose and subsequently utilized for affinity chromatography of Human IgG. The results are interpreted in terms of either a bivalent or trivalent interaction involving boronic acid complex formation.

  1. Imaging progesterone receptor in breast tumors: Synthesis and receptor binding affinity of fluoroalkyl-substituted analogs of Tanaproget

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Bing; Lee, Jae Hak; Mayne, Christopher G.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) is estrogen regulated, and PR levels in breast tumors can be used to predict the success of endocrine therapies targeting the estrogen receptor (ER). Tanaproget is a non-steroidal progestin agonist with very high PR binding affinity and excellent in vivo potency. When appropriately radiolabeled, it might be used to image PR-positive breast tumors non-invasively, by positron emission tomography (PET). We describe the synthesis and PR binding affinities of a series of fluoroalkyl-substituted 6-aryl-1,4-dihydrobenzo[d][1,3]oxazine-2-thiones, analogs of Tanaproget. Some of these compounds have subnanomolar binding affinities, higher than that of either Tanaproget itself or the high affinity PR ligand R5020. Structure-binding affinity relationships can be rationalized by molecular modeling of ligand complexes with PR, and the enantioselectivity of binding has been predicted. These compounds are being further evaluated as potential diagnostic PET imaging agents for breast cancer, and enantiomerically pure materials of defined stereochemistry are being prepared. PMID:20355713

  2. Dextran as a generally applicable multivalent scaffold for improving immunoglobulin-binding affinities of peptide and peptidomimetic ligands.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Jumpei; Sarkar, Mohosin; Kenrick, Sophia; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-08-20

    Molecules able to bind the antigen-binding sites of antibodies are of interest in medicine and immunology. Since most antibodies are bivalent, higher affinity recognition can be achieved through avidity effects in which a construct containing two or more copies of the ligand engages both arms of the immunoglobulin simultaneously. This can be achieved routinely by immobilizing antibody ligands at high density on solid surfaces, such as ELISA plates, but there is surprisingly little literature on scaffolds that routinely support bivalent binding of antibody ligands in solution, particularly for the important case of human IgG antibodies. Here we show that the simple strategy of linking two antigens with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer long enough to span the two arms of an antibody results in higher affinity binding in some, but not all, cases. However, we found that the creation of multimeric constructs in which several antibody ligands are displayed on a dextran polymer reliably provides much higher affinity binding than is observed with the monomer in all cases tested. Since these dextran conjugates are simple to construct, they provide a general and convenient strategy to transform modest affinity antibody ligands into high affinity probes. An additional advantage is that the antibody ligands occupy only a small number of the reactive sites on the dextran, so that molecular cargo can be attached easily, creating molecules capable of delivering this cargo to cells displaying antigen-specific receptors.

  3. Conformational features and binding affinities to Cripto, ALK7 and ALK4 of Nodal synthetic fragments.

    PubMed

    Calvanese, Luisa; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Caporale, Andrea; Focà, Annalia; Focà, Giuseppina; D'Auria, Gabriella; Falcigno, Lucia; Ruvo, Menotti

    2015-04-01

    Nodal, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is a potent embryonic morphogen also implicated in tumor progression. As for other TGF-βs, it triggers the signaling functions through the interaction with the extracellular domains of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and with the co-receptor Cripto. Recently, we reported the molecular models of Nodal in complex with its type I receptors (ALK4 and ALK7) as well as with Cripto, as obtained by homology modeling and docking simulations. From such models, potential binding epitopes have been identified. To validate such hypotheses, a series of mutated Nodal fragments have been synthesized. These peptide analogs encompass residues 44-67 of the Nodal protein, corresponding to the pre-helix loop and the H3 helix, and reproduce the wild-type sequence or bear some modifications to evaluate the hot-spot role of modified residues in the receptor binding. Here, we show the structural characterization in solution by CD and NMR of the Nodal peptides and the measurement of binding affinity toward Cripto by surface plasmon resonance. Data collected by both conformational analyses and binding measurements suggest a role for Y58 of Nodal in the recognition with Cripto and confirm that previously reported for E49 and E50. Surface plasmon resonance binding assays with recombinant proteins show that Nodal interacts in vitro also with ALK7 and ALK4 and preliminary data, generated using the Nodal synthetic fragments, suggest that Y58 of Nodal may also be involved in the recognition with these protein partners.

  4. The single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain of the GAGA protein flanked by basic residues is sufficient for high-affinity specific DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Pedone, P V; Ghirlando, R; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M; Felsenfeld, G; Omichinski, J G

    1996-01-01

    Specific DNA binding to the core consensus site GAGAGAG has been shown with an 82-residue peptide (residues 310-391) taken from the Drosophila transcription factor GAGA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was demonstrated that the minimal domain required for specific binding (residues 310-372) includes a single zinc finger of the Cys2-His2 family and a stretch of basic amino acids located on the N-terminal end of the zinc finger. In gel retardation assays, the specific binding seen with either the peptide or the whole protein is zinc dependent and corresponds to a dissociation constant of approximately 5 x 10(-9) M for the purified peptide. It has previously been thought that a single zinc finger of the Cys2-His2 family is incapable of specific, high-affinity binding to DNA. The combination of an N-terminal basic region with a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger in the GAGA protein can thus be viewed as a novel DNA binding domain. This raises the possibility that other proteins carrying only one Cys2-His2 finger are also capable of high-affinity specific binding to DNA. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8610125

  5. The Dac-tag, an affinity tag based on penicillin-binding protein 5.

    PubMed

    Lee, David Wei; Peggie, Mark; Deak, Maria; Toth, Rachel; Gage, Zoe Olivia; Wood, Nicola; Schilde, Christina; Kurz, Thimo; Knebel, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5), a product of the Escherichia coli gene dacA, possesses some β-lactamase activity. On binding to penicillin or related antibiotics via an ester bond, it deacylates and destroys them functionally by opening the β-lactam ring. This process takes several minutes. We exploited this process and showed that a fragment of PBP5 can be used as a reversible and monomeric affinity tag. At ambient temperature (e.g., 22°C), a PBP5 fragment binds rapidly and specifically to ampicillin Sepharose. Release can be facilitated either by eluting with 10mM ampicillin or in a ligand-free manner by incubation in the cold (1-10°C) in the presence of 5% glycerol. The "Dac-tag", named with reference to the gene dacA, allows the isolation of remarkably pure fusion protein from a wide variety of expression systems, including (in particular) eukaryotic expression systems.

  6. Screening major binding sites on human serum albumin by affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seung; Austin, John; Hage, David S

    2004-01-01

    A screening method is described for determining whether a drug or small solute has significant interactions at the two major binding sites on human serum albumin (HSA). This method uses affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) to perform a mobility shift assay, where the solute of interest is injected in both the presence of pH 7.4, 0.067 M phosphate buffer, and the same buffer containing a known concentration of HSA. Dextran is also used in the running buffer to adjust the mobility of HSA. Two types of modified HSA are used in this assay. The first is modified with 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide (HNB), which selectively blocks HSA's warfarin-azapropazone site. The second type of HSA is modified with tetranitromethane (TNM), which decreases binding at the indole-benzodiazepine site. By comparing the mobility of a solute in the presence of these two modified forms of HSA vs normal HSA, it is possible to detect solute interactions at these binding sites. This approach is illustrated using warfarin and ibuprofen as examples of test solutes.

  7. FMRFamide: low affinity inhibition of opioid binding to rabbit brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X.Z.; Raffa, R.B.

    1986-03-05

    FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH/sub 2/) was first isolated from the ganglia of molluscs by Price and Greenberg in 1977. The peptide was subsequently shown to have diverse actions on various types of molluscan and mammalian tissues. The presence of immunoreactive FMRFamide-like material (irFMRF) in multiple areas of rat brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract suggests that irFMRF may have a physiological role in mammals. Tang, Yang and Costa recently demonstrated that FMRFamide attenuates morphine antinociception in rats and postulated, based on this and several other lines of evidence, that irFMRF might be an endogenous opioid antagonist. In the present study, they tested the ability of FMRFamide to inhibit the binding of opioid receptor ligands to rabbit membrane preparations. FMRFamide inhibited the specific binding of both /sup 3/(H)-dihydromorphine and /sup 3/(H)-ethylketocyclazocine (IC/sub 50/ = 14 ..mu..M and 320 ..mu..M, respectively) in a dose-related manner, suggesting that FMRFamide may affect binding to at least two types of opioid receptors (mu and kappa). These data are consistent with the concept that irFMRF might act as an endogenous opioid antagonist. However, the low affinity of FMRFamide leaves open the possibility of another mechanism of opioid antagonism, such as neuromodulation.

  8. Determining force dependence of two-dimensional receptor-ligand binding affinity by centrifugation.

    PubMed Central

    Piper, J W; Swerlick, R A; Zhu, C

    1998-01-01

    Analyses of receptor-ligand interactions are important to the understanding of cellular adhesion. Traditional methods of measuring the three-dimensional (3D) dissociation constant (Kd) require at least one of the molecular species in solution and hence cannot be directly applied to the case of cell adhesion. We describe a novel method of measuring 2D binding characteristics of receptors and ligands that are attached to surfaces and whose bonds are subjected to forces. The method utilizes a common centrifugation assay to quantify adhesion. A model for the experiment has been formulated, solved exactly, and tested carefully. The model is stochastically based and couples the bond force to the binding affinity. The method was applied to examine tumor cell adherence to recombinant E-selectin. Satisfactory agreement was found between predictions and data. The estimated zero-force 2D Kd for E-selectin/carbohydrate ligand binding was approximately 5 x 10(3) microm(-2), and the bond interaction range was subangstrom. Our results also suggest that the number of bonds mediating adhesion was small (<5). PMID:9449350

  9. Structure-affinity relationship of flavones on binding to serum albumins: effect of hydroxyl groups on ring A.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianbo; Cao, Hui; Wang, Yuanfeng; Yamamoto, Koichiro; Wei, Xinlin

    2010-07-01

    Four flavones (flavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, and baicalein) sharing the same B- and C-ring structure but a different numbers of hydroxyl groups on the A-ring were studied for their affinities for BSA and HSA. The hydroxylation on ring A of flavones increased the binding constants (K(a)) and the number of binding sites (n) between flavones and serum albumins. The affinities of 7-hydroxyflavone for BSA and HSA were about 800 times and 40 times higher than that of flavone, respectively. It appears that the optimal number of hydroxyl groups introduced to the ring A of flavones is one. As more hydroxyl groups were introduced to positions at C-5, C-6, and/or C-7 of flavones, the affinities for serum albumins decrease. The critical energy transfer distances (R(0)) between the hydroxylated flavones (1-3 OH on the ring A) and serum albumins decreased with the increasing affinities for serum albumins.

  10. Two high-affinity ligand binding states of uterine estrogen receptor distinguished by modulation of hydrophobic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, T.W.; Li, C.M.; Zamah, N.M.; Besch, P.K.

    1987-02-10

    The steroid binding function of soluble (cytosolic) estrogen receptors from calf uteri was evaluated under conditions known to modify the extent of hydrophobic interaction with receptor-associated proteins. Receptor preparations were equilibrated into 6 M urea buffers and control buffers by chromatography through small columns of Sephadex G-25 or by dialysis at 0.6 /sup 0/C. Equilibrium dissociation constants (K/sub d/) and binding capacities (n) of experimental and control receptor preparations were determined by 13-point Scatchard analyses using concentrations of 17..beta..-(/sup 3/H)estradiol from 0.05 to 10 nM. Nonspecific binding was determined at each concentration by parallel incubations with a 200-fold molar excess of the receptor-specific competitor diethylstilbestrol. The control receptor population was consistently found to be a single class of binding sites with a high affinity for estradiol which was unaffected by G-25 chromatography, by dialysis, by dilution, or by the presence of 0.4 M KCl. However, equilibration into 6 M urea induced a discrete (10-fold) reduction in receptor affinity to reveal a second, thermodynamically stable, high-affinity binding state. The presence of 0.4 M KCl did not significantly influence the discrete change in receptor affinity induced by urea. The effects of urea on both receptor affinity and binding capacity were reversible, suggesting a lack of covalent modification. These results demonstrate nonenzymatic means by which not only the binding capacity but also the affinity of receptor for estradiol can be reversibly controlled, suggesting that high concentrations of urea might be more effectively utilized during the physicochemical characterization and purification of steroid receptor proteins.

  11. A molecular recognizing system of serotonin in rat fetal axonal growth cones: uptake and high affinity binding.

    PubMed

    Mercado, R; Hernández, J

    1992-09-18

    Axonal growth cone particles (AGCP) isolated from prenatal and postnatal rat brain had different high-affinity 5-HT uptake characteristics. In postnatal AGCP the uptake behaves as in the adult rat brain, while in the prenatal AGCP the uptake characteristics seem to be in a transitional stage. Also in prenatal AGCP we observed specific, high-affinity 5-HT binding sites. These results support the idea of an important role for 5-HT during axogenesis.

  12. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing.

  13. Identification of the high affinity binding site in the Streptococcus intermedius toxin intermedilysin for its membrane receptor, the human complement regulator CD59.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Timothy R; Ross, Kirsty S; Cowan, Graeme J M; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian; Harris, Claire L; Mitchell, Timothy J; Morgan, B Paul

    2009-04-01

    The unique species specificity of the bacterial cytolysin intermedilysin is explained by its requirement for the human complement regulator CD59 as the primary receptor. Binding studies using individual domains of intermedilysin mapped the CD59-binding site to domain 4 and swap mutants between human and rabbit (non-intermedilysin-binding) CD59 implicated a short sequence (residues 42-59) in human CD59 in binding intermedilysin. We set out to map more closely the CD59 binding site in intermedilysin. We first looked for regions of homology between domain 4 in intermedilysin and the terminal complement components that bind CD59, C8 and C9. A nine amino acid sequence immediately adjacent the undecapeptide segment in intermedilysin domain 4 matched (5 of 9 identical, 3 of 9 conserved) a sequence in C9. A peptide containing this sequence caused dose-dependent inhibition of intermedilysin-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and rendered erythrocytes more susceptible to complement lysis. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of intermedilysin binding to immobilized CD59 revealed saturable fast-on, fast-off binding and a calculated affinity of 4.9 nM. Substitution of three residues from the putative binding site caused a 5-fold reduction in lytic potency of intermedilysin and reduced affinity for immobilized CD59 by 2.5-fold. The demonstration that a peptide modeled on the CD59-binding site inhibits intermedilysin-mediated haemolysis leads us to suggest that such peptides might be useful in treating infections caused by intermedilysin-producing bacteria.

  14. Inhibitory GTP binding protein G/sub i/ regulates US -adrenoceptor affinity towards US -agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Marbach, I.; Levitzki, A.

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of S-49 lymphoma cell membranes with pertussis toxin (PT) causes a three-fold reduction of US -adrenoceptor (US AR) affinity towards isoproterenol. A similar treatment with cholera toxin (CT) does not cause such a modulation. The effects were studied by the detailed analysis of SVI-cyanopindolol (CYP) binding curves in the absence and presence of increasing agonist concentrations. Thus, the authors were able to compare in detail the effects of G/sub s/ and G/sub i/ on the agonist-associated state of the US AR. In contrast to these findings, PT treatment does not have any effect on the displacement of SVI-CYP by (-)isoproterenol. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory GTP protein G/sub i/ modulates the US AR affinity towards US -agonists. This might be due to the association of G/sub i/ with the agonist-bound US AR x G/sub s/ x C complex within the membrane. This hypothesis, as well as others, is under investigation.

  15. Docking simulations suggest that all- trans retinoic acid could bind to retinoid X receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are ligand-controlled transcription factors which heterodimerize with other nuclear receptors to regulate gene transcriptions associated with crucial biological events. 9- cis retinoic acid (9cRA), which transactivates RXRs, is believed to be an endogenous RXR ligand. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural ligand for retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which heterodimerize with RXRs. Although the concentration of 9cRA in tissues is very low, ATRA is relatively abundant and some reports show that ATRA activates RXRs. We computationally studied the possibility of ATRA binding to RXRs using two different docking methods with our developed programs to assess the binding affinities of naturally occurring retinoids. The simulations showed good correlations to the reported binding affinities of these molecules for RXRs and RARs.

  16. Prediction of protein-ligand binding affinity by free energy simulations: assumptions, pitfalls and expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Julien; Essex, Jonathan W.

    2010-08-01

    Many limitations of current computer-aided drug design arise from the difficulty of reliably predicting the binding affinity of a small molecule to a biological target. There is thus a strong interest in novel computational methodologies that claim predictions of greater accuracy than current scoring functions, and at a throughput compatible with the rapid pace of drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. Notably, computational methodologies firmly rooted in statistical thermodynamics have received particular attention in recent years. Yet free energy calculations can be daunting to learn for a novice user because of numerous technical issues and various approaches advocated by experts in the field. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current capabilities of free energy calculations and to discuss the applicability of this technology to drug discovery.

  17. Functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles with high-binding capacity for affinity separation of therapeutic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masthoff, Ingke-Christine; David, Florian; Wittmann, Christoph; Garnweitner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles with immobilized metal ligands were prepared for the separation of antibody fragments. First, iron oxide nanoparticles were produced in a solvothermal synthesis using triethylene glycol as solvent and iron(III) acetylacetonate as organic precursor. Via functionalization of the particles with priorly reacted 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and N α, N α-bis(carboxymethyl)- l-lysine (NTA), and charging with Ni2+, magnetic affinity adsorbents were obtained. The particles were applied to separate a His-tagged antibody fragment from a heterogeneous protein mixture of a microbial cultivation supernatant. Binding properties and specificity for purification of the target product ABF D1.3 scFv were optimized regarding the GNTA concentration and were found superior as compared to commercially available systems. A molar ratio of 1:2 Fe2O3:GNTA was most beneficial for the specific purification of the antibody fragment.

  18. Relative binding affinities of chlorophylls in peridinin-chlorophyll-protein reconstituted with heterochlorophyllous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brotosudarmo, T H P; Mackowski, S; Hofmann, E; Hiller, R G; Bräuchle, C; Scheer, H

    2008-01-01

    Peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP), containing differently absorbing chlorophyll derivatives, are good models with which to study energy transfer among monomeric chlorophylls (Chls) by both bulk and single-molecule spectroscopy. They can be obtained by reconstituting the N-terminal domain of the protein (N-PCP) with peridinin and chlorophyll mixtures. Upon dimerization of these "half-mers", homo- and heterochlorophyllous complexes are generated, that correspond structurally to monomeric protomers of native PCP from Amphidinium carterae. Heterochlorophyllous complexes contain two different Chls in the two halves of the complete structure. Here, we report reconstitution of N-PCP with binary mixtures of Chl a, Chl b, and [3-acetyl]-Chl a. The ratios of the pigments were varied in the reconstitution mixture, and relative binding constants were determined from quantification of these pigments in the reconstituted PCPs. We find higher affinities for both Chl b and [3-acetyl]-Chl a than for the native pigment, Chl a.

  19. A complex water network contributes to high-affinity binding in an antibody-antigen interface.

    PubMed

    Marino, S F; Olal, D; Daumke, O

    2016-03-01

    This data article presents an analysis of structural water molecules in the high affinity interaction between a potent tumor growth inhibiting antibody (fragment), J22.9-xi, and the tumor marker antigen CD269 (B cell maturation antigen, BCMA). The 1.89 Å X-ray crystal structure shows exquisite details of the binding interface between the two molecules, which comprises relatively few, mostly hydrophobic, direct contacts but many indirect interactions over solvent waters. These are partly or wholly buried in, and therefore part of, the interface. A partial description of the structure is included in an article on the tumor inhibiting effects of the antibody: "Potent anti-tumor response by targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) in a mouse model of multiple myeloma", Mol. Oncol. 9 (7) (2015) pp. 1348-58.

  20. Increased Peptide Contacts Govern High Affinity Binding of a Modified TCR Whilst Maintaining a Native pMHC Docking Mode.

    PubMed

    Cole, David K; Sami, Malkit; Scott, Daniel R; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Todorov, Penio T; Moysey, Ruth K; Jakobsen, Bent K; Boulter, Jonathan M; Baker, Brian M; Yi Li

    2013-01-01

    Natural T cell receptors (TCRs) generally bind to their cognate pMHC molecules with weak affinity and fast kinetics, limiting their use as therapeutic agents. Using phage display, we have engineered a high affinity version of the A6 wild-type TCR (A6wt), specific for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A(∗)0201) complexed with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 111-19 peptide (A2-Tax). Mutations in just 4 residues in the CDR3β loop region of the A6wt TCR were selected that improved binding to A2-Tax by nearly 1000-fold. Biophysical measurements of this mutant TCR (A6c134) demonstrated that the enhanced binding was derived through favorable enthalpy and a slower off-rate. The structure of the free A6c134 TCR and the A6c134/A2-Tax complex revealed a native binding mode, similar to the A6wt/A2-Tax complex. However, concordant with the more favorable binding enthalpy, the A6c134 TCR made increased contacts with the Tax peptide compared with the A6wt/A2-Tax complex, demonstrating a peptide-focused mechanism for the enhanced affinity that directly involved the mutated residues in the A6c134 TCR CDR3β loop. This peptide-focused enhanced TCR binding may represent an important approach for developing antigen specific high affinity TCR reagents for use in T cell based therapies.

  1. Determination of the minimal essential nucleotide sequence for diphtheria tox repressor binding by in vitro affinity selection.

    PubMed

    Tao, X; Murphy, J R

    1994-09-27

    The expression of diphtheria toxin in lysogenic toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae is controlled by the heavy metal ion-activated regulatory protein DtxR. In the presence of divalent heavy metal ions, DtxR specifically binds to the diphtheria tox operator and protects a 27-bp interrupted palindromic sequence from DNase I digestion. To determine the consensus DNA sequence for DtxR binding, we have used gel electrophoresis mobility-shift assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for in vitro affinity selection of DNA binding sequences from a universe of 6.9 x 10(10) variants. After 10 rounds of in vitro affinity selection, each round coupled with 30 cycles of PCR amplification, we isolated and characterized a family of DNA sequences that function as DtxR-responsive genetic elements both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, these DNA sequences were found to bind activated DtxR with an affinity similar to that of the wild-type tox operator. The DNA sequence analysis of 21 unique in vitro affinity-selected binding sites has revealed the minimal essential nucleotide sequence for DtxR binding to be a 9-bp palindrome separated by a single base pair.

  2. Differences between high-affinity forskolin binding sites in dopamine-riche and other regions of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Poat, J.A.; Cripps, H.E.; Iversen, L.L.

    1988-05-01

    Forskolin labelled with (/sup 3/H) bound to high- and low-affinity sites in the rat brain. The high-affinity site was discretely located, with highest densities in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercule, substantia nigra, hippocampus, and the molecular layers of the cerebellum. This site did not correlate well with the distribution of adenylate cyclase. The high-affinity striatal binding site may be associated with a stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Thus, the number of sites was increased by the addition of Mg/sup 2 +/ and guanylyl imidodiphosphate. Cholera toxin stereotaxically injected into rat striatum increased the number of binding sites, and no further increase was noted following the subsequent addition of guanyl nucleotide. High-affinity forskolin binding sites in non-dopamine-rich brain areas (hippocampus and cerebullum) were modulated in a qualitatively different manner by guanyl nucleotides. In these areas the number of binding sites was significantly reduced by the addition of guanyl nucleotide. These results suggest that forskolin may have a potential role in identifying different functional/structural guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

  3. Identification and properties of very high affinity brain membrane-binding sites for a neurotoxic phospholipase from the taipan venom

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeau, G.; Barhanin, J.; Schweitz, H.; Qar, J.; Lazdunski, M. )

    1989-07-05

    Four new monochain phospholipases were purified from the Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan) venom. Three of them were highly toxic when injected into mice brain. One of these neurotoxic phospholipases, OS2, was iodinated and used in binding experiments to demonstrate the presence of two families of specific binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes. The affinities were exceptionally high, Kd1 = 1.5 +/- 0.5 pM and Kd2 = 45 +/- 10 pM, and the maximal binding capacities were Bmax 1 = 1 +/- 0.4 and Bmax 2 = 3 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. Both binding sites were sensitive to proteolysis and demonstrated to be located on proteins of Mr 85,000-88,000 and 36,000-51,000 by cross-linking and photoaffinity labeling techniques. The binding of {sup 125}I-OS2 to synaptic membranes was dependent on Ca2+ ions and enhanced by Zn2+ ions which inhibit phospholipase activity. Competition experiments have shown that, except for beta-bungarotoxin, a number of known toxic snake or bee phospholipases have very high affinities for the newly identified binding sites. A good correlation (r = 0.80) was observed between toxicity and affinity but not between phospholipase activity and affinity.

  4. Novel Structural Parameters of Ig–Ag Complexes Yield a Quantitative Description of Interaction Specificity and Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Marillet, Simon; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Boudinot, Pierre; Cazals, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Antibody–antigen complexes challenge our understanding, as analyses to date failed to unveil the key determinants of binding affinity and interaction specificity. We partially fill this gap based on novel quantitative analyses using two standardized databases, the IMGT/3Dstructure-DB and the structure affinity benchmark. First, we introduce a statistical analysis of interfaces which enables the classification of ligand types (protein, peptide, and chemical; cross-validated classification error of 9.6%) and yield binding affinity predictions of unprecedented accuracy (median absolute error of 0.878 kcal/mol). Second, we exploit the contributions made by CDRs in terms of position at the interface and atomic packing properties to show that in general, VH CDR3 and VL CDR3 make dominant contributions to the binding affinity, a fact also shown to be consistent with the enthalpy–entropy compensation associated with preconfiguration of CDR3. Our work suggests that the affinity prediction problem could be partially solved from databases of high resolution crystal structures of complexes with known affinity. PMID:28232828

  5. Development and characterization of small bispecific albumin-binding domains with high affinity for ErbB3.

    PubMed

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Astrand, Mikael; Löfblom, John; Hober, Sophia

    2013-10-01

    Affinity proteins based on small scaffolds are currently emerging as alternatives to antibodies for therapy. Similarly to antibodies, they can be engineered to have high affinity for specific proteins. A potential problem with small proteins and peptides is their short in vivo circulation time, which might limit the therapeutic efficacy. To circumvent this issue, we have engineered bispecificity into an albumin-binding domain (ABD) derived from streptococcal Protein G. The inherent albumin binding was preserved while the opposite side of the molecule was randomized for selection of high-affinity binders. Here we present novel ABD variants with the ability to bind to the epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (ErbB3). Isolated candidates were shown to have an extraordinary thermal stability and affinity for ErbB3 in the nanomolar range. Importantly, they were also shown to retain their affinity to albumin, hence demonstrating that the intended strategy to engineer bispecific single-domain proteins against a tumor-associated receptor was successful. Moreover, competition assays revealed that the new binders could block the natural ligand Neuregulin-1 from binding to ErbB3, indicating a potential anti-proliferative effect. These new binders thus represent promising candidates for further development into ErbB3-signaling inhibitors, where the albumin interaction could result in prolonged in vivo half-life.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression profile, odorant affinity, and stability of two odorant-binding proteins in Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2017-02-01

    The polyembryonic endoparasitoid wasp Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is deployed successfully as a biocontrol agent for corn pest insects from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia in Europe and throughout Asia, including Japan, Korea, and China. The odorants are recognized, bound, and solubilized by odorant-binding protein (OBP) in the initial biochemical recognition steps in olfaction that transport them across the sensillum lymph to initiate behavioral response. In the present study, we examine the odorant-binding effects on thermal stability of McinOBP2, McinOBP3, and their mutant form that lacks the third disulfide bonds. Real-time PCR experiments indicate that these two are expressed mainly in adult antennae, with expression levels differing by sex. Odorant-binding affinities of aldehydes, terpenoids, and aliphatic alcohols were measured with circular dichroism spectroscopy based on changes in the thermal stability of the proteins upon their affinities to odorants. The obtained results reveal higher affinity of trans-caryophelle, farnesene, and cis-3-Hexen-1-ol exhibits to both wild and mutant McinOBP2 and McinOBP3. Although conformational flexibility of the mutants and shape of binding cavity make differences in odorant affinity between the wild-type and mutant, it suggested that lacking the third disulfide bond in mutant proteins may have chance to incorrect folded structures that reduced the affinity to these odorants. In addition, CD spectra clearly indicate proteins enriched with α-helical content.

  7. Profiling of drug binding proteins by monolithic affinity chromatography in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuepei; Wang, Tongdan; Zhang, Hanzhi; Han, Bing; Wang, Lishun; Kang, Jingwu

    2014-09-12

    A new approach for proteome-wide profiling drug binding proteins by using monolithic capillary affinity chromatography in combination with HPLC-MS/MS is reported. Two immunosuppresive drugs, namely FK506 and cyclosporin A, were utilized as the experimental models for proof-of-concept. The monolithic capillary affinity columns were prepared through a single-step copolymerization of the drug derivatives with glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate. The capillary chromatography with the affinity monolithic column facilitates the purification of the drug binding proteins from the cell lysate. By combining the capillary affinity column purification and the shot-gun proteomic analysis, totally 33 FK506- and 32 CsA-binding proteins including all the literature reported target proteins of these two drugs were identified. Among them, two proteins, namely voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 and serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PGAM5 were verified by using the recombinant proteins. The result supports that the monolithic capillary affinity chromatography is likely to become a valuable tool for profiling of binding proteins of small molecular drugs as well as bioactive compounds.

  8. Neuronal acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila: the ARD protein is a component of a high-affinity alpha-bungarotoxin binding complex.

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, P; Hermans-Borgmeyer, I; Betz, H; Gundelfinger, E D

    1988-01-01

    The ard gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a structural homologue of vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) and is expressed exclusively in nervous tissue. To study the nature of the ARD protein, antibodies were raised against fusion constructs containing two regions of this polypeptide. One segment is putatively extracellular (amino acids 65-212), the other domain is exposed to the cytoplasm (amino acids 305-444). The ARD antisera obtained served to investigate the physical relationship between the ARD protein and alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Btx) binding sites occurring in Drosophila. Two different high-affinity binding sites for [125I]alpha-Btx, a highly potent antagonist of vertebrate muscle AChR, were detected in fly head membranes. Equilibrium binding and kinetic studies revealed Kd values of approximately 0.1 nM (site 1) and approximately 4 nM (site 2). The estimated maximal binding (Bmax) was approximately 240 and 1080 fmol/mg protein respectively. Both sites exhibited a nicotinic-cholinergic pharmacology. Immunoprecipitation experiments with the ARD antisera indicated that the ARD protein is associated with the [125I]alpha-Btx binding site 1 only. These data support the previously postulated hypothesis that the ARD protein is part of an alpha-Btx binding neuronal AChR of Drosophila. Furthermore, they indicate heterogeneity in nicotinic-cholinergic binding sites in the insect nervous system. PMID:3141150

  9. Affinity of ceftobiprole for penicillin-binding protein 2b in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with various susceptibilities to penicillin.

    PubMed

    Davies, Todd A; He, Wenping; Bush, Karen; Flamm, Robert K

    2010-10-01

    Wild-type penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2b from penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae had high affinity for ceftobiprole and penicillin (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC(50)s] of ≤0.15 μg/ml) but not ceftriaxone (IC(50) of >8 μg/ml). In clinical isolates, ceftobiprole and PBP 2b affinities were reduced 15- to 30-fold with a Thr-446-Ala substitution and further still with an additional Ala-619-Gly PBP 2b substitution. Ceftobiprole remained active (MICs of ≤1 μg/ml) against all strains tested and behaved more like penicillin than ceftriaxone with respect to PBP 2b binding.

  10. Cloning and expression of two distinct high-affinity receptors cross-reacting with acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, C A; Crumley, G; Bellot, F; Kaplow, J M; Searfoss, G; Ruta, M; Burgess, W H; Jaye, M; Schlessinger, J

    1990-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of at least seven closely related polypeptide mitogens which exert their activities by binding and activation of specific cell surface receptors. Unanswered questions have been whether there are multiple FGF receptors and what factors determine binding specificity and biological response. We report the complete cDNA cloning of two human genes previously designated flg and bek. These genes encode two similar but distinct cell surface receptors comprised of an extracellular domain with three immunoglobulin-like regions, a single transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic portion containing a tyrosine kinase domain with a typical kinase insert. The expression of these two cDNAs in transfected NIH 3T3 cells led to the biosynthesis of proteins of 150 kd and 135 kd for flg and bek, respectively. Direct binding experiments with radiolabeled acidic FGF (aFGF) or basic FGF (bFGF), inhibition of binding with native growth factors, and Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated that bek and flg bind either aFGF or bFGF with dissociation constants of (2-15) x 10(-11) M. The high affinity binding of two distinct growth factors to each of two different receptors represents a unique double redundancy without precedence among polypeptide growth factor-receptor interactions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1697263

  11. Modulatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids on the binding of glucocorticoids to rat liver glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Vallette, G; Vanet, A; Sumida, C; Nunez, E A

    1991-09-01

    Binding of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone to the rat liver cytosol glucocorticoid receptor was inhibited by physiological concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids as a function of increasing dose, degree of unsaturation, and chain length of the fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most potent inhibitors. Scatchard analysis and Line-weaver-Burk plots of the binding data revealed that both the association constants and number of binding sites decreased and that polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibition was of a mixed non-competitive type. The dissociation rate constant of [3H]dexamethasone from glucocorticoid receptors was increased by up to 10 times in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid, whereas a competitive inhibitor like the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 38486 had no effect. Moreover, sucrose density gradient analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid inhibited the binding of [3H] dexamethasone to both the 8.8S and 4S forms. The results strongly suggest that unsaturated fatty acids are interacting at a site on the receptor different from the hormone binding site and the heat shock protein and that by binding to a second site unsaturated fatty acids greatly change the conformation of the hormone binding site to reduce its affinity for the hormone, either partially or completely depending on the concentration and the class of the fatty acid.

  12. Structural basis for the differential binding affinities of the HsfBD1 and HsfBD2 domains in the Haemophilus influenzae Hsf adhesin.

    PubMed

    Radin, Jana N; Grass, Susan A; Meng, Guoyu; Cotter, Shane E; Waksman, Gabriel; St Geme, Joseph W

    2009-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific gram-negative coccobacillus that causes a variety of human infections ranging from localized respiratory infections to invasive diseases. Hsf is the major nonpilus adhesin in encapsulated strains of H. influenzae and belongs to the trimeric autotransporter family of proteins. The Hsf protein contains two highly homologous binding domains, designated HsfBD1 and HsfBD2. In this study we characterized the differential binding properties of HsfBD1 and HsfBD2. In assays using HeLa cells, we found that bacteria expressing either full-length Hsf or HsfBD1 by itself adhered at high levels, while bacteria expressing HsfBD2 by itself adhered at low levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy and a cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified proteins revealed that the binding affinity was significantly higher for HsfBD1 than for HsfBD2. Purified HsfBD1 was able to completely block adherence by bacteria expressing either HsfBD1 or HsfBD2, while purified HsfBD2 was able to block adherence by bacteria expressing HsfBD2 but had minimal activity against bacteria expressing HsfBD1. Conversion of the residue at position 1935 in the HsfBD1 binding pocket from Asp to Glu resulted in HsfBD2-like binding properties, and conversion of the residue at position 569 in the HsfBD2 binding pocket from Glu to Asp resulted in HsfBD1-like binding properties, as assessed by adherence assays with recombinant bacteria and by immunofluorescence microscopy with purified proteins. This work demonstrates the critical role of a single amino acid in the core of the binding pocket in determining the relative affinities of the HsfBD1 and HsfBD2 binding domains.

  13. The kangaroo cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor binds insulin-like growth factor II with low affinity.

    PubMed

    Yandell, C A; Dunbar, A J; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z

    1999-09-17

    The mammalian cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) binds mannose 6-phosphate-bearing glycoproteins and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II. However, the CI-MPR from the opossum has been reported to bind bovine IGF-II with low affinity (Dahms, N. M., Brzycki-Wessell, M. A., Ramanujam, K. S., and Seetharam, B. (1993) Endocrinology 133, 440-446). This may reflect the use of a heterologous ligand, or it may represent the intrinsic binding affinity of this receptor. To examine the binding of IGF-II to a marsupial CI-MPR in a homologous system, we have previously purified kangaroo IGF-II (Yandell, C. A., Francis, G. L., Wheldrake, J. F., and Upton, Z. (1998) J. Endocrinol. 156, 195-204), and we now report the purification and characterization of the CI-MPR from kangaroo liver. The interaction of the kangaroo CI-MPR with IGF-II has been examined by ligand blotting, radioreceptor assay, and real-time biomolecular interaction analysis. Using both a heterologous and homologous approach, we have demonstrated that the kangaroo CI-MPR has a lower binding affinity for IGF-II than its eutherian (placental mammal) counterparts. Furthermore, real-time biomolecular interaction analysis revealed that the kangaroo CI-MPR has a higher affinity for kangaroo IGF-II than for human IGF-II. The cDNA sequence of the kangaroo CI-MPR indicates that there is considerable divergence in the area corresponding to the IGF-II binding site of the eutherian receptor. Thus, the acquisition of a high-affinity binding site for regulating IGF-II appears to be a recent event specific to the eutherian lineage.

  14. A Rigid Hinge Region Is Necessary for High-Affinity Binding of Dimannose to Cyanovirin and Associated Constructs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Bolia, Ashini; Maxwell, Jason D; Bobkov, Andrey A; Ghirlanda, Giovanna; Ozkan, S Banu; Margulis, Claudio J

    2015-11-24

    Mutations in the hinge region of cyanovirin-N (CVN) dictate its preferential oligomerization state. Constructs with the Pro51Gly mutation preferentially exist as monomers, whereas wild-type cyanovirin can form domain-swapped dimers under certain conditions. Because the hinge region is an integral part of the high-affinity binding site of CVN, we investigated whether this mutation affects the shape, flexibility, and binding affinity of domain B for dimannose. Our studies indicate that the capability of monomeric wild-type CVN to resist mechanical perturbations is enhanced when compared to that of constructs in which the hinge region is more flexible. Our computational results also show that enhanced flexibility leads to blocking of the binding site by allowing different rotational isomeric states of Asn53. Moreover, at higher temperatures, this observed flexibility leads to an interaction between Asn53 and Asn42, further hindering access to the binding site. On the basis of these results, we predicted that binding affinity for dimannose would be more favorable for cyanovirin constructs containing a wild-type hinge region, whereas affinity would be impaired in the case of mutants containing Pro51Gly. Experimental characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry of a set of cyanovirin mutants confirms this hypothesis. Those possessing the Pro51Gly mutation are consistently inferior binders.

  15. Nanofluidic Fluorescence Microscopy (NFM) for real-time monitoring of protein binding kinetics and affinity studies.

    PubMed

    Teerapanich, Pattamon; Pugnière, Martine; Henriquet, Corinne; Lin, Yii-Lih; Chou, Chia-Fu; Leïchlé, Thierry

    2017-02-15

    Kinetic monitoring of protein interactions offers insights to their corresponding functions in cellular processes. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is the current standard tool used for label-free kinetic assays; however, costly and sophisticated setups are required, decreasing its accessibility to research laboratories. We present a cost-effective nanofluidic-based immunosensor for low-noise real-time kinetic measurement of fluorescent-labeled protein binding. With the combination of fluorescence microscopy and reversed buffer flow operation, association and dissociation kinetics can be accessed in one single experiment without extra buffer loading step, which results in a simplified operation and reduced time of analysis compared to typical microfluidic immunoassays. Kinetic constants of two representative protein-ligand binding pairs (streptavidin/biotin; IgG/anti-IgG) were quantified. The good agreement of extracted rate constants with literature values and analogous SPR measurements indicates that this approach is applicable to study protein interactions of medium- and high-affinities with a limit of detection down to 1 pM, regardless of the analyte size.

  16. Evolved Streptavidin Mutants Reveal Key Role of Loop Residue in High-affinity Binding

    SciTech Connect

    M Magalhaes; C Melo Czekster; R Guan; V Malashkevich; S Almo; M Levy

    2011-12-31

    We have performed a detailed analysis of streptavidin variants with altered specificity towards desthiobiotin. In addition to changes in key residues which widen the ligand binding pocket and accommodate the more structurally flexible desthiobiotin, the data revealed the role of a key, non-active site mutation at the base of the flexible loop (S52G) which slows dissociation of this ligand by approximately sevenfold. Our data suggest that this mutation results in the loss of a stabilizing contact which keeps this loop open and accessible in the absence of ligand. When this mutation was introduced into the wild-type protein, destabilization of the opened loop conferred a {approx}10-fold decrease in both the on-rate and off-rate for the ligand biotin-4-fluoroscein. A similar effect was observed when this mutation was added to a monomeric form of this protein. Our results provide key insight into the role of the streptavidin flexible loop in ligand binding and maintaining high affinity interactions.

  17. Multisite phosphorylation of the NDC80 complex gradually tunes its microtubule-binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Mick, Jeanne E.; Maslennikov, Evgeny; Nikashin, Boris; DeLuca, Jennifer G.; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule (MT) attachment to kinetochores is vitally important for cell division, but how these interactions are controlled by phosphorylation is not well known. We used quantitative approaches in vitro combined with molecular dynamics simulations to examine phosphoregulation of the NDC80 complex, a core kinetochore component. We show that the outputs from multiple phosphorylation events on the unstructured tail of its Hec1 subunit are additively integrated to elicit gradual tuning of NDC80-MT binding both in vitro and in silico. Conformational plasticity of the Hec1 tail enables it to serve as a phosphorylation-controlled rheostat, providing a new paradigm for regulating the affinity of MT binders. We also show that cooperativity of NDC80 interactions is weak and is unaffected by NDC80 phosphorylation. This in vitro finding strongly supports our model that independent molecular binding events to MTs by individual NDC80 complexes, rather than their structured oligomers, regulate the dynamics and stability of kinetochore-MT attachments in dividing cells. PMID:25808492

  18. Computation of affinity and selectivity: Binding of 2,4-diaminopteridine and 2,4-diaminoquinazoline inhibitors to dihydrofolate reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelius, John; Graffner-Nordberg, Malin; Hansson, Tomas; Hallberg, Anders; Åqvist, Johan

    1998-03-01

    Binding energy calculations for complexes of mutant and wild-type human dihydrofolate reductases with 2,4-diaminopteridine and 2,4-diaminoquinazoline inhibitors are reported. Quantitative insight into binding energetics of these molecules is obtained from calculations based on force field energy evaluation and thermal sampling by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated affinity of methotrexate for wild-type and mutant enzymes is reasonably well reproduced. Truncation of the methotrexate glutamate tail results in a loss of affinity by several orders of magnitude. No major difference in binding strength is predicted between the pteridines and the quinazolines, while the N-methyl group present in methotrexate appears to confer significantly stronger binding. The recent improvement, which is used here, of our linear interaction energy method for binding affinity prediction, as well as problems with treating charged and flexible ligands are discussed. This approach should be suitable in a drug discovery context for prediction of binding energies of new inhibitors prior to their synthesis, when some information about the binding mode is available.

  19. Crystal structure and ligand affinity of avidin in the complex with 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelczyk, Paweł; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Avidin is a protein found in egg white that binds numerous organic compounds with high affinity, especially biotin and its derivatives. Due to its extraordinary affinity for its ligands, avidin is extensively used in biotechnology. X-ray crystallography and fluorescence-based biophysical techniques were used to show that avidin binds the dye 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA) with a lower affinity than biotin. The apparent dissociation constant determined for the avidin complex with HABA by microscale thermophoresis (MST) is 4.12 μM. The crystal structure of avidin-HABA complex was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å (PDB entry 5chk). The crystals belong to a hexagonal system, in the space group P6422. In that structure, the hydrazone tautomer of HABA is bound at the bottom part of the central calyx near the polar residues. We show interactions of the dye with avidin and compare them with the previously reported avidin-biotin complex.

  20. Alkali metal cation binding affinities of cytosine in the gas phase: revisited.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Rodgers, M T

    2014-08-14

    Binding of metal cations to the nucleobases can influence base pairing, base stacking and nucleobase tautomerism. Gas-phase condensation of dc discharge generated alkali metal cations and thermally vaporized cytosine (DC/FT) has been found to produce kinetically trapped excited tautomeric conformations of the M(+)(cytosine) complexes, which influences the threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) behavior. In order to elucidate the effects of the size of alkali metal cation on the strength of binding to the canonical form of cytosine, the binding affinities of Na(+) and K(+) to cytosine are re-examined here, and studies are extended to include Rb(+) and Cs(+) again using TCID techniques. The M(+)(cytosine) complexes are generated in an electrospray ionization source, which has been shown to produce ground-state tautomeric conformations of M(+)(cytosine). The energy-dependent cross sections are interpreted to yield bond dissociation energies (BDEs) using an analysis that includes consideration of unimolecular decay rates, the kinetic and internal energy distributions of the reactants, and multiple M(+)(cytosine)-Xe collisions. Revised BDEs for the Na(+)(cytosine) and K(+)(cytosine) complexes exceed those previously measured by 31.9 and 25.5 kJ mol(-1), respectively, consistent with the hypothesis proposed by Yang and Rodgers that excited tautomeric conformations are accessed when the complexes are generated by DC/FT ionization. Experimentally measured BDEs are compared to theoretical values calculated at the B3LYP and MP2(full) levels of theory using the 6-311+G(2d,2p)_HW* and def2-TZVPPD basis sets. The B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level of theory is found to provide the best agreement with the measured BDEs, suggesting that this level of theory can be employed to provide reliable energetics for similar metal-ligand systems.

  1. Disease-associated mutation in SRSF2 misregulates splicing by altering RNA-binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lieu, Yen K.; Ali, Abdullah M.; Penson, Alex; Reggio, Kathryn S.; Rabadan, Raul; Raza, Azra; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Manley, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) is an RNA-binding protein that plays important roles in splicing of mRNA precursors. SRSF2 mutations are frequently found in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and certain leukemias, but how these mutations affect SRSF2 function has only begun to be examined. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease to introduce the P95H mutation to SRSF2 in K562 leukemia cells, generating an isogenic model so that splicing alterations can be attributed solely to mutant SRSF2. We found that SRSF2 (P95H) misregulates 548 splicing events (<1% of total). Of these events, 374 involved the inclusion of cassette exons, and the inclusion was either increased (206) or decreased (168). We detected a specific motif (UCCA/UG) enriched in the more-included exons and a distinct motif (UGGA/UG) in the more-excluded exons. RNA gel shift assays showed that a mutant SRSF2 derivative bound more tightly than its wild-type counterpart to RNA sites containing UCCAG but bound less tightly to UGGAG sites. Thus in most cases the pattern of exon inclusion or exclusion correlated with stronger or weaker RNA binding, respectively. We further show that the P95H mutation does not affect other functions of SRSF2, i.e., protein–protein interactions with key splicing factors. Our results thus demonstrate that the P95H mutation positively or negatively alters the binding affinity of SRSF2 for cognate RNA sites in target transcripts, leading to misregulation of exon inclusion. Our findings shed light on the mechanism of the disease-associated SRSF2 mutation in splicing regulation and also reveal a group of misspliced mRNA isoforms for potential therapeutic targeting. PMID:26261309

  2. Disease-associated mutation in SRSF2 misregulates splicing by altering RNA-binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Lieu, Yen K; Ali, Abdullah M; Penson, Alex; Reggio, Kathryn S; Rabadan, Raul; Raza, Azra; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Manley, James L

    2015-08-25

    Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) is an RNA-binding protein that plays important roles in splicing of mRNA precursors. SRSF2 mutations are frequently found in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and certain leukemias, but how these mutations affect SRSF2 function has only begun to be examined. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease to introduce the P95H mutation to SRSF2 in K562 leukemia cells, generating an isogenic model so that splicing alterations can be attributed solely to mutant SRSF2. We found that SRSF2 (P95H) misregulates 548 splicing events (<1% of total). Of these events, 374 involved the inclusion of cassette exons, and the inclusion was either increased (206) or decreased (168). We detected a specific motif (UCCA/UG) enriched in the more-included exons and a distinct motif (UGGA/UG) in the more-excluded exons. RNA gel shift assays showed that a mutant SRSF2 derivative bound more tightly than its wild-type counterpart to RNA sites containing UCCAG but bound less tightly to UGGAG sites. Thus in most cases the pattern of exon inclusion or exclusion correlated with stronger or weaker RNA binding, respectively. We further show that the P95H mutation does not affect other functions of SRSF2, i.e., protein-protein interactions with key splicing factors. Our results thus demonstrate that the P95H mutation positively or negatively alters the binding affinity of SRSF2 for cognate RNA sites in target transcripts, leading to misregulation of exon inclusion. Our findings shed light on the mechanism of the disease-associated SRSF2 mutation in splicing regulation and also reveal a group of misspliced mRNA isoforms for potential therapeutic targeting.

  3. Sperm in poor quality semen from bulls during heat stress have a lower affinity for binding hydrogen-3 heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Ax, R.L.; Gilbert, G.R.; Shook, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Binding assays with (/sup 3/H) heparin were performed using spermatozoa collected prior to, during, and following summer heat stress to dairy bulls. Ejaculates collected in August 1983 after a period of ambient temperatures exceeding 29.4/sup 0/C exhibited a high frequency of abnormal sperm, and motility was reduced in some samples. Sperm in samples collected during heat stress possessed dissociation constants for binding (/sup 3/H) heparin ranging from 134.5 to 163.2 nmol. In contrast, sperm in semen collected prior to and after heat stress had significantly lower dissociation constants (higher affinity) for (/sup 3/H)heparin, 12.9 to 56.4 nmol. The number of binding sites for (/sup 3/H) heparin on sperm did not change among collection periods. It was concluded that the binding affinity for (/sup 3/H) heparin may reflect membrane integrity of bull sperm.

  4. Omega-conotoxin GVIA binding to a high-affinity receptor in brain: characterization, calcium sensitivity, and solubilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.A.; Snowman, A.M.; Biswas, A.; Olivera, B.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    We describe unique, high-affinity binding sites for omega(/sup 125/I)conotoxin GVIA in membranes from rat brain and rabbit sympathetic ganglia which appear to be primarily associated with N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. The dissociation constant (KD) for the toxin in rat brain membranes is 60 pM. Physiologic extracellular concentrations of calcium inhibit toxin binding noncompetitively (IC50 = 0.2 mM). The regional distribution of the binding sites in rat brain differs markedly from that of dihydropyridine calcium antagonist receptors associated with L-type calcium channels. In detergent-solubilized brain membranes, toxin binding retains the same affinity, specificity, and ionic sensitivity as in particulate preparations.

  5. Elucidating the Influence of Gold Nanoparticles on the Binding of Salvianolic Acid B and Rosmarinic Acid to Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xin; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid are two main water-soluble active ingredients from Salvia miltiorrhiza with important pharmacological activities and clinical applications. The interactions between salvianolic acid B (or rosmarinic acid) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence and absence of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with three different sizes were investigated by using biophysical methods for the first time. Experimental results proved that two components quenched the fluorescence of BSA mainly through a static mechanism irrespective of the absence or presence of Au NPs. The presence of Au NPs decreased the binding constants of salvianolic acid B with BSA from 27.82% to 10.08%, while Au NPs increased the affinities of rosmarinic acid for BSA from 0.4% to 14.32%. The conformational change of BSA in the presence of Au NPs (caused by a noncompetitive binding between Au NPs and drugs at different albumin sites) induced changeable affinity and binding distance between drugs and BSA compared with no Au NPs. The competitive experiments revealed that the site I (subdomain IIA) of BSA was the primary binding site for salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid. Additionally, two compounds may induce conformational and micro-environmental changes of BSA. The results would provide valuable binding information between salvianolic acid B (or rosmarinic acid) and BSA, and also indicated that the Au NPs could alter the interaction mechanism and binding capability of drugs to BSA, which might be beneficial to understanding the pharmacokinetics and biological activities of the two drugs. PMID:25861047

  6. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. )

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  7. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid.

    PubMed

    James, W M; Emerick, M C; Agnew, W S

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including alpha-(2----8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis alpha-(2----8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3200 pmol of [3H]TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of approximately 285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. We further describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  8. Insulin and epidermal growth factor-urogastrone: Affinity crosslinking to specific binding sites in rat liver membranes

    PubMed Central

    Sahyoun, N.; Hock, R. A.; Hollenberg, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    Both insulin and human epidermal growth factor-urogastrone (EGF/URO) can be covalently linked to specific rat liver membrane binding sites by glutaraldehyde coupling followed by sodium borohydride reduction to yield affinity-labeled membrane constituents sufficiently stable for solubilization and further analysis by various techniques. Solubilization of membranes covalently labeled with 125I-labeled insulin yields a component with chromatographic properties identical to those of a soluble insulin receptor characterized in previous studies. A second soluble insulin-binding component that is not revealed by the affinity-labeling method and that has not yet been reported can also be detected. Membranes similarly labeled with 125I-labeled EGF/URO yield one major and two minor ligand-specific soluble (Triton X-100) affinity-labeled components, as detected by chromatography on Sepharose 6B. Further analysis of the EGF/URO-labeled components by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose, by disc gel electrophoresis, and by enzymatic digestion suggests that the major specific binding component for EGF/URO in liver membranes is a glycoprotein subunit of approximately 100,000 daltons that possesses a 20,000-dalton portion inaccessible to proteolytic cleavage when the subunit is anchored in the membrane. The affinity labeling approach described should prove of use for the study of other polypeptide receptors that, like the EGF/URO receptor, lose their ligand recognition property subsequent to membrane solubilization. PMID:205865

  9. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  10. Recombinant human nerve growth factor is biologically active and labels novel high-affinity binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Altar, C.A.; Burton, L.E.; Bennett, G.L.; Dugich-Djordjevic, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Iodinated recombinant human nerve growth factor (125I-rhNGF) stimulated neurite formation in PC12 cell cultures with a half-maximal potency of 35-49 pg/ml, compared with 39-52 pg/ml for rhNGF. In quantitative ligand autoradiography, the in vitro equilibrium binding of 125I-rhNGF to brain sections showed a 10-fold regional variation in density and was saturable, reversible, and specifically displaced by up to 74% with rhNGF or murine NGF (muNGF). At equilibrium, 125I-rhNGF bound to these sites with high affinity and low capacity (Bmax less than or equal to 13.2 fmol/mg of protein). Calculation of 125I-rhNGF binding affinity by kinetic methods gave average Kd values of 24 and 31 pM. Computer-generated maps revealed binding in brain regions not identified previously with 125I-muNGF, including hippocampus; dentate gyrus; amygdala; paraventricular thalamus; frontal, parietal, occipital, and cingulate cortices; nucleus accumbens; olfactory tubercle; subiculum; pineal gland; and medial geniculate nucleus. NGF binding sites were distributed in a 2-fold increasing medial-lateral gradient in the caudate-putamen and a 2-fold lateral-medial gradient in the nucleus accumbens. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were also found in most areas labeled by 125I-muNGF, including the interpedunucular nucleus, cerebellum, forebrain cholinergic nuclei, caudoventral caudate-putamen, and trigeminal nerve nucleus. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were absent from areas replete with low-affinity NGF binding sites, including circumventricular organs, myelinated fiber bundles, and choroid plexus. The present analysis provides an anatomical differentiation of high-affinity 125I-rhNGF binding sites and greatly expands the number of brain structures that may respond to endogenous NGF or exogenously administered rhNGF.

  11. Disease-associated mutant alpha-actinin-4 reveals a mechanism for regulating its F-actin-binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Weins, Astrid; Schlondorff, Johannes S; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Denker, Bradley M; Hartwig, John H; Stossel, Thomas P; Pollak, Martin R

    2007-10-09

    Alpha-actinin-4 is a widely expressed protein that employs an actin-binding site with two calponin homology domains to crosslink actin filaments (F-actin) in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner in vitro. An inherited, late-onset form of kidney failure is caused by point mutations in the alpha-actinin-4 actin-binding domain. Here we show that alpha-actinin-4/F-actin aggregates, observed in vivo in podocytes of humans and mice with disease, likely form as a direct result of the increased actin-binding affinity of the protein. We document that exposure of a buried actin-binding site 1 in mutant alpha-actinin-4 causes an increase in its actin-binding affinity, abolishes its Ca(2+) regulation in vitro, and diverts its normal localization from actin stress fibers and focal adhesions in vivo. Inactivation of this buried actin-binding site returns the affinity of the mutant to that of the WT protein and abolishes aggregate formation in cells. In vitro, actin filaments crosslinked by the mutant alpha-actinin-4 exhibit profound changes of structural and biomechanical properties compared with WT alpha-actinin-4. On a molecular level, our findings elucidate the physiological importance of a dynamic interaction of alpha-actinin with F-actin in podocytes in vivo. We propose that a conformational change with full exposure of actin-binding site 1 could function as a switch mechanism to regulate the actin-binding affinity of alpha-actinin and possibly other calponin homology domain proteins under physiological conditions.

  12. Rat α-Fetoprotein binding affinities of a large set of structurally diverse chemicals elucidated the relationships between structures and binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huixiao; Branham, William S; Dial, Stacey L; Moland, Carrie L; Fang, Hong; Shen, Jie; Perkins, Roger; Sheehan, Daniel; Tong, Weida

    2012-11-19

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals interfere with the endocrine system in animals, including humans, to exert adverse effects. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through the binding of receptors such as the estrogen receptor (ER) in target cells. The concentration of any chemical in serum is important for its entry into the target cells to bind the receptors. α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is a major transport protein in rodent serum that can bind with estrogens and thus change a chemical's availability for entrance into the target cell. Sequestration of an estrogen in the serum can alter the chemical's potential for disrupting estrogen receptor-mediated responses. To better understand endocrine disruption, we developed a competitive binding assay using rat amniotic fluid, which contains very high levels of AFP, and measured the binding to the rat AFP for 125 structurally diverse chemicals, most of which are known to bind ER. Fifty-three chemicals were able to bind the rat AFP in the assay, while 72 chemicals were determined to be nonbinders. Observations from closely examining the relationship between the binding data and structures of the tested chemicals are rationally explained in a manner consistent with proposed binding regions of rat AFP in the literature. The data reported here represent the largest data set of structurally diverse chemicals tested for rat AFP binding. The data assist in elucidating binding interactions and mechanisms between chemicals and rat AFP and, in turn, assist in the evaluation of the endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals.

  13. Metal ion blockage of tritium incorporation into gamma-carboxyglutamic acid of prothrombin. Stoichiometry of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid to Gd3+ for the high affinity sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, S.P.; Saini, R.; Katz, A.; Cai, G.Z.; Maki, S.L.; Brodsky, G.L.

    1988-07-15

    Prothrombin possesses two high affinity and four low affinity gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-dependent gadolinium binding sites. Earlier work has shown that tritium can be specifically incorporated at the gamma-carbon of Gla in proteins at pH 5. In the present work we show that inclusion of saturating concentrations of Ca2+ in nondenaturing buffer systems ranging from pH 5.5 to 8.5 prevents the exchange of tritium into all 10 Gla residues of prothrombin. Similarly, saturating concentrations of Gd3+ prevent tritium incorporation into Gla at pH 5.5. Positive cooperativity was observed for the binding of Gd3+ to human prothrombin (at pH 5.5) for the two high affinity sites (Kd congruent to 35 nM). The four low affinity sites bind Gd3+ with a Kd congruent to 5 microM. Incubation of prothrombin ranging in concentrations from 10 to 40 microM with 2 eq of Gd3+ at pH 5.5 prevents 5.7 (average of seven determinations) Gla residues from tritium incorporation. Sedimentation velocity experiments conducted at pH 5.5 indicate that prothrombin in the presence of saturating concentrations of Gd3+ polymerizes, most likely, to a trimer. Further, in the presence of 2 eq of Gd3+, calculated percent weight average concentration of monomer prothrombin is congruent to 100% at 10 microM, approximately equal to 95% at 20 microM, and congruento to 80% at 40 microM protein concentration. Thus, it appears that under conditions in which prothrombin primarily exists as a monomer, occupancy of the initial two metal binding sites by Gd3+ involves six Gla residues.

  14. Receptor binding profiles and quantitative structure-affinity relationships of some 5-substituted-N,N-diallyltryptamines.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Nicholas V; Daley, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    N,N-Diallyltryptamine (DALT) and 5-methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-DALT) are two tryptamines synthesized and tested by Alexander Shulgin. In self-experiments, 5-MeO-DALT was reported to be psychoactive in the 12-20mg range, while the unsubstituted compound DALT had few discernible effects in the 42-80 mg range. Recently, 5-MeO-DALT has been used in nonmedical settings for its psychoactive effects, but these effects have been poorly characterized and little is known of its pharmacological properties. We extended the work of Shulgin by synthesizing additional 5-substituted-DALTs. We then compared them to DALT and 5-MeO-DALT for their binding affinities at 45 cloned receptors and transporter proteins. Based on in vitro binding affinity, we identified 27 potential receptor targets for the 5-substituted-DALT compounds. Five of the DALT compounds had affinity in the 10-80 nM range for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, while the affinity of DALT itself at 5-HT1A receptors was slightly lower at 100 nM. Among the 5-HT2 subtypes, the weakest affinity was at 5-HT2A receptors, spanning 250-730 nM. Five of the DALT compounds had affinity in the 50-400 nM range for serotonin 5-HT1D, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors; again, it was the unsubstituted DALT that had the weakest affinity at all three subtypes. The test drugs had even weaker affinity for 5-HT1B, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT5A subtypes and little or no affinity for the 5-HT3 subtype. These compounds also had generally nanomolar affinities for adrenergic α2A, α2B, and α2C receptors, sigma receptors σ1 and σ2, histamine H1 receptors, and norepinephrine and serotonin uptake transporters. They also bound to other targets in the nanomolar-to-low micromolar range. Based on these binding results, it is likely that multiple serotonin receptors, as well as several nonserotonergic sites are important for the psychoactive effects of DALT drugs. To learn whether any quantitative structure-affinity relationships existed, we evaluated

  15. Substituent Effects on Xenon Binding Affinity and Solution Behavior of Water-Soluble Cryptophanes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, P. Aru; Wei, Qian; Troxler, Thomas; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2009-01-01

    A water-soluble triacetic acid cryptophane-A derivative (TAAC) was synthesized and determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and fluorescence quenching assay to have a xenon association constant of 33,000 M−1 at 293 K, which is the largest value measured for any host molecule to date. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of TAAC in the presence of varying amounts of xenon indicated static quenching by the encapsulated xenon and the presence of a second non-xenon-binding conformer in solution. Acid-base titrations and aqueous NMR spectroscopy of TAAC and a previously synthesized tri-(triazole propionic acid) cryptophane-A derivative (TTPC) showed how solvation of the carboxylate anions can affect the aqueous behavior of the large, nonpolar cryptophane. Specifically, whereas only the crown-crown (CC) conformer of TTPC was observed, a crown-saddle (CS) conformer of TAAC was also detected in aqueous solution. PMID:19239271

  16. Affinity of ceftaroline and other beta-lactams for penicillin-binding proteins from Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kosowska-Shick, K; McGhee, P L; Appelbaum, P C

    2010-05-01

    We compared the affinities of ceftaroline for all penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) with those of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime in 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 7 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with various resistance phenotypes. Ceftaroline MICs were affinities for penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae strains were in the order PBP2X and -3 > PBP1A, -1B, and -2A > PBP2B, and ceftaroline had >or=4-fold higher 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) (0.1 to 4 microg/ml) for PBP2X, -2A, -2B, and -3 than those for the other cephalosporins tested. Among 3 penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains, ceftaroline had a high affinity for PBP2X (IC(50), 0.1 to 1 microg/ml), a primary target for cephalosporin PBP binding activity, and high affinities for PBP2B (IC(50), 0.5 to 4 microg/ml) and PBP1A (IC(50), 0.125 to 0.25 microg/ml) as well, both of which are also known as major targets for PBP binding activity of cephalosporins. Ceftaroline PBP affinities in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains were greater than or equal to those of the 3 other beta-lactams tested. Ceftaroline bound to PBP2a in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (IC(50), 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) with up to 256-fold-higher affinity than those of other agents. Ceftaroline demonstrated very good PBP affinity against all S. aureus and S. pneumoniae strains tested, including resistant isolates.

  17. Characterization of a domoic acid binding site from Pacific razor clam.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Bill, Brian D

    2004-08-10

    The Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, is known to retain domoic acid, a water-soluble glutamate receptor agonist produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. The mechanism by which razor clams tolerate high levels of the toxin, domoic acid, in their tissues while still retaining normal nerve function is unknown. In our study, a domoic acid binding site was solubilized from razor clam siphon using a combination of Triton X-100 and digitonin. In a Scatchard analysis using [3H]kainic acid, the partially-purified membrane showed two distinct receptor sites, a high affinity, low capacity site with a KD (mean +/- S.E.) of 28 +/- 9.4 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 12 +/- 3.8 pmol/mg protein and a low affinity, high capacity site with a mM affinity for radiolabeled kainic acid, the latter site which was lost upon solubilization. Competition experiments showed that the rank order potency for competitive ligands in displacing [3H]kainate binding from the membrane-bound receptors was quisqualate > ibotenate > iodowillardiine = AMPA = fluorowillardiine > domoate > kainate > L-glutamate. At high micromolar concentrations, NBQX, NMDA and ATPA showed little or no ability to displace [3H]kainate. In contrast, Scatchard analysis using [3H]glutamate showed linearity, indicating the presence of a single binding site with a KD and Bmax of 500 +/- 50 nM and 14 +/- 0.8 pmol/mg protein, respectively. These results suggest that razor clam siphon contains both a high and low affinity receptor site for kainic acid and may contain more than one subtype of glutamate receptor, thereby allowing the clam to function normally in a marine environment that often contains high concentrations of domoic acid.

  18. Fast and accurate determination of the relative binding affinities of small compounds to HIV-1 protease using non-equilibrium work.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Son Tung; Hung, Huynh Minh; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2016-12-05

    The fast pulling ligand (FPL) out of binding cavity using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations was demonstrated to be a rapid, accurate and low CPU demand method for the determination of the relative binding affinities of a large number of HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors. In this approach, the ligand is pulled out of the binding cavity of the protein using external harmonic forces, and the work of pulling force corresponds to the relative binding affinity of HIV-1 PR inhibitor. The correlation coefficient between the pulling work and the experimental binding free energy of R=-0.95 shows that FPL results are in good agreement with experiment. It is thus easier to rank the binding affinities of HIV-1 PR inhibitors, that have similar binding affinities because the mean error bar of pulling work amounts to δW=7%. The nature of binding is discovered using the FPL approach. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characterization of Naphthaleneacetic Acid Binding to Receptor Sites on Cellular Membranes of Maize Coleoptile Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable (“specific”) binding of [14C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a KD of 5 to 7 × 10−7m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg2+ or Ca2+ above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor (“supernatant factor”) found in maize tissue. PMID:16659851

  20. Development of affinity technology for isolating individual human chromosomes by third strand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, Jacques R.

    2003-06-01

    The overall goal was to explore whether nucleic acid third strands could be used to bind with very high specificity to specific targets within whole genomes. Towards this end conditions had to be found to keep erroneous binding to an absolute minimum. The goal to use third strands (linked to magnetic beads) to ''capture'' large particles such as plasmids, cosmids, and whole chromosomes from complex mixtures was partially met; their use to serve as cytogenetic probes of metaphase chromosomes and to deliver reactive reagents to unique target sites on chromosomes in vivo for the purpose of mutagenizing specific base pairs was fully met; and their use as cytogenetic probes of chromosomal DNA in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue has been met since the DOE support was terminated.

  1. Resistance of primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to soluble CD4 is independent of CD4-rgp120 binding affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazi, A; Smith, D H; Marsters, S A; Riddle, L; Gregory, T J; Ho, D D; Capon, D J

    1991-01-01

    The infection of human cells by laboratory strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be blocked readily in vitro by recombinant soluble CD4 and CD4-immunoglobulin hybrid molecules. In contrast, infection by primary isolates of HIV-1 is much less sensitive to blocking in vitro by soluble CD4-based molecules. To investigate the molecular basis for this difference between HIV-1 strains, we isolated the gp120-encoding genes from several CD4-resistant and CD4-sensitive HIV-1 strains and characterized the CD4-binding properties of their recombinant gp120 (rgp120) products. Extensive amino acid sequence variation was found between the gp120 genes of CD4-resistant and CD4-sensitive HIV-1 isolates. However, the CD4-binding affinities of rgp120 from strains with markedly different CD4 sensitivities were essentially the same, and only small differences were observed in the kinetics of CD4 binding. These results suggest that the lower sensitivity of primary HIV-1 isolates to neutralization by CD4-based molecules is not due to lower binding affinity between soluble CD4 and free gp120. PMID:1871120

  2. Androgen-induced sexual dimorphism in high affinity dopamine binding in the brain transcends the hypothalamic-limbic region.

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian-Tehrani, M. H.; Karakiulakis, G.; Le Blond, C. B.; Powell, R.; Thomas, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    1 High affinity binding of [3H]-dopamine and [3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]-5-HT) was measured in membrane fractions prepared from cerebral cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus and brain stem of rats of either sex and of rats which had been either neonatally castrated or androgenized. 2 Binding was measured in rats of 8, 20 and 30 days old as well as in adults. 3 [3H]-dopamine bound with approximately 30 nM affinity ahd [3H]-5-HT with approximately 10 nM affinity to all areas of the brain tested. The relative inhibitory effects of haloperidol, apomorphine, cis-flupenthixol, unlabelled dopamine, noradrenaline, spiroperone, (+)-butaclamol, fluphenazine, pimozide and 5-HT on [3H]-dopamine binding in the cerebral cortex was consistent with receptor status for the binding components there as were the relative inhibitory effects of methysergide, dopamine, fluoxetine and ouabain on [3H]-5-HT binding in the fore brain. 4 Neither [3H]-dopamine nor [3H]-5-HT binding varied with the state of the sexual cycle in females. 5 There were no sexual differences in [3H]-5-HT binding in any of the brain areas tested nor was it affected by neonatal androgenization or neonatal castration. 6 [3H]-dopamine binding was greater in the cerebral cortex and amygdala of male than of female rats. These differences could be mimicked artificially by neonatal castration of males (female type development) or neonatal androgenization of females (male type development). Sexual dimorphism did not become overt until 20 days of age and did not extend to hypothalamus, thalamus or brain stem. 7 It is concluded that neonatal sex differences in exposure to steroid hormones has permanent effects on the number of dopamine binding sites in the cerebral cortex and is suggested that this sexual dimorphism extends to the amygdala. PMID:7074286

  3. HIV-1 Pr55(Gag) binds genomic and spliced RNAs with different affinity and stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Serena; Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Dubois, Noé; Hijnen, Marcel; Smyth, Redmond P; Mak, Johnson; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-02

    The HIV-1 Pr55(Gag) precursor specifically selects genomic RNA (gRNA) from a large variety of cellular and spliced viral RNAs (svRNAs), however the molecular mechanisms of this selective recognition remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of this process, we analyzed the interactions between Pr55(Gag) and a large panel of viral RNA (vRNA) fragments encompassing the main packaging signal (Psi) and its flanking regions by fluorescence spectroscopy. We showed that the gRNA harbors a high affinity binding site which is absent from svRNA species, suggesting that this site might be crucial for selecting the HIV-1 genome. Our stoichiometry analysis of protein/RNA complexes revealed that few copies of Pr55(Gag) specifically associate with the 5' region of the gRNA. Besides, we found that gRNA dimerization significantly impacts Pr55(Gag) binding, and we confirmed that the internal loop of stem-loop 1 (SL1) in Psi is crucial for specific interaction with Pr55(Gag). Our analysis of gRNA fragments of different length supports the existence of a long-range tertiary interaction involving sequences upstream and downstream of the Psi region. This long-range interaction might promote optimal exposure of SL1 for efficient Pr55(Gag) recognition. Altogether, our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms allowing the specific selection of gRNA by Pr55(Gag) among a variety of svRNAs, all harboring SL1 in their first common exon.

  4. Evidence that cell surface heparan sulfate is involved in the high affinity thrombin binding to cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, K; Ozawa, T

    1985-01-01

    It has been postulated that thrombin binds to endothelial cells through, at least in part, cell surface glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate, which could serve as antithrombin cofactor on the endothelium. In the present study, we have directly evaluated the binding of 125I-labeled bovine thrombin to cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. The thrombin binding to the cell surface was rapid, reversible, and displaced by enzymatically inactive diisopropylphosphoryl-thrombin. The concentration of thrombin at half-maximal binding was approximately 20 nM. Both specific and nonspecific binding of 125I-thrombin to the endothelial cell surface was partially inhibited in the presence of protamine sulfate, after the removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by the treatment of cells with crude Flavobacterium heparinum enzyme or purified heparitinase. The binding as a function of the concentration of thrombin revealed that the maximal amount of specific binding was reduced by approximately 50% with little alteration in binding affinity by these enzymatic treatments. The reversibility and active-site independence as well as the rate of the binding did not change after heparitinase treatment. Whereas removal of chondroitin sulfates by chondroitin ABC lyase treatment of cells did not affect the binding, identical enzymatic treatments of [35S]sulfate-labeled cells showed that either heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate was selectively and completely removed from the cell surface by heparitinase or chondroitin ABC lyase treatment, respectively. Furthermore, proteolysis of cell surface proteins by the purified glycosaminoglycan lyases was excluded by the identical enzymatic treatments of [3H]leucine-labeled or cell surface radioiodinated cells. Our results provide the first direct evidence that heparan sulfate on the cell surface is involved in the high-affinity, active site-independent thrombin binding by endothelial cells, and also suggest the presence of thrombin-binding

  5. Reconstitution of high affinity. cap alpha. /sub 2/ adrenergic agonist binding by fusion with a pertussis toxin substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.H.; Neubig, R.R.

    1986-03-05

    High affinity ..cap alpha../sub 2/ adrenergic agonist binding is thought to occur via a coupling of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptor with N/sub i/, the inhibitory guanyl nucleotide binding protein. Human platelet membranes pretreated at pH 11.5 exhibit a selective inactivation of agonist binding and N/sub i/. To further study the mechanism of agonist binding, alkali treated membranes (ATM) were mixed with membranes pretreated with 10 ..mu..M phenoxybenzamine to block ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptors (POB-M). The combined membrane pellet was incubated in 50% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote membrane-membrane fusion and assayed for binding to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ agonist (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 (UK) and the antagonist (/sup 3/H) yohimbine. PEG treatment resulted in a 2-4 fold enhancement of UK binding whereas yohimbine binding was unchanged. No enhancement of UK binding was observed in the absence of PEG treatment. The reconstitution was dependent on the addition of POB-M. They found that a 1:1 ratio of POB-M:ATM was optimal. Reconstituted binding was inhibited by GppNHp. Fusion of rat C6 glioma cell membranes, which do not contain ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptors, also enhanced agonist binding to ATM. Fusion of C6 membranes from cells treated with pertussis toxin did not enhance (/sup 3/H) UK binding. These data show that a pertussis toxin sensitive membrane component, possibly N/sub i/, can reconstitute high affinity ..cap alpha../sub 2/ agonist binding.

  6. The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E.; Trabanino, Rene J.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Floriano, Wely B.; Tak Kam, Victor Wai; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-03-01

    Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. We report here the 3D structure of the long isoform of the human D2 dopamine receptor, predicted from primary sequence using first-principles theoretical and computational techniques (i.e., we did not use bioinformatic or experimental 3D structural information in predicting structures). The predicted 3D structure is validated by comparison of the predicted binding site and the relative binding affinities of dopamine, three known dopamine agonists (antiparkinsonian), and seven known antagonists (antipsychotic) in the D2 receptor to experimentally determined values. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies, and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiments. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane (TM) helices 3, 4, 5, and 6, whereas the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM helix 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists.

  7. Identification of high-affinity P2Y₁₂ antagonists based on a phenylpyrazole glutamic acid piperazine backbone.

    PubMed

    Zech, Gernot; Hessler, Gerhard; Evers, Andreas; Weiss, Tilo; Florian, Peter; Just, Melitta; Czech, Jörg; Czechtizky, Werngard; Görlitzer, Jochen; Ruf, Sven; Kohlmann, Markus; Nazaré, Marc

    2012-10-25

    A series of novel, highly potent P2Y₁₂ antagonists as inhibitors of platelet aggregation based on a phenylpyrazole glutamic acid piperazine backbone is described. Exploration of the structural requirements of the substituents by probing the structure-activity relationship along this backbone led to the discovery of the N-acetyl-(S)-proline cyclobutyl amide moiety as a highly privileged motif. Combining the most favorable substituents led to remarkably potent P2Y₁₂ antagonists displaying not only low nanomolar binding affinity to the P2Y₁₂ receptor but also a low nanomolar inhibition of platelet aggregation in the human platelet rich plasma assay with IC₅₀ values below 50 nM. Using a homology and a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model, a binding hypothesis elucidating the impact of several structural features was developed.

  8. Role of constraint in catalysis and high-affinity binding by proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Donald G

    2002-01-01

    Using a model for catalysis of a dynamic equilibrium, the role of constraint in catalysis is quantified. The intrinsic rigidity of proteins is shown to be insufficient to constrain the activated complexes of enzymes, irrespective of the mechanism. However, when minimization of the surface excess free energy of water surrounding a protein is considered, model proteins can be designed with regions of sufficient rigidity. Structures can be designed to focus surface tension or hydrophobic attraction as compressive stress. A monomeric structure has a limited ability to concentrate compressive stress and constrain activated complexes. Oligomeric or multidomain proteins, with domains surrounding a rigid core, have unlimited ability to concentrate stress, provided there are at least four domains. Under some circumstances, four is the optimum number, which could explain the frequency of tetrameric enzymes in nature. The minimum compressive stress in oligomers increases with the square of the radius. For tetramers of similar size to natural enzymes, this stress agrees reasonably well with that needed to constrain the activated complex. A similar principle applies to high affinity binding proteins. The models explain the trigonal pyramidal shape of fibroblast growth factor and provide a basis for interpretation of protein crystal structures. PMID:11964220

  9. Energetics of ligand-receptor binding affinity on endothelial cells: An in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Fotticchia, Iolanda; Guarnieri, Daniela; Fotticchia, Teresa; Falanga, Andrea Patrizia; Vecchione, Raffaele; Giancola, Concetta; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Targeted therapies represent a challenge in modern medicine. In this contest, we propose a rapid and reliable methodology based on Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) coupled with confluent cell layers cultured around biocompatible templating microparticles to quantify the number of overexpressing receptors on cell membrane and study the energetics of receptor-ligand binding in near-physiological conditions. In the in vitro model here proposed we used the bEnd3 cell line as brain endothelial cells to mimic the blood brain barrier (BBB) cultured on dextran microbeads ranging from 67μm to 80μm in size (Cytodex) and the primary human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) for comparison. The revealed affinity between transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) in both systems is very high, Kd values are in the order of nM. Conversely, the value of TfRs/cell reveals a 100-fold increase in the number of TfRs per bEnd3 cells compared to HUVEC cells. The presented methodology can represent a novel and helpful strategy to identify targets, to address drug design and selectively deliver therapeutics that can cross biological barriers such as the blood brain barrier.

  10. Effects of lead on the kidney: Roles of high-affinity lead-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.A. ); DuVal, G. )

    1991-02-01

    Lead-induced nephropathy produces both tubular and interstitial manifestations of cell injury, but the pathophysiology of these lesions is not completely understood. Delineation of the molecular factors underlying renal handling of lead is one of central importance in understanding the mechanisms of renal cell injury from this agent. Recent studies from this laboratory have identified several distinct high-affinity lead-binding proteins (PbBP) from rat kidney and brain that appear to play critical roles in the intracellular bioavailability of lead to several essential cellular processes in these target tissues at low dose levels. These studies have also shown that the real PbBP is selectively localized in only certain nephrons and only specific segments of the renal proximal tubule. The striking nephron and cell-type specificity of the localization reaction could result from physoiological differences in nephron functional activity or selective molecular uptake mechanisms/metabolism differences that act to define target cell populations in the kidney. In addition, other preliminary studies have shown that short-term, high-dose lead exposure produces increased excretion of this protein into the urine with concomitant decreases in renal concentrations.

  11. Purification of Two Novel Sugar Acid-binding Lectins from Haplomitrium Mnioides (bryophyte, Plantae) and their Preliminary Characterization.

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Two novel sugar acid-binding lectins were purified from Haplomitrium mnioides (Lindb.) Schust. using a procedure consisting of ammonium sulfate precipitation, G-50 gel filtration, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and HW-50 gel filtration. We reported their partial physicochemical properties: molecular weight, affinity for carbohydrates and organic acids, pH stability, and dependence of their hemagglutination activity on metal ions. We also determined their N-terminal amino acid sequences. H. mnioides lectins (HMLs) were monomers (one with a molecular weight of approximately 27 kDa, and the other with a molecular weight of approximately 105 kDa) under both nonreducing and reducing conditions. They were named HML27 and HML105, respectively. Both HMLs had an affinity for N-acetylneuraminic acid, D-glucuronic acid, D-glucaric acid, bovine submaxillary mucin, heparin, and organic acids, such as citrate, 2-oxoglutaric acid, and D-2-hydroxyglutarate. Furthermore, HML27 had an affinity for α-D-galacturonic acid, D-malate, L-malate, and pyruvate, while HML105 had an affinity for D-gluconic acid. HML27 and HML105 are novel plant lectins: they have an affinity for sugar acids and organic acids and specifically recognize the carboxyl group, and there is no homology between their N-terminal amino acid sequences and those of the previously described lectins and agglutinins.

  12. Expression of the affinity tags, glutathione-S-transferase and maltose-binding protein, in tobacco chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Niaz; Michoux, Franck; McCarthy, James; Nixon, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Chloroplast transformation offers an exciting platform for the safe, inexpensive and large-scale production of recombinant proteins in plants. An important advantage for the isolation of proteins produced in the chloroplast would be the use of affinity tags for rapid purification by affinity chromatography. To date, only His-tags have been used. In this study, we have tested the feasibility of expressing two additional affinity tags: glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and a His-tagged derivative of the maltose-binding protein (His₆-MBP). By using the chloroplast 16S rRNA promoter and 5' untranslated region of phage T7 gene 10, GST and His₆-MBP were expressed in homoplastomic tobacco plants at approximately 7% and 37% of total soluble protein, respectively. GST could be purified by one-step-affinity purification using a glutathione column. Much better recoveries were obtained for His₆-MBP by using a twin-affinity purification procedure involving first immobilised nickel followed by binding to amylose. Interestingly, expression of GST led to cytoplasmic male sterility. Overall, our work expands the tools available for purifying recombinant proteins from the chloroplast.

  13. Thermodynamic and solution state NMR characterization of the binding of secondary and conjugated bile acids to STARD5.

    PubMed

    Létourneau, Danny; Lorin, Aurélien; Lefebvre, Andrée; Cabana, Jérôme; Lavigne, Pierre; LeHoux, Jean-Guy

    2013-11-01

    STARD5 is a member of the STARD4 sub-family of START domain containing proteins specialized in the non-vesicular transport of lipids and sterols. We recently reported that STARD5 binds primary bile acids. Herein, we report on the biophysical and structural characterization of the binding of secondary and conjugated bile acids by STARD5 at physiological concentrations. We found that the absence of the 7α-OH group and its epimerization increase the affinity of secondary bile acids for STARD5. According to NMR titration and molecular modeling, the affinity depends mainly on the number and positions of the steroid ring hydroxyl groups and to a lesser extent on the presence or type of bile acid side-chain conjugation. Primary and secondary bile acids have different binding modes and display different positioning within the STARD5 binding pocket. The relative STARD5 affinity for the different bile acids studied is: DCA>LCA>CDCA>GDCA>TDCA>CA>UDCA. TCA and GCA do not bind significantly to STARD5. The impact of the ligand chemical structure on the thermodynamics of binding is discussed. The discovery of these new ligands suggests that STARD5 is involved in the cellular response elicited by bile acids and offers many entry points to decipher its physiological role.

  14. Enterocyte Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs): Different Functions of Liver- and Intestinal- FABPs in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Angela M.; Storch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) are highly abundant cytosolic proteins that are expressed in most mammalian tissues. In the intestinal enterocyte, both Liver- (LFABP; FABP1) and Intestinal-fatty acid binding proteins (IFABP; FABP2) are expressed. These proteins display high affinity binding for long chain fatty acids (FA) and other hydrophobic ligands, thus they are believed to be involved with uptake and trafficking of lipids in the intestine. In vitro studies have identified differences in ligand binding stoichiometry and specificity, and in mechanisms of FA transfer to membranes, and it has been hypothesized that LFABP and IFABP have difference functions in the enterocyte. Studies directly comparing LFABP- and IFABP-null mice have revealed markedly different phenotypes, indicating that these proteins indeed have different functions in intestinal lipid metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the evolving knowledge of the functions of LFABP and IFABP in the intestinal enterocyte. PMID:25458898

  15. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Adam W.; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D.; Hays, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  16. Feature selection and classification of protein-protein complexes based on their binding affinities using machine learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Yugandhar, K; Gromiha, M Michael

    2014-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to virtually every cellular process. Predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes is one of the challenging problems in computational and molecular biology. In this work, we related sequence features of protein-protein complexes with their binding affinities using machine learning approaches. We set up a database of 185 protein-protein complexes for which the interacting pairs are heterodimers and their experimental binding affinities are available. On the other hand, we have developed a set of 610 features from the sequences of protein complexes and utilized Ranker search method, which is the combination of Attribute evaluator and Ranker method for selecting specific features. We have analyzed several machine learning algorithms to discriminate protein-protein complexes into high and low affinity groups based on their Kd values. Our results showed a 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 76.1% with the combination of nine features using support vector machines. Further, we observed accuracy of 83.3% on an independent test set of 30 complexes. We suggest that our method would serve as an effective tool for identifying the interacting partners in protein-protein interaction networks and human-pathogen interactions based on the strength of interactions.

  17. ATLAS: A database linking binding affinities with structures for wild-type and mutant TCR-pMHC complexes.

    PubMed

    Borrman, Tyler; Cimons, Jennifer; Cosiano, Michael; Purcaro, Michael; Pierce, Brian G; Baker, Brian M; Weng, Zhiping

    2017-02-03

    The ATLAS (Altered TCR Ligand Affinities and Structures) database (https://zlab.umassmed.edu/atlas/web/) is a manually curated repository containing the binding affinities for wild-type and mutant T cell receptors (TCRs) and their antigens, peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC). The database links experimentally measured binding affinities with the corresponding three dimensional (3D) structures for TCR-pMHC complexes. The user can browse and search affinities, structures, and experimental details for TCRs, peptides, and MHCs of interest. We expect this database to facilitate the development of next-generation protein design algorithms targeting TCR-pMHC interactions. ATLAS can be easily parsed using modeling software that builds protein structures for training and testing. As an example, we provide structural models for all mutant TCRs in ATLAS, built using the Rosetta program. Utilizing these structures, we report a correlation of 0.63 between experimentally measured changes in binding energies and our predicted changes. Proteins 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Design of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL Inhibitors with Subnanomolar Binding Affinities Based upon a New Scaffold

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haibin; Chen, Jianfang; Meagher, Jennifer L.; Yang, Chao-Yie; Aguilar, Angelo; Liu, Liu; Bai, Longchuan; Cong, Xin; Cai, Qian; Fang, Xueliang; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wang, Shaomeng

    2014-10-02

    Employing a structure-based strategy, we have designed a new class of potent small-molecule inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. An initial lead compound with a new scaffold was designed based upon the crystal structure of Bcl-xL and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs and was found to have an affinity of 100 {micro}M for both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Linking this weak lead to another weak-affinity fragment derived from Abbott's ABT-737 led to an improvement of the binding affinity by a factor of >10,000. Further optimization ultimately yielded compounds with subnanomolar binding affinities for both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and potent cellular activity. The best compound (21) binds to Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 with K{sub i} < 1 nM, inhibits cell growth in the H146 and H1417 small-cell lung cancer cell lines with IC{sub 50} values of 60-90 nM, and induces robust cell death in the H146 cancer cell line at 30-100 nM.

  19. Epitope structure and binding affinity of single chain llama anti-β-amyloid antibodies revealed by proteolytic excision affinity-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paraschiv, Gabriela; Vincke, Cécile; Czaplewska, Paulina; Manea, Marilena; Muyldermans, Serge; Przybylski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ß-Amyloid (Aß) immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for reducing the level of Aß in brain. New immunological approaches have been recently proposed for rapid, early diagnosis, and molecular treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The combination of proteolytic epitope excision and extraction and mass spectrometry using digestion with various proteases has been shown to be an efficient tool for the identification and molecular characterization of antigenic determinants. Here, we report the identification of the Aβ epitope recognized by the variable domain of single chain llama anti-Aβ-antibodies, termed Aβ-nanobodies, that have been discovered in the blood of camelids and found to be promising candidates for immunotherapy of AD. The epitope recognized by two Aβ-specific nanobodies was identified by proteolytic epitope extraction- and excision-mass spectrometry using a series of proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, GluC-protease, and LysC-protease). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--mass spectrometric analysis of the affinity--elution fraction provided the epitope, Aβ(17-28), in the mid- to carboxy-terminal domain of Aβ, which has been shown to exert an Aß-fibril inhibiting effect. Affinity studies of the synthetic epitope confirmed that the Aβ(17-28) peptide is the minimal fragment that binds to the nanobodies. The interactions between the nanobodies and full length Aβ(1-40) or Aβ-peptides containing or lacking the epitope sequence were further characterized by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and bioaffinity analysis. Determinations of binding affinities between the Aβ-nanobodies and Aβ(1-40) and the Aβ(17-28) epitope provided K(D) values of approximately 150 and 700 nmol, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of the epitope may be highly useful for future studies of Aβ-aggregation (oligomerization and fibril formation) and for designing new aggregation inhibitors.

  20. Probing the General Time Scale Question of Boronic Acid Binding with Sugars in Aqueous Solution at Physiological pH

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Nanting; Laughlin, Sarah; Wang, Yingji; Feng, You; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    The boronic acid group is widely used in chemosensor design due to its ability to reversibly bind diol-containing compounds. The thermodynamic properties of the boronic acid-diol binding process have been investigated extensively. However, there are few studies of the kinetic properties of such binding processes. In this report, stopped-flow method was used for the first time to study the kinetic properties of the binding between three model arylboronic acids, 4-, 5-, and 8-isoquinolinylboronic acids, and various sugars. With all the boronic acid-diol pair sexamined, reactions were complete within seconds. The kon values with various sugars follow the order of D-fructose >D-tagatose>D-mannose >D-glucose. This trend tracks the thermodynamic binding affinities for these sugars and demonstrates that the “on” rate is the key factor determining the binding constant. PMID:22464680

  1. Transmembrane-truncated alphavbeta3 integrin retains high affinity for ligand binding: evidence for an 'inside-out' suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, R J; Diefenbach, B; Brown, A; Cullen, E; Jonczyk, A; Güssow, D; Luckenbach, G A; Goodman, S L

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of alphavbeta3 integrin affinity regulation have important biological implications in tumour development, wound repair and angiogenesis. We expressed, purified and characterized recombinant forms of human alphavbeta3 (r-alphavbeta3) and compared the activation state of these with alphavbeta3 in its cellular environment. The ligand specificity and selectivity of recombinant full-length and double transmembrane truncations of r-alphavbeta3 cloned in BacPAK6 vectors and expressed in Sf9 and High Five insect cells were compared with those of native placental alphavbeta3 and the receptor in situ on the cell surface. r-alphavbeta3 integrins were purified by affinity chromatography from detergent extracts of cells (full-length), and from the culture medium of cells expressing double-truncated r-alphavbeta3. r-alphavbeta3 had the same epitopes, ligand-binding specificities, bivalent cation requirements and susceptibility to RGD-containing peptides as native alphavbeta3. On M21-L4 melanoma cells, alphavbeta3 mediated binding to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen unless activated with Mn2+. Non-activated alphaIIbbeta3 integrin as control in M21-L-IIb cells had the opposite profile, mediating binding to fibrinogen, but not to vitronectin unless activated with Mn2+. Thus these receptors had moderate to low ligand affinity. In marked contrast, purified alphavbeta3 receptors, with or without transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, were constitutively of high affinity and able to bind strongly to vitronectin, fibronectin and fibrinogen under physiological conditions. Our data suggest that, in contrast with the positive regulation of alphaIIbbeta3 in situ, intracellular controls lower the affinity of alphavbeta3, and the cytoplasmic domains may act as a target for negative regulators of alphavbeta3 activity. PMID:9480902

  2. Linear Interaction Energy Based Prediction of Cytochrome P450 1A2 Binding Affinities with Reliability Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Capoferri, Luigi; Verkade-Vreeker, Marlies C. A.; Buitenhuis, Danny; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; Pastor, Manuel; Vermeulen, Nico P. E.; Geerke, Daan P.

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) binding affinities of small ligands, i.e., substrates and inhibitors, represents an important task for predicting drug-drug interactions. A quantitative assessment of the ligand binding affinity towards different CYPs can provide an estimate of inhibitory activity or an indication of isoforms prone to interact with the substrate of inhibitors. However, the accuracy of global quantitative models for CYP substrate binding or inhibition based on traditional molecular descriptors can be limited, because of the lack of information on the structure and flexibility of the catalytic site of CYPs. Here we describe the application of a method that combines protein-ligand docking, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) theory, to allow for quantitative CYP affinity prediction. Using this combined approach, a LIE model for human CYP 1A2 was developed and evaluated, based on a structurally diverse dataset for which the estimated experimental uncertainty was 3.3 kJ mol-1. For the computed CYP 1A2 binding affinities, the model showed a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.1 kJ mol-1 and a standard error in prediction (SDEP) in cross-validation of 4.3 kJ mol-1. A novel approach that includes information on both structural ligand description and protein-ligand interaction was developed for estimating the reliability of predictions, and was able to identify compounds from an external test set with a SDEP for the predicted affinities of 4.6 kJ mol-1 (corresponding to 0.8 pKi units). PMID:26551865

  3. Intracellular binding of the anti-inflammatory drug niflumic acid in the liver.

    PubMed

    Kelmer-Bracht, A M; Ishii-Iwamoto, E L; Bracht, A

    1995-09-01

    Intracellular binding of niflumic acid in the perfused rat liver was analyzed according to the model of Scatchard. The data for the binding isotherm were obtained from previously published indicator dilution experiments. The intracellular bound niflumic acid was calculated as the difference between total concentration and the concentration of the free form. The intracellular concentration of the free form was inferred from the concentration of the free form in the extracellular space under the assumption of equilibrative distribution. A Scatchard model with two classes of binding sites fits very well to the experimental curve. The high affinity class has a dissociation constant of 26.10 +/- 0.69 microM and a maximal binding capacity of 2.21 +/- 0.03 micromol (ml intracellular space)(-1); the low affinity class has a dissociation constant of 721.90 +/- 229.0 microM and a maximal binding capacity of 5.96 +/- 0.67 micromol (ml intracellular space)(-1). Probably, under in vivo conditions, the binding capacity in the cellular space exceeds that of the extracellular space. This phenomenon explains, partly at least, the high intracellular concentrations of niflumic acid found under in vivo conditions.

  4. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures.

  5. High-affinity consensus binding of target RNAs by the STAR/GSG proteins GLD-1, STAR-2 and Quaking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background STAR/GSG proteins regulate gene expression in metazoans by binding consensus sites in the 5' or 3' UTRs of target mRNA transcripts. Owing to the high degree of homology across the STAR domain, most STAR proteins recognize similar RNA consensus sequences. Previously, the consensus for a number of well-characterized STAR proteins was defined as a hexameric sequence, referred to as the SBE, for STAR protein binding element. C. elegans GLD-1 and mouse Quaking (Qk-1) are two representative STAR proteins that bind similar consensus hexamers, which differ only in the preferred nucleotide identities at certain positions. Earlier reports also identified partial consensus elements located upstream or downstream of a canonical consensus hexamer in target RNAs, although the relative contribution of these sequences to the overall binding energy remains less well understood. Additionally, a recently identified STAR protein called STAR-2 from C. elegans is thought to bind target RNA consensus sites similar to that of GLD-1 and Qk-1. Results Here, a combination of fluorescence-polarization and gel mobility shift assays was used to demonstrate that STAR-2 binds to a similar RNA consensus as GLD-1 and Qk-1. These assays were also used to further delineate the contributions of each hexamer consensus nucleotide to high-affinity binding by GLD-1, Qk-1 and STAR-2 in a variety of RNA contexts. In addition, the effects of inserting additional full or partial consensus elements upstream or downstream of a canonical hexamer in target RNAs were also measured to better define the sequence elements and RNA architecture recognized by different STAR proteins. Conclusions The results presented here indicate that a single hexameric consensus is sufficient for high-affinity RNA binding by STAR proteins, and that upstream or downstream partial consensus elements may alter binding affinities depending on the sequence and spacing. The general requirements determined for high-affinity RNA

  6. Evidence of Distinct Channel Conformations and Substrate Binding Affinities for the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase Pore Tom40.

    PubMed

    Kuszak, Adam J; Jacobs, Daniel; Gurnev, Philip A; Shiota, Takuya; Louis, John M; Lithgow, Trevor; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Buchanan, Susan K

    2015-10-23

    Nearly all mitochondrial proteins are coded by the nuclear genome and must be transported into mitochondria by the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom40 is the central subunit of the translocase complex and forms a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane. To date, the mechanism it utilizes for protein transport remains unclear. Tom40 is predicted to comprise a membrane-spanning β-barrel domain with conserved α-helical domains at both the N and C termini. To investigate Tom40 function, including the role of the N- and C-terminal domains, recombinant forms of the Tom40 protein from the yeast Candida glabrata, and truncated constructs lacking the N- and/or C-terminal domains, were functionally characterized in planar lipid membranes. Our results demonstrate that each of these Tom40 constructs exhibits at least four distinct conductive levels and that full-length and truncated Tom40 constructs specifically interact with a presequence peptide in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. Therefore, neither the first 51 amino acids of the N terminus nor the last 13 amino acids of the C terminus are required for Tom40 channel formation or for the interaction with a presequence peptide. Unexpectedly, substrate binding affinity was dependent upon the Tom40 state corresponding to a particular conductive level. A model where two Tom40 pores act in concert as a dimeric protein complex best accounts for the observed biochemical and electrophysiological data. These results provide the first evidence for structurally distinct Tom40 conformations playing a role in substrate recognition and therefore in transport function.

  7. Evidence of Distinct Channel Conformations and Substrate Binding Affinities for the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase Pore Tom40*

    PubMed Central

    Kuszak, Adam J.; Jacobs, Daniel; Gurnev, Philip A.; Shiota, Takuya; Louis, John M.; Lithgow, Trevor; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all mitochondrial proteins are coded by the nuclear genome and must be transported into mitochondria by the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom40 is the central subunit of the translocase complex and forms a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane. To date, the mechanism it utilizes for protein transport remains unclear. Tom40 is predicted to comprise a membrane-spanning β-barrel domain with conserved α-helical domains at both the N and C termini. To investigate Tom40 function, including the role of the N- and C-terminal domains, recombinant forms of the Tom40 protein from the yeast Candida glabrata, and truncated constructs lacking the N- and/or C-terminal domains, were functionally characterized in planar lipid membranes. Our results demonstrate that each of these Tom40 constructs exhibits at least four distinct conductive levels and that full-length and truncated Tom40 constructs specifically interact with a presequence peptide in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. Therefore, neither the first 51 amino acids of the N terminus nor the last 13 amino acids of the C terminus are required for Tom40 channel formation or for the interaction with a presequence peptide. Unexpectedly, substrate binding affinity was dependent upon the Tom40 state corresponding to a particular conductive level. A model where two Tom40 pores act in concert as a dimeric protein complex best accounts for the observed biochemical and electrophysiological data. These results provide the first evidence for structurally distinct Tom40 conformations playing a role in substrate recognition and therefore in transport function. PMID:26336107

  8. The endothelial cell binding determinant of human factor IX resides in the. gamma. -carboxyglutamic acid domain

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, J.R.; Roberts, H.R.; Stafford, D.W. ); Smith, K.J. United Blood Services, Albuquerque, NM )

    1992-02-18

    The blood coagulation factor IX(a) binds specifically to a site on endothelial cells with a K{sub d} of 2.0-3.0 nM. A number of previous studies have attempted to define the region(s) of factor IX(a) that mediate this interaction. These studies suggested that there are two regions of factor IX(a), the {gamma}-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain and the epidermal growth factor like (EGF-like) domains, that mediate high-affinity binding to endothelial cells. Recently, however, the participation of the EGF1 domain has been excluded from the interaction. This indicated that if there was an EGF component of factor IX contributing to the binding affinity, then it must be in the second EGF-like domain. In order to further evaluate this relationship, the authors performed competitive binding experiments between {sup 125}I plasma factor IX and a set of six chimeric proteins composed of portions of factor VII and factor IX. The data suggest that the high-affinity interaction between factor IX and the endothelial cell binding site is mediated by the factor IX Gla domain and that the factor IX EGF domains are not involved in binding specificity.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Ligand Dissociation from Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Long, Dong; Mu, Yuguang; Yang, Daiwen

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of how ligands enter and leave the binding cavity of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been a puzzling question over decades. Liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) is a unique family member which accommodates two molecules of fatty acids in its cavity and exhibits the capability of interacting with a variety of ligands with different chemical structures and properties. Investigating the ligand dissociation processes of LFABP is thus a quite interesting topic, which however is rather difficult for both experimental approaches and ordinary simulation strategies. In the current study, random expulsion molecular dynamics simulation, which accelerates ligand motions for rapid dissociation, was used to explore the potential egress routes of ligands from LFABP. The results showed that the previously hypothesized “portal region” could be readily used for the dissociation of ligands at both the low affinity site and the high affinity site. Besides, one alternative portal was shown to be highly favorable for ligand egress from the high affinity site and be related to the unique structural feature of LFABP. This result lends strong support to the hypothesis from the previous NMR exchange studies, which in turn indicates an important role for this alternative portal. Another less favored potential portal located near the N-terminal end was also identified. Identification of the dissociation pathways will allow further mechanistic understanding of fatty acid uptake and release by computational and/or experimental techniques. PMID:19564911

  10. A 45-amino acid scaffold mined from the Protein Data Bank for high affinity ligand engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kruziki, Max A.; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Woldring, Daniel R.; Duong, Vandon T.; Hackel, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Small protein ligands can provide superior physiological distribution versus antibodies and improved stability, production, and specific conjugation. Systematic evaluation of the Protein Data Bank identified a scaffold to push the limits of small size and robust evolution of stable, high-affinity ligands: 45-residue T7 phage gene 2 protein (Gp2) contains an α-helix opposite a β-sheet with two adjacent loops amenable to mutation. De novo ligand discovery from 108 mutants and directed evolution towards four targets yielded target-specific binders with affinities as strong as 200 ±100 pM, Tm’s from 65 ±3 °C to 80 ±1 °C, and retained activity after thermal denaturation. For cancer targeting, a Gp2 domain for epidermal growth factor receptor was evolved with 18 ±8 nM affinity, receptor-specific binding, and high thermal stability with refolding. The efficiency of evolving new binding function and the size, affinity, specificity, and stability of evolved domains render Gp2 a uniquely effective ligand scaffold. PMID:26165154

  11. Free energy calculations offer insights into the influence of receptor flexibility on ligand-receptor binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Dolenc, Jožica; Riniker, Sereina; Gaspari, Roberto; Daura, Xavier; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2011-08-01

    Docking algorithms for computer-aided drug discovery and design often ignore or restrain the flexibility of the receptor, which may lead to a loss of accuracy of the relative free enthalpies of binding. In order to evaluate the contribution of receptor flexibility to relative binding free enthalpies, two host-guest systems have been examined: inclusion complexes of α-cyclodextrin (αCD) with 1-chlorobenzene (ClBn), 1-bromobenzene (BrBn) and toluene (MeBn), and complexes of DNA with the minor-groove binding ligands netropsin (Net) and distamycin (Dist). Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that restraining of the flexibility of the receptor can have a significant influence on the estimated relative ligand-receptor binding affinities as well as on the predicted structures of the biomolecular complexes. The influence is particularly pronounced in the case of flexible receptors such as DNA, where a 50% contribution of DNA flexibility towards the relative ligand-DNA binding affinities is observed. The differences in the free enthalpy of binding do not arise only from the changes in ligand-DNA interactions but also from changes in ligand-solvent interactions as well as from the loss of DNA configurational entropy upon restraining.

  12. Preparation of a boronate affinity silica stationary phase with enhanced binding properties towards cis-diol compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Hengye; Zhang, Xuemeng; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xiaojin; Kong, Fenying; Fan, Dahe; Li, Lei; Wang, Wei

    2016-11-18

    In this study, a boronate affinity silica stationary phase with enhanced binding properties towards cis-diol compounds was prepared through the combination of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) with a Wulff-type boronate as affinity ligand. The stationary phase showed good hydrophilicity and improved binding strength toward adenosine, with binding constant to be as low as 2.38×10(-4)M. The column exhibited excellent binding specificity, low binding pH (≥5.5) and high binding capacities (80.1μmol adenosine g(-1) at pH 7.0 and 45.2μmol adenosine g(-1) at pH 5.5, respectively). The stationary phase was applied as adsorbent for the selective extraction of nucleosides in human urine with excellent specificity and high enrichment efficiency. These results demonstrated that this stationary phase could be favorably applied for selective capture and enrichment of cis-diol compounds in complex samples.

  13. Identification of a high-affinity binding site for dinotefuran in the nerve cord of the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Satoshi; Komaki, Iori; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2006-04-01

    The binding of the neonicotinoid insecticide dinotefuran to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was examined by a centrifugation method using the nerve cord membranes of American cockroaches and [3H]dinotefuran (78 Ci mmol-1). The Kd and Bmax values of [3H]dinotefuran binding were estimated to be 13.7 nM and 14.8 fmol 40 microg-1 protein respectively by Scatchard analysis. Epibatidine, an nAChR agonist, showed a rather lower affinity to the dinotefuran binding site (IC50=991 nM) than dinotefuran (IC50=5.02 nM). Imidacloprid and nereistoxin displayed lower potencies than dinotefuran but higher potencies than epibatidine. The potencies of five dinotefuran analogues in inhibiting the specific binding of [3H]dinotefuran to nerve cord membranes were determined. A good correlation (r2=0.970) was observed between the -log IC50 values of the tested compounds and their piperonyl butoxide-synergised insecticidal activities (-log LD50 values) against German cockroaches. The results indicate that a high-affinity binding site for dinotefuran is present in the nerve cord of the American cockroach and that the binding of ligands to the site leads to the manifestation of insecticidal activity.

  14. Are high-affinity progesterone binding site(s) from porcine liver microsomes members of the sigma receptor family?

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Schmieding, K; Falkenstein, E; Wehling, M

    1998-04-24

    Membrane progesterone binding sites have been purified recently from pig liver. Since progesterone is considered as an endogenous sigma (sigma) receptor ligand, these sites were characterized pharmacologically by ligands selective for sigma receptor and dopamine receptor binding sites, and by other drugs from distinct pharmacological classes. Binding studies using the radioligand [3H]progesterone were done in crude membrane preparations and solubilized fractions to determine half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values, from which inhibitory constants (Ki values) were calculated. Radioligand binding was inhibited by the sigma receptor ligands haloperidol, carbetapentane citrate, 1,3-Di(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG), R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2 aminopropane HCl (R(-)-PPAAP HCl), or sigma receptor antagonists like (+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine HCl (R(+)-PPP HCl) and cis-9-[3-(3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-9H-carbazole dihydrochloride (rimcazole 2HCl). The hierarchy of inhibitory action was not fully compatible with either sigma receptor class I (moderate affinity of pentazocine, diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin) insensitivity) or II sites (high affinity of carbetapentane). The data thus suggest that progesterone binding sites in porcine liver membranes are related to the sigma receptor binding site superfamily, but may represent a particular species with progesterone specificity.

  15. Effects of water models on binding affinity: evidence from all-atom simulation of binding of tamiflu to A/H5N1 neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Truc; Viet, Man Hoang; Li, Mai Suan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of water models SPC, SPC/E, TIP3P, and TIP4P on ligand binding affinity is examined by calculating the binding free energy ΔG(bind) of oseltamivir carboxylate (Tamiflu) to the wild type of glycoprotein neuraminidase from the pandemic A/H5N1 virus. ΔG(bind) is estimated by the Molecular Mechanic-Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area method and all-atom simulations with different combinations of these aqueous models and four force fields AMBER99SB, CHARMM27, GROMOS96 43a1, and OPLS-AA/L. It is shown that there is no correlation between the binding free energy and the water density in the binding pocket in CHARMM. However, for three remaining force fields ΔG(bind) decays with increase of water density. SPC/E provides the lowest binding free energy for any force field, while the water effect is the most pronounced in CHARMM. In agreement with the popular GROMACS recommendation, the binding score obtained by combinations of AMBER-TIP3P, OPLS-TIP4P, and GROMOS-SPC is the most relevant to the experiments. For wild-type neuraminidase we have found that SPC is more suitable for CHARMM than TIP3P recommended by GROMACS for studying ligand binding. However, our study for three of its mutants reveals that TIP3P is presumably the best choice for CHARMM.

  16. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  17. ITC-derived binding affinity may be biased due to titrant (nano)-aggregation. Binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the catalytic domain of human protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Winiewska, Maria; Bugajska, Ewa; Poznański, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    The binding of four bromobenzotriazoles to the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 was assessed by two complementary methods: Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). New algorithm proposed for the global analysis of MST pseudo-titration data enabled reliable determination of binding affinities for two distinct sites, a relatively strong one with the Kd of the order of 100 nM and a substantially weaker one (Kd > 1 μM). The affinities for the strong binding site determined for the same protein-ligand systems using ITC were in most cases approximately 10-fold underestimated. The discrepancy was assigned directly to the kinetics of ligand nano-aggregates decay occurring upon injection of the concentrated ligand solution to the protein sample. The binding affinities determined in the reverse ITC experiment, in which ligands were titrated with a concentrated protein solution, agreed with the MST-derived data. Our analysis suggests that some ITC-derived Kd values, routinely reported together with PDB structures of protein-ligand complexes, may be biased due to the uncontrolled ligand (nano)-aggregation, which may occur even substantially below the solubility limit.

  18. ITC-derived binding affinity may be biased due to titrant (nano)-aggregation. Binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the catalytic domain of human protein kinase CK2

    PubMed Central

    Winiewska, Maria; Bugajska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The binding of four bromobenzotriazoles to the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 was assessed by two complementary methods: Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). New algorithm proposed for the global analysis of MST pseudo-titration data enabled reliable determination of binding affinities for two distinct sites, a relatively strong one with the Kd of the order of 100 nM and a substantially weaker one (Kd > 1 μM). The affinities for the strong binding site determined for the same protein-ligand systems using ITC were in most cases approximately 10-fold underestimated. The discrepancy was assigned directly to the kinetics of ligand nano-aggregates decay occurring upon injection of the concentrated ligand solution to the protein sample. The binding affinities determined in the reverse ITC experiment, in which ligands were titrated with a concentrated protein solution, agreed with the MST-derived data. Our analysis suggests that some ITC-derived Kd values, routinely reported together with PDB structures of protein-ligand complexes, may be biased due to the uncontrolled ligand (nano)-aggregation, which may occur even substantially below the solubility limit. PMID:28273138

  19. A biomimetic Protein G affinity adsorbent: an Ugi ligand for immunoglobulins and Fab fragments based on the third IgG-binding domain of Protein G.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Graziella; Lowe, Christopher R

    2013-04-01

    This work reports the development of a synthetic affinity adsorbent for immunoglobulins based on the Fab-binding domain of Streptococcal Protein G (SpG-domain III). The ligand (A2C7I1) was synthesized by the four-component Ugi reaction to generate a substituted peptoidal scaffold mimicking key amino acid residues of SpG. Computer-aided analysis suggests a putative binding site on the CH 1 domain of the Fab molecule. In silico studies, supported by affinity chromatography in comparison with immobilized SpG, as well as analytical characterization by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance of the ligand synthesized in solution, indicated the authenticity and suitability of the designed ligand for the purification of immunoglobulins. The immobilized ligand displayed an apparent static binding capacity of ~17 mg IgG ml(-1) and a dissociation constant of 5.34 × 10(-5)  M. Preparative chromatography demonstrated the ability of the immobilized ligand to purify IgG and Fab fragments from crude mammalian and yeast cell cultures, under near physiological ionic strength and pH, to yield proteins of 99% and 93% purity, respectively.

  20. Mapping of barley alpha-amylases and outer subsite mutants reveals dynamic high-affinity subsites and barriers in the long substrate binding cleft.

    PubMed

    Kandra, Lili; Hachem, Maher Abou; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Kramhøft, Birte; Svensson, Birte

    2006-09-18

    Subsite affinity maps of long substrate binding clefts in barley alpha-amylases, obtained using a series of maltooligosaccharides of degree of polymerization of 3-12, revealed unfavorable binding energies at the internal subsites -3 and -5 and at subsites -8 and +3/+4 defining these subsites as binding barriers. Barley alpha-amylase 1 mutants Y105A and T212Y at subsite -6 and +4 resulted in release or anchoring of bound substrate, thus modifying the affinities of other high-affinity subsites (-2 and +2) and barriers. The double mutant Y105A-T212Y displayed a hybrid subsite affinity profile, converting barriers to binding areas. These findings highlight the dynamic binding energy distribution and the versatility of long maltooligosaccharide derivatives in mapping extended binding clefts in alpha-amylases.

  1. Site-Specific Polymer Attachment to HR2 Peptide Fusion Inhibitors against HIV-1 Decreases Binding Association Rates and Dissociation Rates Rather Than Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Stauffer, Angela N; Wurm, Frederik R; Root, Michael J; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2017-03-15

    A popular strategy for overcoming the limited plasma half-life of peptide heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 is conjugation with biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). However, despite improved resistance to proteolysis and reduced renal elimination, covalent attachment of polymers often causes a loss in therapeutic potency. In this study, we investigated the molecular origins of the loss in potency upon conjugation of linear, midfunctional, and hyperbranched PEG-like polymers to peptides that inhibit HIV-1-host cell membrane fusion. Fluorescence binding assays revealed that poly