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Sample records for acid brilliant blue

  1. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  2. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  3. Isolation of a component from commercial coomassie brilliant blue R-250 that stains rubrophilin and other proteins red on polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, H L; Berger, R A; Tyler, A N; Moore, B W

    1988-05-12

    Commercially available Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (C.I. 42660) is a popular and useful dye that stains most proteins blue on polyacrylamide gels. Some proteins from brain (rubrophilin), collagens, histones and parotid gland proteins are distinctly red when stained with Coomassie Blue. Commonly used Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 preparations may contain more than 30 distinct colored and fluorescent components that can be separated on silica gel chromatographic columns. A specific component has been isolated on silica gel columns that stains rubrophilin and other proline-rich proteins a reddish color. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the isolated rubrophilin staining principle indicates a molecular weight of 634 as compared to 826 for the major dye in the original Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. Infrared spectrometry is consistent with a difference between the rubrophilin staining principle and Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 of a toluene sulfonic acid residue.

  4. Brilliant blue G-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Prashant; Vashisht, Naginder; Khanduja, Sumeet; Sinha, Subijay; Garg, Satpal

    2011-01-01

    Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery.

  5. Adsorption of Two Dyes by Mg(OH)2: Procion Blue HB and Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouberka, Zohra; Bentaleb, Kahina; Benabbou, Khalil A.; Maschke, Ulrich

    The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Mg(OH)2 sludge was produced from precipitation of magnesium ions (Mg2+) with NaOH in pH = 10 and investigated as a low-cost adsorbent. This paper deals with the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by Mg(OH)2. Reactive Procion blue HB (PR) and Acid Remazol brilliant blue R (RB) were used as model compounds. The adsorption capacity was found as 43.47 and 26.89 mg/g at initial pH 6.5.

  6. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 Dye: An Application for Forensic Fingerprint Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Erica; Le, Anh Minh; Huynh, Crystal; Wingfield, Kelly; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2017-04-04

    The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol, and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator. It is recognized that the identification of biological sex has been readily accomplished using two other methods; however, both of those systems are reliant upon a large group of amino acids, 23 to be precise. The Bradford assay, described here, was developed specifically to aid in the transition from targeting large groups of amino acids, as demonstrated in the previous studies, to targeting only a single amino acid without compromising the intensity of the response and/or the ability to differentiate between two attributes. In this work, we aim to differentiate between female fingerprints and male fingerprints.

  7. "Brilliant Blue G" and "Membrane Blue Dual" assisted vitrectomy for macular hole.

    PubMed

    Kovacević, Damir; Mance, Tea Caljkusić; Markusić, Vedran

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate vital dyes "Brilliant Blue G" (BBG) and "Membrane Blue Dual" (MBD) for intraoperative staining of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) during vitrectomy for macular hole (MH). Retrospective, comparative case series on 18 eyes with macular holes who underwent "23 and 25 gauge" pars plana vitrectomy. Main outcome measurements were staining intensity and characteristics, visual acuity, visual field, OCT measurements and complications over a period of 6 months. With the help of BBG and MBD successfully was removed complete ILM in 14 eyes. Postoperative visual acuity was improved in 12 patients, unchanged in 2 patients and worse in 4 patients. Central retinal thickness showed significant postoperative reduction with closure of macular hole. OCT values range were from -10 to -250 microm. No visual field defects and no adverse effects were found. BBG and MBD successfully identificate internal limiting membrane during vitrectomy for MH. Good anatomical and functional results are achieved with the use of both vital dyes.

  8. Interfused semiconductor nanocrystals: brilliant blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo

    2005-09-28

    We describe a method for producing blue light-emitting interfused CdSe//ZnS (QE up to 60%) nanocrystals and report the good performance of an electroluminescent device which uses them (external quantum efficiency approximately 1.5 cd A(-1)).

  9. Selection of Ovine Oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqin; Lin, Jiapeng; Huang, Juncheng; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yuncheng; Chen, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Sheep oocytes derived from the ovaries collected from the slaughterhouse are often used for research on in vitro embryo production, animal cloning, transgenesis, embryonic stem cells, and other embryo biotechnology aspects. Improving the in vitro culture efficiency of oocytes can provide more materials for similar studies. Generally, determination of oocyte quality is mostly based on the layers of cumulus cells and cytoplasm or cytoplasm uniformity and colors. This requires considerable experience to better identify oocyte quality because of the intense subjectivity involved (Gordon (2003), Madison et al. (1992) and De Loos et al. (1992)). BCB staining is a function of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, an enzyme synthesized in developing oocytes, which decreases in activity with maturation. Therefore, unstained oocytes (BCB−) are high in G6PD activity, while the less mature oocytes stains are deep blue (BCB+) due to insuffcient G6PD activity to decolorize the BCB dye. PMID:22675245

  10. Flow pathways of bromide and Brilliant Blue FCF tracers in caliche soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobles, M. M.; Wilding, L. P.; Lin, H. S.

    2010-10-01

    Land use of caliche soils in limestone regions of Texas is increasingly shifting from traditional ranchland to residential and industrial development. However, little information is available on water flow and solute transport through soils of these landscapes, or their potential suitability for wastewater disposal and bioremediation. This study determined the impacts of landscape position on soil hydrologic functions by using Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - tracers to characterize flow pathways through soils of stepped terrains. Aqueous tracer solution was applied to surface (and in some cases subsurface) horizons of selected riser, tread, floodplain, and upland summit sites. Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - pathways were analyzed based on vertical sections excavated through each application site. While Brilliant Blue FCF demonstrated preferential flow along macropores, Br - moved through soil matrix primarily in piston flow pattern. In most cases, Br - was less retarded and moved to greater vertical and horizontal distances than Brilliant Blue FCF. Cemented Bk, Bkm, C, Cr, Crk, and R horizons acted as aquitards, resulting in considerable horizontal transport of both tracers beyond the direct infiltration zone. Significant volumes of limestone rock clasts, together with soil, were involved in solute transport and thus contributed to the soil's ability to serve as bioremediation and moisture storage media. High limestone gravel content and rapid solute transport through subsurface horizons to aquitards in deep riser soils indicate that they may serve as hydrological recharge sites with potential for ephemeral water tables, increased water storage and greater bioremediation potential. Shallow tread sites may be capable of producing seasonal saturation above restrictive horizons and increased surface runoff, becoming local hydrological discharge sites. This could conceivably lead to surface water contamination; however, these locales are hydrologically buffered by recharge

  11. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (p<0.05). The results show that the Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  12. Decolorization and biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by bilirubin oxidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youxun; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2009-12-01

    The dye-decolorizing potential of bilirubin oxidase (BOX) was demonstrated for an anthraquinone dye, remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR). The dye was decolorized 40% within 4 h by the BOX alone, whereas it was more efficient in the presence of 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), showing 91.5% decolorization within 25 min. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization were examined. The results showed that the decolorization efficiency decreased with increasing RBBR concentration, and a marked inhibition effect was exhibited when the dye concentrations were above 100 mg l(-1). The optimum temperature for enzymatic decolorization was 40 degrees C. BOX showed efficient decolorization of the dye with a wide pH range of 5-8.5. The maximum decolorization activity occurred at pH 8 with ABTS and at pH 5 without ABTS. Analysis of RBBR ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) spectra after BOX treatment indicated that the decolorization of RBBR was due to biodegradation. Our results suggested that ABTS can serve as an electron mediator to facilitate the oxidation of RBBR, and the BOX-ABTS mediator-involved dye decolorization mechanism was similar to that of laccase. Operation over a wide range of pH and efficient decolorization suggested that the BOX can be used to decolorize synthetic dyes from effluents, especially for anthraquinonic dyes.

  13. Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Leonardo Gomes Braga; Ferreira, Natiele Carla da Silva; Soares-Bezerra, Rômulo José

    2016-01-01

    Dyes were first obtained from the extraction of plant sources in the Neolithic period to produce dyed clothes. At the beginning of the 19th century, synthetic dyes were produced to color clothes on a large scale. Other applications for synthetic dyes include the pharmaceutical and food industries, which are important interference factors in our lives and health. Herein, we analyzed the possible implications of some dyes that are already described as antagonists of purinergic receptors, including special Brilliant Blue G and its derivative FD&C Blue No. 1. Purinergic receptor family is widely expressed in the body and is critical to relate to much cellular homeostasis maintenance as well as inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss previous studies and show purinergic signaling as an important issue to be aware of in food additives development and their correlations with the physiological functions. PMID:27833914

  14. Advanced Oxidation of Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue with Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert; Mudimbi, Patrick; Miller, Michael E; Magnuson, Matthew; Willison, Stuart; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2017-01-01

      This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) coupled with hydrogen peroxide as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of two test chemicals. Brilliant Blue FCF consistently exhibited greater degradation than tartrazine, with 83% degradation after 300 minutes at the 100% duty cycle compared with only 17% degradation of tartrazine under the same conditions. These differences are attributable to the structural properties of the compounds. Duty cycle was positively correlated with the first-order rate constants (k) for both chemicals but, interestingly, negatively correlated with the normalized first-order rate constants (k/duty cycle). Synergistic effects of both hydraulic mixing and LED duty cycle were manifested as novel oscillations in the effluent contaminant concentration. Further, LED output and efficiency were dependent upon duty cycle and less efficient over time perhaps due to heating effects on semiconductor performance.

  15. Molecular spectroscopic studies on the interaction of glycosaminoglycans with brilliant cresol blue and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Li, Na; Zhao, Fenglin; Li, Ke'an; Tong, Shenyang

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of brilliant cresol blue (BCB) with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparin (Hep) and chondroitin 4-sulfate (CS), in aqueous solution has been studied by spectrophotometry and light scattering spectroscopy. Absorbance of BCB at 632 and 594 nm decreased on addition of Hep or CS with the appearance of a new blue-shifted absorption band at 550 nm, which indicated that new metachromatic complex formed. The linear decrease in absorbance of BCB at 632 nm was observed. In addition, Hep was more effective than CS (1.7 times) in decreasing absorbance of BCB. The stoichiometry of Hep or CS with BCB was determined by spectrophotometric titration and the MacIntosh extraction method. The result showed that the stoichiometry of BCB/Hep was 1.8 times that of BCB/CS. These results suggested that the interaction between GAGs and BCB was the result of electrostatic forces, and the differences between Hep and CS were attributed to the different negative charge numbers on repetitive disaccharides unit. Studies on the effects of alcohol and urea indicated that GAGs only interacted with the aggregates of BCB. Moreover, a strong light scattering signal was observed after mixing BCB with GAGs. Furthermore, the light scattering intensity at light scattering bands was proportional to the concentration of Hep or CS added when the concentration of BCB was constant.

  16. Coomassie Brilliant Blue removal/disposal from gel destain and used gel stain in an environment-friendly manner.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Dorri, Yaser

    2012-01-01

    Toxic reagents are employed to destain Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) stained gels. We tested the efficacy of various paper adsorbents in adsorbing CBB released from gels during destaining. Kimwipes were the most efficient, followed by Teri towels, multifold towels, and Whatman (numbers 1 and 3) filter papers. Three Kimwipes added during destaining of a CBB-stained mini-gel helped adsorb the released dye. Thus, stain removal with Kimwipes helps reduce destain use and organic waste accumulation, enables recycling of nonradioactive destaining solution, and is 7.5-fold cheaper than an available method for CBB disposal. Next, we used Kimwipes to deplete the dye from a used CBB staining solution awaiting proper disposal by our Institutional Safety Office. Seventy-five Kimwipes successfully helped remove the dye from a 0.05% CBB staining solution in 5 to 10 min. The blue-colored Kimwipes did not release the stain even when squeezed dry after incubation in various salts, water, or acid solutions for five weeks. The CBB removed thus can be simply disposed as solid waste and will not leach out from solid landfills. Kimwipes, thus, enables CBB disposal in an environmentally friendly manner and allows recycling of destaining solution.

  17. Reduction of cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride and octenidine by Brilliant Blue G.

    PubMed

    Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S; Gabel, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The irritative effects of preservatives found in ophthalmologic solution, or of antiseptics used for skin disinfection is a consistent problem for the patients. The reduction of the toxic effects of these compounds is desired. Brilliant Blue G (BBG) has shown to meet the expected effect in presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a well known preservative in ophthalmic solutions, and octenidine dihydrochloride (Oct), used as antiseptic in skin and wound disinfection. BBG shows a significant protective effect on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells against BAK and Oct toxicity, increasing the cell survival up to 51 % at the highest BAK or Oct concentration tested, which is 0.01 %, both at 30 min incubation. Although BBG is described as a P2x7 receptor antagonist, other selective P2x7 receptor antagonists, OxATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde) and DPPH (N'-(3,5-dichloropyridin-4-yl)-3-phenylpropanehydrazide), did not reduce the cytotoxicity of neither BAK nor Oct. Therefore we assume that the protective effect of BBG is not due to its action on the P2x7 receptor. Brilliant Blue R (BBR), a dye similar to BBG, was also tested for protective effect on BAK and Oct toxicity. In presence of BAK no significant protective effect was observed. Instead, with Oct a comparable protective effect was seen with that of BBG. To assure that the bacteriostatic effect is not affected by the combinations of BAK/BBG, Oct/BBG and Oct/BBR, bacterial growth inhibition was analyzed on different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. All combinations of BAK or Oct with BBG hinder growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The combinations of 0.001 % Oct and BBR above 0.025 % do not hinder the growth of B. subtilis. For Gram-negative bacteria, BBG and BBR reduce, but do not abolish, the antimicrobial effect of BAK nor of Oct. In conclusion, the addition of BBG at bacterial inhibitory concentrations is suggested in the ready-to-use ophthalmic preparations and antiseptic solutions.

  18. Reduction of cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride and octenidine by Brilliant Blue G

    PubMed Central

    Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S.; Gabel, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The irritative effects of preservatives found in ophthalmologic solution, or of antiseptics used for skin disinfection is a consistent problem for the patients. The reduction of the toxic effects of these compounds is desired. Brilliant Blue G (BBG) has shown to meet the expected effect in presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a well known preservative in ophthalmic solutions, and octenidine dihydrochloride (Oct), used as antiseptic in skin and wound disinfection. BBG shows a significant protective effect on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells against BAK and Oct toxicity, increasing the cell survival up to 51 % at the highest BAK or Oct concentration tested, which is 0.01 %, both at 30 min incubation. Although BBG is described as a P2x7 receptor antagonist, other selective P2x7 receptor antagonists, OxATP (adenosine 5’-triphosphate-2’,3’-dialdehyde) and DPPH (N’-(3,5-dichloropyridin-4-yl)-3-phenylpropanehydrazide), did not reduce the cytotoxicity of neither BAK nor Oct. Therefore we assume that the protective effect of BBG is not due to its action on the P2x7 receptor. Brilliant Blue R (BBR), a dye similar to BBG, was also tested for protective effect on BAK and Oct toxicity. In presence of BAK no significant protective effect was observed. Instead, with Oct a comparable protective effect was seen with that of BBG. To assure that the bacteriostatic effect is not affected by the combinations of BAK/BBG, Oct/BBG and Oct/BBR, bacterial growth inhibition was analyzed on different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. All combinations of BAK or Oct with BBG hinder growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The combinations of 0.001 % Oct and BBR above 0.025 % do not hinder the growth of B. subtilis. For Gram-negative bacteria, BBG and BBR reduce, but do not abolish, the antimicrobial effect of BAK nor of Oct. In conclusion, the addition of BBG at bacterial inhibitory concentrations is suggested in the ready-to-use ophthalmic preparations and antiseptic solutions

  19. Environmentally safe removal/disposal of Coomassie Brilliant Blue from gel destain and used gel stain.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Yaser; Kurien, Biji T

    2010-09-15

    Gel destaining following Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining involves the use of toxic reagents. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of various paper adsorbents in adsorbing CBB. Kimwipes adsorbed the best, followed by Teri towels, multifold towels, and Whatman numbers 1 and 3 filter papers. Three Kimwipes completely adsorbed the dye released from a CBB-stained mini-gel. Nonradioactive destain solution can, therefore, be recycled for destaining CBB-stained gels. Stain removal with Kimwipes helps in reducing destain use and in reducing organic liquid waste, and it is 7.5-fold cheaper compared with an available method for CBB disposal. Following this, we determined the suitability of this procedure to remove the dye from a used CBB staining solution awaiting proper disposal by our Institutional Safety Office. The dye from a 0.05% CBB staining solution could be removed in 5 to 10 min using 75 Kimwipes. The CBB-adsorbed Kimwipes did not release the stain when squeezed dry even after incubation in various salts over 1week and in water for 5 weeks. The CBB removed allows its easy disposal as solid waste and will not leach out from solid landfills. Thus, stain removal with Kimwipes helps in disposing CBB in an environmentally friendly manner and allows recycling of destaining solution.

  20. Safety of brilliant cresyl blue staining protocols on human granulosa and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Alcoba, Diego Duarte; Conzatti, Maiara; Ferreira, Gustavo Dias; Pimentel, Anita Mylius; Kussler, Ana Paula; Capp, Edison; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Brum, Ilma Simoni

    2016-02-01

    The selection of human immature oocytes destined for in vitro maturation (IVM) is performed according to their cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) morphology. In animal models, oocyte pre-selection with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining improves fertilization and blastocyst rates and even increases the number of calves born. As the granulosa cells and cumulus cells (GCs and CCs) have a close relationship with the oocyte and are available in in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs, applying BCB staining to these cells may help to elucidate whether BCB shows toxicity to human oocytes and to determine the safest protocol for this dye. GCs and CCs were isolated from 24 patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. After 48 h, cells were exposed to: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) with or without phenol red, DPBS and mDPBS for 60 min; 13, 20 and 26 μM BCB for 60 min; and 60, 90 or 120 min to 13 μM BCB. Cellular viability was tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue assays. The 20 and 26 μM BCB exposures resulted in lower cell viability, similar to when cells were exposed to BCB for 90 or 120 min. GCs and CCs viabilities were equal among control group and 13 μM BCB group after 60 min. BCB staining was not toxic to GCs and CCs when the regime of 13 μM BCB for 60 min was used. Due to the close molecular/biochemical relationship between these cells and the gamete, we propose that it is unlikely that the use of BCB could interfere with the viability/health of human oocytes.

  1. Studies on phytoremediation potentiality of Typhonium flagelliforme for the degradation of Brilliant Blue R.

    PubMed

    Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jagtap, Umesh B; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Bapat, Vishwas A

    2010-06-01

    In vitro culture plants of Typhonium flagelliforme were found to decolorize a variety of dyes, including Malachite Green, Red HE 8B, Methyl Orange, Reactive Red 2, Direct Red 5B (DR5B), Red HE 7B, Golden Yellow HER, Patent Blue, and Brilliant Blue R (BBR), to varying extents within 4 days. The enzymatic analysis of plant roots of aseptically raised plantlets performed before and after degradation of the dye BBR by these plantlets showed a significant induction in the activities of peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, which indicated the involvement of these enzymes in the metabolism of the dye. Comparative study of the enzyme status of the plants Typhonium flagelliforme and Blumea malcolmii during the degradation of DR5B and BBR showed marked variations in the enzyme profile with respect to the use of different sources of the enzyme. Phytoremediation of BBR using Typhonium flagelliforme was confirmed with high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis performed before and after the degradation of the dye. One of the products of the metabolism of the dye was identified as 4-(4-ethylimino-cyclohexa-2,5-dienylidinemethyl)-phenylamine with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Significant decrease in the American Dye Manufacturer's Institute, biological oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand values of synthetic mixture of textile dyes and industrial effluent confirmed the decolorization and detoxification. Phytotoxicity studies also revealed the nontoxic nature of the metabolites of BBR.

  2. The Use of Ultra-Violet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDS) in an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Brilliant Blue FCF as an Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    indicated that it performed suitably as a witness dye with improved characteristics as compared to methylene blue. Further, the experiments indicated...light output by methylene blue adsorption on post experimentation reactor UV LEDsUV LED Quartz Lens Adsorption Experiment ...31 UV Brilliant Blue FCF...10 Figure 2 - Flow through reactor with UV LEDs

  3. Phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss., an ornamental plant to degrade a disperse, disulfonated triphenylmethane textile dye Brilliant Blue G.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Kamble, Apurva A; Mulla, Asma Y; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-02-01

    Phytoremediation provides an ecofriendly alternative for the treatment of pollutants like textile dyes. The purpose of this study was to explore phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. by using its wild as well as tissue-cultured plantlets to decolorize Brilliant Blue G (BBG) dye, a sample of dye mixture and a real textile effluent. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora were obtained by seed culture method. The decolorization experiments were carried out using wild as well as tissue-cultured plants independently. The enzymatic analysis of the plant roots was performed before and after decolorization of BBG. Metabolites formed after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytotoxicity studies were performed. Characterization of dye mixture and textile effluent was also studied. The wild and tissue-cultured plants of P. grandiflora showed the decolorized BBG up to 86 %. Significant increase in the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase, NADH-2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, and tyrosinase was found in the roots of the plants. Three metabolites of BBG were identified as 3-{[ethyl(phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic acid, 3-{[methyl (phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic amino acid, and sodium-3-[(cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylideneamino)methyl]benzenesulfonate. Textile effluent sample and a synthetic mixture of dyes were also decolorized by P. grandiflora. Phytotoxicity test revealed the nontoxic nature of metabolites. P. grandiflora showed the potential to decolorize and degrade BBG to nontoxic metabolites. The plant has efficiently treated a sample of dye mixture and textile effluent.

  4. Effect of milrinone on the developmental competence of growing lamb oocytes identified with brilliant cresyl blue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqin; Jiang, Xiangjiu; Wu, Yangsheng; Lin, Jiapeng; Zhang, Li; Yang, Nan; Huang, Juncheng

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile in vitro embryo transfer is a novel technique that can be used to increase the rate of genetic gain in a population and presents an alternative to embryo technologies on the basis of adult animals. However, oocytes from prepubertal animals have a lower viability than those obtained from adult ewe oocyte donors. In this research, we aimed to determine the optimum concentration and time of treatment of oocytes from prepubertal lambs with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) stain and milrinone during IVM. This would improve the developmental rate of lamb oocytes and embryos after IVF. First, lamb cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured under different concentrations (13 or 26 μM) of BCB staining. Treated lamb oocytes were then divided into BCB- (colorless cytoplasm) and BCB+ (colored cytoplasm) groups on the basis of their glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. The blastocyst efficiency rate of BCB+ oocytes treated with 13 μM BCB (37.03%) was significantly higher than that of BCB+ oocytes treated with 26 μM BCB (23.25%) and that of nontreated BCB control oocytes (15.37%), as well as that of BCB- oocytes (6.28%). Both control oocytes and BCB+ oocytes exhibited significantly higher cleavage rates (60.15% and 73.44%, respectively) than that of BCB- oocytes (36.19%). Moreover, the diameter and glutathione content of BCB+ oocytes were found to be significantly greater than those of BCB- oocytes (163.37 vs. 159.25 μm and 6.39 vs. 0.26 pM, respectively). After culturing BCB- oocytes in different concentrations of milrinone (0, 50, 75, and 100 μM) for 3, 6, or 9 hours, results reported that supplementation of IVM medium with 75 μM milrinone for 6 hours yielded a significantly higher proportion of blastocysts than the other treatments. These results show that the staining of lamb cumulus-oocyte complexes with 13 μM BCB before IVM may be used to select developmentally competent lamb oocytes. Furthermore, they suggest that milrinone can be used to promote

  5. Complexation study of brilliant cresyl blue with β-cyclodextrin and its derivatives by UV-vis and fluorospectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Guo, Yu-Xian; Li, Rong

    2008-01-01

    The complexation reactions of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), mono[2- O-(2-hydroxypropyl)]-β-CD (2-HP-β-CD), mono[2- O-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-β-CD (2-HE-β-CD), and heptakis(2,6-di-methyl) -β-CD (DM-β-CD) were investigated using UV-vis and fluorospectrometry. The complexation between BCB and CDs could inhibit the aggregation of BCB molecules and could cause its absorbance at 634 nm gradually increasing. The fluorescence of BCB was also enhanced with the addition of CDs. The fluorescence enhancement was more notable in neutral and acidic media than in basic media. Hildebrand-Benesi equation was used to calculate the formation constants of β-CDs with BCB based on the fluorescence differences in the CDs solution. The stoichiometry ratio was found to be 1:1. The complexing capacities of β-CD and its three derivatives were compared and the results followed the order: 2-HP-β-CD > 2-HE-β-CD > DM-β-CD > β-CD. The effect of temperature on the formation of BCB-β -CD inclusion complexes has also been examined. The results revealed that the formation constants decreased with the increase of temperature from 1038.9 to 491.6 l/mol. Enthalpy and entropy values were calculated and the values were -25.77 kJ/mol and 35.04 J/kmol, respectively. The thermodynamic measurements suggest that the inclusive process was enthalpic favor. The release of high-energy water molecules and Van der Waals force played an important role in the inclusive process.

  6. Complexation study of brilliant cresyl blue with beta-cyclodextrin and its derivatives by UV-vis and fluorospectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Guo, Yu-Xian; Li, Rong

    2008-01-01

    The complexation reactions of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), mono[2-O-(2-hydroxypropyl)]-beta-CD (2-HP-beta-CD), mono[2-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-beta-CD (2-HE-beta-CD), and heptakis(2,6-di-methyl) -beta-CD (DM-beta-CD) were investigated using UV-vis and fluorospectrometry. The complexation between BCB and CDs could inhibit the aggregation of BCB molecules and could cause its absorbance at 634nm gradually increasing. The fluorescence of BCB was also enhanced with the addition of CDs. The fluorescence enhancement was more notable in neutral and acidic media than in basic media. Hildebrand-Benesi equation was used to calculate the formation constants of beta-CDs with BCB based on the fluorescence differences in the CDs solution. The stoichiometry ratio was found to be 1:1. The complexing capacities of beta-CD and its three derivatives were compared and the results followed the order: 2-HP-beta-CD>2-HE-beta-CD>DM-beta-CD>beta-CD. The effect of temperature on the formation of BCB-beta-CD inclusion complexes has also been examined. The results revealed that the formation constants decreased with the increase of temperature from 1038.9 to 491.6l/mol. Enthalpy and entropy values were calculated and the values were -25.77kJ/mol and 35.04J/kmol, respectively. The thermodynamic measurements suggest that the inclusive process was enthalpic favor. The release of high-energy water molecules and Van der Waals force played an important role in the inclusive process.

  7. Photocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Brilliant Blue X-BR in Aqueous Solution Using Quantum-sized ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Su, S.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum-sized ZnO was prepared using sol–gel method with Zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and lithium hydroxide monohydrate(LiOH·H2O) as raw material. The ZnO particles annealed at different temperature were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant blue X-BR in aqueous solution was used to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the quantum-sized ZnO. The experimental results indicated that the photocatalytic property of the ZnO was excellent. The photocatalytic efficiency of quantum-sized ZnO was significantly influenced by the calcining heat. When calcined at 300oC, its size is 6.78 nm and the photocatalytic performance is the best. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant blue X-BR could exceed 90% in 15 min at 35oC, when the concentration of the quantum-sized ZnO was 0.35 mg/L. PMID:19657381

  8. Colloidal chitin stained with Remazol Brilliant Blue R, a useful substrate to select chitinolytic microorganisms and to evaluate chitinases.

    PubMed

    Gómez Ramírez, M; Rojas Avelizapa, L I; Rojas Avelizapa, N G; Cruz Camarillo, R

    2004-02-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on the use of colloidal chitin stained with Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBB) is proposed to evaluate chitinase activity. If this colloidal-stained substrate is included as a carbon source in a liquid medium, this technique allows the selection or the comparison of chitinolytic microorganisms. The colloidal substrate is proportionally solubilized and the dye released is spectrophotometrically quantified at 595 nm. The procedures used for the staining and fixing of RBB in the colloidal chitin, and a comparison with the commercial substrate chitin-azure, are presented. The influence of several physicochemical and enzymatic parameters on the release of dyes is also shown. Both stained substrates were used for studying the effect of pH, substrate concentration, temperature and time on the chitinase reaction of Bacillus thuringiensis Bt-107.

  9. [Influences of pH and complexing agents on degradation of reactive brilliant blue KN-R by ferrous activated persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Wan, Jin-Quan; Ma, Yong-Wen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Lan, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The influences of pH and complexing agents on degradation of reactive brilliant blue KN-R by ferrous activated persulfate were investigated, and finally the complexed and the uncomplexed system were compared. Because the lower the pH the more quickly will be the dissociation of S2O8(2-) to the SO4(-*) and the ORP of the dominant radical SO4(-*) in the acidic condition is higher than the dominant radical *OH in the alkaline condition, KN-R degradation rates in acidic condition are far outweigh in the neutral and alkaline conditions. When pH value was 3, the residual rate of KN-R was 17.0% within 3 hours by EDTA system with the lowest PS consumption rate 32.3%, so EDTA was the best complexing agent choice in acidic condition. When pH value was 7, the residual rates of KN-R were 11.3%, 12.4% within 3 days by EDTA, citric acid system with the PS residual rates 28.9%, 28.0% respectively, so EDTA, citric acid were the better choices in the neutral condition. When pH value was 10, glucose acid, citric acid, EDTA and tartaric acid systems all had the similar KN-R degradation rates and PS residual rates, so all could acted as the complexing agents, when the system contained trace amounts of ferrous, the addition of complexing agent would greatly improve the degradation rate of pollutant, from original 52.5% to 79.3% of 3 d, so PS is suitable for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO).

  10. Bioflocculant production by Haloplanus vescus and its application in acid brilliant scarlet yellow/red removal.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chun-Ying; Chen, Hong-Gao; Cao, Gang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    A novel bioflocculant MBF057 produced by a salt-tolerant Haloplanus vescus HW0579 was investigated in this study. The effects of culture conditions such as initial pH, inoculum size, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of K-acid wastewater on MBF0579 production were studied. The result showed that 8.09 g/L purified MBF0579 was extracted with the following optimized conditions: 780 mg/L COD of K-acid wastewater as carbon source, inoculum size 12.5%, and initial pH 7.0. The biopolymer contained 78.6% polysaccharides and 21.1% proteins. The highest flocculating rate of 81.86 and 95.07% for the COD and chroma of acid brilliant scarlet gelb rot (yellow/red, GR) dye wastewater were achieved at a dosage of 150 mg/L, pH 2.0 and contact time 100 min. Overall, these findings indicate bioflocculation offers an effective alternative method of decreasing acid brilliant scarlet GR during dye wastewater treatment.

  11. Electrochemical Determination of Brilliant Blue and Tartrazine Based on an Ionic Liquid-Modified Expanded Graphite Paste Electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Brilliant Blue (BB) and tartrazine (Tz) using an ionic liquid-modified expanded graphite paste electrode (IL-EGPE). The IL-EGPE was prepared by mixing ionic liquid-expanded graphite composite (IL-EG) with solid paraffin. Compared with the EGPE, the IL-EGPE remarkably enhanced the electrocatalytic oxidation signals of BB and Tz. Under optimal experimental conditions, the designed IL-EGPE exhibited wide linear responses to BB and Tz ranging from 5.0×10(-9) to 4.0×10(-6) M and 1.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-6) M, respectively. The detection limits for BB and Tz were 2.0×10(-9) M (1.6 ng/mL) and 3.3×10(-9) M (1.8 ng/mL) at an S/N of 3, respectively. This electrode showed good reproducibility, stability, and reusability. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of BB and Tz in a soft drink with satisfactory results.

  12. Mechanism of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 binding to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: an interference with the Bradford assay.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Mahdi; Nabatchian, Fariba; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Torabi, Mojgan

    2013-03-15

    The Bradford protein assay is a popular method because of its rapidity, sensitivity, and relative specificity. This method is subject to some interference by nonprotein compounds. In this study, we describe the interference of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the Bradford assay. This interference is based on the interaction of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBB) with this cationic detergent. This study suggests that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are involved in the interaction of CTAB and CBB. The anionic and neutral forms of CBB bind to CTAB by electrostatic attraction, which accelerates hydrophobic interactions of these CBB forms and the hydrophobic tail of CTAB. Consequently, the hydrophobic regions of the dominant free cationic form of CBB dye compete for the tail of CTAB with two other forms of the dye and gradually displace the primary hydrophobic interactions and rearrange the primary CBB-CTAB complex. This interaction of CTAB and CBB dye produces a primary 650-nm-absorbing complex that then gradually rearranges to a complex that shows an absorbance shoulder at 800-950 nm. This study conclusively shows a strong response of CBB to CTAB that causes a time-dependent and nearly additive interference with the Bradford assay. This study also may promote an application of CBB for CTAB quantification.

  13. Equilibrium, Thermodynamics, and Kinetic Sorption Studies for the Removal of Coomassie Brilliant Blue on Wheat Bran as a Low-Cost Adsorbent

    PubMed Central

    Ata, Sadia; Imran Din, Muhammad; Rasool, Atta; Qasim, Imran; Ul Mohsin, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    The sorption studies of coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) from aqueous solution have been carried out on wheat bran (WB). Coomassie brilliant blue on wheat bran was used to study the adsorption behavior under various parameters such as pH, dosage amount, and contact time. It was observed that under optimized conditions up to 95.70% dye could be removed from solution onto WB. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to elaborate the results. Freundlich model was found to be fitted well and favored multilayer adsorption. The Freundlich constants n and KF were determined as 0.53 and 2.5 × 10−4. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS studied were taking into account, showed spontaneous and favorable reaction for coomassie brilliant blue on wheat bran. The maximum adsorption capacity qm was found to be 6.410 mg/g. The investigations show that non treated WB is a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of dyes from textile industry effluents. PMID:22567559

  14. Trityl dyes patent blue V and brilliant blue G - clinical relevance and in vitro analysis of the function of the outer blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Mennel, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten H; Schmidt, Jörg C; Kaempf, Stefanie; Thumann, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    The use of vital dyes during vitrectomy allows easier removal of less recognizable structures like epiretinal membranes or the internal limiting membrane (ILM). In recent years, numerous studies have investigated the use of indocyanine green (ICG), trypan blue (Membrane Blue), triamcinolone, autologous blood and presently trityl dyes such as patent blue V (PBV, Blueron), crystal violet and brilliant blue G (BBG, Brilliant Peel) in chromovitrectomy. Reports on potential risks of these dyes, especially ICG, such as reduced visual acuity, possible visual field defects or alterations of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) limited their application. A systematic review of the literature up to July 2007 was performed using Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ PubMed/) where we specifically searched for relevant information regarding the laboratory as well as clinical use of PB and BBG. To evaluate the effect of PB and BBG on the RPE, PB and BBG have been added to an in vitro model of the outer blood-retinal barrier to assess dye-associated barrier properties. Two concentrations of PB (2.4 and 1.2 mg/ml) and BBG (0.25 and 2.4 mg/ml) were investigated. To simulate in vivo conditions of a fluid-filled eye and an air-filled eye the dyes were added either to the culture medium or directly to the RPE cells where they remained for 2.5 min. To determine barrier properties, transepithelial resistance (TER) was measured at 3 days of follow-up. Ultrastructural integrity of RPE cells was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Following application of PB, barrier properties in the fluid- as well as in the air-filled eye showed only mild, transient and no significant decrease in TER. BBG did not cause a breakdown of the outer bloodretinal barrier at the concentration of 0.25 mg/ml in the model of the fluid-filled eye. The concentration of 2.4 mg/ml in the model of the fluid-filled eye as well as both concentrations in the model of the air-filled eye showed a minor decrease

  15. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  16. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2017-01-01

    Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both enzyme activities were increased, with laccase activity recorded 70 times higher reaching up to 390 U L−1 on day 12. Further in vitro RBBR dye decolourisation using the culture medium shows that laccase activity was correlated with the dye decolourisation. Fresh RBBR dye continuously supplemented into the decolourised culture medium was further decolourised much faster in the subsequent round of the RBBR dye decolourisation. In vitro dye decolourisation using the crude laccase not only decolourised 76% of RBBR dye in just 19 hours but also decolourised 54% of Orange G and 33% of Congo red at the same period of time without the use of any exogenous mediator. This rapid dye decolourisation ability of the enzymes produced by M. cladophyllus thus suggested its possible application in the bioremediation of dye containing wastewater. PMID:28168194

  17. Effects of cilostamide and/or forskolin on the meiotic resumption and development competence of growing ovine oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue staining.

    PubMed

    Azari-Dolatabad, Nima; Rahmani, H R; Hajian, M; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S M; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2016-05-01

    The relevance of low developmental competence of in vitro-matured oocyte to the incomplete/delayed cytoplasmic maturation, and the heterogeneity of retrieved oocytes is well established in several species. A short phase of prematuration culture was used to allow better oocyte cytoplasmic maturation. The preselection of growing and fully grown oocytes has been proposed to improve developmental competency. This study investigated the effects of phosphodiesterase type 3-specific inhibitor, cilostamide, and adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, on the resumption of meiosis and developmental competence of growing ovine oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining. Results indicate that cilostamide, forskolin, and their combination significantly (P < 0.05) increased the percentage of growing (BCB-) oocytes maintained at the germinal vesicle stage. However, only forskolin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the yield and quality of blastocysts derived from BCB- oocytes compared with non-BCB-treated oocytes. We conclude that a short prematuration culture with forskolin may improve the in vitro developmental competency of growing oocytes in ovine.

  18. MnCl2 and MgCl2 for the removal of reactive dye Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA from synthetic textile wastewaters: an adsorption/aggregation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bouyakoub, A Z; Lartiges, B S; Ouhib, R; Kacha, S; El Samrani, A G; Ghanbaja, J; Barres, O

    2011-03-15

    Two divalent cation-based coagulants, magnesium chloride and manganese chloride, were used to treat synthetic textile wastewaters containing the azo-dye pigment Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA. The jar-tests were performed in the presence or absence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. They proved that (i) both divalent cation-based coagulants were effective in the treatment of those alkaline effluents, (ii) better performances in terms of color removal, residual turbidity, and settled volume, were achieved with manganese chloride, and (iii) the presence of dyeing auxiliaries significantly increases the required coagulant demand for treating the textile effluent. The dye removal mechanisms were investigated by combining observations of freeze-dried sediments with transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, adsorption experiments, and aggregates size measurements with a laser sizer under cyclic shear conditions. The results show that brucite (Mg(OH)(2)) particles are formed when applying MgCl(2) to the textile wastewaters, whereas a mixture of feitknechite (β-MnOOH) and hausmannite (Mn(3)O(4)) is obtained when using MnCl(2). More poorly crystallized particles are formed in presence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. The adsorption experiments suggested that the azo-dye pigment adsorbs onto the surface of precipitating phases, whereas the aggregation dynamics indicated that a charge-neutralization mechanism underlies the formation of aggregates. The dye removal is then consistent with a precipitation/adsorption mechanism.

  19. Brilliant Blue G improves cognition in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease and inhibits amyloid-β-induced loss of filopodia and dendrite spines in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Hu, J; Jiang, L; Xu, S; Zheng, B; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Wei, X; Chang, L; Wang, Q

    2014-10-24

    Deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous studies report that the Aβ peptide, especially in the oligomeric form, causes memory decline and other cognitive deficits. However, there have been very few effective interventions for termination or even delay of AD progression. Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a safe triphenylmethane dye and P2X7 antagonist, has been reported to have protective effects on neuroinflammation, ischemia, spinal injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report that systematic administration of BBG diminishes spatial memory impairment and cognitive deficits in a mouse AD model produced by injecting soluble Aβ peptide into the hippocampal CA1 region. In addition, we show that Aβ-induced loss of filopodia and spine density in cultured hippocampal neurons was prevented by administration of BBG. We conclude that BBG prevents the learning and memory impairment and cognitive deficits induced by the toxicity of soluble Aβ, and improves the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons in an AD model mouse. Considering the safety and blood-brain-barrier (BBB)-permeability of BBG, our data suggest a potential for BBG as a new therapy for AD.

  20. Comparisons of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness after indocyanine green, brilliant blue g, or triamcinolone acetonide-assisted macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Toba, Yoshiharu; Machida, Shigeki; Kurosaka, Daijiro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the postoperative changes of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with macular holes (MHs) treated with vitrectomy with indocyanine green- (ICG-), brilliant blue G- (BBG-), or triamcinolone acetonide- (TA-)assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Methods. Sixty-one eyes of 61 consecutive patients with MHs were studied. Each eye was randomly selected to undergo either ICG- (n = 18), BBG- (n = 21), or TA-assisted (n = 22) ILM peeling. The circumferential retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) before and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. The mean overall and the sectoral thicknesses of the RNFL were obtained for each group. Results. A transient increase of the RNFL thickness was seen in the mean overall and sectoral thicknesses except for the nasal/inferior sector at 1 month after surgery for the three groups. Then, the thickness gradually decreased and returned to the baseline level in all sectors except for the nasal/inferior sector. The differences in the RNFL thickness among the groups were not significant for at least 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions. The degree of change of the RNFL thickness was not significantly related to the type of vital stain used during MH surgery.

  1. Brilliant Blue-G but not Fenofibrate Treatment Reverts Hemiparkinsonian Behavior and Restores Dopamine Levels in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrazoli, Enéas G; de Souza, Héllio D N; Nascimento, Isis C; Oliveira-Giacomelli, Ágatha; Schwindt, Telma T; Britto, Luiz R; Ulrich, Henning

    2017-03-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and their projections to the striatum. Several processes have been described as potential inducers of the dopaminergic neuron death, such as inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the death of dopaminergic neurons seems to be multifactorial and its cause remains unclear. ATP activating purinergic receptors influence various physiological functions in the CNS, including neurotransmission. Purinergic signaling is also involved in pathological scenarios, where ATP is extensively released and promotes sustained purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) activation and consequent induction of cell death. This effect occurs, among other factors, by oxidative stress and during the inflammatory response. On the other hand, peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) is involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Expression and activity upregulation of this protein has been related with reduction of oxidative stress and neuroprotection. Therefore, P2X7R and PGC-1α are potential targets in the treatment of PD. Here, hemiparkinsonism was induced by unilateral stereotactic injection of 6OHDA in a rat model. After seven days, the establishment of PD was confirmed and followed by treatment with the P2X7R antagonist Brilliant Blue-G (BBG) or PGC-1α agonist fenofibrate. BBG, but not fenofibrate, reverted hemiparkinsonian behavior accompanied by an increase of TH-immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. Our results suggest that the P2X7R may be a therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Combined positive effect of oocyte extracts and brilliant cresyl blue stained recipient cytoplasts on epigenetic reprogramming and gene expression in buffalo nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Sadeesh, E M; Fozia, Shah; Meena, Kataria

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of buffalo oocyte extracts (BOE) on donor cells reprogramming and molecular characterisation of oocytes screened via brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and comparison of gene expression profiles of developmentally important genes in blastocysts from IVF and cloned derived from BOE treated donor cells with BCB selected recipient cytoplasts. Relative abundance (RA) of OCT4 and NANOG was increased (P < 0.05) and HDAC-1, DNMT-1, and DNMT-3A decreased (P < 0.05) in extract treated cells (ETCs). This ETCs dedifferentiated into neuron-like lineage under appropriate induction condition. The RA of NASP, EEF1A1, DNMT1, ODC1 and RPS27A was increased (P < 0.05) in BCB+ oocytes, whereas ATP5A1 and S100A10 increased (P < 0.05) in BCB- oocytes. Total cell number and RA of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, DNMT1, IGF2, IGF2R, MNSOD, GLUT1, BAX and BCL2 in cloned blastocysts derived from BCB+ oocytes with ETC more closely followed that of IVF counterparts compared to BCB+ oocytes with extract untreated cell and BCB- oocytes with ETC derived blastocysts. In conclusion, BOE influenced epigenetic reprogramming of buffalo fibroblasts making them suitable donors for nuclear transfer (NT). BCB staining can be effectively used for selection of developmentally competent oocytes for NT. The combined effects of epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei by BOE and higher nuclear reprogramming capacity of BCB+ oocytes improve developmentally important gene expression in cloned blastocysts. Whether these improvements have long-term effects on buffalo calves born following embryo transfer remains unknown.

  3. Artificial neural network-genetic algorithm based optimization for the adsorption of methylene blue and brilliant green from aqueous solution by graphite oxide nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Zeinali, N; Ghaedi, A M; Teimuori, M; Tashkhourian, J

    2014-05-05

    In this study, graphite oxide (GO) nano according to Hummers method was synthesized and subsequently was used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) and brilliant green (BG). The detail information about the structure and physicochemical properties of GO are investigated by different techniques such as XRD and FTIR analysis. The influence of solution pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage was examined in batch mode and optimum conditions was set as pH=7.0, 2 mg of GO and 10 min contact time. Employment of equilibrium isotherm models for description of adsorption capacities of GO explore the good efficiency of Langmuir model for the best presentation of experimental data with maximum adsorption capacity of 476.19 and 416.67 for MB and BG dyes in single solution. The analysis of adsorption rate at various stirring times shows that both dyes adsorption followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model with cooperation with interparticle diffusion model. Subsequently, the adsorption data as new combination of artificial neural network was modeled to evaluate and obtain the real conditions for fast and efficient removal of dyes. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dyes removal percentage from aqueous solution by GO following conduction of 336 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different GO amount (0.002-0.008 g) and 5-40 mg/L of both dyes over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was able to predict the removal efficiency with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at hidden layer with 10 and 11 neurons for MB and BG dyes, respectively. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0012 and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.982 were found for prediction and modeling of MB removal, while the respective value for BG was the

  4. Osmolarity and spectrophotometric property of brilliant blue green define the degree of toxicity on retinal pigment epithelial cells exposed to surgical endoilluminator

    PubMed Central

    Balaiya, Sankarathi; Sambhav, Kumar; Cook, William B; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of brilliant blue green (BBG) and their different biochemical characteristics on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells under xenon light source illumination at varying distances to identify safe parameters for intraoperative use. Methods Human retinal RPE cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to two concentrations (0.25 and 0.50 mg/mL) of BBG and illuminated with a xenon surgical illuminator at varying distances (10 and 25 mm), intensity levels, and time intervals (1, 5, and 15 minutes). Additionally, the effect of osmolarity was examined by diluting BBG in different concentrations of glucose. Cytotoxicity of BBG and osmolarity effects on cell viability were evaluated using a WST-1 assay. Light absorption and emission characteristic of BBG in different solvents were measured using a plate reader at different wavelengths. Lastly, the activity of caspase-3 was also studied. Results Cell viability of ARPE-19 cells was 77.4%±12.7%, 78.7%±17.0%, and 65.0%±19.7% at 1, 5, and 15 minutes to exposure of high illumination xenon light at 10 mm (P<0.05) compared to controls. At both distances of illumination (10 and 25 mm), similar cell viabilities were seen between 1 and 5 minutes of exposure. However, there was a decline in viability when the illumination was carried out to 15 minutes in all groups (P<0.05). There was no significant reduction in cell viability in presence or absence of xenon light in different osmolar solutions concentrations of glucose (P>0.05). Maximal light absorption of BBG was noted between 540 and 680 nm. Activated caspase-3 level was not significant in both the concentrations of BBG (P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that BBG at 0.25 mg/mL during vitreoretinal surgery is safe and not toxic to RPE cells up to 5 minutes under focal high illumination (10 mm) and up to 15 minutes under medium diffuse illumination (25 mm). BBG was safe to be mixed with isotonic glucose solution at the

  5. Artificial neural network-genetic algorithm based optimization for the adsorption of methylene blue and brilliant green from aqueous solution by graphite oxide nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Zeinali, N.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Teimuori, M.; Tashkhourian, J.

    In this study, graphite oxide (GO) nano according to Hummers method was synthesized and subsequently was used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) and brilliant green (BG). The detail information about the structure and physicochemical properties of GO are investigated by different techniques such as XRD and FTIR analysis. The influence of solution pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage was examined in batch mode and optimum conditions was set as pH = 7.0, 2 mg of GO and 10 min contact time. Employment of equilibrium isotherm models for description of adsorption capacities of GO explore the good efficiency of Langmuir model for the best presentation of experimental data with maximum adsorption capacity of 476.19 and 416.67 for MB and BG dyes in single solution. The analysis of adsorption rate at various stirring times shows that both dyes adsorption followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model with cooperation with interparticle diffusion model. Subsequently, the adsorption data as new combination of artificial neural network was modeled to evaluate and obtain the real conditions for fast and efficient removal of dyes. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dyes removal percentage from aqueous solution by GO following conduction of 336 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different GO amount (0.002-0.008 g) and 5-40 mg/L of both dyes over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was able to predict the removal efficiency with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at hidden layer with 10 and 11 neurons for MB and BG dyes, respectively. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0012 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.982 were found for prediction and modeling of MB removal, while the respective value for BG was the

  6. P2X7 antagonism using Brilliant Blue G reduces body weight loss and prolongs survival in female SOD1G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Rachael; Sluyter, Vanessa; Watson, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age) until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor coordination in

  7. Staining with highly sensitive Coomassie brilliant blue SeePico™ Stain after Flamingo™ fluorescent gel stain is useful for cancer proteomic analysis by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Eiko; Okada, Futoshi; Zhang, Xiulian; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Ueyama, Yoshiya; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Highly sensitive Coomassie brilliant blue SeePico™ Stain was applied for proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After staining with Flamingo™ Fluorescent Gel Stain, the images of the protein spots were analyzed, and 424 protein spots were detected. After washing with Milli-Q water three times, the gels were re-stained with SeePico™ Stain and the images of the protein spots were analyzed; 272 spots were detected. To assess whether SeePico™ Stain alters MS analysis, a spot was picked up and was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The MS analysis showed good protein identification. These results show a possible role for SeePico™ Stain in cancer proteomics using 2-DE and MS.

  8. Poly(brilliant green) and poly(thionine) modified carbon nanotube coated carbon film electrodes for glucose and uric acid biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-12-01

    Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) and poly(thionine) (PTH) films have been formed on carbon film electrodes (CFEs) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electropolymerisation using potential cycling. Voltammetric and electrochemical impedance characterisation were performed. Glucose oxidase and uricase, as model enzymes, were immobilised on top of PBG/CNT/CFE and PTH/CNT/CFE for glucose and uric acid (UA) biosensing. Amperometric determination of glucose and UA was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.0 at -0.20 and +0.30 V vs. SCE, respectively, and the results were compared with other similarly modified electrodes existing in the literature. An interference study and recovery measurements in natural samples were successfully performed, indicating these architectures to be good and promising biosensor platforms.

  9. Buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning from oocytes selected using brilliant cresyl blue staining have better developmental competence and quality and are closer to embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in terms of their epigenetic status and gene expression pattern.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sushil K; Sandhu, Anjit; Neerukattu, Venkata S; Singh, Karn P; Selokar, Naresh L; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-04-01

    We compared handmade cloned (HMC) buffalo blastocysts produced from oocytes stained with Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) and classified into those with blue (BCB+) or colorless cytoplasm (BCB-). The blastocyst rate was higher (p<0.001) for BCB+ than for BCB- oocytes (43.41 ± 2.54 vs. 22.74 ± 1.76%). BCB+ blastocysts had inner cell mass (ICM) cell number, ICM-to-trophectoderm ratio, global level of H3K18ac, apoptotic index, and expression level of BCL-XL, but not that of CASPASE-3, similar to that of blastocysts produced through in vitro fertilization (IVF), which was higher (p<0.05) than that of BCB- blastocysts. The global level of H3K9me2, which was similar in BCB+ and BCB- blastocysts, was higher (p<0.01) than that in IVF blastocysts. The expression level of OCT4 and SOX2 was higher (p<0.05) and that of GATA2 was lower (p<0.05) in BCB+ than that in BCB- blastocysts, whereas that of DNMT1, DNMT3a, NANOG, and CDX2 was not significantly different between the two groups. The expression level of DNMT1, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 was lower (p<0.05) and that of CDX2 was higher (p<0.05) in BCB+ than in IVF blastocysts. In conclusion, because BCB+ blastocysts have better developmental competence and are closer to IVF blastocysts in terms of quality, epigenetic status, and gene expression than BCB- blastocysts, BCB staining can be used effectively for selection of developmentally competent oocytes for HMC.

  10. Kinetics of Methylene Blue Reduction by Ascorbic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowry, Sarah; Ogren, Paul J.

    1999-07-01

    The redox reactions of methylene blue (MB+) often occur on a time scale of a few seconds to minutes. They may be followed visually for qualitative interpretations and spectrophotometrically for quantitative determinations. The experimental simplicity of MB+ reaction systems has also occasionally led to erroneous conclusions based upon oversimplified data treatment and assumptions. This paper compares spectrophotometric studies of MB+ reduction by ascorbic acid at low pH with previous conclusions based upon visual determinations of color loss. Spectrophotometric studies of the temporal decay of MB+ absorbance at 665 nm show that the reaction is first order in MB+, ascorbic acid, and HCl. A slower reaction occurs with only MB+ and ascorbic acid present. Regeneration of MB+ color by reaction with dissolved oxygen, the "blue bottle" reaction, is particularly significant when the reaction with ascorbic acid is slow. Methylene blue chemistry continues to provide a wealth of examples suitable for undergraduate kinetics studies.

  11. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  12. ASATs vs Brilliant Pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-03-01

    This paper examines the cost exchange ratio of Brilliant Pebbles satellites when attacked by small, ground-based, non-nuclear ASATs. If the satellites have no defenses, the exchange ratio is likely to be at least 40:1 in favor of the attacker in a general war or 4:1 in his favor in a war of attrition. The use of maneuver, decoys, and space-based defensive rockets to defeat that ASAT threat were examined, but non of these approaches appears to be clearly economically advantageous. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A Brilliant Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons captured another dramatic picture of Jupiter's moon Io and its volcanic plumes, 19 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter on Feb. 28, 2007. LORRI took this 75 millisecond exposure at 0035 Universal Time on March 1, 2007, when Io was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.

    Io's dayside is deliberately overexposed to bring out faint details in the plumes and on the moon's night side. The continuing eruption of the volcano Tvashtar, at the 1 o'clock position, produces an enormous plume roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high, which is illuminated both by sunlight and 'Jupiter light.'

    The shadow of Io, cast by the Sun, slices across the plume. The plume is quite asymmetrical and has a complicated wispy texture, for reasons that are still mysterious. At the heart of the eruption incandescent lava, seen here as a brilliant point of light, is reminding scientists of the fire fountains spotted by the Galileo Jupiter orbiter at Tvashtar in 1999.

    The sunlit plume faintly illuminates the surface underneath. 'New Horizons and Io continue to astonish us with these unprecedented views of the solar system's most geologically active body' says John Spencer, deputy leader of the New Horizons Jupiter Encounter Science Team and an Io expert from Southwest Research Institute.

    Because this image shows the side of Io that faces away from Jupiter, the large planet does not illuminate the moon's night side except for an extremely thin crescent outlining the edge of the disk at lower right. Another plume, likely from the volcano Masubi, is illuminated by Jupiter just above this lower right edge. A third and much fainter plume, barely visible at the 2 o'clock position, could be the first plume seen from the volcano Zal Patera.

    As in other New Horizons images of Io, mountains catch the setting Sun just beyond the terminator (the line dividing day and night

  14. From sanddabs to blue whales: the pervasiveness of domoic acid.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Bargu, Sibel; Kieckhefer, Tom; Silver, Mary W

    2002-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a potent food web transferred algal toxin that has caused dramatic mortality events involving sea birds and sea lions. Although no confirmed DA toxicity events have been reported in whales, here we present data demonstrating that humpback and blue whales are exposed to the toxin and consume DA contaminated prey. Whale fecal samples were found to contain DA at levels ranging from 10 to 207microg DA g(-1) feces via HPLC-UV methods. SEM analysis of whale feces containing DA, collected from krill-feeding whales, revealed the presence of diatom frustules identified as Pseudo-nitzschia australis, a known DA producer. Humpback whales were observed feeding on anchovies and sardines that contained DA at levels ranging from 75 to 444microg DA g(-1) viscera. DA contamination of whale feces and fish occurred only during blooms of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia. Additionally, several novel fish species collected during a toxic diatom bloom were tested for DA. Fish as diverse as benthic sanddabs and pelagic albacore were found to contain the neurotoxin, suggesting that DA permeates benthic as well as pelagic communities.

  15. A DISTANT QUASAR'S BRILLIANT LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The arrow in this image, taken by a ground-based telescope, points to a distant quasar, the brilliant core of an active galaxy residing billions of light-years from Earth. As light from this faraway object travels across space, it picks up information on galaxies and the vast clouds of material between galaxies as it moves through them. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope decoded the quasar's light to find the spectral 'fingerprints' of highly ionized (energized) oxygen, which had mixed with invisible clouds of hydrogen in intergalactic space. The quasar's brilliant beam pierced at least four separate filaments of the invisible hydrogen laced with the telltale oxygen. The presence of oxygen between the galaxies implies there are huge quantities of hydrogen in the universe. Credits: WIYN Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. The telescope is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  16. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuhua; Lai, Hong; Shi, Zhongliang

    2012-12-05

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.

  17. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment. PMID:23369295

  18. Red Shoe-Blue Shoe: An Acid-Base Demonstration with a Fashionable Twist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breyer, Arthur C.; Uzelmeier, Calvin E.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates that acid-base indicators come in many forms and the reversible effects that acids and bases have on the colors of such indicators. An object is dyed in an indicator, which causes the object to turn dark blue at pH less than 3.0 to 5.0. Suggests using dyeable fabric shoes and other cotton articles. (PVD)

  19. Self-powered biosensor for ascorbic acid with a Prussian blue electrochromic display.

    PubMed

    Zloczewska, Adrianna; Celebanska, Anna; Szot, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Dorota; Opallo, Marcin; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2014-04-15

    We report on the development of a nanocarbon based anode for sensing of ascorbic acid (AA). The oxidation of AA on this anode occurs at a quite low overpotential which enables the anode to be connected to a biocathode to form an ascorbic acid/O2 biofuel cell that functions as a self-powered biosensor. In conjunction with a Prussian blue electrochromic display the anode can also work as a truly self-powered sensor. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the anode leads to a reduction of the Prussian blue in the display. The reduced form of Prussian blue, called Prussian white, is transparent. The rate of change from blue to colourless is dependent on the concentration of ascorbic acid. The display can easily be regenerated by connecting it to the biocathode which returns the Prussian blue to its oxidized form. In this way we have created the first self-powered electrochromic sensor that gives quantitative information about the analyte concentration. This is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of ascorbic acid in orange juice. The reported quantitative read-out electrochromic display can serve as a template for the creation of cheap, miniturizable sensors for other relevant analytes.

  20. [Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Atsuo; Sekine, Atsuo

    2005-08-01

    Intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's esophagus is pre-cancerous lesion and it is important to diagnose intestinal metaplasia by endoscopic examination. Predefined 4 quadrant sampling technique is popular in western countries. However, chromoendoscopy or magnification endoscopy have been tried to diagnose intestinal metaplasia. We have carried out magnification endoscopy with methylene blue and magnification endoscopy with acetic acid. In magnification endoscopy with methylene blue, intestinal metaplasia showed blue-staining area with tubulaous or cavernous pattern. In magnification endoscopy with acetic acid, all of epithelium of Barrett's esophagus changed to whitening surface and it was easy to observe the structure of each epithelium. Intestinal metaplasia showed tubulaous or villous, although fundic type showed pits of small round and cardiac type showed oval pattern with central-slit pits.

  1. Enhanced adsorption of active brilliant red X-3B dye on chitosan molecularly imprinted polymer functionalized with Ti(IV) as Lewis acid.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hui; Wei, Zhilai; Wang, XiaoNing

    2017-02-10

    A Ti(IV) functionalized chitosan molecularly imprinted polymer (Ti-CSMIP) was successfully prepared. Ti(4+) as Lewis acidic was used to modify chitosan MIP by producing metal hydroxyl group and protonated surface of adsorbent in aqueous solution to recognize X-3B molecule as a Lewis base. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, BET, elemental and zeta potential analysis. XRD illustrated Ti-CSMIP exhibited a weak anatase phase when Ti(4+) cross-linked with chitosan. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate adsorption condition, including sorption isotherm, kinetics and reusability. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ti-CSMIP for X-3B was 161.1mg/g at 293K when solution pH was in the range of 6.0-7.0. Equilibrium data was well analyzed by three-parameter isotherm model, and the kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second kinetics equation. Regeneration experiments indicated a possible application as an effective sorbent for the selective removal of azo anionic dye in aqueous solutions.

  2. Affi-Gel Blue for nucleic acid removal and early enrichment of nucleotide binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Murray P

    2009-01-01

    Passage of an extract or supernatant fraction through a column of Affi-Gel Blue and batchwise elution can be a rapid and effective early procedure for removal of nucleic acid, concentration of the sample and purification of nucleotide binding proteins.

  3. Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its colourful surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the colourful backdrop to this image. The subtle colours of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of Unicellular Strains of Blue-Green Algae1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, C. N.

    1972-01-01

    The fatty acids of 34 strains of unicellular blue-green algae provisionally assigned to the genera Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, Gloeocapsa, Microcystis, and Chlorogloea by Stanier et al. have been chemically characterized. The strains analyzed can be divided into a series of compositional groups based upon the highest degree of unsaturation of the major cellular fatty acids. Twenty strains fall into the group characterized by one trienoic fatty acid isomer (α-linolenic acid), and seven strains fall into a group characterized by another trienoic acid isomer (γ-linolenic acid). These groups in many cases correlate well with groupings based upon other phenotypic characters of the strains, e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid base composition. The assignment of a strain to a compositional group is not altered when the strain is grown under a variety of different culture conditions. All strains contain glycolipids with the properties of mono- and digalactosyldiglycerides. PMID:4621688

  5. Treatment of actinic cheilitis by photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin; Clement, Annabelle

    2011-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC), a common disorder of the lower lip, should be treated early to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) activated by blue light for the treatment of AC. Fifteen patients with clinically evident or biopsy-proven AC received two treatments with ALA PDT with blue light activation. Treatments were spaced three to five weeks apart. Most patients achieved 65% to 75% clearance three to five weeks after the first treatment and all achieved more than 75% clearance one month after the second treatment. Three patients achieved complete clearance. Pain and burning during irradiation were absent or mild. All patients said they would repeat the procedure. ALA PDT with 417 nm blue light is a promising option for the treatment of AC of the lower lip.

  6. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties.

  7. Interaction of nucleic acids with Coomassie Blue G-250 in the Bradford assay.

    PubMed

    Wenrich, Broc R; Trumbo, Toni A

    2012-09-15

    The Bradford assay has been used reliably for decades to quantify protein in solution. The analyte is incubated in acidic solution of Coomassie Blue G-250 dye, during which reversible ionic and nonionic binding interactions form. Bradford assay color yields were determined for salmon, bovine, shrimp, and kiwi fruit genomic DNA; baker's yeast RNA; bovine serum albumin (BSA); and hen egg lysozyme. Pure DNA and RNA bound the dye, with color yields of 0.0017 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹ and 0.0018 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹, respectively. The nucleic acid-Coomassie Blue response was significant, at roughly 9% of that for BSA and 18% of that for lysozyme.

  8. Bioenergetics and pathway of acid blue 113 degradation by Staphylococcus lentus.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Mahadevan, Surianarayanan; Shanmugam, Bhuvanesh Kumar; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-01-01

    Bioreaction calorimetric studies of degradation of the dye acid blue 113 by Staphylococcus lentus are reported for the first time. The heat released during the dye degradation process can be successfully measured using reaction calorimeter. Power time and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profile followed each other suggesting that heat profiles could monitor the progress of the dye degradation in biocalorimetry. The shifts observed in power-time profile indicated three distinct phases of the bioprocess indicating simultaneous utilization of glucose (primary) and dye (secondary carbon source). Secretion of azoreductase enzyme enhanced the degradation process. Optimization of aeration and agitation rates was observed to be vital to efficient dye degradation. The degradative pathway for acid blue 113 by S. lentus was delineated via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Interestingly the products of degradation were found to have low toxicity, as per cytotoxicity measurements.

  9. From 'smart rocks' come 'brilliant pebbles'

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L. )

    1990-04-01

    The development of the brilliant pebbles concept as part of the SDI kinetic kill vehicle mechanism is reviewed. The way in which the pebbles collide with a ballistic missile or reentry vehicle is outlined. Consideration is given to the computing capacity of the pebbles, the ground-based control of the pebbles, and the way in which the pebbles maneuver during flight. The pebble autonomy at the system level and at the individual level is described. Plans for the first suborbital pebble test flights and issues concerning the performance of the brilliant pebbles as a ballistic missile defense system are examined.

  10. Hyaluronic Acid Modified Hollow Prussian Blue Nanoparticles Loading 10-hydroxycamptothecin for Targeting Thermochemotherapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Lijia; shao, shangmin; Wang, Yang; Yang, Yongbo; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoplatform by modifying hollow Prussian blue nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid grafting polyethylene glycol, followed by loading 10-hydroxycamptothecin for tumor-targeted thermochemotherapy. It was found that the surface modification of hollow Prussian blue nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid grafting polyethylene endowed a great colloidal stability, long blood circulation time and the capability for targeting Hela cells over-expressing the CD44 receptor. The obtained nanoagent exhibited efficient photothermal effect and a light triggered and stepwise release behavior of 10-hydroxycamptothecin due to the strong optical absorption in the near-infrared region. The investigations on the body weight change, histological injury and blood biochemical indexes showed that such nanoagent had excellent biocompatibility for medical application. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments proved that the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy through the agent of hyaluronic acid modified Prussian blue nanoparticles loading 10-hydroxycamptothecin could significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy compared with either therapy alone because of a good synergetic effect. PMID:26722372

  11. Hyaluronic Acid Modified Hollow Prussian Blue Nanoparticles Loading 10-hydroxycamptothecin for Targeting Thermochemotherapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lijia; Shao, Shangmin; Wang, Yang; Yang, Yongbo; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoplatform by modifying hollow Prussian blue nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid grafting polyethylene glycol, followed by loading 10-hydroxycamptothecin for tumor-targeted thermochemotherapy. It was found that the surface modification of hollow Prussian blue nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid grafting polyethylene endowed a great colloidal stability, long blood circulation time and the capability for targeting Hela cells over-expressing the CD44 receptor. The obtained nanoagent exhibited efficient photothermal effect and a light triggered and stepwise release behavior of 10-hydroxycamptothecin due to the strong optical absorption in the near-infrared region. The investigations on the body weight change, histological injury and blood biochemical indexes showed that such nanoagent had excellent biocompatibility for medical application. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments proved that the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy through the agent of hyaluronic acid modified Prussian blue nanoparticles loading 10-hydroxycamptothecin could significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy compared with either therapy alone because of a good synergetic effect.

  12. [Enhanced reductive decoloration of methylene blue by polyacrylic acid modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Pei; Liu, Kun-Qian

    2015-03-01

    Nano zerovalent iron ( NZVI) technology has attracted tremendous amount of interests for degrading a number of environmental contaminants found both in surface water and underground water. However, these nanoscale particles are prone to aggregate, which may result in the decrease of its reactivity in liquid phase. Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) has enhanced the dispersion of NZVI and reduced its agglomeration. For the first time, PAA modified NPs (PAA-Fe NPs) were used for degradation of methylene blue in water phase. The PAA-Fe NPs prepared were characterized in terms of TEM, SEM, XRD and specific surface area. The results indicated that, the surface area of PAA-Fe NPs was increased, compared with unmodified pristine zero-valent iron NPs, and PAA-Fe NPs were smoother with smaller particle size. With addition of 0.1 g x L(-1) of PAA, the decolorization efficiency of methylene blue by PAA-Fe NPs was 98.84% in 60 min, which was 27.32% higher than that of pristine Fe NPs. Decolorization efficiencies were also affected by initial pH value, initial concentration of methylene blue, dosage of PAA-Fe NPs, and degradation temperature. Kinetic analyses based on the experimental data illustrated that the decolorization reaction of methylene blue fitted well to the pseudo first-order kinetics model.

  13. BMAA detected as neither free nor protein bound amino acid in blue mussels.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Johan; Westerberg, Erik; Schmiedt, Sebastian; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study imply that β-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) obtained from extracts of blue mussels from the Swedish west coast is neither free nor protein bound. The results were obtained by separation (precipitation and ultrafiltration) of low and high molecular weight compounds from neutral extracts of blue mussels, and treatment of these extracts with low and high concentrations of acids, varying time and temperature. The main portion of BMAA was obtained from the low molecular weight fraction, released or formed at 95 °C in dilute acids. The measured amount of BMAA did not increase by strong acid treatment. Lysine was used as reference and was only released at significant amounts when treating the high molecular weight fraction with concentrated acid. The results also indicated that breakage of peptide bonds was not involved in the formation/release of BMAA in these extracts unless any BMAA peptide bond would be significantly more susceptible to dilute acid than e.g. the monitored lysine peptide bond. BMAA was measured using isotope dilution and detection of the underivatized compound by HILIC-UHPLC-MS/MS (Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography, Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography, tandem Mass Spectrometry). The findings might add to the understanding of conflicting data in the literature regarding the occurrence of BMAA, and have implications for studies on possible biomagnification of BMAA in the food chain and bioavailability from food.

  14. Methylene blue intercalated into calcium phosphate - Electrochemical properties and an ascorbic acid oxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarin, Angélica M.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2008-09-01

    Methylene blue (MB) was intercalated inside the cavity of a layered calcium phosphate host. The dye is strongly retained and not easily leached from the matrix. The intercalated dye material was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and by means of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, its electrochemical properties were investigated. In various electrolyte solutions, on changing the pH between 3 and 9, the midpoint potential remained practically constant at -0.15 V. This is not the usual behavior for MB, since it is known that in the solution phase the midpoint potential changes considerably with pH, indicating that, in the present case, methylene blue is a guest molecule intercalated inside the lamellar structure of the calcium phosphate. An electrode made with this material was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid and then applied to commercial samples, with excellent agreement within the 95% confidence level.

  15. Removal of an anionic dye (Acid Blue 92) by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan.

    PubMed

    Szyguła, Agata; Guibal, Eric; Ariño Palacín, María; Ruiz, Montserrat; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan (a biopolymer) is an aminopolysaccharide that can be used for the treatment of colored solutions by coagulation-flocculation (as an alternative to more conventional processes such as sorption). Acid Blue 92 (a sulfonic dye) was selected as a model dye for verifying chitosan's ability to treat textile wastewater. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient at color removal in tap water than in demineralized water, and that a substantially lower concentration of chitosan could be used with tap water. Dye removal reached up to 99% under optimum concentration; i.e., in terms of the acidic solutions and the stoichiometric ratio between the amine groups of the biopolymer and the sulfonic groups in the dye. The flocs were recovered and the dye was efficiently removed using alkaline solutions (0.001-1 M NaOH solutions) and the biopolymer, re-dissolved in acetic acid solution, was reused in a further treatment cycle.

  16. Strain-Specific Synthesis of Mycophenolic Acid by Penicillium roqueforti in Blue-Veined Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Günter; von Milczewski, Karl Ernst; Prokopek, Dieter; Teuber, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Twenty of 80 strains of Penicillium roqueforti were able to produce up to 600 mg of mycophenolic acid (MPA) liter−1 in 2% yeast extract-5% sucrose broth. Sixty-two of these strains had been isolated from the main blue-veined cheese varieties of western Europe or from starter cultures. Of these 62 dairy strains, only 7 had MPA-producing potential in vitro. These seven strains had all been isolated during the period 1975 to 1981 from the blue cheese of one individual factory. In cheese from the market, MPA (up to 5 mg kg−1) was only found in samples of this same factory. With MPA-producing and -nonproducing strains for the experimental manufacture of blue cheese, MPA synthesis in cheese was only detected with strains which form MPA in yeast extract-sucrose broth. The maximum MPA level at 4 mg kg−1 was similar to that in commercial cheese. Toxicity of MPA was tested with two established human cell lines (Detroit 98 and Girardi Heart) and one established pig kidney cell line (AmII). PMID:16346004

  17. Adsorption Capability of Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet) onto Poly-γ-glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption capability of cationic dyes, which were methylene blue and crystal violet, by poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) in a single or binary solution system was investigated. The effect of the molecular weight of PGA, initial dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of dyes was evaluated. The adsorption mechanism of dyes onto PGA was the interaction between -COOH group on the PGA surface and the polarity groups of dyes. These results indicated that PGA is useful for removal of dyes and cationic organic compounds from a single or binary solution system.

  18. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of ultra trace amounts of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, A A; Kazemzadeh, A

    2000-07-01

    A new simple, sensitive and rapid catalytic-spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid has been described based on its catalytic effect on the redox reaction between dichromate and Brilliant cresyl blue in acidic media by means of a flow injection analysis method. The color change of Brilliant cresyl blue due to its oxidation was monitored spectrophotometrically at 625 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.020-4.70 microg/mL oxalic acid with a limit of detection 0.005 microg/mL of oxalic acid. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of 0.020 microg/mL and 0.900 microg/mL was 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively. No serious interference was identified. Oxalic acid was determined in wastewater and in spinach by the proposed method with satisfactory results.

  19. Modeling methylene blue aggregation in acidic solution to the limits of factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Golz, Emily K; Vander Griend, Douglas A

    2013-01-15

    Methylene blue (MB(+)), a common cationic thiazine dye, aggregates in acidic solutions. Absorbance data for equilibrated solutions of the chloride salt were analyzed over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-3) to 2.6 × 10(-5) M, in both 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M HNO(3). Factor analyses of the raw absorbance data sets (categorically a better choice than effective absorbance) definitively show there are at least three distinct molecular absorbers regardless of acid type. A model with monomer, dimer, and trimer works well, but extensive testing has resulted in several other good models, some with higher order aggregates and some with chloride anions. Good models were frequently indistinguishable from each other by quality of fit or reasonability of molar absorptivity curves. The modeling of simulated data sets demonstrates the cases and degrees to which signal noise in the original data obscure the true model. In particular, the more mathematically similar (less orthogonal) the molar absorptivity curves of the chemical species in a model are, the less signal noise it takes to obscure the true model from other potentially good models. Unfortunately, the molar absorptivity curves in dye aggregation systems like that of methylene blue tend to be sufficiently similar so as to lead to the obscuration of models even at the noise levels (0.0001 ABS) of typical benchtop spectrophotometers.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of tantalum in ores and mill products with brilliant green after separation by methyl isobutyl ketone extraction of tantalum fluoride.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1983-07-01

    A method for determining ~ 0.001% or more of tantalum in ores and mill products is described. After fusion of the sample with sodium carbonate, the cooled melt is dissolved in dilute sulphuric-hydrofluoric acid mixture and tantalum is separated from niobium and other matrix elements by methyl isobutyl ketone extraction of its fluoride from 1M hydrofluoric acid-0.5M sulphuric acid. The extract is washed with a hydrofluoric-sulphuric acid solution of the same composition to remove co-extracted niobium, and tantalum is stripped with dilute hydrogen peroxide. This solution is acidified with sulphuric and hydrofluoric acids and evaporated to dryness, and the residue is dissolved in oxalic-hydrofluoric acid solution. Tantalum is ultimately determined spectrophotometrically after extraction of the blue hexafluorotantalate-Brilliant Green ion-association complex into benzene from a 0.05M sulphuric acid-0.5M hydrofluoric acid-0.2M oxalic acid medium. The apparent molar absorptivity of the complex is 1.19 x 10(4) l.mole(-1).mm(-1) at 640 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption. Common ions, including iron, aluminium, manganese, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, tin, arsenic and antimony, do not interfere. Results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained by an X-ray fluorescence method.

  1. Extraction and recovery of methylene blue from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, G; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Leh, Cheu Peng; Norli, I

    2009-04-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of methylene blue (MB) from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid (extractant) in xylene has been studied at 27 degrees C. The extraction of the dye increased with increasing extractant concentration. The extraction abilities have been studied on benzoic acid concentration in the range of 0.36-5.8x10(-2) M. The distribution ratio of the dye is reasonably high (D=49.5) even in the presence of inorganic salts. Irrespective of the concentration of dye, extraction under optimal conditions was 90-99% after 15 min of phase separation. The extracted dye in the organic phase can be back extracted into sulphuric acid solution. The resultant recovered organic phase can be reused in succeeding extraction of dye with the yield ranging from 99 to 87% after 15 times reused, depending on the concentration of the initial feed solution. Experimental parameters examined were benzoic acid concentration, effect of diluent, effect of pH, effect of initial dye concentration, effect of equilibration time, various stripping agents, aqueous to organic phase ratio in extraction, organic to aqueous phase ratio in stripping and reusability of solvent.

  2. New esters of okadaic acid in seawater and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Trine; Miles, Christopher O; Rundberget, Thomas; Wilkins, Alistair L

    2008-10-22

    Marine algal toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) group can occur as diol esters and sulfated diol esters in algae and as fatty acid esters in shellfish. Several of these ester forms have been identified, but the most common procedure for detecting OA group toxin esters is by measuring the increase in parent toxin after alkaline hydrolysis. Use of this alkaline hydrolysis method led to the discovery of high levels of conjugates of OA and dinophysistoxins-2 (DTX2) in seawater and of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 in blue mussel hepatopancreas (HP) from Flødevigen, Norway, during a bloom of Dinophysis spp. In the water sample, a C 8-diol ester, a C 9-diol ester, and a previously undescribed C 8-triol ester of OA were characterized using HPLC-MS (2), -MS (3), and -MS (4) in combination with various derivatization procedures. Palmitic acid (16:0) ester derivatives of these diol/triol esters were found in mussel HP and characterized using HPLC-MS (2), -MS (3), and -MS (4). To the authors' knowledge, hybrid diol-fatty acid esters of OA have not been previously described. Mass spectral analysis showed the presence of two forms of hybrid esters: one with the fatty acid conjugated to the 7-OH of the OA moiety and the other with the fatty acid conjugated to the OH group in the "diol" moiety. In the water sample, the C 8-diol ester was the most abundant, whereas in the mussels, the 16:0-C 9-diol hybrid ester was most abundant, and only minor amounts of the 16:0-C 8-diol hybrid ester were detected, suggesting that C 8- and C 9-diol esters of OA may be metabolized differently in blue mussels. 7- O-acyl esters of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 are thought to contribute to shellfish toxicity by being hydrolyzed in the human stomach to the parent toxins, and the newly characterized hybrid esters are likely to contribute similarly.

  3. A Brilliant Example for Women--Comments on "My Brilliant Career"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiuqing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of American feminist critic Elaine Showalter, this paper analyzes a peculiar feature of early Australian novel "My Brilliant Career" and discovers that it spans three phases of Women's Literature. Through her indefatigable strive for equality between men and women, independent personality and self-fulfillment, the…

  4. Probing titanate nanowire surface acidity through methylene blue adsorption in colloidal suspension and on thin films.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Endre; Szilágyi, István; Forró, László; Magrez, Arnaud

    2014-02-15

    The interaction of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) with titanate nanowires (TiONWs) was investigated in different pH environments using visible spectroscopy and electrophoresis on thin films as well as in aqueous suspension. The surface charge of the TiONWs depends on the pH and ionic strength leading to positive charge under acidic and negative under alkaline conditions. The TiONWs have the same adsorption capacity on films and in suspensions at neutral pH while under alkaline conditions they are able to adsorb significantly more MB in suspension due to their higher surface area. Detailed adsorption studies in water revealed that dye cations form monomers, dimers and larger aggregates of H-type (face-to-face) on the TiONW films. The results indicate that below pH = 4.0 the TiONWs' external surface consists of Brøntsted acid sites capable of protonating MB. It was suggested that reversible indicator role of MB molecule dimers probes the TiONW surface acidity (Brøntsted sites).

  5. Modeling anaerobic digestion of blue algae: stoichiometric coefficients of amino acids acidogenesis and thermodynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Yuan, Chun-Xin; Wang, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Guo, Rong-Bo; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    In order to facilitate the application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), an approach for a detailed calculation of stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis during the anaerobic digestion of blue algae is presented. The simulation results obtained support the approach by good predictions of the dynamic behavior of cumulative methane production, pH values as well as the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate and inorganic nitrogen. The sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation showed that the stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis had high sensitivities to the outputs of the model. The model further indicated that the Gibbs free energies from the uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), valerate and butyrate were positive through the digestion, while the free energies for other components were negative. During the digestion, the cumulative heat productions from microbial activities and methane were 77.69 kJ and 185.76 kJ, respectively. This result suggested that proper heat preservation of anaerobic digesters could minimize the external heating needs due to the heat produced from microbial activities.

  6. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

    PubMed

    Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids.

  7. The Duke of Edinburgh's Award: A "Simply Brilliant" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lico, Abner

    2008-01-01

    While speaking to Gold Award Achievers in Toronto in 2002, Tony Comper, past President and Chief Executive Officer of the BMO Financial Group, referred to the Duke of Edinburgh's (DofE) Award as a program "so brilliantly simple, it's simply brilliant." This ironic statement has echoed in the Ontario division of the DofE Award ever since.…

  8. Hyaluronic Acid Conjugated Magnetic Prussian Blue@Quantum Dot Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongbo; Jing, Lijia; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei

    2017-01-01

    A multifunctional nanotheranostic agent was developed by conjugating both hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin coated CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots onto the surface of magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles. The obtained nanoagent could serve as an efficient contrast agent to simultaneously enhance near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging greatly. The coexistence of magnetic core and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid was found to largely improve the specific uptake of the nanoagent by CD44 overexpressed HeLa cells upon applying an external magnetic field. Both NIR fluorescence and MR imaging in vivo proved high accumulation of the nanoagent at tumor site due to its excellent CD44 receptor/magnetic dual targeting capability. After intravenous injection of the nanoagent and treatment of external magnetic field, the tumor in nude mice was efficiently ablated upon NIR laser irradiation and the tumor growth inhibition was more than 89.95%. Such nanotheranostic agent is of crucial importance for accurately identifying the size and location of the tumor before therapy, monitoring the photothermal treatment procedure in real-time during therapy, assessing the effectiveness after therapy. PMID:28255343

  9. Preparation, Characterization and Methylene Blue Dye Adsorption Ability of Acid Activated-Natural Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, O. A.; Prameswari, M. D.; Kinanti, V. T. D.; Mayasari, O. D.; Sutarni, Y. D.; Apriany, K.; Lestari, W. W.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare an acid-activated natural zeolite (Ac-Zeo) as a low-cost adsorbent material and to investigate their ability on methylene blue dye removal in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite was activated using hydrochloric acid and the final product was characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption process was carried out using the batch method. Some parameters like pH condition, contact time and varied dye initial concentration were studied to determine the adsorption ability of Ac-Zeo. In this study, kinetic adsorption was evaluated using pseudo-second order model approach and found that the kinetic adsorption rate constanta (k) and adsorption capacity at equilibrium are 0.1872 mg.g-1.min-1 and 14.94 mg.g-1, respectively. Moreover, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Kaganer–Radushkevich isotherm adsorption models as well as sorption mechanism were studied in this research.

  10. Sensitivity of high-elevation streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province to acidic deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Hudy, M.; Fowler, D.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Southern Blue Ridge Province, which encompasses parts of northern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina, has been predicted to be sensitive to impacts from acidic deposition, owing to the chemical composition of the bedrock geology and soils. This study confirms the predicted potential sensitivity, quantifies the level of total alkalinity and describes the chemical characteristics of 30 headwater streams of this area. Water chemistry was measured five times between April 1983 and June 1984 at first and third order reaches of each stream during baseflow conditions. Sensitivity based on total alkalinity and the Calcite Saturation Index indicates that the headwater streams of the Province are vulnerable to acidification. Total alkalinity and p11 were generally higher in third order reaches (mean, 72 ?eq/? and 6.7) than in first order reaches (64 ?eq/? and 6.4). Ionic concentrations were low, averaging 310 and 340 ?eq/? in first and third order reaches, respectively. A single sampling appears adequate for evaluating sensitivity based on total alkalinity, but large temporal variability requires multiple sampling for the detection of changes in pH and alkalinity over time. Monitoring of stream water should continue in order to detect any subtle effects of acidic deposition on these unique resource systems.

  11. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid using polybromothymol blue film-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiongwei; Lin, Qihuang; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Wei; Weng, Xiuhua; Wang, Changlian; Lin, Xinhua

    2010-06-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical method for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) using an electropolymerized bromothymol blue (BTB)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed. The electrochemically synthesized film was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltammetric methods. The electrochemical behavior of the polymer-modified electrode depends on film thickness, i.e., the electropolymyerization time. The poly-BTB-modified GCE shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of AA, DA, and UA in phosphate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The voltametric peak separations of AA/DA, DA/UA, and AA/UA on this modified electrode are 118 mV, 298 mV, and 455 mV, respectively. Therefore the voltammetric responses of these three compounds can be resolved well on the polymer-modified electrode, and simultaneous determination of these three compounds can be achieved. In addition, this modified electrode can be successfully applied to determine AA and DA in injection and UA in urine samples without interference.

  12. The occurrence and biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in a blue-green alga,Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Nichols, B W; Wood, B J

    1968-01-01

    The acyl-lipid and fatty acid composition of six blue-green algae, namely,Spirulina platensis, Myxosarcina chroococcoides, Chlorogloea fritschii, Anabaena cylindrica, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Mastigocladus laminosus is reported.All contain major proportions of mono-and digalactosyl diglyceride, sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride, and phosphatidyl glycerol, but none possess lecithin, phophatidyl ethanolamine, or phosphatidyl inositol. Trans-3-hexadecenoic acid was absent from all extracts.The analyses provide further evidence that there is no general chemical or physical requirement for any specific fatty acid in photosynthesis. S. platensis is unique among photoautotrophic organisms so far studied, containing major quantities of gamma-linolenic acid (6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid). This acid is synthesized by the alga by direct desaturation of linoleic acid and is primarily located in the mono- and digalactosyl diglyceride fractions.The possible phylogenetic relationship betweenS. platensis and other plant forms is discussed.

  13. Hormonal diterpenoids derived from ent-kaurenoic acid are involved in the blue-light avoidance response of Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Sho; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are diterpenoid hormones that regulate growth and development in flowering plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens has part of the GA biosynthetic pathway from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to ent-kaurenoic acid via ent-kaurene, but it does not produce GA. Disruption of the ent-kaurene synthase gene in P. patens suppressed caulonemal differentiation. Application of ent-kaurene or ent-kaurenoic acid restored differentiation, suggesting that derivative(s) of ent-kaurenoic acid, but not GAs, are endogenous regulator(s) of caulonemal cell differentiation. The protonemal growth of P. patens shows an avoidance response under unilateral blue light. Physiological studies using gene mutants involved in ent-kaurene biosynthesis confirmed that diterpenoid(s) regulate the blue-light response. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings, and provide data for the ent-kaurene oxidase gene-disrupted mutant.

  14. Synthesis of citric acid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide coated corn straw for methylene blue adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ge, Heyi; Wang, Cuicui; Liu, Shanshan; Huang, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    The citric acid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide coated corn straw (CA-mGOCS) as a new adsorbent was synthesized in this work for the elimination of methylene blue (MB) from waste water. The as-prepared CA-mGOCS was tested by SEM, FTIR, XRD, Roman spectrum, TGA, particle size analyzer, BET and magnetic properties analyzer. Some factors affecting adsorption removal efficiency were explored. As a result, the addition of 5g CS (CA-mGO5CS) had the better adsorption performance than other adsorbents. The pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich described the adsorption behavior well. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was 315.5mgg(-1) for MB at pH=12 and 298k. The electrostatic incorporation as well as hydrophobic interactions between CA-mGO5CS and MB determined the favourable adsorption property. Besides, the thermodynamic studies results ΔG<0, ΔH<0, ΔS<0 suggested that the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic and randomness decrease process. Finally, reusability studies imply that CA-mGO5CS has an excellent reproducibility.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies for removal of acid blue 129 from aqueous solution by almond shell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency and performance of Almond shell (AS) adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Acid Blue 129 (AB129) from wastewater is presented in this report. The influence of variables including pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal have been investigated in batch method by one at a time optimization method. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by four widely used isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D–R). It was found that adsorption of AB129 on AS well with the Langmuir isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of dye molecules onto the surface of the adsorbent. More than 98% removal efficiency was obtained within 14 min at adsorbent dose of 0.4 g for initial dye concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 2. Kinetics of the adsorption process was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order model. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of AB129 adsorption on all adsorbents. This work can be used in design of adsorption columns for dyes removal. PMID:24620822

  16. Effects of methylene blue in acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cassiano Silveira, Ana Paula; Vento, Daniella Alves; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Tefé-Silva, Cristiane; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rubens de Nadai, Tales; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute lung injury (ALI), rupture of the alveolar-capillary barrier determines the protein-rich fluid influx into alveolar spaces. Previous studies have reported that methylene blue (MB) attenuates such injuries. This investigation was carried out to study the MB effects in pulmonary capillary permeability. Methods Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (I) Sham: saline bolus; (II) MB, MB infusion for 2 h; (III) oleic acid (OA), OA bolus; (IV) MB/OA, MB infusion for 2 h, and at 5 min after from the beginning, concurrently with an OA bolus; and (V) OA/MB, OA bolus, and after 2 h, MB infusion for 2 h. After 4 h, blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and lung tissue were collected from all groups for analysis of plasma and tissue nitric oxide, calculation of the wet weight to dry weight ratio (WW/DW), and histological examination of lung tissue. Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric test. Results Although favourable trends have been observed for permeability improvement parameters (WW/WD and protein), the results were not statistically significant. However, histological analysis of lung tissue showed reduced lesion areas in both pre- and post-treatment groups. Conclusions The data collected using this experimental model was favourable only through macroscopic and histological analysis. These observations are valid for both MB infusions before or after induction of ALI. PMID:26855944

  17. Activated electric arc furnace slag as an effective and reusable Fenton-like catalyst for the photodegradation of methylene blue and acid blue 29.

    PubMed

    Nasuha, N; Ismail, S; Hameed, B H

    2017-03-14

    In this work, an activated electric arc furnace slag (A-EAFS) was investigated as an effective Fenton catalyst for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption analyses indicated that A-EAFS offers additional Fe3O4 because of the changes in the iron oxide phase and the favorable response to visible light. It has been found that the highest degradation efficiency can reach up to 94% for MB under optimal conditions of 1 g L(-1) of A-EAFS, 20 mM H2O2, and pH 3. The optimal conditions for AB29 were 0.1 g L(-1) A-EAFS, 4 mM H2O2, and pH 3 to reach 98% degradation efficiency. Visible light enhanced the degradation of both dyes. In addition, A-EAFS, could be easily separated magnetically, exhibited good chemical stability after seven successive photodegradation cycles.

  18. Removal of basic (Methylene Blue) and acid (Egacid Orange) dyes from waters by sorption on chemically treated wood shavings.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Coskun, Sezen; Pilarová, Vera; Rejnek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    Spruce wood shavings from Picea abies were used for an adsorptive removal of both basic as well as acid dyes from waters. The sorption properties of the sorbents were modified with HCl, Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)HPO(4). The treatment of the wood sorbents with alkaline carbonate solution as well as with phosphate solution increased the sorption ability for the basic dye (Methylene Blue), whereas the treatment with mineral acid decreased the sorption ability for Methylene Blue to some extent. The opposite is true for the sorption of the acid dye--Egacid Orange. The maximum sorption capacities estimated from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms ranged from 0.060 to 0.165 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, and from 0.045 to 0.513 mmol g(-1) for Egacid Orange. The basic dye sorption decreased at low pH values in accordance with a presupposed ion-exchange mechanism of the sorption. The sorption of acid dye, on the other hand, decreased with increasing pH. The presence of inorganic salts as well as surfactants exhibited only minor effects on the dye sorption.

  19. Regulation of Primary Metabolic Pathways in Oyster Mushroom Mycelia Induced by Blue Light Stimulation: Accumulation of Shikimic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Masanobu; Kimura, Ninako; Miura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate in the aromatic amino acid pathway as well as an important starting material for the synthesis of Tamiflu, a potent and selective inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of influenza viruses A and B. Here we report that in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelia cultivated in the dark, stimulation with blue light-emitting diodes induces the accumulation of shikimic acid. An integrated analysis of primary metabolites, gene expression and protein expression suggests that the accumulation of shikimic acid caused by blue light stimulation is due to an increase in 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, EC2.5.1.54), the rate-determining enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway, as well as phosphofructokinase (PFK, EC2.7.1.11) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC1.1.1.49), the rate-determining enzymes in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. This stimulation results in increased levels of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), the starting materials of shikimic acid biosynthesis. PMID:25721093

  20. Regulation of primary metabolic pathways in oyster mushroom mycelia induced by blue light stimulation: accumulation of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masanobu; Kimura, Ninako; Miura, Ryuhei

    2015-02-27

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate in the aromatic amino acid pathway as well as an important starting material for the synthesis of Tamiflu, a potent and selective inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of influenza viruses A and B. Here we report that in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelia cultivated in the dark, stimulation with blue light-emitting diodes induces the accumulation of shikimic acid. An integrated analysis of primary metabolites, gene expression and protein expression suggests that the accumulation of shikimic acid caused by blue light stimulation is due to an increase in 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, EC2.5.1.54), the rate-determining enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway, as well as phosphofructokinase (PFK, EC2.7.1.11) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC1.1.1.49), the rate-determining enzymes in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. This stimulation results in increased levels of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), the starting materials of shikimic acid biosynthesis.

  1. Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

    2013-02-01

    Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of methylene-blue-doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording.

    PubMed

    Ushamani, Mythili; Sreekumar, Krishnapillai; Kartha, Cheranellore S; Joseph, Rani

    2004-06-20

    A methylene-blue-sensitized polymer blend of polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylic acid is fabricated and tested for holographic recording. It was found to have good characteristics such as high sensitivity, storage stability, ease of fabrication, and environmental stability. Optimization of the ratio of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid, the sensitizer concentration, pH, energy, diffraction efficiency measurements, etc., have been done. pH is found to have a great influence on the recovery of the dye in this matrix. The results of experimental investigations into the properties of this new material are reported.

  3. Desorption behavior of methylene blue on pyromellitic dianhydride modified biosorbent by a novel eluent: acid TiO2 hydrosol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Chi, Ru-An; Su, Xiu-Zhu; He, Zheng-Yan; Qi, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Yue-Fei

    2010-05-15

    In this study, waste beer yeast powder was modified by pyromellitic dianhydride to improve its adsorption capacities for cationic dye: methylene blue (MB). According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum uptake capacities (q(m)) of the modified biomass for MB was 830.8 mg g(-1), which was about five times than that obtained on the unmodified biomass. Adsorption mechanism was investigated by FTIR. Desorption kinetics of methylene blue in six solvents: HCl (0.1 mol L(-1)), ethanol, mixtures of HCl (0.1 mol L(-1)) and ethanol with different volume ratio and a self-clean eluent: acid TiO(2) were studied in details. Results showed that desorption kinetics curve fit the two-step kinetic model, and methylene blue release process was distinctly divided into two steps: rapid and slow desorption steps. 52.2% of the methylene blue could be desorbed into TiO(2) hydrosol after 30 h desorption at the first desorption cycle, and the desorbed dye in TiO(2) hydrosol could be degrade completely under sunlight irradiation. After three desorption-photodegradation cycles, 80.0% of the absorbed dyes could be desorbed from the surface of the modified biomass. Although there was much work to do, the self-clean eluent: TiO(2) hydrosol had great potential in practical use.

  4. Desorption and photodegradation of methylene blue from modified sugarcane bagasse surface by acid TiO2 hydrosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Chi, Ru-An; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Xiao, Chun-Qiao

    2012-02-01

    Waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was modified by pyromellitic dianhydride to improve its adsorption capacity for cationic dyes. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of the modified SCB for methylene blue was 564 mg g-1, which was about 12 times than that obtained on the unmodified SCB. Methylene blue loaded modified SCB was regenerated by a self-clean eluent: TiO2 hydrosol with pH ranged from 1 to 4, and HNO3 solution with the same pH range was tested at the same time for comparison. Results showed that desorption kinetics of methylene blue in the hydrosol systems fit two-step kinetic model and controlled mainly by the slow step. As a self-clean eluent, acid hydrosol could firstly desorb and then photodegrade methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. After five desorption-photodegradation cycles, 78.3% of the absorbed dyes could be desorbed by using hydrosol (pH 2) as eluent. The hydrosol could be continuously used in desorption and photodegradation process, which would economize large volume of the eluent and moreover it would not bring secondary pollution.

  5. The avoidance and aggregative movements of mesophyll chloroplasts in C(4) monocots in response to blue light and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Maai, Eri; Shimada, Shouu; Yamada, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Tatsuo; Miyake, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2011-05-01

    In C(4) plants, mesophyll (M) chloroplasts are randomly distributed along the cell walls, whereas bundle sheath chloroplasts are located in either a centripetal or centrifugal position. It was reported previously that only M chloroplasts aggregatively redistribute to the bundle sheath side in response to extremely strong light or environmental stresses. The aggregative movement of M chloroplasts is also induced in a light-dependent fashion upon incubation with abscisic acid (ABA). The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and red/blue light in the aggregative movement of M chloroplasts are examined here in two distinct subtypes of C(4) plants, finger millet and maize. Exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide or ROS scavengers could not change the response patterns of M chloroplast movement to light and ABA. Blue light irradiation essentially induced the rearrangement of M chloroplasts along the sides of anticlinal walls, parallel to the direction of the incident light, which is analogous to the avoidance movement of C(3) chloroplasts. In the presence of ABA, most of the M chloroplasts showed the aggregative movement in response to blue light but not red light. Together these results suggest that ROS are not involved in signal transduction for the aggregative movement, and ABA can shift the blue light-induced avoidance movement of C(4)-M chloroplasts to the aggregative movement.

  6. Enhanced amine and amino acid analysis using Pacific Blue and the Mars Organic Analyzer microchip capillary electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Chiesl, Thomas N; Chu, Wai K; Stockton, Amanda M; Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    The fluorescent amine reactive probe Pacific Blue succinimidyl ester (PB) is used for the detection of trace amounts of amines and amino acids by microchip capillary electrophoresis on the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA). The spectral and chemical properties of PB provide a 200-fold increase in sensitivity and improved resolution compared to fluorescamine derivatization. With the use of cross injection and PB labeling, the MOA detected amino acids at concentrations as low as 75 pM (sub-parts-per-trillion). Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) which separates PB-labeled amino acids by their hydrophobicity is also demonstrated. The optimized MEKC conditions (45 mM CHAPSO, pH 6 at 5 degrees C) effectively separated amines and 25 amino acids with enantiomeric resolution of alanine, serine, and citrulline. Samples from the Yungay Hills region in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and from the Murchison meteorite are successfully analyzed using both techniques, and amino acids are found in the parts-per-billion range. Abiotic amino acids such as beta-alanine and epsilon-aminocaprioc acid are detected along with several neutral and acidic amino acids in the Murchison sample. The Atacama Desert sample is found to contain homochiral L-alanine and L-serine indicating the presence of extant or recently extinct life.

  7. Methylene blue adsorption onto swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) modified by tartaric acid: equilibrium, kinetic and adsorption mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanfang; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Guohua; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Haiying; Yang, Linzhang; Wu, Yonghong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a promising and competitive bioadsorbent with the abundant of source, low price and environmentally friendly characters to remove cationic dye from wastewater. The swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) modified by tartaric acid (SRSTA) was prepared, characterized and used to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution at varied operational conditions (including MB initial concentrations, adsorbent dose, etc.). Results demonstrated that the equilibrium data was well fitted by Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum MB adsorption capacity of SRSTA was 246.4 mg g(-1), which was comparable to the results of some previous studied activated carbons. The higher dye adsorption capacity could be attributed to the presence of more functional groups such as carboxyl group on the surface of SRSTA. The adsorption mechanism was also discussed. The results indicate that SRSTA is a promising and valuable absorbent to remove methylene blue from wastewater.

  8. Studies on the ion-association of methylene blue and salicylic acid in neat and mixed binary solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Soumen; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Kundu, Subrata; Nath, Sudip; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Praharaj, Snigdhamayee; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-05-01

    Thiazine dye, methylene blue forms 1:1 ion-associate with salicylic acid in aqueous phase and the ion-associate can be extracted in a series of non-polar non-coordinating solvent systems. The influence of different parameters on the process of ion-association has been studied. The suitability of a number of phenolic precursors for the formation of ion-associate with methylene blue has been tested. Charge-transfer absorption band of the dye molecules in relation to ion-pair has been followed in a sequence of neat and mixed binary solvents and the dependence of the absorption maxima has been found to correlate well with the solvent polarity.

  9. Sugar and organic acid accumulation in guard cells of Vicia faba in response to red and blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. )

    1993-08-01

    Changes in neutral sugar and organic acid content of guard cells were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography during stomatal opening in different light qualities. Sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels were irradiated with 10 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of blue light, a fluence rate insufficient for the activation of guard cell photosynthesis, or 125 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of red light, in the presence of 1mM KCl, 0.1 mM CaCl[sub 2]. The low-fluence-rate blue light stimulated an average net stomatal opening of 4.7 [mu]m in 2 h, whereas the saturating fluence rate of red light stimulated an average net opening of 3.8 [mu]m in 2 h. Under blue light, the malate content of guard cells increased to 173% of the initial level during the first 30 min of opening and declined as opening continued. Sucrose levels continuously rose throughout the blue light-stimulated opening, reaching 215% of the initial level after 2 h. The starch hydrolysis products maltose and maltotriose remained elevated at all times. Under red light, guard cells showed very little increase in organic acid or maltose levels, whereas sucrose levels increased to 208% of the initial level after 2 h. Total measured organic metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in all cases except where substantial malate increases occurred. These results support the hypothesis that light quality modulates alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation guard cells, including potassium uptake, photosynthetic sugar production, and starch breakdown. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  10. Cocrystallization out of the blue: DL-mandelic acid/ethyl-DL-mandelate cocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanova, Natalia; Payen, Ricky; Springuel, Géraldine; Norberg, Bernadette; Robeyns, Koen; Le Duff, Cécile; Wouters, Johan; Leyssens, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on a peculiar behavior of racemic mandelic acid in ethanol solution. Dissolution of racemic mandelic acid in ethanol followed by evaporation to dryness results in a DL-mandelic acid/ethyl-DL-mandelate cocrystal. This behavior indicates that racemic mandelic acid tends not only to transform into an ester in ethanol, but also to cocrystallize with untransformed acid molecules. Cocrystal formation for mandelic acid in ethanol was found to be reproducible under various conditions. DL-tropic acid and DL-phenyllactic acid that contain similar functional groups and that were tested as well, on the other hand, showed no cocrystal formation: DL-phenyllactic acid partly converted into an ester, whereas DL-tropic acid mostly recrystallized.

  11. Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan: stirring rate effect in kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A

    2011-03-15

    Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan was studied. Stirring rate influence on kinetics and mechanism was verified. Infra-red analysis was carried out before and after adsorption in order to verify the adsorption nature. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems with different stirring rates (15-400 rpm). Kinetic behavior was analyzed through the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Adsorption mechanism was verified according to the film diffusion model and HSDM model. Pseudo-second-order and Elovich models were satisfactory in order to represent experimental data in all stirring rates. For both dyes, adsorption occurred by film and intraparticle diffusion, and the stirring rate increase caused a decrease in film diffusion resistance. Therefore, the film diffusivity increased the adsorption capacity and, consequently, intraparticle diffusivity increased. In all stirring rates, the rate-limiting step was film diffusion. Adsorption of acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan occurred by chemiosorption.

  12. How to Be a Brilliant English Teacher. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Now in its second edition, Trevor Wright's hugely popular "How to be a Brilliant English Teacher" is packed with practical advice drawn from his extensive and successful experience as an English teacher, examiner and teacher trainer. This accessible and readable guide offers sound theoretical principles with exciting practical suggestions for the…

  13. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P < 0.001) among, groups reaching the highest values in the HF×BB group (228 kg and 59.4%, respectively), while the cross with Limousine presented the lowest values for carcass weight (191 kg) and the cross with Rubia Gallega showed the lowest killing out percentages (54.9%). Meat from HF×RG animals was redder (a* 13.31) and lightest (L* 39.55) than meat from HF×LI and HF×BB groups. With regard to fatty acid profile, the saturated fatty acids were the most abundant fatty acid, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the three groups. Crossbreeding did not affect the proportion of fatty acid. Finally, live weight, cold carcass weight, killing out, shear force, L* from LT, b*from LT, a* from fat, b* from fat, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:3n-6, MUFA and price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding.

  14. The blue man: burn from muriatic acid combined with chlorinated paint in an adult pool construction worker.

    PubMed

    O'Cleireachain, Marc R; Macias, Luis H; Richey, Karen J; Pressman, Melissa A; Shirah, Gina R; Caruso, Daniel M; Foster, Kevin N; Matthews, Marc R

    2014-01-01

    Muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid), a common cleaning and resurfacing agent for concrete pools, can cause significant burn injuries. When coating a pool with chlorinated rubber-based paint, the pool surface is initially cleansed using 31.45% muriatic acid. Here we report a 50-year-old Hispanic male pool worker who, during the process of a pool resurfacing, experienced significant contact exposure to a combination of muriatic acid and blue chlorinated rubber-based paint. Confounding the clinical situation was the inability to efficiently remove the chemical secondary to the rubber-based nature of the paint. Additionally, vigorous attempts were made to remove the rubber paint using a variety of agents, including bacitracin, chlorhexidine soap, GOOP adhesive, and Johnson's baby oil. Resultant injuries were devastating fourth-degree burns requiring an immediate operative excision and amputation. Despite aggressive operative intervention and resuscitation, he continued to have severe metabolic derangements and ultimately succumbed to his injuries. We present our attempts at debridement and the system in place to manage patients with complex chemical burns.

  15. Does acute lead (Pb) contamination influence membrane fatty acid composition and freeze tolerance in intertidal blue mussels in arctic Greenland?

    PubMed

    Thyrring, Jakob; Juhl, Bodil Klein; Holmstrup, Martin; Blicher, Martin E; Sejr, Mikael K

    2015-11-01

    In their natural habitats, organisms are exposed to multiple stressors. Heavy metal contamination stresses the cell membrane due to increased peroxidation of lipids. Likewise, sub-zero air temperatures potentially reduce membrane functionality in ectothermal animals. We tested if acute lead (Pb) exposure for 7 days would influence survival in intertidal blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) after exposure to realistic sub-zero air temperatures. A full factorial experiment with five tissue Pb concentrations between 0 and 3500 μg Pb/g and six sub-zero temperatures from 0 to -17 °C were used to test the hypothesis that sub-lethal effects of Pb may increase the lethality caused by freezing in blue mussels exposed to temperatures simulating Greenland winter conditions. We found a significant effect of temperature on mortality. However, the short-term exposure to Pb did not result in any effects of Pb, nor did we find interactions between Pb and temperature. We analysed the relative abundance of major phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the gill tissue, but we found no significant effect of Pb tissue concentration on PLFA composition. Results suggest that Pb accumulation has limited effects on freeze tolerance and does not induce membrane damage in terms of persistent lipid peroxidation.

  16. Poly(amic acid)-modified biomass of baker's yeast for enhancement adsorption of methylene blue and basic magenta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-xia; Li, Bu-hai; Sun, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Jun; Chi, Ru-an

    2010-03-01

    In this study, poly(amic acid)-modified biomass was prepared to improve the adsorption capacities for two cationic dyes, methylene blue and basic magenta. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiometric titration demonstrated that a large number of imide, amine, and carboxyl groups were introduced on the biomass surface, and the concentrations of these functional groups were calculated to be 0.27, 1.08, and 1.08 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum uptake capacities (q(m)) for methylene blue and basic magenta were 680.3 and 353.4 mg g(-1), respectively, which were 13- and sevenfold than that obtained on the unmodified biomass. Adsorption kinetics study showed that the completion of the adsorption process needed only 40 min, which is faster than the common sorbent such as activated carbon and resin. Experimental results showed that pH and ionic strength had little effect on the capacity of the modified biomass, indicating that the modified biomass had good potential for practical use.

  17. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon: effect of acidic and alkaline solution treatments.

    PubMed

    Ijagbemi, Christianah O; Chun, Ji I; Han, Da H; Cho, Hye Y; O, Se J; Kim, Dong S

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using activated carbon (AC) has been investigated. Adsorption experiments were conducted and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, dye concentration and temperature were studied on the adsorption process. Equilibrium data were mathematically modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models to describe the equilibrium isotherms at different dye concentrations and temperature. Parameters of best-fit model were calculated and discussed. To understand the mechanism of adsorption, kinetic models were employed to follow the adsorption processes; the pseudo-first-order best described the adsorption of MB onto AC. It was found that pH plays a major role in the adsorption process; adsorption capacity was influenced by the physical and surface chemical properties of carbon and the pH of the solution. 99.0% MB removal was achieved at equilibrium.

  18. Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Luigi; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale

    2002-04-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible analytical method is described for the extraction and the simultaneous determination of 18 amino acids in different for geographical origin Spirulina alga samples using phenylisothiocianate as derivatizating agent in natural feed. The best experimental hydrolysis conditions have been studied varying the temperature, the time and the hydrolyzing reagent. The separation and the quantitative analysis of the by-products have been carried out by HPLC analysis and UV detection. An amino acid pattern is compared with that proposed by the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) for an ideal protein and with those of some traditional feed.

  19. Ascorbic acid enhances oxidative stress tolerance and biological control efficacy of Pichia caribbica against postharvest blue mold decay of apples.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaolan; Zhang, Hongyin; Yang, Qiya; Komla, Mahunu Gustav; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Shuyun

    2014-07-30

    The effect of ascorbic acid (VC) on improving oxidative stress tolerance of Pichia caribbica and biocontrol efficacy against blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum on apples was investigated. P. caribbica showed susceptibility to the oxidative stress in vitro test, and 250 μg/mL VC treatment improved its oxidative stress tolerance. The higher viability exhibited by VC-treated yeast was associated with a lower intracellular ROS level. The activities of antioxidant enzymes of P. caribbica were improved by VC treatment, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Additionally, VC-treated yeast exhibited greater biocontrol activity against P. expansum and faster growth when stored at 25 and 4 °C, respectively, compared to the performance of the non-VC-treated yeast. In response to the VC treatment under oxidative stress, several differentially expressed proteins were identified in P. caribbica, and most of the poteins were confirmed to be related to basic metabolism. Therefore, the application of ascorbic acid is a useful approach to improve oxidative stress tolerance of P. caribbica and its biocontrol efficacy on apples.

  20. Simultaneous determination of cation exchange capacity and surface area of acid activated bentonite powders by methylene blue sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yener, Nilgün; Biçer, Cengiz; Önal, Müşerref; Sarıkaya, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    To distinguish the ion exchanged and physically adsorbed methylene blue cations (MB+) on ionic surfaces, acid activated bentonite samples were used as porous adsorbents. A natural calcium bentonite (CaB) sample from Enez/Edirne, Turkey, was acid activated at 90 °C for 16 h with various HCl/CaB ratios. The irreversible exchange and physical adsorption of MB+ cations on the ionic solids have simultaneously occurred. The ion exchanged (mex) and physically adsorbed (mad) MB+ contents were obtained as the values of sorption capacity at c = 0 and the increase to a plateaus of adsorption isotherms, respectively. The mad value was taken to be monolayer adsorption capacity. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SMB) for each sample were calculated from the mex and mad values, respectively. Also, the BET specific surface areas (SBET) and pore size distribution were determined from low temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption data. A linear correlation between the SMB and SBET values was found.

  1. Enhanced adsorption of Methylene Blue from aqueous solution by chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/vermiculite hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

    2010-01-01

    A series of chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/vermiculite hydrogel composites were synthesized and used as adsorbents for the investigation of the effect of process parameters such as vermiculite content, pH of dye solution, contact time, initial concentration of dye solution, temperature, ionic strength and concentration of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The results showed that the adsorption capacity for dye increased with increasing pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, but decreased with increasing temperature, ionic strength and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration in the present of the surfactant. The adsorption kinetics of MB onto the hydrogel composite followed pseudo second-order kinetics and the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Langmuir isotherm. By introducing 10 wt.% vermiculite into chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid) polymeric network, the obtaining hydrogel composite showed the highest adsorption capacity for MB, and then could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal in a wastewater treatment process.

  2. Isolation, characterization, and amino acid sequences of auracyanins, blue copper proteins from the green photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, J. D.; Brune, D. C.; Han, J.; Sanders-Loehr, J.; Meyer, T. E.; Cusanovich, M. A.; Tollin, G.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Three small blue copper proteins designated auracyanin A, auracyanin B-1, and auracyanin B-2 have been isolated from the thermophilic green gliding photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. All three auracyanins are peripheral membrane proteins. Auracyanin A was described previously (Trost, J. T., McManus, J. D., Freeman, J. C., Ramakrishna, B. L., and Blankenship, R. E. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 7858-7863) and is not glycosylated. The two B forms are glycoproteins and have almost identical properties to each other, but are distinct from the A form. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis apparent monomer molecular masses are 14 (A), 18 (B-2), and 22 (B-1) kDa. The amino acid sequences of the B forms are presented. All three proteins have similar absorbance, circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectra, but the electron spin resonance signals are quite different. Laser flash photolysis kinetic analysis of the reactions of the three forms of auracyanin with lumiflavin and flavin mononucleotide semiquinones indicates that the site of electron transfer is negatively charged and has an accessibility similar to that found in other blue copper proteins. Copper analysis indicates that all three proteins contain 1 mol of copper per mol of protein. All three auracyanins exhibit a midpoint redox potential of +240 mV. Light-induced absorbance changes and electron spin resonance signals suggest that auracyanin A may play a role in photosynthetic electron transfer. Kinetic data indicate that all three proteins can donate electrons to cytochrome c-554, the electron donor to the photosynthetic reaction center.

  3. Free amino acid pattern in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Soini, J.; Rantamaeki, P.

    1985-12-01

    In this study the authors investigated changes of free amino acid levels in different tissues of Mytilus edulis exposed to low concentrations of crude oil in a short term study. This investigation was accomplished in the northern area of the Baltic Sea, in the Archipelago of Turku. In this area the salinity of the sea water varies between 6-7%. Mytilus edulis lives there in its extreme conditions and it is therefore especially sensitive to disturbances in its environment.

  4. Abscisic acid and blue light signaling pathways in chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis mesophyll.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Banaś, Agnieszka Katarzyna; Janowiak, Franciszek; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and phototropins act antagonistically to control stomatal movements. Here, we investigated the role of ABA in phototropin-directed chloroplast movements in mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. We analyzed the expression of phototropins at mRNA and protein level under the influence of ABA. PHOT1 mRNA level was decreased by ABA in the dark while it was insensitive to ABA in light. PHOT2 mRNA level was independent of the hormone treatment. The levels of phototropin proteins were down-regulated by ABA, both in darkness and light. No impact of exogenous ABA on amplitudes and kinetics of chloroplast movements was detected. Chloroplast responses in wild type Arabidopsis and three mutants, abi4, abi2 (abscisic acid insensitive4, 2) and aba1 (abscisic acid1), were measured to account for endogenous ABA signaling. The chloroplast responses were slightly reduced in abi2 and aba1 mutants in strong light. To further investigate the effect, abi2 and aba1 mutants were supplemented with exogenous ABA. In the aba1 mutant, the reaction was rescued but in abi2 it was unaffected. Our results show that ABA is not directly involved in phototropin-controlled chloroplast responses in mature leaves of Arabidopsis. However, the disturbance of ABA biosynthesis and signaling in mutants affects some elements of the chloroplast movement mechanism. In line with its role as a stress hormone, ABA appears to enhance plant sensitivity to light and promote the chloroplast avoidance response.

  5. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  6. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  7. Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan composite as a bio-adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and acid blue 29 dyes.

    PubMed

    Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-02-01

    Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan (Z-AC/C) composite were prepared through the hydrothermal treatment of NaOH activated oil palm ash followed by beading with chitosan. The effects of initial dye concentration (50-400mg/L), temperature (30°C-50°C) and pH (3-13) on batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29) were studied. Adsorption of both dyes was better described by Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Z-AC/C were 151.51, 169.49, and 199.20mg/g for MB and 212.76, 238.09, and 270.27mg/g for AB29 at 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C, respectively.

  8. Enhanced adsorption of methylene blue by citric acid modification of biochar derived from water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Yunguo; Liu, Shaobo; Tan, Xiaofei; Zeng, Guangming; Zeng, Wei; Ding, Yang; Cao, Weicheng; Zheng, Bohong

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel potential adsorbent, citric acid (CA)-modified biochar, named as CAWB, was obtained from water hyacinth biomass by slow pyrolysis in a N2 environment at 300 °C. The CA modification focused on enhancing the contaminants adsorption capacity of biochar pyrolyzed at relatively low temperature. Over 90 % of the total methylene blue (MB) could be removed at the first 60 min by CAWB, and the maximum MB adsorption capacity could reach to 395 mg g(-1). The physicochemical properties of CAWB was examined by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and BET analysis. The results indicated that the additional carboxyl groups were introduced to the surface of CAWB via the esterification reaction with CA, which played a significant role in the adsorption of MB. Batch adsorption studies showed that the initial MB concentration, solution pH, background ionic strength, and temperature could affect the removal efficiency obviously. The adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the MB adsorption onto CAWB was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The regeneration study revealed that CAWB still exhibited an excellent regeneration and adsorption performance after multiple cycle adsorptions. The adsorption experiments of actual dye wastewater by CAWB suggested that it had a great potential in environmental application.

  9. Extractional spectrophotometric analysis of metronidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole and secnidazole bases through acid-dye complexation using bromothymol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Khaled M; Salama, Ismail; Mostafa, Samia; El-Sadek, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An easy, precise and valid extractional-spectrophotometric technique is described for the assessment of metronidazole (MNZ), tinidazole (TNZ), ornidazole (ONZ) and secnidazole (SNZ) in pure state and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The technique includes first the reduction of above cited drugs using HCl and zinc powder, then the formation of intense yellow colored ion-association complex species (1:3 drug/dye) using bromothymol blue (BTB) in a buffered aqueous acidic medium at pH 3-3.50. The colored products are extracted into dichloromethane and quantitatively determined at 416-420 nm. The experimental operating factors influencing the ion-pairs development were studied and optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. The Beer plots are obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.50-22.50, 2.50-30, 7.50-35 and 5-30 μgml-1 for MNZ, TNZ, ONZ and SNZ, respectively, with correlation coefficients not less than 0.9995. The proposed technique is recommended for the routine quality control analysis of the investigated drugs in commercial tablets with no observed interference from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Results of such analysis were statistically validated and through recovery studies, showing excellent agreement with those achieved by the reported techniques.

  10. Using resin supported nano zero-valent iron particles for decoloration of Acid Blue 113 azo dye solution.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Chen, Chi-Chun; Chen, Po-En

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a synthesized cation exchange resin supported nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) complex forming NZVI-resin was proposed for the decoloration of an azo dye Acid Blue 113 (AB 113), taking into account reaction time, initial dye concentration, NZVI dose and pH. From results, the successful decoloration of the AB 113 solution was observed using a NZVI-resin. Increasing the iron load to 50.8 mg g(-1), the removal efficiencies of the AB 113 concentration increased exponentially. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg l(-1) and nano iron load of 50.8 mg g(-1), the best removal efficiencies were obtained at 100 and 12.6% for dye concentration and total organic carbon, respectively. Color removal efficiency was dependent on initial dye concentration and iron load. Moreover, the removal rates followed modified pseudo-first order kinetic equations with respect to dye concentration. Thus, the observed removal rate constants (k) were 0.137-0.756 min(-1) by NZVI loads of 4.9-50.8 mg g(-1). Consequently, the NZVI-resin performed effectively for the decoloration of AB 113 azo dye, offering great potential in the application of NZVI-resins in larger scale column tests and further field processes.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of brilliant green dye on kaolin.

    PubMed

    Nandi, B K; Goswami, A; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-15

    Experimental investigations were carried out to adsorb toxic brilliant green dye from aqueous medium using kaolin as an adsorbent. Characterization of kaolin is done by measuring: (i) particle size distribution using particle size analyzer, (ii) BET surface area using BET surface analyzer, and (iii) structural analysis using X-ray diffractometer. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, kaolin dose, stirring speed, pH and temperature were studied for the adsorption of brilliant green in batch mode. Adsorption experiments indicate that the extent of adsorption is strongly dependent on pH of solution. Free energy of adsorption (DeltaG0), enthalpy (DeltaH0) and entropy (DeltaS0) changes are calculated to know the nature of adsorption. The calculated values of DeltaG0 at 299K and 323K indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The estimated values of DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 both show the negative sign, which indicate that the adsorption process is exothermic and the dye molecules are organized on the kaolin surface in less randomly fashion than in solution. The adsorption kinetic has been described by first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. It was observed that the rate of dye adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model for the dye concentration range studied in the present case. Standard adsorption isotherms were used to fit the experimental equilibrium data. It was found that the adsorption of brilliant green on kaolin follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  12. Fast and highly-efficient removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by poly(styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid)-sodium-modified magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu-Bei; Lv, Shao-Nan; Cheng, Chang-Jing; Ni, Guo-Li; Xie, Xiao-Wa; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs) modified with different amounts of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium (PSSMA) have been prepared through simple one-step solvothermal method for removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The prepared MCNCs are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Moreover, effects of the solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, ionic strength and initial dye concentration on MB adsorption onto the MCNCs are systematically investigated. The PSSMA-modified MCNCs show fast and highly-efficient MB removal capacity, which dramatically depends on the immobilization amounts of PSSMA, solution pH and adsorbent dosage. Their adsorption kinetics and isotherms exhibit that the kinetics and equilibrium adsorptions can be well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir model, respectively. These magnetic nanocomposites, with high separation efficiency, low production cost and recyclable property, are promising as functional adsorbents for efficient removal of cationic organic pollutants from aqueous solution.

  13. Brilliant Eyes - Developing small space systems in a new environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, John R., III; Weissman, Jack R.; McNeil, R. C.

    1992-08-01

    The system design and development process for the Brilliant Eyes (BE) satellite constellation are described focussing on the managerial strategy. Two primary management techniques - the cost-engineering model and total quality management - are the key control techniques for driving the design and development tactics. Spacecraft qualification and design quality are incorporated into the integrated product development, and the program also utilizes such concepts as technical risk management, schedule-risk mitigation, manufacturability/reproducibility considerations, and qualified manufacturing lines. The techniques employed are described with examples to illustrate an efficient method for aerospace development and acquisition on a complex project.

  14. [Maternity blues].

    PubMed

    Gonidakis, F

    2007-04-01

    Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis.

  15. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye--Acid Blue 113.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

    2011-02-15

    A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  16. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales.

  17. Cystic acne improved by photodynamic therapy with short-contact 5-aminolevulinic acid and sequential combination of intense pulsed light and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with short-contact 5-aminolevulinic acid (Levulan Kerastick, Dusa Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and activation by intense pulsed light in an initial treatment and blue light in 3 subsequent treatments has resulted in significant improvement in severity of acne, reduction in the number of lesions, improvement in skin texture, and smoothing of scar edges in an Asian patient with severe (class 4) facial cystic acne and scarring.

  18. Optimization by Response Surface Methodology of the adsorption of Coomassie Blue dye on natural and acid-treated clays.

    PubMed

    de Sales, Priscila F; Magriotis, Zuy M; Rossi, Marco A L S; Resende, Ricardo F; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2013-11-30

    The effect of acid treatment on natural agalmatolite (AN) and natural kaolinite (KN) was investigated, together with the influence of those modifications on the removal of Coomassie Blue (CB) dye. The process was optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) developed by the application of the quadratic model associated with the Central Composite Design. Adsorption was promoted by initial CB concentration of 25 mg L(-1), pH 2 and adsorbent mass of 0.1 g. The adsorption kinetics study carried out in optimized conditions established that the equilibrium times were 1 h for AN and AA (treated agalmatolite), 4 h for KN and 2 h for KA (treated kaolinite). The kinetics data for AN, KN and KA were best fitted to the pseudo second order model, whilst for AA, the result pointed to the pseudo first order model. In the isotherm of adsorption the maximum quantities were obtained with reference to 11.29 mg g(-1), 9.84 mg g(-1), 22.89 mg g(-1) and 30.08 mg g(-1) for the samples AN, AA, KN and KA respectively. The data fitting showed that the Sips model was the most satisfactory for all the adsorbents. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the process was spontaneous in all the adsorbents, endothermic for the KN and KA samples, exothermic for AN and AA, involved the disorganization of the adsorption system for the KN and KA and its organization for the AN and AA samples. The results showed that the KN and KA samples were more appropriate for use as adsorbents.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by nitric-acid treated water-hyacinth.

    PubMed

    El-Khaiary, Mohammad I

    2007-08-17

    Kinetics adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of a cationic dye (methylene blue, MB) onto nitric-acid treated water-hyacinth (N-WH). Results showed that N-WH can remove MB effectively from aqueous solution. The loading of MB onto N-WH was found to increase significantly with increasing the initial MB concentration, but the residual concentration of MB in solution also increased. A complete removal of MB from solution was only achieved at the lower range of initial MB concentration (less than 286 mg/L). Temperature had a slight effect on the amount adsorbed at equilibrium. The adsorption rate was fast and more than half of the adsorbed-MB was removed in the first 15 min at room temperature, which makes the process practical for industrial application. The adsorption kinetics at room temperature could be expressed by the pseudo second order model, while at higher temperatures (45-80 degrees C) and low MB concentration (97 mg/L) both Lagergren's model and the pseudo second order model can be used to predict the kinetics of adsorption. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then gradually changed to intraparticle diffusion control at a later stage. The initial period where external mass transfer is the rate controlling step was found to increase with increasing initial MB concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The increase in temperature was also found to increase the rate of adsorption and reduce the time required to reach equilibrium. The initial rate of adsorption, h(o), was calculated, it was found to increase with increasing temperature, while the increase in MB concentration decreased h(o) at the lower concentration range then increased h(o) again at high concentration. The value of the activation coefficient, E, was found to be 8.207 kJ/mol, which indicates a diffusion controlled process.

  20. Degradation of acid blue 40 dye solution and dye house wastewater from textile industry by photo-assisted electrochemical process.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Peterson B; Pelegrino, Rosangela R L; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, electrochemical and photo-assisted electrochemical processes are used for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation of one of the most abundant and strongly colored industrial wastewaters, which results from the dyeing of fibers and fabrics in the textile industry. The experiments were carried out in an 18 L pilot-scale tubular flow reactor with 70%TiO(2)/30%RuO(2) DSA. A synthetic acid blue 40 solution and real dye house wastewater, containing the same dye, were used for the experiments. By using current density of 80 mA cm(-2) electrochemical process has the capability to remove 80% of color, 46% of TOC and 69% of COD. When used the photochemical process with 4.6 mW cm(-2) of 254 nm UV-C radiation to assist the electrolysis, has been obtained 90% of color, 64% of TOC and 60% of COD removal in 90 minutes of processing; furthermore, 70% of initial color was degraded within the first 15 minutes. Experimental runs using dye house wastewater resulted in 78% of color, 26% of TOC and 49% of COD in electrolysis at 80 mA cm(-2) and 90 min; additionally, when photo-assisted, electrolysis resulted in removals of 85% of color, 42% of TOC and 58% of COD. For the operational conditions used in this study, color, TOC and COD showed pseudo-first-order decaying profiles. Apparent rate constants for degradation of TOC and COD were improved by one order of magnitude when the photo-electrochemical process was used.

  1. Evaluation of biochemical effects related to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid exposure in organohalogen-contaminated great tit (Parus major) and blue tit (Parus caeruleus) nestlings.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Philippe Tony; Van de Vijver, Kristin; Dauwe, Tom; Covaci, Adrian; Maervoet, Johan; Eens, Marcel; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2005-12-01

    A perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) biomonitoring survey was conducted on great tit (Parus major) and blue tit (Parus caeruleus) nestlings from Blokkersdijk, a bird reserve in the proximity of a fluorochemical plant in Antwerp (Belgium) and Fort IV, a control area. PFOS, together with 11 organochlorine pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers were measured in liver tissue. The hepatic PFOS concentrations at Blokkersdijk (86-2788 and 317-3322 ng/g wet weight (ww) for great and blue tit, respectively) were among the highest ever measured and were significantly higher than at the control area (17-206 and 69-514 ng/g ww for great and blue tit, respectively). The hepatic PFOS concentration was species- and sex-independent and correlated significantly and positively with the serum alanine aminotransferase activity and negatively with the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both species but did not correlate with condition or serum protein concentration. In the great tit, a significant positive correlation was observed between the liver PFOS concentration and the relative liver weight. In the blue tit, the hepatic PFOS concentration correlated positively and significantly with hematocrite values. None of the investigated organohalogen pollutants except for PFOS were suggested to be involved in the observed biological alterations.

  2. 75 FR 15741 - Ohio American Energy, Inc.: Brilliant, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ohio American Energy, Inc.: Brilliant, OH; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on September 25, 2009 by a company official on behalf of workers of Ohio American Energy, Inc., Brilliant, Ohio. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  3. Performance, kinetics, and equilibrium of methylene blue adsorption on biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Dongmei; Wan, Shungang; Yu, Zebin

    2015-12-01

    Biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids at low temperatures was utilized as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the carboxyl group was introduced on the biochar surface. Adsorption experiment data indicated that eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric acid showed higher MB adsorption efficiency than that modified with tartaric and acetic acids. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing MB adsorption on biochar compared with pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated values of ΔG(0) and ΔH(0) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. MB adsorption on biochar followed the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids were 178.57, 99.01, and 29.94 mg g(-1), respectively, at 35°C.

  4. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis.

    PubMed

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2012-07-07

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single domains are extremely directional (observed with a point source less than 5°), but the special arrangement of the scales in the concave pits significantly broadens the angular distribution of the reflections. The resulting virtually angle-independent green coloration of the weevil closely approximates the colour of a foliaceous background. While the close-distance colourful shininess of E. imperialis may facilitate intersexual recognition, the diffuse green reflectance of the elytra when seen at long-distance provides cryptic camouflage.

  5. Near-ultraviolet laser diodes for brilliant ultraviolet fluorophore excitation.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2015-12-01

    Although multiple lasers are now standard equipment on most modern flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. Nd:YVO4 frequency-tripled diode pumped solid-state lasers emitting at 355 nm are now the primary means of providing UV excitation on multilaser flow cytometers. Although a number of UV excited fluorochromes are available for flow cytometry, the cost of solid-state UV lasers remains prohibitively high, limiting their use to all but the most sophisticated multilaser instruments. The recent introduction of the brilliant ultraviolet (BUV) series of fluorochromes for cell surface marker detection and their importance in increasing the number of simultaneous parameters for high-dimensional analysis has increased the urgency of including UV sources in cytometer designs; however, these lasers remain expensive. Near-UV laser diodes (NUVLDs), a direct diode laser source emitting in the 370-380 nm range, have been previously validated for flow cytometric analysis of most UV-excited probes, including quantum nanocrystals, the Hoechst dyes, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. However, they remain a little-used laser source for cytometry, despite their significantly lower cost. In this study, the ability of NUVLDs to excite the BUV dyes was assessed, along with their compatibility with simultaneous brilliant violet (BV) labeling. A NUVLD emitting at 375 nm was found to excite most of the available BUV dyes at least as well as a UV 355 nm source. This slightly longer wavelength did produce some unwanted excitation of BV dyes, but at sufficiently low levels to require minimal additional compensation. NUVLDs are compact, relatively inexpensive lasers that have higher power levels than the newest generation of small 355 nm lasers. They can, therefore, make a useful, cost-effective substitute for traditional UV lasers in multicolor analysis involving the BUV and BV dyes.

  6. Electrocatalytic properties of prussian blue nanoparticles supported on poly(m-aminobenzenesulphonic acid)-functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes towards the detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Abolanle S; Farah, Abdullahi M; Pillay, Jeseelan; Ozoemena, Kenneth I; Mamba, Bhekie B; Agboola, Bolade O

    2012-06-15

    Edged plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGE) was modified with and without Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles and polyaminobenzene sulphonated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTPABS) using the chemical deposition method. The electrodes were characterised using microscopy, spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Results showed that edged plane pyrolytic graphite-single-walled carbon nanotubes-prussian blue (EPPGE-SWCNT-PB) electrode gave the best dopamine (DA) current response, which increases with increasing PB layers. The catalytic rate constant of 1.69 × 10(5)mol(-1)cm(3)s(-1), Tafel value of 112 mV dec(-1), and limit of detection of DA (2.8 nM) were obtained. Dopamine could be simultaneously detected with ascorbic acid. The electrode was found to be electrochemically stable, reusable and can be used for the analysis of DA in real drug samples.

  7. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  8. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  9. Spectrophotometric investigation of the interactions between cationic (C.I. Basic Blue 9) and anionic (C.I. Acid Blue 25) dyes in adsorption onto extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanic in single and binary system.

    PubMed

    Ben Douissa, Najoua; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanica was used as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic (Basic blue 9, BB) and anionic textile dye (Acid blue 25, AB) from aqueous solution in single dye system. Characterization of the extracted cellulose and extracted cellulose-dye systems were performed using several techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and Boehm acid-base titration method. Adsorption tests showed that the extracted cellulose presented higher adsorption of BB than AB in single dye system, revealing that electrostatic interactions are responsible, in the first instance, for the dye-adsorbent interaction. In single dye systems, the extracted cellulose presented the maximum adsorption capacities of BB and AB at 0.955 mmol.g(-1) and 0.370 mmol.g(-1), respectively. Adsorption experiments of AB dye on extracted cellulose saturated by BB dye exhibited the release of the latter dye from the sorbent which lead to dye-dye interaction in aqueous solution due to electrostatic attraction between both species. Interaction of BB and AB dyes were investigated using spectrophotometric analysis and results demonstrated the formation of a molecular complex detected at wavelengths 510 and 705 nm when anionic (AB) and cationic (BB) dye were taken in equimolar proportions. The adsorption isotherm of AB, taking into account the dye-dye interaction was investigated and showed that BB dye was released proportionately by AB equilibrium concentration. It was also observed that AB adsorption is widely enhanced when the formation of the molecular complex is disadvantaged.

  10. Rate of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation in acidic persulfate digested sample matrix for total dissolved phosphorus determination: importance of post-digestion pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2008-10-19

    Acidic persulfate oxidation is one of the most common procedures used to digest dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in water samples for total dissolved phosphorus determination. It has been reported that the rates of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation were significantly reduced in the digested sample matrix. This study revealed that the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation, not the slight change in pH, cause the slowdown of color formation. This effect can be remedied by adjusting digested samples pH to a near neural to decompose the intermediate products. No disturbing effects of chlorine on the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation in seawater were observed. It is noted that the modification of mixed reagent recipe cannot provide near neutral pH for the decomposition of the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation. This study provides experimental evidence not only to support the recommendation made in APHA standard methods that the pH of the digested sample must be adjusted to within a narrow range of sample, but also to improve the understanding of role of residue from persulfate decomposition on the subsequent phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation.

  11. Photoeletrolytic system applied to remazol red brilliant degradation.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mariana Lopes; Moraes, Peterson Bueno; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity tests using Sacharomycces cerevisiae were made with simulated textile effluents containing reactive dye (remazol red brilliant) treated by photoeletrolytic process, varying treatment time and applied current. The treatment incorporated an electrolytic reactor with rectangular titanium anode coated with 70% TiO(2)/30% RuO(2) cathode and a rectangular stainless steel coupled with another photolytic reactor containing a high power UV lamp. The treatment system was used in batch recirculation, in other words, the simulated effluent was driven by the system through a helical pump. It was observed that the higher the value of current applied, the longer the treatment has greater color removal of textile effluent and higher mortality of S. cerevisiae, killing up to 100% of the cells at the end of the treatment. With a lower current applied and having the treatment time of 5 minutes, the effluent showed a color removal of 97% and a lower mortality of S. cerevisiae than the effluent simulated without any treatment.

  12. Regional characteristics of land use in Northeast and Southern Blue Ridge Province: Associations with acid rain effects on surface-water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liegel, Leon; Cassell, David; Stevens, Donald; Shaffer, Paul; Church, Robbins

    1991-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) is one of several studies being conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to assess risk to surface waters from acidic deposition in the eastern United States. In one phase of DDRP, land use, wetland, and forest cover data were collected for statistical samples of 145 Northeast lake and 35 Southern Blue Ridge Province stream watersheds in the United States. Land-use and other data then were extrapolated from individual to target watershed populations. Project statistical design allows summarization of results for various subsets of the target population. This article discusses results and implications of the land-use and land-cover characterization for both regions. Forest cover was the primary land use in both regions. In the Northeast, developed (agriculture and urban) land was positively associated with surface-water chemistry values for acid neutralizing capacity, Ca plus Mg, pH, and sulfate in the Pocono/Catskill subregion. Extensive wetlands and beaver activity occur in parts of the Northeast region, whereas topography limits wetland and riparian development in the Southern Blue Ridge Province. Northeast soils have low sulfate adsorption capacity, most watersheds are near sulfur steady state, and lake sulfate concentrations are controlled principally by levels of sulfur deposition. Net annual sulfur retention in Northeast watersheds is positively correlated with occurrence of wetlands and beaver impoundments. In contrast, most Southern Blue Ridge Province soils have high sulfate adsorption capacities, resulting in high net watershed sulfur retention. At the present time, stream sulfate concentrations and percent sulfur retention are controlled principally by soil chemical properties related to adsorption rather than atmospheric deposition and land use.

  13. UV-A light-induced photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 in the presence of Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyarajan, Thangaraj; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Contreras, David; Ruiz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this report, optical and photocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) has been investigated in an aqueous heterogeneous media containing pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures which were prepared by a simple wet chemical route. X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that the prepared nanostructures were in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the dopant Sm ion was incorporated into the Zn lattice. Interesting morphological changes involving a nanosheet-star-spherical transition were observed upon Sm doping and annealing, which were identified through transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption measurements showed an exciton absorption band and a band gap narrowing with respect to the Sm concentrations. The photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 under UV-A radiation by using pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures showed that samarium played an important role in the significant improvement of the photodegradation efficiency and the optimum amount of Sm ion was found to be 1 mmol %. Further, the possible degradation mechanism was proposed herein.

  14. Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by CuO-acid modified sepiolite as effective adsorbent and its regeneration with high-temperature gas stream.

    PubMed

    Su, Chengyuan; Wang, Liang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi; Lin, Xiangfeng

    In this study, the dynamic adsorption of methylene blue dye onto CuO-acid modified sepiolite was investigated. Meanwhile, the equilibrium and kinetic data of the adsorption process were studied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Furthermore, a high-temperature gas stream was applied to regenerate the adsorbent. The results showed that the Langmuir isotherm model was applied to describe the adsorption process. The positive value of enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. In the dynamic adsorption process, the best adsorption performance was achieved when the ratio of column height to diameter was 2.56 and the treatment capacity was 6 BV/h. The optimal scenario for regeneration experiments was the regeneration temperature of 550-650 °C, the space velocity of 100 min(-1) and the regeneration time of 10 min. The effective adsorption of CuO-acid modified sepiolite was kept for 12 cycles of adsorption and regeneration.

  15. Preparation of iron oxide-impregnated spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composite and its photocatalytic removal of methylene blue in the presence of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Kadirova, Zukhra C; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Sharipov, Khasan; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composites (GAC-Fe) with different iron oxide contents (Fe mass% = 0.6-10) were prepared by a pore volume impregnation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption results confirm the presence of amorphous iron oxide, pyrolytic carbon, and graphitized globular carbon nanoparticles covered with amorphous carbon in the CAG-Fe. The rate of photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV light in the presence of oxalic acid correlates with porosity of the prepared materials. The total MB removal includes the combination of adsorption and photodegradation without the addition of H2O2. The results of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis reveal that the decolorization of MB in aqueous solution containing oxalic acid corresponds to the decomposition of organic compounds to CO2 and H2O.

  16. Blue Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  17. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.

  19. Purification, characterization and amino-acid sequence analysis of a thermostable, low molecular mass endo-beta-1,4-glucanase from blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Xu, B; Hellman, U; Ersson, B; Janson, J C

    2000-08-01

    A cellulase (endo-beta-1,4-D-glucanase, EC 3.2.1.4) from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was purified to homogeneity using a combination of acid precipitation, heat precipitation, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. Purity was analyzed by SDS/PAGE, IEF and RP-HPLC. The cellulase (endoglucanase) was characterized with regard to enzymatic properties, isoelectric point, molecular mass and amino-acid sequence. It is a single polypeptide chain of 181 amino acids cross-linked with six disulfide bridges. Its molecular mass, as measured by MALDI-MS, is 19 702 Da; a value of 19 710.57 Da was calculated from amino-acid composition. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated by isoelectric focusing in a polyacrylamide gel to a value of 7.6. According to amino-acid composition, the theoretical pI is 7.011. The effect of temperature on the endoglucanase activity, with carboxymethyl cellulose and amorphous cellulose as substrates, respectively, was studied at pH 5.5 and displayed an unusually broad optimum activity temperature range between 30 and 50 degrees C. Another unusual feature is that the enzyme retains 55-60% of its maximum activity at 0 degrees C. The enzyme readily degrades amorphous cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose but displays no hydrolytic activity towards crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and shows no cross-specificity for xylan; there is no binding to Avicel. The enzyme can withstand 10 min at 100 degrees C without irreversible loss of enzymatic activity. Amino-acid sequence-based classification has revealed that the enzyme belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 45, subfamily 2 (B. Henrissat, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Végétales, CNRS, Joseph Fourier Université, Grenoble, France, personal communication).

  20. N-acetylcysteine, Ascorbic Acid, and Methylene Blue for the Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: Still Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Lavasanijou, Mohamad Reza; Moghaddam, Noushin Afshar; Khazaei, Majid; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Intentional and accidental intoxication with aluminium phosphide (ALP) remains a clinical problem, especially in the Middle East region. Considering the high mortality rate besides lack of any recommended first option drug for its treatment, this study was aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C (Vit C), and methylene blue; both in isolate and also in combination, for the treatment of ALP intoxication in a rat model. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal study, 80 male Wistar rats in eight groups were intoxicated with ALP (12.5 mg/kg) and treated with a single dose of NAC (100 mg/kg) or Vit C (500–1,000 mg/kg) or methylene blue (1 mg/kg/5 min, 0.1%) or two of these agents or all three of them (controls were not treated). Rats were monitored regarding the parameters of drug efficacy as increased survival time and reduced morbidity and mortality rate for 3 consecutive days to ensure toxin neutralization. Macroscopic changes were recorded and biopsy sections were taken from brain, cerebellum, kidney, liver, and heart for microscopic evaluation regarding cellular hypoxia. Results: The mean survival times of rats exposed to ALP and treated with VitC + NAC was 210.55±236.22 minutes. In analysis of survival times, there was a significant difference between Group 5 which received VitC + NAC and the other groups (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium levels after death were higher than normal (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Despite the higher survival rate of antioxidant-treated rats compared with controls, this difference was not statistically significant. PMID:26862259

  1. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  2. Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 by Nasturtium officinale: Study of Some Physiological Responses and Metabolic Fate of Dye.

    PubMed

    Torbati, S; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of aquatic vascular plant, Nasturtium officinale, for degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92). The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, plant biomass, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of biological decolorization process was determined. The reusability of the plant in long term repetitive operations confirmed the biological degradation process. The by-products formed during biodegradation process were identified by GC-MS technique. The effects of the dye on several plant physiological responses such as photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids was significantly reduced at 20 mg/L of the dye. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were remarkably increased in the plant root verifying their importance in plant tolerance to the dye contamination.

  3. Acid blue 29 decolorization and mineralization by anodic oxidation with a cold gas spray synthesized Sn-Cu-Sb alloy anode.

    PubMed

    do Vale-Júnior, Edilson; Dosta, Sergi; Cano, Irene Garcia; Guilemany, Josep Maria; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The elevated cost of anodic materials used in the anodic oxidation for water treatment of effluents undermines the real application of these technologies. The study of novel alternative materials more affordable is required. In this work, we report the application of Sn-Cu-Sb alloys as cheap anodic material to decolorize azo dye Acid Blue 29 solutions. These anodes have been synthesized by cold gas spray technologies. Almost complete decolorization and COD abatement were attained after 300 and 600 min of electrochemical treatment, respectively. The influence of several variables such as supporting electrolyte, pH, current density and initial pollutant concentration has been investigated. Furthermore, the release and evolution of by-products was followed by HPLC to better understand the oxidative power of Sn-Cu-Sb electrodes.

  4. Nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide for the photocatalytic degradation studies on Acid Blue 113: A di-azo compound under UV slurry photoreactor.

    PubMed

    Suganya Josephine, G A; Mary Nisha, U; Meenakshi, G; Sivasamy, A

    2015-11-01

    Preventive measures for the control of environmental pollution and its remediation has received much interest in recent years due to the world-wide increase in the contamination of water bodies. Contributions of these harmful effluents are caused by the leather processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile, agricultural and other chemical industries. Nowadays, advanced oxidation processes considered to be better option for the complete destruction of organic contaminants in water and wastewater. Acid Blue 113 is a most widely used di-azo compound in leather, textile, dying and food industry as a color rending compound. In the present study, we have reported the photo catalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 using a nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide as a photo catalyst under UV light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by a simple precipitation technique and were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-DRS and FE-SEM analysis. The experimental results proved that the prepared photo catalyst was nanocrystalline and highly active in the UV region. The UV-DRS results showed the band gap energy was 3.15eV for the prepared photo catalyst. The photodegradation efficiency was analyzed by various experimental parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, variation of substrate concentration and effect of electrolyte addition. The photo degradation process followed a pseudo first order kinetics and was continuously monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The experimental results proved the efficacy of the nanocrystalline zinc oxide doped dysprosium oxide which are highly active under UV light irradiations. It is also suggested that the prepared material would find wider applications in environmental remediation technologies to remove the carcinogenic and toxic moieties present in the industrial effluents.

  5. Abscisic Acid Regulates Early Seed Development in Arabidopsis by ABI5-Mediated Transcription of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhi Juan; Zhao, Xiang Yu; Shao, Xing Xing; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Ying Gao; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Seed development includes an early stage of endosperm proliferation and a late stage of embryo growth at the expense of the endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abscisic acid (ABA) has known functions during late seed development, but its roles in early seed development remain elusive. In this study, we report that ABA-deficient mutants produced seeds with increased size, mass, and embryo cell number but delayed endosperm cellularization. ABSCISIC ACID DEFICIENT2 (ABA2) encodes a unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that functions in ABA biosynthesis, and its expression pattern overlaps that of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) during seed development. SHB1 RNA accumulation was significantly upregulated in the aba2-1 mutant and was downregulated by the application of exogenous ABA. Furthermore, RNA accumulation of the basic/region leucine zipper transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), involved in ABA signaling, was decreased in aba2-1. Consistent with this, seed size was also increased in abi5. We further show that ABI5 directly binds to two discrete regions in the SHB1 promoter. Our results suggest that ABA negatively regulates SHB1 expression, at least in part, through the action of its downstream signaling component ABI5. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms by which ABA regulates early seed development. PMID:24619610

  6. Hypothesis about brilliant lights by bioluminescent photons in near death experiences.

    PubMed

    Bókkon, István; Salari, Vahid

    2012-07-01

    In near death experiences (NDEs), seeing a brilliant light may arise in the recovery period following cardiac arrest, but the subjects can think that these experiences had happened during the actual period itself. Here we hypothesize a biophysical explanation about the encounter with a brilliant light in NDEs. Accordingly, meeting brilliant light in NDEs is due to the reperfusion that induces unregulated overproduction of free radicals and excited biomolecules among them in numerous parts in the visual system. Unregulated free radicals and excited species can produce a transient increase of bioluminescent photons in different areas of the visual system. If this excess of bioluminescent photon emission exceeds a threshold, they can appear as (phosphene) lights in our mind. In other words, seeing a brilliant light in NDEs may due to bioluminescent photons simultaneously generated in the recovery phase of numerous areas of the visual system and the brain interprets these intrinsic bioluminescent photons as if they were originated from the external visual world. Although our biophysical explanation about brilliant light phenomenon in NDEs can be promising, we do not reject further potential notions.

  7. Enzymatic amplification-free nucleic acid hybridisation sensing on nanostructured thick-film electrodes by using covalently attached methylene blue.

    PubMed

    García-González, Raquel; Costa-García, Agustín; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Amplification-free (referring to enzymatic amplification step) detection methodologies are increasing in biosensor development due to the need of faster and simpler protocols. However, for maintaining sensitivity without this step, highly detectable molecules or very sensitive detection techniques are required. The nanostructuration of transducer surfaces with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) or both in nanohybrid configurations has been employed in this work for DNA hybridisation sensing purposes. Methylene blue (MB), covalently attached to single stranded DNA, (ssDNA) was incubated with a complementary sequence immobilized on nanostructured screen-printed electrodes (AuSPEs). Although CNTs can increase notoriously the signal of the marker, adsorptive properties should also be considered when bioassays are performed because non-specific adsorption (NSA) phenomena are magnified. In this work, strategies for decreasing NSA were thoroughly evaluated for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) on CNTs-nanostructured screen-printed electrodes. Among them, the employ of UV-radiation or long incubation times (72h) allowed obtaining higher signals for the complementary strand with respect to the non-complementary one. The use of CNTs/AuNPs nanohybrids, together with the use of streptavidin-biotin (ST-B) interaction allows the higher differentiation (with a 3.5 ratio) in the genosensing of M. pneumoniae.

  8. A novel electrochemical sensor for the analysis of β-agonists: the poly(acid chrome blue K)/graphene oxide-nafion/glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2013-09-15

    A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists - clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0-36.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58-1.46 ng mL(-1) range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples.

  9. Synthesis of Mesoporous Titania-Silica Monolith Composites — A Comprehensive Study on their Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 113 Dye Under UV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejaswini, Thurlapathi Vl; Prabhakaran, Deivasigamani

    2016-10-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of bi-continuous macro and mesoporous crack-free titania-silica monoliths, with well-defined structural dimensions and high surface area. The work also highlights their potential photocatalytic environmental applications. The highly ordered titania-silica monoliths are synthesized through direct surface template method using organic precursors of silica and titania in the presence of surface directing agents such as pluronic P123 and PEG, under acetic acid medium. The monoliths are synthesized with different Ti/Si ratios to obtain monolithic designs that exhibit better photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. The titania-silica monoliths are characterized using XRD, SEM, EDAX, FT-IR, TG-DTA and BET analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized monoliths is tested on the photodegradation of a textile dye (acid blue 113). It is observed that the monolith with 7:3 ratio of Ti/Si showed significant photocatalysis behavior in the presence of UV light. The influence of various physico-chemical properties such as, solution pH, photocatalyst dosage, light intensity, dye concentration, effect of oxidants, etc. are analyzed and optimized using a customized photoreactor set-up. Under optimized conditions, the monoliths exhibited superior degradation kinetics, with the dye dissipation complete within 10min of photolysis. The mesoporous catalysts are recoverable and reusable up to four cycles of repeated usage.

  10. Sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R) is not associated with plumage variation in the blue-crowned manakin (Lepidothrix coronata).

    PubMed

    Cheviron, Z A; Hackett, Shannon J; Brumfield, Robb T

    2006-07-07

    Avian plumage traits are the targets of both natural and sexual selection. Consequently, genetic changes resulting in plumage variation among closely related taxa might represent important evolutionary events. The molecular basis of such differences, however, is unknown in most cases. Sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R) is associated with melanistic phenotypes in many vertebrate taxa, including several avian species. The blue-crowned manakin (Lepidothrix coronata), a widespread, sexually dichromatic passerine, exhibits striking geographic variation in male plumage colour across its range in southern Central America and western Amazonia. Northern males are black with brilliant blue crowns whereas southern males are green with lighter blue crowns. We sequenced 810 bp of the MC1R coding region in 23 individuals spanning the range of male plumage variation. The only variable sites we detected among L. coronata sequences were four synonymous substitutions, none of which were strictly associated with either plumage type. Similarly, comparative analyses showed that L. coronata sequences were monomorphic at the three amino acid sites hypothesized to be functionally important in other birds. These results demonstrate that genes other than MC1R underlie melanic plumage polymorphism in blue-crowned manakins.

  11. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Photophysical Properties of Pyrroloquinoline-Based Compounds Showing Strong Blue Fluorescence as Potential Dyes for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Carta, Davide; Balasso, Anna; Caliceti, Paolo; Ferlin, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    A small library of 3-ethylpyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline derivatives was synthesized to identify a novel class of dyes for use in biological studies. According to the spectroscopic analyses performed to evaluate the fluorimetric parameters of quantum yield and brightness, 7-methyl- and 6,7-dimethylpyrroloquinolin(9)one derivatives were found to be the best blue luminescent dyes for biological applications. To enhance the luminescence profiles and to obtain probes that could be conjugated to functional groups of supramolecular drug delivery systems, these compounds were further modified at position 3 to obtain 3-heptanoic acid and 3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolin(9)one methylated derivatives. The most brilliant 6,7-dimethyl-3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolinone hydrochloride was conjugated to pullulan, a biocompatible polysaccharide used to produce colloidal systems for drug delivery. Comparative studies showed that this compound can be properly exploited as a blue fluorescent label in biological investigations, namely cell trafficking and pharmacokinetics/biodistribution studies. These molecules possess higher fluorescence efficiency than commercial dyes in biological media, making them suitable alternatives to commercially available products in current use.

  13. Target loads of atmospheric sulfur deposition for the protection and recovery of acid-sensitive streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Timothy J; Cosby, Bernard J; Jackson, William A

    2011-11-01

    An important tool in the evaluation of acidification damage to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is the critical load (CL), which represents the steady-state level of acidic deposition below which ecological damage would not be expected to occur, according to current scientific understanding. A deposition load intended to be protective of a specified resource condition at a particular point in time is generally called a target load (TL). The CL or TL for protection of aquatic biota is generally based on maintaining surface water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) at an acceptable level. This study included calibration and application of the watershed model MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) to estimate the target sulfur (S) deposition load for the protection of aquatic resources at several future points in time in 66 generally acid-sensitive watersheds in the southern Blue Ridge province of North Carolina and two adjoining states. Potential future change in nitrogen leaching is not considered. Estimated TLs for S deposition ranged from zero (ecological objective not attainable by the specified point in time) to values many times greater than current S deposition depending on the selected site, ANC endpoint, and evaluation year. For some sites, one or more of the selected target ANC critical levels (0, 20, 50, 100μeq/L) could not be achieved by the year 2100 even if S deposition was reduced to zero and maintained at that level throughout the simulation. Many of these highly sensitive streams were simulated by the model to have had preindustrial ANC below some of these target values. For other sites, the watershed soils contained sufficiently large buffering capacity that even very high sustained levels of atmospheric S deposition would not reduce stream ANC below common damage thresholds.

  14. [Protein and energy value of spiruline blue algae supplemented by amino acids: digestive and metabolic utilization by the growing rat].

    PubMed

    Vermorel, M; Toullec, G; Dumond, D; Pion, R

    1975-01-01

    Protein and energy value of 6 samples of "Spirulina" was studied on growing rats in 1972 and 1973. Sample RL 1(Spirulina platensis, originating from Tchad) was grown in artifical conditions in a laboratory. Others samples (Spirulina maxima) were grown in the solar evaporator near Mexico, washed and dried either on heated rollers (MR8, MR13) or by spraying (MA 7, MA10). Sample MA10 D corresponds to sample MA10, bleached by ethanol plus acetone (Baron, 1975). Each Spirulina sample was the only protein source of balanced, starch diets. The diets were supplemented in essential amino acids (E.A.A.) according to the requirements of growing rats (table 1). The ratios [(digestible nitrogen/metabolisable energy (EM] of the Spirulina diets were similar to that of the control diets containing herring meal. The diets were fed to groups of 15 to 17 growing rats. Energy and nitrogen balances were established by the comparative slaughter technique. Blood and muscle samples were taken at slaughter for the determination of free amino acids levels.

  15. Bigger and Brighter Fluorenes: Facile π-Expansion, Brilliant Emission and Sensing of Nitroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Jagarapu; Venkatakrishnan, Parthasarathy

    2017-01-17

    π-Expanded butterfly-like 2D fluorenes and 3D spirobifluorenes 1-5 were synthesized via a DDQ-mediated oxidative cyclization strategy with a high regioselectivity. Through structural modification via π-expansion, it was possible to achieve near-ultraviolet absorption, bright-blue emission, very high near-unity fluorescence quantum yields in solution as well as in film states, and deep-lying HOMO energy levels with excellent thermal stabilities. Furthermore, these electron-rich compounds displayed a notable behavior towards sensing of nitroaromatic explosives, such as picric acid, up to a detection limit of 0.2 ppb.

  16. An unusually brilliant transient in the galaxy M85.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S R; Ofek, E O; Rau, A; Cenko, S B; Soderberg, A M; Fox, D B; Gal-Yam, A; Capak, P L; Moon, D S; Li, W; Filippenko, A V; Egami, E; Kartaltepe, J; Sanders, D B

    2007-05-24

    Historically, variable and transient sources have both surprised astronomers and provided new views of the heavens. Here we report the discovery of an optical transient in the outskirts of the lenticular galaxy Messier 85 in the Virgo cluster. With a peak absolute R magnitude of -12, this event is distinctly brighter than novae, but fainter than type Ia supernovae (which are expected in a population of old stars in lenticular galaxies). Archival images of the field do not show a luminous star at that position with an upper limit in the g filter of about -4.1 mag, so it is unlikely to be a giant eruption from a luminous blue variable star. Over a two-month period, the transient source emitted radiation energy of almost 10(47) erg and subsequently faded in the optical sky. It is similar to, but six times more luminous at peak than, an enigmatic transient in the galaxy M31 (ref. 1). A possible origin of M85 OT2006-1 is a stellar merger. If so, searches for similar events in nearby galaxies will not only allow study of the physics of hyper-Eddington sources, but also probe an important phase in the evolution of stellar binary systems.

  17. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  18. Improvement of mannitol lysine crystal violet brilliant green agar for the selective isolation of H2S-positive Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, H; Mizuochi, S; Honda, T; Yamaguchi, K

    2000-12-01

    Mannitol lysine crystal violet brilliant green agar (MLCB) is widely used in Japan for Salmonella isolation because the medium has been commercially available. Colonies of Salmonella on MLCB appear colorless with black centers due to H2S gas production; however, most Citrobacter freundii also produce H2S gas. In order to distinguish H2S-positive Salmonella from C. freundii we have improved MLCB. To MLCB was added 1% lactose (L-MLCB). The relation for pH and black center colony formation was examined. The pH of MLCB and L-MLCB inoculated with Salmonella species was slightly acid after 7 h, but the pH of L-MLCB inoculated with C. freundii did not become acid for 24 h. The colony of C. freundii did not have a black center because the production of acid from lactose lowers the pH below 10 where it is needed for H2S to react with iron to produce black pigments. Of 99 Salmonella strains including 13 serotypes tested, all strains had the same colony morphologies on MLCB and L-MLCB. When MLCB and L-MLCB were evaluated with 36 C. freundii strains isolated from foods, only colonies on MLCB had black centers. We conclude that L-MLCB is useful for detection of nonlactose-fermenting, H2S-positive Salmonella in food samples.

  19. Biosorption of Acid Blue 25 by unmodified and CPC-modified biomass of Penicillium YW01: kinetic study, equilibrium isotherm and FTIR analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Jin, Danfeng; Wang, Guan; Liu, Danfeng; Jia, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yuhua

    2011-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the biosorption performance of unmodified and Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-modified biomass of Penicillium YW 01 for Acid Blue 25 (AB 25). Maximum biosorption capacity of AB 25 onto CPC-modified biosorbent was 118.48 mg g(-1) under phosphoric-phosphate buffer with initial dye concentration of 200 mg L(-1) at 30°C. The biosorption pattern of AB 25 onto unmodified biosorbent in aqueous solution and phosphoric-phosphate buffer was well fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. While the equilibrium data of CPC-modified biosorbent in aqueous solution and phosphoric-phosphate buffer failed to fit the Freundlich isotherm model, indicating the monolayer biosorption formed onto CPC-modified biosorbent. The values of initial biosorption rate of biosorbent in phosphoric-phosphate buffer were found to be higher than that of corresponding values in aqueous solution, indicating phosphoric-phosphate buffer enhanced the initial biosorption rate of biosorption process. Weber-Morris model analysis indicated that the boundary layer effect had more influence on the biosorption process in phosphoric-phosphate buffer. The BET surface area of CPC-modified biosorbent (0.5761 m(2) g(-1)) was larger than that of unmodified biomass (0.3081 m(2) g(-1)). Possible dye-biosorbent interactions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Uric Acid and Xanthine Using a Poly(Methylene Blue) and Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Film Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gen; Ma, Wei; Luo, Yan; Sun, Deng-ming; Shao, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Poly(methylene blue) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified electrode (PMB-ERGO/GCE) was successfully fabricated by electropolymerization and was used for simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and xanthine (Xa). Based on the excellent electrocatalytic activity of PMB-ERGO/GCE, the electrochemical behaviors of UA and Xa were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Two anodic sensitive peaks at 0.630 V (versus Ag/AgCl) for UA and 1.006 V (versus Ag/AgCl) for Xa were given by CV in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer. The calibration curves for UA and Xa were obtained in the range of 8.00 × 10−8~4.00 × 10−4 M and 1.00 × 10−7~4.00 × 10−4 M, respectively, by SWV. The detection limits for UA and Xa were 3.00 × 10−8 M and 5.00 × 10−8 M, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied to simultaneously determine UA and Xa in human urine with good selectivity and high sensitivity. PMID:25436174

  1. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. from faeces of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Allegretti, L; Revolledo, L; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Chacón, J L; Martins, L M; Seixas, G H F; Ferreira, A J P

    2014-12-01

    In Brazil, the blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) is a common pet. The faecal microbiota of these birds include a wide variety of bacterial species, the majority of which belong to the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) clade. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the diversity and abundance of LAB and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cloacae between wild and captive birds and to select, identify and characterise LAB for consideration as a parrot probiotic. Cloacal swabs were collected from 26 wild and 26 captive birds. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA genes were amplified. The numbers of PCR-positive Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species isolated from wild and captive birds were significantly different (P<0.05). Enterococcus was the most frequently isolated genus, followed by Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most frequently isolated species from all birds. This study increases our understanding of the faecal microbiota, and may help to improve the nutrition and habitat management of captive and wild parrots. The bacterial population identified in the faecal microbiota of clinically healthy wild and captive parrots can serve as a database to analyse variations in the gut microbiota of pathogen-infected parrots and to develop probiotics specific to these genera.

  2. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles.

  3. Photo-induced decolorization of dimethylmethylene blue with selenious acid: a novel method to examine selective monomer-dimer distribution of the dye in micelle.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sudip; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-07-01

    In this report, selenious acid (H2SeO3) has been exploited to study the decolorization of a cationic dye, dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) with UV-light. Micelles have effectively been employed as organized media to promote the rate of decolorization of the dye molecules. Micellar catalysis has been explained as a consequence of electrostatic, hydrophobic and charge transfer interactions. It has also been shown that strong charge transfer and electrostatic interaction lead to an appreciable enhancement of the reaction rate in micelle, whereas, weak hydrophobic interaction is of marginal importance. Existence of monomer-dimer equilibrium for the dye molecules under certain selective environments has been identified spectrophotometrically. Then the shift of dimer-monomer equilibrium of the dye has been successfully studied in aqueous and micellar environments exploiting photodecolorization process for the dye in solution. 'Salting-in' and 'salting-out' agents were introduced into the reaction mixture to examine the viability of the dye decolorization process for dye contaminated water samples.

  4. Indian jujuba seed powder as an eco-friendly and a low-cost biosorbent for removal of acid blue 25 from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Krishna, L Sivarama; Reddy, A Sreenath; Zuhairi, W Y Wan; Taha, M R; Reddy, A Varada

    2014-01-01

    Indian jujuba seed powder (IJSP) has been investigated as a low-cost and an eco-friendly biosorbent, prepared for the removal of Acid Blue 25 (AB25) from aqueous solution. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by using FTIR and scanning electron microscopic studies. The effect of operation variables, such as IJSP dosage, contact time, concentration, pH, and temperature on the removal of AB25 was investigated, using batch biosorption technique. Removal efficiency increased with increase of IJSP dosage but decreased with increase of temperature. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherm models. The data fitted well with the Langmuir model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 54.95 mg g(-1). The pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best for the biosorption of AB25 by IJSP, with good correlation. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy change (ΔG(0)), standard enthalpy changes (ΔH(0)), and standard entropy changes (ΔS(0)) were analyzed. The removal of AB25 from aqueous solution by IJSP was a spontaneous and exothermic adsorption process. The results suggest that IJSP is a potential low-cost and an eco-friendly biosorbent for the AB25 removal from synthetic AB25 wastewater.

  5. Indian Jujuba Seed Powder as an Eco-Friendly and a Low-Cost Biosorbent for Removal of Acid Blue 25 from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, L. Sivarama; Reddy, A. Sreenath; Zuhairi, W. Y. Wan; Taha, M. R.; Reddy, A. Varada

    2014-01-01

    Indian jujuba seed powder (IJSP) has been investigated as a low-cost and an eco-friendly biosorbent, prepared for the removal of Acid Blue 25 (AB25) from aqueous solution. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by using FTIR and scanning electron microscopic studies. The effect of operation variables, such as IJSP dosage, contact time, concentration, pH, and temperature on the removal of AB25 was investigated, using batch biosorption technique. Removal efficiency increased with increase of IJSP dosage but decreased with increase of temperature. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherm models. The data fitted well with the Langmuir model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 54.95 mg g−1. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best for the biosorption of AB25 by IJSP, with good correlation. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy change (ΔG0), standard enthalpy changes (ΔH0), and standard entropy changes (ΔS0) were analyzed. The removal of AB25 from aqueous solution by IJSP was a spontaneous and exothermic adsorption process. The results suggest that IJSP is a potential low-cost and an eco-friendly biosorbent for the AB25 removal from synthetic AB25 wastewater. PMID:25383360

  6. Time-resolved spectral studies of blue-green fluorescence of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. Var. Scolymus) leaves: identification of chlorogenic acid as one of the major fluorophores and age-mediated changes.

    PubMed

    Morales, Fermín; Cartelat, Aurélie; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Moya, Ismael; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2005-12-14

    Synchrotron radiation and the time-correlated single-photon counting technique were used to investigate the spectral and time-resolved characteristics of blue-green fluorescence (BGF) of artichoke leaves. Leaves emitted BGF under ultraviolet (UV) excitation; the abaxial side was much more fluorescent than the adaxial side, and in both cases, the youngest leaves were much more fluorescent than the oldest ones. The BGF of artichoke leaves was dominated by the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids. A decrease in the percentage of BGF attributable to the very short kinetic component (from 42 to 20%), in the shape of the BGF excitation spectra, and chlorogenic acid concentrations indicate that there is a loss of hydroxycinnamic acid with leaf age. Studies on excitation, emission, and synchronized fluorescence spectra of leaves and trichomes and chlorogenic acid contents indicate that chlorogenic acid is one of the main blue-green fluorophores in artichoke leaves. Results of the present study indicate that 20-42% (i.e., the very short kinetic component) of the overall BGF is emitted by chlorogenic acid. Time-resolved BGF measurements could be a means to extract information on chlorogenic acid fluorescence from the overall leaf BGF.

  7. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  8. Analysis of the solvatochromic behavior of the disubstituted triphenylmethane dye brilliant green.

    PubMed

    Karukstis, K K; Gulledge, A V

    1998-10-01

    The coincident spectral components of the main visible absorption band of the triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green can be resolved using a nonlinear least-squares fitting routine. This analysis reveals two Gaussian components, with centers near 600 and 630 nm, that possess additional spectral characteristics with a pronounced sensitivity to the dye's microenvironment. In particular, both the ratio of the heights of these Gaussian peaks and the ratio of their areas exhibit an inverted dependence on solvent dielectric constant, i.e., a reversal of solvatochromic behavior in media of low polarity. Such an absorption spectrum analysis facilitates the use of triphenylmethane dyes that lack symmetric trisubstitution of the phenyl rings as environment-sensitive spectroscopic probes. We demonstrate further the utility of this approach through the spectrophotometric determination of the critical micelle concentration of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate using Brilliant Green as an optical probe.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and identification of intermediate products during phytoremediation of an anionic dye (C.I. Acid Blue 92) by pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Vafaei, Fatemeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    The potential of pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) for phytoremediation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) was evaluated. The effects of various experimental parameters including pH, temperature, dye concentration and plant weight on dye removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimal condition for dye removal were pH 3.5 and temperature 25 degree C. Moreover, the absolute dye removal enhanced with increase in the initial dye concentration and plant weight. Pennywort showed the same removal efficiency in repeated experiments (four runs) as that obtained from the first run (a 6-day period). Therefore, the ability of the plant in consecutive removal of AB92 confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. The effect of treatment on photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in plant roots and leaves were evaluated. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content under dye treatments. Antioxidant enzyme responses showed marked variations with respect to the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity under AB92 stress in the roots was much higher than that in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in malondialdehyde content was detected in roots or leaves, implying that the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, pennywort was founded to be a capable species for phytoremediation of AB92-contaminated water, may be effective for phytoremediation dye-contaminated polluted aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Regulation of Dormancy in Barley by Blue Light and After-Ripening: Effects on Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Metabolism1[W

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Frank; Hughes, Trijntje; Waterhouse, Peter; Jacobsen, John

    2008-01-01

    White light strongly promotes dormancy in freshly harvested cereal grains, whereas dark and after-ripening have the opposite effect. We have analyzed the interaction of light and after-ripening on abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism genes and dormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare ‘Betzes’). Analysis of gene expression in imbibed barley grains shows that different ABA metabolism genes are targeted by white light and after-ripening. Of the genes examined, white light promotes the expression of an ABA biosynthetic gene, HvNCED1, in embryos. Consistent with this result, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays show that dormant grains imbibed under white light have higher embryo ABA content than grains imbibed in the dark. After-ripening has no effect on expression of ABA biosynthesis genes, but promotes expression of an ABA catabolism gene (HvABA8′OH1), a GA biosynthetic gene (HvGA3ox2), and a GA catabolic gene (HvGA2ox3) following imbibition. Blue light mimics the effects of white light on germination, ABA levels, and expression of GA and ABA metabolism genes. Red and far-red light have no effect on germination, ABA levels, or HvNCED1. RNA interference experiments in transgenic barley plants support a role of HvABA8′OH1 in dormancy release. Reduced HvABA8′OH1 expression in transgenic HvABA8′OH1 RNAi grains results in higher levels of ABA and increased dormancy compared to nontransgenic grains. PMID:18408047

  11. Effects of gap size and UV dosage on decolorization of C.I. Acid Blue 113 wastewater in the UV/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Fan, Huan-Jung

    2005-02-14

    The wastewater from textile dyeing industry is difficult to be treated successfully according to both high variability of composition and color intensity. To investigate the effects of reactor gap size and UV dosage on the decolorization of dye wastewater, a commercially available azo dye C.I. Acid Blue 113 was chosen as a model compound. UV/H2O2 processes with various gap sizes and setups of plug flow reactor and recirculated batch reactor were proposed to deal with the dye wastewater in this study. The experimental parameters including the design of reactor configurations of annular gap size, and in batch system or plug flow reactors and hydrogen peroxide dosage, UV dosage were investigated. The gap size of reactor was adjusted by different diameter of reactor shells in order to optimize the reactor configuration. The color removal percentage was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency. An optimal hydrogen peroxide concentration of 46.53 mM was observed in this study for highest decolorization rate. Besides, the pseudo-first-order rate constant of 3.14 min(-1) was obtained by plug flow reactor with 0.5 cm gap size, 120.70 W/l of UV dosage and 23.27 mM of H2O2 dosage. The first-order rate constant, which was about 20 times less than that of plug flow reactor, was obtained 0.1422 min(-1) by recirculated batch reactor with 2.0 cm gap size, 7.0 W/l of UV and 23.27 mM of H2O2 dosages. Ultimately, we developed an effective pre-treatment or treatment technology for dye wastewater to provide the dyeing industries and dye manufacturers an alternative to meet the effluent standards.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 in water using Ag-Ag2O-Zno nanostuctures anchored on graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umukoro, Eseoghene H.; Peleyeju, Moses G.; Ngila, Jane C.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution due to industrial effluents from industries which utilize dyes in the manufacturing of their products has serious implications on aquatic lives and the general environment. Thus, there is need for the removal of dyes from wastewater before being discharged into the environment. In this study, a nanocomposite consisting of silver, silver oxide (Ag2O), zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized, characterized and photocatalytically applied in the degradation (and possibly mineralization) of organic pollutants in water treatment process. The Ag-Ag2O-ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by a co-precipitation method and calcined at 400 °C. It was functionalized using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and further anchored on carboxylated graphene oxide via the formation of an amide bond to give the Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. The applicability of Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite as a photocatalyst was investigated in the photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 dye under visible light irradiation in synthetic wastewater containing the dye. The results indicated that Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite has a higher photocatalytic activity (90% removal) compared to Ag-Ag2O-ZnO (85% removal) and ZnO (75% removal) respectively and thus lends itself to application in water treatment, where the removal of organics is very important.

  13. Microsecond Deprotonation of Aspartic Acid and Response of the α/β Subdomain Precede C-Terminal Signaling in the Blue Light Sensor Plant Cryptochrome.

    PubMed

    Thöing, Christian; Oldemeyer, Sabine; Kottke, Tilman

    2015-05-13

    Plant cryptochromes are photosensory receptors that regulate various central aspects of plant growth and development. These receptors consist of a photolyase homology region (PHR) carrying the oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, and a cryptochrome C-terminal extension (CCT), which is essential for signaling. Absorption of blue/UVA light leads to formation of the FAD neutral radical as the likely signaling state, and ultimately activates the CCT. Little is known about the signal transfer from the flavin to the CCT. Here, we investigated the photoreaction of the PHR by time-resolved step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy complemented by UV-vis spectroscopy. The first spectrum at 500 ns shows major contributions from the FAD anion radical, which is demonstrated to then be protonated by aspartic acid 396 to the neutral radical within 3.5 μs. The analysis revealed the existence of three intermediates characterized by changes in secondary structure. A marked loss of β-sheet structure is observed in the second intermediate evolving with a time constant of 500 μs. This change is accompanied by a conversion of a tyrosine residue, which is identified as the formation of a tyrosine radical in the UV-vis. The only β-sheet in the PHR is located within the α/β subdomain, ∼25 Å away from the flavin. This subdomain has been previously attributed a role as a putative antenna binding site, but is now suggested to have evolved to a component in the signaling of plant cryptochromes by mediating the interaction with the CCT.

  14. Brilliant gamma-ray emission from near-critical plasma interaction with ultraintense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Bin

    2016-10-01

    γ -ray is the electromagnetic radiation having the highest photon energy and smallest wavelength, which has a broad range of applications in material science, nuclear physics, astrophysics and so on. In this talk, I shall report recent progresses on theoretical and numerical studies of laser-driven brilliant gamma-ray radiation in near critical plasmas at Peking University (PKU), where an intense circularly polarized (CP) lasers. A novel resonant acceleration scheme can be achieved for generating dense relativistic electron bunches and emitting brilliant γ-ray pulses, where the laser frequency matches with that of electron betatron oscillation under quasistatic electromagnetic fields and radiation reaction in plasma. 3D PIC simulations show that brilliant γ-ray radiation with energy of 3J and brightness of 1024photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW (at 3MeV) can be produced by using CP lasers at intensity 1022W/cm2. It is found that the total number of radiated photons scales as a2 /S 1 / 2 and the conversion efficiency scales as a3 / S , where S =(ne /nc) a and a is the laser normalized amplitude. Further studies show that if the laser intensity is increased to 1023W/cm2, the quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects are in favor of trapping and achieving resonance acceleration of electrons, resulting in production of brilliant γ-ray pulses with unprecedented power of 6.7PW and brightness of 1025photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW (at 15MeV). To the best of our knowledge, this is the γ-ray source with the highest peak brightness in tens-MeV regime ever reported in the literature. supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  15. Evaluation of lactic acid bacterium fermentation products and food-grade chemicals to control Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) meat.

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, A J; Kaspar, C W; Otwell, W S; Tamplin, M L; Luchansky, J B

    1994-01-01

    Fresh blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) meat was obtained from retail markets in Florida and sampled for viable Listeria monocytogenes. The pathogen was found in crabmeat in three of four different lots tested by enrichment and at levels of 75 CFU/g in one of the same four lots by direct plating. Next, crabmeat was steam sterilized, inoculated with a three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes (ca. 5.5 log10 CFU/g), washed with various lactic acid bacterium fermentation products (2,000 to 20,000 arbitrary units [AU]/ml of wash) or food-grade chemicals (0.25 to 4 M), and stored at 4 degrees C. Counts of the pathogen remained relatively constant in control samples during storage for 6 days, whereas in crabmeat washed with Perlac 1911 or MicroGard (10,000 to 20,000 AU), numbers initially decreased (0.5 to 1.0 log10 unit/g) but recovered to original levels within 6 days. Numbers of L. monocytogenes cells decreased 1.5 to 2.7 log10 units/g of crabmeat within 0.04 day when washed with 10,000 to 20,000 AU of Alta 2341, enterocin 1083, or Nisin per ml. Thereafter, counts increased 0.5 to 1.6 log10 units within 6 days. After washing with food-grade chemicals, modest reductions (0.4 to 0.8 log10 unit/g) were observed with sodium acetate (4 M), sodium diacetate (0.5 or 1 M), sodium lactate (1 M), or sodium nitrite (1.5 M). However, Listeria counts in crabmeat washed with 2 M sodium diacetate decreased 2.6 log10 units/g within 6 days. In addition, trisodium phosphate reduced L. monocytogenes counts from 1.7 (0.25 M) to > 4.6 (1 M) log10 units/g within 6 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7944362

  16. The Spring 2016 Observing Program of Brilliant Sky Observatory: Measurements of 313 Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Until approximately a decade ago, speckle interferometry, a double star measurement technique that is capable of high accuracy, had been the domain of professional astronomers using large telescopes, high-end cameras, and high-powered computing systems. But with the advent of relatively low-cost CCD cameras and powerful speckle reduction software that runs on a desktop PC, amateurs can now do high quality research and contribute valuable measurements of close double stars. This paper presents the measurement of 313 pairs based on the Spring 2016 observing program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, located in Cave Creek, Arizona.

  17. Processing Requirements For Multi-Sensor, Low-Cost Brilliant Munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Lawrence A.; Kassis, Suhail Y.

    1989-09-01

    A generic mission for an autonomous fire-and-forget brilliant munition is presented and used to identify the functions that an embedded signal processor must perform. Based on these functions and other operational factors (such as weather, larger search areas, lower false alarm rates, and munition maneuverability), the processing loads in bits/second, messages/second, operations/second, and instructions/second are derived. The paper concludes with an evaluation of general implementation issues, such as the requirements for data fusion, distributed and parallel processing architectures, trusted software, and low-cost hardware.

  18. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  19. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... is found in the blue nightshade ( Solanum dulcamara ) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  20. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase.

  1. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λmax, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  2. Brilliant petawatt gamma-ray pulse generation in quantum electrodynamic laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. X.; Qiao, B.; Huang, T. W.; Xu, Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Gu, Y. Q.; Yan, X. Q.; Zepf, M.; He, X. T.

    2017-03-01

    We show a new resonance acceleration scheme for generating ultradense relativistic electron bunches in helical motions and hence emitting brilliant vortical γ-ray pulses in the quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime of circularly-polarized (CP) laser-plasma interactions. Here the combined effects of the radiation reaction recoil force and the self-generated magnetic fields result in not only trapping of a great amount of electrons in laser-produced plasma channel, but also significant broadening of the resonance bandwidth between laser frequency and that of electron betatron oscillation in the channel, which eventually leads to formation of the ultradense electron bunch under resonant helical motion in CP laser fields. Three-dimensional PIC simulations show that a brilliant γ-ray pulse with unprecedented power of 6.7 PW and peak brightness of 1025 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% BW (at 15 MeV) is emitted at laser intensity of 1.9 × 1023 W/cm2.

  3. Kinetic study of brilliant green adsorption from aqueous solution onto white rice husk ash.

    PubMed

    Tavlieva, Mariana P; Genieva, Svetlana D; Georgieva, Velyana G; Vlaev, Lyubomir T

    2013-11-01

    The present research was focused on the study of adsorption kinetics of brilliant green (BG) onto white rice husk ash from aqueous solutions. The research was performed in the temperature interval 290-320 K in 10° steps and in the concentration range of 3-100 mg L(-1). Batch studies were conducted in order to determine the optimal adsorbent dose, and the time required to reach the adsorption equilibrium at each temperature. The effect of the initial concentration of brilliant green was studied (pH not adjusted), as well as the effect of temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of the WRHA for BG at 320 K was determined to be 85.56 mg g(-1). The adsorption kinetic data were analyzed employing several kinetic models: pseudo-first-order equation, pseudo-second-order equation, Elovichequation, Banghman's equation, Diffusion-chemisorption model, and Boyd kinetic expression. It was established that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Based on the rate constants obtained by this kinetic model using Arrhenius and Eyring equations, the activation parameters were determined, namely the activation energy (50.04 kJ mol(-1)), the change of entropy (-318.31 J mol(-1) K(-1)), enthalpy (-47.50 kJ mol(-1)), and Gibbs free energy (range 44.81-54.36 kJ mol(-1)) for the formation of activated complex from the reagents.

  4. Brilliant petawatt gamma-ray pulse generation in quantum electrodynamic laser-plasma interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H. X.; Qiao, B.; Huang, T. W.; Xu, Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Gu, Y. Q.; Yan, X. Q.; Zepf, M.; He, X. T.

    2017-01-01

    We show a new resonance acceleration scheme for generating ultradense relativistic electron bunches in helical motions and hence emitting brilliant vortical γ-ray pulses in the quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime of circularly-polarized (CP) laser-plasma interactions. Here the combined effects of the radiation reaction recoil force and the self-generated magnetic fields result in not only trapping of a great amount of electrons in laser-produced plasma channel, but also significant broadening of the resonance bandwidth between laser frequency and that of electron betatron oscillation in the channel, which eventually leads to formation of the ultradense electron bunch under resonant helical motion in CP laser fields. Three-dimensional PIC simulations show that a brilliant γ-ray pulse with unprecedented power of 6.7 PW and peak brightness of 1025 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% BW (at 15 MeV) is emitted at laser intensity of 1.9 × 1023 W/cm2. PMID:28338010

  5. Brilliant petawatt gamma-ray pulse generation in quantum electrodynamic laser-plasma interaction.

    PubMed

    Chang, H X; Qiao, B; Huang, T W; Xu, Z; Zhou, C T; Gu, Y Q; Yan, X Q; Zepf, M; He, X T

    2017-03-24

    We show a new resonance acceleration scheme for generating ultradense relativistic electron bunches in helical motions and hence emitting brilliant vortical γ-ray pulses in the quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime of circularly-polarized (CP) laser-plasma interactions. Here the combined effects of the radiation reaction recoil force and the self-generated magnetic fields result in not only trapping of a great amount of electrons in laser-produced plasma channel, but also significant broadening of the resonance bandwidth between laser frequency and that of electron betatron oscillation in the channel, which eventually leads to formation of the ultradense electron bunch under resonant helical motion in CP laser fields. Three-dimensional PIC simulations show that a brilliant γ-ray pulse with unprecedented power of 6.7 PW and peak brightness of 10(25) photons/s/mm(2)/mrad(2)/0.1% BW (at 15 MeV) is emitted at laser intensity of 1.9 × 10(23) W/cm(2).

  6. Electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on Pb/PbO2 electrode in the presence of different conductive electrolyte and effect of various operating factors.

    PubMed

    Awad, H S; Galwa, N Abo

    2005-12-01

    Electrocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes from simulated wastewater on lead dioxide anode was investigated in different conductive electrolytes. It was shown that complete degradation of these dyes is dependent primarily on type and concentration of the conductive electrolyte. The highest electrocatalytic activity was achieved in the presence of NaCl (2g/l) and could be attributed to indirect oxidation of the investigated dyes by the electrogenerated hypochlorite ions formed from the chloride oxidation. In addition, contribution from direct oxidation could also be possible via reaction of these organic compounds with the electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals adsorbed on the lead dioxide surface. In the presence of NaOH, the electrocatalytic activity of the employed anode was not comparable to that in NaCl due primarily to the absence of chloride. This indicates that dyes degradation in NaOH occurs exclusively via direct electrochemical process. However, in H2SO4, the electrode performance was poor due partially to the absence of chloride from the conductive solution. The possibility of electrode poisoning as a result of growth of adherent film on the anode surface or production of stable intermediates not easily further oxidized by direct electrolysis in H2SO4 might also be accountable for the poor performance observed in this conductive electrolyte. Optimizing the conditions that ensure effective electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on lead dioxide electrode necessitates the control of all the operating factors.

  7. BRILLIANT PEBBLES: A METHOD FOR DETECTION OF VERY LARGE INTERSTELLAR GRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle; Draine, Bruce T. E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu

    2009-09-01

    A photon of wavelength {lambda} {approx} 1 {mu}m interacting with a dust grain of radius a{sub p} {approx} 1 mm (a 'pebble') undergoes scattering in the forward direction, largely within a small characteristic diffraction angle {theta}{sub s} {approx} {lambda}/a{sub p} {approx} 100''. Though millimeter-size dust grains contribute negligibly to the interstellar medium's visual extinction, the signal they produce in scattered light may be detectable, especially for variable sources. Observations of light scattered at small angles allow for the direct measurement of the large grain population; variable sources can also yield tomographic information of the interstellar medium's mass distribution. The ability to detect brilliant pebble halos requires a careful understanding of the instrument point-spread function.

  8. Solvent dependence of ultrafast ground state recovery of the triphenylmethane dyes, brilliant green and malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Yutaka; Ando, Yoshito; Okada, Tadashi

    1999-10-01

    We have studied femtosecond ground state recovery dynamics of the triphenylmethane dyes brilliant green (BG) and malachite green (MG) by pump-probe spectroscopy at the center wavelength of 635 nm with a time resolution of 33 fs. The ultrafast recovery of the ground state bleach was highly nonexponential and depended on the solvent viscosity, although all time constants were shorter than the solvation times obtained from other measurements. We observed a plateau or a rise component in the signal, which indicates an intermediate state. The rise time showed a viscosity dependence, even in the ultrafast time domain. It should be noted that the decay times were always longer for BG than MG, while the rise time did not show a solute dependence. The torsional motion of the amino-substituted phenyl group may be involved in the ultrafast process to the intermediate state, but lack of a solute dependence indicates that only a small conformational change is involved.

  9. [Application of brilliant x-rays in mammography. Development and perspectives of phase contrast techniques].

    PubMed

    Schneider, T; Coan, P; Habs, D; Reiser, M

    2008-04-01

    The early and reliable detection of breast cancer is often difficult with conventional mammography, especially within dense breast parenchyma. An alternative approach using x-rays are phase-sensitive imaging techniques, which are able to visualize the borders of tissues with different refraction indices with very high contrast. These phase contrast imaging techniques can generate projection images with much less glandular dose than conventional mammography. Even the acquisition of phase contrast CT data sets with an acceptable exposure dose is possible. As brilliant x-ray beams are required for phase contrast imaging, which up to now were only available at synchrotron facilities, these methods were restricted to only a few laboratories. However, with the advent of newly developed high intensity lasers which are also able to produce such radiation, a widespread and affordable use of this technique seems realistic. The further development of phase contrast imaging is funded by the excellence cluster MAP of the Munich universities.

  10. Controllable Assembly and Spectroscopic Behavior of Brilliant Cresyl Violet in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Song, J.-P.; Guo, Y.; Shuang, Sh.-M.; Dong, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the aggregation behavior of brilliant cresyl violet (BCV) was studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. BCV aggregation depends not only on the properties of the solvent and electrolyte, and the temperature and concentration of the dye solution, but also on the anionic surfactant. The results demonstrate that Nafion triggers trimer formation. Graphene oxide adjusts the relative position of dye molecules on the template through the electrostatic force and π-π stacking interactions to form highly ordered H-aggregates. However, BCV molecules on the graphene surface form the so-called J-aggregates after removal of the oxygen-containing surface groups by hydrazine reduction. The major driving forces affecting BCV aggregation are the electrostatic force, π-π stacking interactions, and hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  11. Amino acid compositon and microbial contamination of spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga, grown on the effluent of different fermented animal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.F.; Pond, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of various fermented manures were compared. Large differences in the mineral concentration were observed. There were no important differences among the amino acid composition of S. spirulina grown on the different nutrient media. All were low in methionine, but were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine. The crude protein content was 71.8-60.1%. Considerable contamination of the waste-grown algae with yeast, fungi, and sporogenous bacteria was experienced.

  12. From Brilliant Baby to Child Placed at Risk: The Perilous Path of African American Boys in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Hakim M.

    2009-01-01

    The preschool and early elementary years play a major role in transforming young African American boys from "brilliant babies" into "children placed at risk". A preschool to prison pipeline now exists that is becoming increasingly apparent. It runs from preschool settings through elementary and middle school, into the high schools from which young…

  13. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks.

  14. Experimental study on the bioaccumulation of oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). An evaluation of its ability to bio-monitor antibiotics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Le Bris, Hervé; Pouliquen, Hervé

    2004-03-01

    The ability of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to act as a potential antibiotic bioindicator in marine waters was experimentally tested by the study of the kinetics of two veterinary antibiotics (oxolinic acid: OA and oxytetracycline: OTC). Antibiotic uptake was fast in the soft parts of the mussels. OA was quickly eliminated while OTC was released more slowly (half-life in viscera=3.9 days). OA and OTC were preferentially accumulated in gills and in viscera, respectively. Bio-accumulation factors were low (maximum: 2 for OTC in viscera) in accordance with the low K(ow)s. It was assumed that the higher OTC bioaccumulation pattern was related to its binding to mineral and organic compounds that led to its activity inhibition (62%). The antibiotics were persistent in shells (OTC half-life=8.3 days). Most veterinary and human antibiotics such as tetracyclines and sulphonamides have low log K(ow)(<2) and should weakly accumulate in mussel. This might limit the use of blue mussel to bio-monitor antibiotics in the marine environment.

  15. List 47: blue honeysuckle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This summary presents the descriptions of a newly released blue honeysuckle (Lonicera cerulea L.) cultivar for the List of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars. This blue honeysuckle cultivar was released in Canada in 2012 and has pending Plant Breeder’s Rights Certification with Agriculture Canada. The cult...

  16. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  17. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  18. Introducing the Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

  19. After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Light May Help Beat the Blues Akin to sunlight, it could ward off depression during rehab, study ... facility used "blue" light in its lighting system. Sunlight is humans' largest source of blue-spectrum light, ...

  20. FROM BLUE JEANS TO BLUE GENES

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. Dr Mulliken envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of two young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for-gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in the field of vascular anomalies. Two blue genes’ mutations were discovered, which account for the majority, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved thanks to Dr Mulliken, who inspired two young investigators in blue jeans to find two blue genes. PMID:19190503

  1. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    PubMed

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  2. The low photo-inactivation rate of bacteria in human plasma II. Inhibition of methylene blue bleaching in plasma and effective bacterial destruction by the addition of dilute acetic acid to human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Cesario, Thomas C; Li, Runze; Er, Ali O; Rentzepis, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Methylene blue (MB) and other photo-sensitizer molecules have been recognized as effective means for the inactivation of bacteria and other pathogens owing to their ability to photo-generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) including singlet oxygen. These reactive species react with the membrane of the bacteria causing their destruction. However, the efficiency of MB to destroy bacteria in plasma is very low because the MB 660 nm absorption band, that is responsible for the ROS generation, is bleached. The bleaching of MB, in plasma, is caused by the attachment of a hydrogen atom to the central ring nitrogen of MB, which destroys the ring conjugation and forms Leuco-MB which does not absorb in the 600 nm region. In this paper we show that addition of dilute acetic acid, ∼10(-4) M, to human plasma, prevents H-atom attachment to MB, allowing MB to absorb at 660 nm, generates singlet oxygen and thus inactivates bacteria. The mechanism proposed, for preventing MB bleaching in plasma, is based on the oxidation of cysteine to cystine, by reaction with added dilute acetic acid, thus eliminating the availability of the thiol hydrogen atom which attaches to the MB nitrogen. It is expected that the addition of acetic acid to plasma will be effective in the sterilization of plasma and killing of bacteria in wounds and burns.

  3. Improved detection of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine using N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of N-butylnicotinic acid for the localization of BMAA in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Andrýs, Rudolf; Zurita, Javier; Zguna, Nadezda; Verschueren, Klaas; De Borggraeve, Wim M; Ilag, Leopold L

    2015-05-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is an important non-protein amino acid linked to neurodegenerative diseases, specifically amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Because it can be transferred and bioaccumulated higher up the food chain, it poses significant public health concerns; thus, improved detection methods are of prime importance for the identification and management of these toxins. Here, we report the successful use of N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of N-butylnicotinic acid (C4-NA-NHS) for the efficient separation of BMAA from its isomers and higher sensitivity in detecting BMAA compared to the current method of choice using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) derivatization. Implementation of this efficient method allowed localization of BMAA in the non-visceral tissues of blue mussels, suggesting that more efficient depuration may be required to remove this toxin prior to consumption. This is a crucial method in establishing the absence or presence of the neurotoxic amino acid BMAA in food, environmental or biomedical samples.

  4. Structure of anthocyanin from the blue petals of Phacelia campanularia and its blue flower color development.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mihoko; Kondo, Tadao; Toki, Kenjiro; Yoshida, Kumi

    2006-03-01

    The dicaffeoyl anthocyanin, phacelianin, was isolated from blue petals of Phacelia campanularia. Its structure was determined to be 3-O-(6-O-(4'-O-(6-O-(4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)delphinidin. The CD of the blue petals of the phacelia showed a strong negative Cotton effect and that of the suspension of the colored protoplasts was the same, indicating that the chromophores of phacelianin may stack intermolecularly in an anti-clockwise stacking manner in the blue-colored vacuoles. In a weakly acidic aqueous solution, phacelianin displayed the same blue color and negative Cotton effect in CD as those of the petals. However, blue-black colored precipitates gradually formed without metal ions. A very small amount of Al(3+) or Fe(3+) may be required to stabilize the blue solution. Phacelianin may take both an inter- and intramolecular stacking form and shows the blue petal color by molecular association and the co-existence of a small amount of metal ions. We also isolated a major anthocyanin from the blue petals of Evolvulus pilosus and revised the structure identical to phacelianin.

  5. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing; Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G-Fe-Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G-Fe-Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G-Fe-Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G-Fe-Mt under neutral pH. G-Fe-Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  6. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  7. Ink-native electrophoresis: an alternative to blue-native electrophoresis more suitable for in-gel detection of enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Keisuke; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kameshita, Isamu; Ishida, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-15

    Blue-native electrophoresis (BNE) is a useful technique for analyzing protein complexes, but the Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) dye used in BNE often hampers in-gel detection of enzymatic activity. Here we report an improved method, termed ink-native electrophoresis (INE), in which Pelikan 4001 fountain pen ink is used as a charge-shifting agent instead of CBB. INE is more suitable than BNE for in-gel detection of protein kinase activity after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and its performance in protein complex separation is comparable to that of conventional BNE. INE may provide a powerful tool to isolate and analyze various protein complexes.

  8. Recovery of Salmonella by Using Selenite Brilliant Green Sulfa Enrichment Broth

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiao-tang; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Shen, Hui-Ching; Li, A-Mai; Chen, Chao-yu; Chou, Jui-ling; Huang, Shiao-ping

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy and sensitivity of selenite brilliant green sulfa enrichment (SBG) broth for the isolation of Salmonella from fecal specimens were evaluated by using both clinical and artificially infected (artificial) fecal specimens. An examination of 1,588 clinical fecal specimens found Salmonella in 296 specimens, including 89 cases detected by the direct-plating xylose-lysine-desoxycholate method and an additional 207 cases detected after enrichment with SBG broth. Therefore, the recovery of Salmonella with SBG broth is increased 3.3-fold over that by the direct-plating method alone. Furthermore, the isolation rate of Salmonella is higher when using SBG broth than when using gram-negative (GN) broth or GN broth supplemented with sodium selenite. To determine the sensitivity for the recovery of Salmonella, artificial specimens containing various amounts of Salmonella were prepared and analyzed. The results indicated that the sensitivity is also higher with SBG broth than with GN broth. Moreover, the optimal incubation period for SBG broth can be extended to 24 h. In conclusion, the SBG enrichment method provides a higher recovery rate of Salmonella from fecal specimens. PMID:10565941

  9. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents.

  10. Brilliant Structurally Colored Films with Invariable Stop-Band and Enhanced Mechanical Robustness Inspired by the Cobbled Road.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Fen; Wang, Lei; Lin, Ying; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-31

    Recently, structural colors have attracted great concentrations because the coloration is free from chemical- or photobleaching. However, the color saturation and mechanical robustness are generally competitive properties in the fabrication of PCs (photonic crystals) films. Besides, the structure of PCs and their derivatives are easy to be invaded by liquids and lead to band gap shifts due to the change of refractive index or periodicity. To solve those problems, we infiltrate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into the intervals between regularly arrayed hollow SiO2 nanospheres, inspired by the cobbled road prepared by embedding stone in the bulk cement matrix. Consequently, the as-prepared PCs films show brilliant colors, invariable stop-bands, and excellent mechanical robustness. Moreover, the water contact angle even reached 166° after a sandpaper abrasion test. The combination of brilliant colors, invariable stop-bands, and excellent robustness is significant for potential application in paint and external decoration of architectures.

  11. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises. This can raise a question about possible child abuse. It is important to recognize that Mongolian blue ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 11. Read More Benign Child abuse - physical Rashes Review Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  12. Mongolian blue spots (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian blue spots are flat bluish- to bluish-gray skin markings commonly appearing at birth or shortly ... back and also can appear on the shoulders. Mongolian spots are benign and are not associated with ...

  13. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePlus

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  14. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  15. Utilizing laser interference lithography to fabricate hierarchical optical active nanostructures inspired by the blue Morpho butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Radwanul H.; Faisal, Abrar; Hünig, Ruben; Bartels, Carolin; Wacker, Irene; Lemmer, Uli; Hoelscher, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    The famous non-iridescent blue of the Morpho butter by is caused by a `Christmas tree' like nanostructure which is a challenge for common fabrication techniques. Here, we introduce a method to fabricate this complex morphology utilizing dual beam interference lithography. We add a reflective coating below the photoresist to create a second interference pattern in vertical direction by exploiting the back reflection from the substrate. This vertical pattern exposes the lamella structure into the photosensitive polymer while the horizontal interference pattern determines the distance of the ridges. The photosensitive polymer is chosen accordingly to create the Christmas tree' like tapered shape. The resulting artificial Morpho replica shows brilliant non-iridescent blue up to an incident angle of 40. Its optical properties are close to the original Morpho structure because the refractive index of the polymer is close to chitin. Moreover, the biomimetic surface is water repellent with a contact angle of 110.

  16. Solar light driven enhanced photocatalytic degradation of brilliant green dye based on ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Sharanjit; Sharma, Shelja; Umar, Ahmad; Singh, Surinder; Mehta, S. K.; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we report the successful synthesis, detailed characterization and solar-light driven photocatalytic degradation of zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots. The ZnS quantum dots were synthesized in high yield by co-precipitation method using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a stabilizing agent. The as-synthesized ZnS quantum dots were characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional, thermal and optical properties. The detailed characterizations confirmed that the synthesized quantum dots are well-crystalline, possessing cubic phase of zinc blende structure, pure and exhibiting good optical properties. The synthesized quantum dots were further used as potential photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant green dye under solar-light irradiation which exhibited 88% degradation. The process parameters, such as pH and catalyst dose, for the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant green dye was elaborately examined in order to evaluate the highest degradation rate of targeted dye. Further, the experimental data were fitted well in the pseudo-first order kinetic model. Finally, a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant green dye by ZnS quantum dots was also suggested.

  17. P2X7 receptor antagonists protect against N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal injury in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kenji; Endo, Kanako; Suzuki, Taishi; Fujimura, Kyosuke; Kurauchi, Yuki; Mori, Asami; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2015-06-05

    Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors followed by a large Ca(2+) influx is thought to be a mechanism of glaucoma-induced neuronal cell death. It is possible that damage-associated molecular patterns leak from injured cells, such as adenosine triphosphate, causing retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. In the present study, we histologically investigated whether antagonists of the P2X7 receptor protected against NMDA-induced retinal injury in the rat in vivo. Under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intravitreal injection of NMDA. We used A438079 (3-(5-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)methyl pyridine) and brilliant blue G as P2X7 receptor antagonists. Upon morphometric evaluation 7 days after an intravitreal injection (200 nmol/eye), NMDA-induced cell loss was apparent in the ganglion cell layer. Intravitreal A438079 (50 pmol/eye) simultaneously injected with NMDA and intraperitoneal brilliant blue G (50 mg/kg) administered just before the NMDA injection as well as 24 and 48h after significantly reduced cell loss. In addition, A438079 decreased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells 12h after NMDA injection. P2X7 receptors were immunolocalized in the ganglion cell layer and the inner and outer plexiform layers, whereas the immunopositive P2X7 receptor signal was not detected on the Iba1-positive microglial cells that infiltrated the retina 12h after NMDA injection. The present study shows that stimulation of the P2X7 receptor is involved in NMDA-induced histological damage in the rat retina in vivo. P2X7 receptor antagonists may be effective in preventing retinal diseases caused by glutamate excitotoxicity, such as glaucoma and retinal artery occlusion.

  18. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  19. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, M H; Spalding, E P

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition. PMID:8755616

  20. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    PubMed

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health.

  1. Intense, brilliant micro γ-beams in nuclear physics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Gasilov, S.; Lang, C.; Thirolf, P. G.; Jentschel, M.; Diehl, R.; Schroer, C.; Barty, C. P. J.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2011-06-01

    900, we can obtain small spots for each of the beamlets. While focusing the beamlets to a much smaller spot size, we can bend them effectively with micro wedges to e.g. parallel beamlets. We can monochromatize these γ beamlets within the rocking curve of a common Laue crystal, using an additional angle selection by a collimator to reach a strongly reduced band width of 10-4 - 10-6. We propose the use of a further lens/wedge arrays or Bragg reflection to superimpose the beamlets to a very small total γ beam spot. Many experiments gain much from the high beam resolution and the smaller focal spot. This new γ optics requires high resolution diagnostics, where we want to optimize the focusing, using very thin target wires of a specific nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) isotope to monitor the focusing for the resonance energy. With such beams we can explore new nuclear physics of higher excited states with larger level densities. New phenomena, like the transition from chaotic to regular nuclear motion, weakly-bound halo states or states decaying by tunneling can be studied. The higher level density also allows to probe parity violating nuclear forces more sensitively. This γ optics improves many applications, like a more brilliant positron source, a more brilliant neutron source, higher specific activity of medical radioisotopes or NRF micro-imaging.

  2. A practical method to generate brilliant hard x-rays with a tabletop electron storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Amano, D.; Miyade, H.

    1995-12-31

    With electron storage rings not only synchrotron radiation(SR) but also bremsstrahlung(BS) from a thin target placed in the electron orbit are mechanisms to generate brilliant x-ray beams. The calculated brilliance of BS with a 50 MeV storage ring, which is nearly 10{sup 13} photons/s, mrad{sup 2}, mm{sup 2}, 0.1% band width for 100 keV x-rays, exceeds that of SR from a 1 GeV storage ring. This photon energy spectrum is almost constant and extend up to the electron energy. The reasons for this high brilliance with this new radiation scheme is that the electron beams penetrating the thin target are utilized repeatedly, the narrow angular divergence of BS is determined by the kinematics of relativistic electron as same as SR, and the x-ray source size of the order of 1 {mu}m is determined by the size of thin target instead of electron beam sizes. Continuous injection of electron beam to the storage ring at full energy is the way to keep high and constant beam current. Peak current and repetition rate determine x-ray out put power. Note that the power of x-ray beam is also provided from a RF cavity of the storage ring. In this paper we will report some experimental results and discuss further application on a coherent bremsstrahlung generated from a set of stacked foils placed in the electron orbit of the ring. Resulting from these investigations the photon storage ring which is based on a 50 MeV exact circular electron storage ring could provide wide range of coherent and incoherent radiations from far infrared to hard x-ray in a practical amount of radiation power.

  3. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?*

    PubMed Central

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  4. Low frequency ultrasound (42 kHz) assisted degradation of Acid Blue 113 in the presence of visible light driven rare earth nanoclusters loaded TiO2 nanophotocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Rozas, Oscar; Mansilla, Héctor D; Gracia-Pinilla, M A; Anandan, Sambandam

    2014-09-01

    An attempt has been made to render the visible light driven photocatalytic activity to the TiO2 nanocatalysts by loading 1 wt% of rare earth (RE) nanoclusters (Gd(3+), Nd(3+) and Y(3+)) using a low frequency (42 kHz) producing commercial sonicator. The STEM-HAADF analysis confirms that the RE nanoclusters were residing at the surface of the TiO2. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirm that the loading of RE nanoclusters cannot make any significant changes in the crystal structure of TiO2. However, the optical properties of the resulted nanocatalysts were significantly modified and the nanocatalysts were employed to study the sonocatalytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic decolorization as well as mineralization of Acid Blue 113 (AB113). Among the experimented nanocatalysts maximum degradation of AB113 was achieved in the presence Y(3+)-TiO2 nanocatalysts. The decolorization of AB113 in the presence and absence of Y(3+) loaded TiO2 ensues the following order sonolysis

  5. Structural insights into 2,2'-azino-Bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)-mediated degradation of reactive blue 21 by engineered Cyathus bulleri Laccase and characterization of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Kenzom, T; Srivastava, P; Mishra, S

    2014-12-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are currently used for the treatment of different reactive dyes which involve use of toxic catalysts. Peroxidases are reported to be effective on such dyes and require hydrogen peroxide and/or metal ions. Cyathus bulleri laccase, expressed in Pichia pastoris, catalyzes efficient degradation (78 to 85%) of reactive azo dyes (reactive black 5, reactive orange 16, and reactive red 198) in the presence of synthetic mediator ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)]. This laccase was engineered to degrade effectively reactive blue 21 (RB21), a phthalocyanine dye reported to be decolorized only by peroxidases. The 816-bp segment (toward the C terminus) of the lcc gene was subjected to random mutagenesis and enzyme variants (Lcc35, Lcc61, and Lcc62) were selected based on increased ABTS oxidizing ability. Around 78 to 95% decolorization of RB21 was observed with the ABTS-supplemented Lcc variants in 30 min. Analysis of the degradation products by mass spectrometry indicated the formation of several low-molecular-weight compounds. Mapping the mutations on the modeled structure implicated residues both near and far from the T1 Cu site that affected the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes on ABTS and, in turn, the rate of oxidation of RB21. Several inactive clones were also mapped. The importance of geometry as well as electronic changes on the reactivity of laccases was indicated.

  6. Structural Insights into 2,2′-Azino-Bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid) (ABTS)-Mediated Degradation of Reactive Blue 21 by Engineered Cyathus bulleri Laccase and Characterization of Degradation Products

    PubMed Central

    Kenzom, T.; Srivastava, P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are currently used for the treatment of different reactive dyes which involve use of toxic catalysts. Peroxidases are reported to be effective on such dyes and require hydrogen peroxide and/or metal ions. Cyathus bulleri laccase, expressed in Pichia pastoris, catalyzes efficient degradation (78 to 85%) of reactive azo dyes (reactive black 5, reactive orange 16, and reactive red 198) in the presence of synthetic mediator ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)]. This laccase was engineered to degrade effectively reactive blue 21 (RB21), a phthalocyanine dye reported to be decolorized only by peroxidases. The 816-bp segment (toward the C terminus) of the lcc gene was subjected to random mutagenesis and enzyme variants (Lcc35, Lcc61, and Lcc62) were selected based on increased ABTS oxidizing ability. Around 78 to 95% decolorization of RB21 was observed with the ABTS-supplemented Lcc variants in 30 min. Analysis of the degradation products by mass spectrometry indicated the formation of several low-molecular-weight compounds. Mapping the mutations on the modeled structure implicated residues both near and far from the T1 Cu site that affected the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes on ABTS and, in turn, the rate of oxidation of RB21. Several inactive clones were also mapped. The importance of geometry as well as electronic changes on the reactivity of laccases was indicated. PMID:25261507

  7. [Blue light and eye health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  8. Learning the Blues. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This lesson introduces students to the "blues," one of the most distinctive and influential elements of African-American musical tradition. With this lesson plan, students can take a virtual field trip to Memphis, Tennessee, one of the prominent centers of blues activities, and explore the history of the blues in the work of W. C. Handy…

  9. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  10. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  11. Blue metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    We review the discovery of blue metal-poor (BMP) stars and the resolution of this population into blue stragglers and intermediate-age Main-Sequence stars by use of binary fractions. We show that the specific frequencies of blue stragglers in the halo field and in globular clusters differ by an order of magnitude. We attribute this difference to the different modes of production of these two populations. We report carbon and s-process enrichment among very metal-poor field blue stragglers and discuss how this result can be used to further resolve field blue stragglers into groups formed during RGB and AGB evolution of their erstwhile primary companions.

  12. The blue copper protein gene of Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 directs secretion of blue copper protein from Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, K; Uozumi, T; Beppu, T

    1987-01-01

    The gene encoding a blue copper protein (a member of the pseudoazurins) of 123 amino acid residues, containing a single type I Cu2+ ion, was cloned from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region, as well as the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence after Glu-24 coincided with the reported sequence of the blue protein, and its NH2-terminal sequence of 23 residues resembled a typical signal peptide. The cloned gene was expressed under the control of the tac promoter in Escherichia coli, and the correctly processed blue protein was secreted into the periplasm. The blue protein produced in E. coli possessed the activity to transfer electrons to the copper-containing nitrite reductase of A. faecalis S-6 in vitro. Images PMID:2824441

  13. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe2O4 effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    PubMed

    Ju, Yongming; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiao, Junqin; Li, Guohua; Wu, You; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol-gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100-900°C for 12h to synthesize CoFe2O4 materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe2O4 materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe2O4 materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100-700°C (except 900°C) for 12h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe2O4 synthesized by sol-gel method and CoFe2O4-900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe2O4 and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe2O4 materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L(-1). Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe2O4 materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions.

  14. 21 CFR 74.2101 - FD&C Blue No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... principally of 3- benzenesulfonic acid, and smaller amounts of 4- benzenesulfonic acid and 2- benzenesulfonic acid to form the leuco base. The leuco base is then oxidized with lead dioxide and acid, or with...)ammonium hydroxide inner salt. Additionally, FD&C Blue No. 1 is manufactured by the acid...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2101 - FD&C Blue No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... principally of 3- benzenesulfonic acid, and smaller amounts of 4- benzenesulfonic acid and 2- benzenesulfonic acid to form the leuco base. The leuco base is then oxidized with lead dioxide and acid, or with...)ammonium hydroxide inner salt. Additionally, FD&C Blue No. 1 is manufactured by the acid...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2101 - FD&C Blue No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... principally of 3- benzenesulfonic acid, and smaller amounts of 4- benzenesulfonic acid and 2- benzenesulfonic acid to form the leuco base. The leuco base is then oxidized with lead dioxide and acid, or with...)ammonium hydroxide inner salt. Additionally, FD&C Blue No. 1 is manufactured by the acid...

  17. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  18. Blue upconversion thulium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.; Weber, Michael E.; Dulick, Michael

    1990-04-01

    We report a blue emission upconversion solid-state laser based on Tm3+:YLF. Under double resonance excitation at 780.8 nm (near-ir) and 648.8 nm (red), the Tm3+ ion is sequentially excited from the 3H6 ground state to the 1D2 excited state through the 3H4 intermediate level. The laser output at 450 and 453 nm corresponds to the 1D2 -> 3F4 transitions of Tm3+ ions in YLF.

  19. Keratoglobus and blue sclera.

    PubMed

    Biglan, A W; Brown, S I; Johnson, B L

    1977-02-01

    Five patients from two families had similar features including keratoglobus, blue scleras, hyperextensibility of the hand, wrist, and ankle joints, sensorineural conduction hearing alterations, and mottling of the teeth. Keratoglobus had been observed in all patients at, or shortly after, birth. Corneal perforations developed in seven of the ten eyes after minimal trauma. Repair of these perforations was complicated by the extremely thin corneas and six eyes had to be either enucleated or eviscerated. Histopathological examination of two of the enucleated eyes showed the corneal stromas of both eyes to be estremely thin, Bowman's membrane was absent, and Descemet's membrane was unusually thick. This condition has an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern.

  20. Strong blue and white photoluminescence emission of BaZrO{sub 3} undoped and lanthanide doped phosphor for light emitting diodes application

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.H.; De la Rosa, E.; Salas, P.; Velazquez-Salazar, J.J.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we report the obtained strong broadband blue photoluminescence (PL) emission centered at 427 nm for undoped BaZrO{sub 3} observed after 266 nm excitation of submicron crystals prepared by hydrothermal/calcinations method. This emission is enhanced with the introduction of Tm{sup 3+} ions and is stronger than the characteristic PL blue emission of such lanthanide. The proposed mechanism of relaxation for host lattice emission is based on the presence of oxygen vacancies produced during the synthesis process and the charge compensation due to the difference in the electron valence between dopant and substituted ion in the host. Brilliant white light emission with a color coordinate of (x=0.29, y=0.32) was observed by combining the blue PL emission from the host with the green and red PL emission from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. The color coordinate can be tuned by changing the ratio between blue, green and red band by changing the concentration of lanthanides. - Graphical abstract: Strong blue emission from undoped BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor and white light emission by doping with Tb{sup 3+} (green) and Eu{sup 3+} (red) after 266 nm excitation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission from BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission enhanced with Tm{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer White light from BaZrO{sup 3+} phosphor.

  1. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  2. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    PubMed

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  3. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  4. Water quality in the Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek, Oklahoma, March-October 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurklin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Based on samples collected bimonthly for major inorganic and trace elements and monthly for biota and bacteria, water from the Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek is suitable for most uses when compared to water-quality standards or criteria. Concentrations of most chemical constituents gradually increased from spring to fall. The concentrations generally were within established drinking-water standards, with the exception of iron and manganese. Using water-quality determinations and biologic indicators, the water from Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek is: (1) Soft and acidic with little mineral content and conductivity; (2) calm or very slowly moving; and (3) warm and enriched with organic matter.

  5. Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material

    PubMed

    Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

    1996-07-12

    Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present.

  6. The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 is a selective inhibitor of the ATP release channel Panx1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Jackson, David George; Dahl, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF [BB FCF]) is structurally similar to the purinergic receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), which is a well-known inhibitor of the ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R functionally interacts with the membrane channel protein pannexin 1 (Panx1) in inflammasome signaling. Intriguingly, ligands to the P2X7R, regardless of whether they are acting as agonists or antagonists at the receptor, inhibit Panx1 channels. Thus, because both P2X7R and Panx1 are inhibited by BBG, the diagnostic value of the drug is limited. Here, we show that the food dye BB FCF is a selective inhibitor of Panx1 channels, with an IC50 of 0.27 µM. No significant effect was observed with concentrations as high as 100 µM of BB FCF on P2X7R. Differing by just one hydroxyl group from BB FCF, the food dye FD&C Green No. 3 exhibited similar selective inhibition of Panx1 channels. A reverse selectivity was observed for the P2X7R antagonist, oxidized ATP, which in contrast to other P2X7R antagonists had no significant inhibitory effect on Panx1 channels. Based on its selective action, BB FCF can be added to the repertoire of drugs to study the physiology of Panx1 channels. Furthermore, because Panx1 channels appear to be involved directly or indirectly through P2X7Rs in several disorders, BB FCF and derivatives of this "safe" food dye should be given serious consideration for pharmacological intervention of conditions such as acute Crohn's disease, stroke, and injuries to the central nervous system.

  7. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  8. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-05-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, "why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?" This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

  9. A pulse-radiolysis study on the kinetics of reaction of PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4{minus}} heteropolytungstate blue with Np(VI) ions in aqueous acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolev, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; Fedoseev, A.M.

    1994-11-01

    Data on the kinetics of redox reactions with the participation of heteropoly compounds may be of interest in photochemistry, radiation chemistry, catalysis, and other branches of physical chemistry. The structure of heteropoly blues is the same as that of the initial heteropoly compounds. Because of this, the oxidation of blues by metal ions can proceed quite readily. Presently, data on the interaction of blues with 5f-element ions is lacking. As a part of a systematic study on the reactivity of free radicals and excited species to actinide ions, the authors used a pulse-radiolysis technique to determine the rate constant of the reaction: Np(VI) + PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4{minus}} {yields} Np(V) + PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3{minus}}, k{sub 1} = ? The ions of Np(VI) were chosen as oxidizing agents because of their relatively high redox potential (1.13 V), and the resemblance of the structure of Np(VI) and Np(V) ions.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate using phosphomolybdenum blue complex.

    PubMed

    Zatar, N A; Abu-Eid, M A; Eid, A F

    1999-11-15

    A method for spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate is described. This method is based on the reduction of phosphomolybdic acid to phosphomolybdenum blue complex by sodium sulfide. The obtained phosphomolybdenum blue complex is oxidized by the addition of nitrite and this causes a reduction in intensity of the blue color. The absolute decrease in the absorbance of the blue color or the rate of its decrease is found to be directly proportional to the amount of nitrite added. The absorbance of the phosphomolybdenum blue complex is monitored spectrophotometrically at 814 nm and related to the concentration of nitrite present. The effect of different factors such as acidity, stability of the complex, time, temperature, phosphate concentration, molybdenum concentration, sodium sulfide concentration and the tolerance amount of other ions have been reported. Maximum absorbance is at 814 nm. The range of linearity using the conventional method is 0.5-2.0 ppm with molar absorptivity of 1.1 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). and a relative standard deviation of 2.6% for five measurements. The range of linearity using the reaction rate method is 0.2-3.6 ppm with a relative standard deviation of 2.4% for five measurements. The method is applied for determination of nitrite and nitrate in water, meat products and vegetables.

  11. Amino-functionalized cotton fiber for enhanced adsorption of active brilliant red X-3B from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hui; Ning, JiaHong; Wang, XiaoNing

    2016-12-01

    An amino-functionalized sorbent (ACF) was prepared by grafting amine group onto cotton fiber (CF) using tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The resulting composite was characterized using various instrumental techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and pHpzc analysis. FTIR spectrum and pHpzc analysis illustrated the involvement of amine groups in the X-3B sorption process. ACF sorbent was tested for its ability to remove X-3B from an aqueous solution in batch experiments. The adsorption efficiency of ACF was 100% in comparison with 5.52% of raw cotton fiber when initial concentration of active brilliant red X-3B was 30 mg/l. Results suggested that solution pH hardly affected the removal of X-3B, and ACF remained stable sorption efficiency in the pH range of 3.0-12.0. High values of correlation coefficients indicated the adsorption kinetics could best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The sorption isotherm of ACF fitted the Langmuir equilibrium model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 270.27 mg/g at 293K. The obtained thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of X-3B onto the adsorbent was spontaneous and exothermic. The excellent regeneration performance provided strong evidence of the potential of ACF for technological applications of dye removal.

  12. The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-08-01

    Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture.

  13. Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

    2010-02-15

    Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal.

  14. Microaerophilic Symmetric Reductive Cleavage of Reactive Azo Dye-Remazole Brilliant Violet 5R by Consortium VIE6: Community Synergism.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binal; Jain, Kunal; Jiyani, Hardik; Mohan, Venkata; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-11-01

    The textile-dyeing industry is rated as one of the foremost industrial sectors that explodes large amount of pollutants to the environment. Reactive azo dye degradation, being a major constituent of these pollutants and perilous material, has been constantly receiving scientific attention. In textile industry, use of Remazole Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV5R) as reactive azo dyes is more frequent. Highly competent, RBV5R-degrading bacterial consortium VIE6 was developed from the soil of the Vatva Industrial Estate, Gujarat, India. Consortium VIE6 comprised of five bacterial strains Bacillus sp. DMB1, Staphylococcus sp. DMB2, Escherichia sp. DMB3, Enterococcus sp. DMB4, and Pseudomonas sp. DMB5. These strains convened a better decolorization efficiency between 200 and 1000 mg/L of dye concentration and were much stable at pH 6.5, 37 °C. Azoreductase, laccase, and lignin peroxidase activities of consortium showed significant variation throughout the degradation process indicating the different metabolic capabilities of the existing microflora. The community interactions and synergism were shown to facilitate the biotransformation of RBV5R by combination of various electron donors. Voltammograms revealed the variations in electron discharge properties which coincide with the dynamics of community derived using qPCR assays. The variation in catabolic capabilities of the individual strains was observed during active metabolism of RBV5R degradation pertaining to the aerobic and facultative functions.

  15. Binding of reactive brilliant red to human serum albumin: insights into the molecular toxicity of sulfonic azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Li, W Y; Chen, F F; Wang, Shi-Long

    2010-05-01

    The non-covalent interaction of reactive brilliant red (RBR) as a representative of sulfonic azo compounds with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by a combination of UV-VIS spectrometry, fluorophotometry, circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) technique. The thermodynamic characterization of the interaction was performed. The saturation binding numbers of RBR on peptide chains were determined and the effects of electrolytes and temperature were investigated. The ionic interaction induced a combination of multiple non-covalent bonds including hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals force. A three-step binding model of RBR was revealed. The binding of RBR molecules might occur on the external surface of HSA via electric interaction when the mole ratio of RBR to HSA was less than 40 and RBR molecules entered the hydrophobic intracavity of HSA when ratio was more than 40. Moreover, RBR binding resulted in a conformational change in the structure of HSA or even the precipitation of HSA and inhibited its function accordingly. The possible binding site and the conformational transition of HSA were hypothesized and illustrated. This work provides a new insight into non-covalent interactions between sulfonic azo compounds and proteins, which may be further used to investigate the potential toxicity mechanism of azo dyes.

  16. Degradation of Active Brilliant Red X-3B by a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp in the presence of activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Wen, Teng; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Zeng, Qing-Fu; An, Shu-Qing; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Degradation of Active Brilliant Red X-3B (X-3B) in aqueous solution by a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) in the presence of activated carbon was investigated. The preliminary results proved this method could effectively degrade X-3B in aqueous solution. The removal percentages of colour and chemical oxygen demand were up to approximately 99% and 66%, respectively, at the conditions of 0.8 g/L dye concentration, 20 g/L activated carbon, pH 7.0 and 8 min microwave irradiation time. The degradation basically belonged to first-order reaction kinetics and its rate constant was 0.42 min(-1). No aromatic organics were detected in the final treated solution, indicating that the mineralization was relatively complete. By studying the change in solution properties, it could be concluded that MDEL-assisted oxidation was the dominant reaction mechanism. In addition, the influence of operational parameters and reuse of activated carbon were also discussed.

  17. Gamma irradiation of yellow and blue colorants in polystyrene packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolprasert, V.; Diel, Todd; Sadler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 10- and 20-kGy gamma irradiation was studied on chromophtal yellow 2RLTS (Yellow 110-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrachloro-6-cyanobenzoic acid) and Irgalite Blue GBP (copper (II) phthalocyanine blue) colorants, which were added to polystyrene (PS) material used to package food prior to irradiation. Analytical results obtained suggest that irradiation did not generate any new chemicals in the PS polymer containing either yellow or blue colorant at a concentration of up to 1% (w/w). Both yellow and blue colorants are relatively stable to gamma irradiation.

  18. Disproportionation of semimethylene blue and oxidation of leucomethylene blue by methylene blue and by Fe(III). Kinetics, equilibria, and medium effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, D.W.; Martin, S.A.; Ray, S.; Lichtin, N.N.

    1981-05-28

    The dependence on reaction medium of the kinetics of three ground-state elementary reactions occurring in the iron-methylene blue photoredox system has been investigated by studying the relaxation of the photostationary state and by flash photolysis. The rate constants which have been evaluated include 2k/sub 6/, for disproportionation of semimethylene blue (S), k/sub -6/, for syn proportionation (the oxidation of leucomethylene blue (L) by methylene blue (MB)), and k/sub 10/, for the oxidation of leucomethylene blue by ferric ion. Variations of media include nature of the solvent and anions, ionic strength, and concentration of acid. Values of the equilibrium constant K/sub 6/ = k/sub -6/2k/sub 6/ = (S)/sup 2//(L)(MB) have been derived from the kinetic data and used in conjunction with potentiometric data to determine values of the one-electron standard reduction potentials, epsilon/sup o'//sub MB/S/ and epsilon/sup o'//sub S/L/ in several media. As in the iron-thionine photoredox system, the half-reduced dye, S, is a minor component of the photostationary state and oxidation of leuco dye by ferric ion appears to proceed via a metastable association complex of the reactants. Mechanistic interpretations of some of the medium effects are suggested.

  19. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  20. Dyeing behaviours of amino heterocyclic compounds as blue oxidative hair dye precursors applied to keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, Y; Su, J

    2011-04-01

    Several novel heterocyclic compounds based on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 2,3-dihydroindole have been investigated for their application of colour keratin fibres as blue oxidative dye precursors, especially to human hair. The colourants we studied contained anyone of these dyes (concentration range from 0.005% to 6%), and some common oxidative hair dyes, such as p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate. Experiments were carried out on the method of mixing hair colourants with H(2)O(2) gel at the ratio of 1 : 1, accompanied by pH = 8∼11. It is demonstrated that 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives could be considered as an excellent candidate for blue dyes, and N-methyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is the most outstanding one among this kind of compounds. They own significant advantages of colour purity, stability and fastness. On the other hand, 2,3-dihydroindoles show the similar colours but not stable and brilliant enough.

  1. High photocatalytic performance of BiOI/Bi2WO6 toward toluene and Reactive Brilliant Red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiquan; Cui, Yumin; Hong, Wenshan

    2013-01-01

    BiOI sensitized nano-Bi2WO6 photocatalysts with different BiOI contents were successfully synthesized by a facile deposition method at room temperature, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of BiOI/Bi2WO6 was evaluated by the photo-degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red (X-3B) in suspended solution and toluene in gas phase. It has been shown that the BiOI/Bi2WO6 catalysts exhibit a coexistence of both tetragonal BiOI and orthorhombic Bi2WO6 phases. With increasing BiOI content, the absorption intensity of BiOI/Bi2WO6 catalysts increases in the 380-600 nm region and the absorption edge shifts significantly to longer wavelengths as compared to pure Bi2WO6. The 13.2% BiOI/Bi2WO6 catalyst exhibits obviously higher UV and visible light photocatalytic activities than commercial P25, pure Bi2WO6 and BiOI, for the photodegradation of toluene and X-3B. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the fact that the proper BiOI sensitized nano-Bi2WO6 increase its BET surface area, decrease band-gap energy, enhance absorption in the 380-600 nm region and inhibit the recombination of photo-induced carriers.

  2. {Mo96La8} eggshell ring and self-assembly to {Mo132} Keplerate through Mo-blue intermediate, involved in UV-photolysis of [Mo7O24](6-)/carboxylic acid system at pH 4.

    PubMed

    Yamase, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Shun; Prokop, Petra V; Ishikawa, Eri; Tomsa, Adrian-Raul

    2010-10-18

    The prolonged UV-photolysis of aqueous solutions containing [Mo(7)O(24)](6-) and C(2)H(5)CO(2)H (as electron donor) at pH 3.9-4.1 generates the carboxylate-coordinated {Mo(132)} Keplerate (1a) isolated as a formamidinium/ammonium-mixed salt, [HC(NH(2))(2)](26)(NH(4))(28)[Mo(V)(60)Mo(VI)(72)O(372)(H(2)O)(48)(C(2)H(5)CO(2))(36)((i)C(3)H(7)CO(2))(6)]·16H(2)O (1), through the Mo-blue intermediate (2). The coordination of 2 to La(3+) gives rise to the formation of the chain structure of the C(2)-symmetric {Mo(96)La(8)} eggshell rings, formulated by H(22)[Mo(V)(20)Mo(VI)(76)O(301)(H(2)O)(29){La(H(2)O)(6)}(2)]{La(H(2)O)(5)}(6)]·54.5H(2)O (3). The eggshell-ring geometry results from the insertion of [Mo(VI)(2)O(7)(H(2)O)](2-) (spacer) into the equator outer ring of the wheel-shaped Mo-blue, and 10 {(Mo(VI))(Mo(VI)(5))} pentagonal subunits alternately above and below the equator outer ring are connected by eight La(3+) and two {Mo(VI)(2)} linkers within two inner rings. The neighboring eggshell rings are linked through two Mo-O-Mo bonds formed by dehydrative condensation between the {Mo(VI)(2)} linkers to result in the chain structure. Together with the results of the elemental analysis and IR, electronic absorption, (13)C NMR, and ESI-MS spectra for 2, the ring profile analysis of 3 let us identify 2 with a carbolylate-coordinated Mo-blue ring of high nuclearity. The Mo(VI)→Mo(V) photoreductive change of 2 to the 60-electron reduced Keplerate in the presence of C(2)H(5)CO(2)H involves both degradation of the outer ring and splitting of the binuclear linkers, which leads to the formation of [(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)(5)O(21)(H(2)O)(4)(carboxylate)](7-) pentagonal subunits and [Mo(V)(2)O(4)(carboxylate)](+)/[Mo(V)O(2)(carboxylate)(1/2)](0.5+)-mixed linkers for 1.

  3. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  4. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  5. Blue-green upconversion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  6. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  7. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  8. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  9. Blue Dravite from the Szklary Pegmatite (Lower Silesia, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczka, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Blue-coloured tourmaline occurring in the Szklary pegmatite forms the outermost zone in some zoned tourmaline crystals. This tourmaline is an Al-bearing dravite poor in Ti, Mn and F, whereas the crystal core is, in contrast, an Al-bearing schorl with significantly higher Ti. The visible blue tint is the result of a reduction in the quantity of Fe2↔Ti4+ electron transitions, probably also responsible for the yellowish tint of the core. In the Fe-Mg-Altotal system, the compositions of tourmaline varieties showing blue tints are shifted along the border of the miscibility gap into the field of tourmalines occurring in Al-rich metapelites and metapsammites. The formation of the blue dravite within the Szklary dike can be explained in a similar way to that of blue dravites from Li-poor granitic pegmatites in the Moldanubicum (the Czech Republic). Both minerals originated by direct replacement of cordierite (found also in the border zone of the Szklary dike) reacting with pegmatite-derived, acidic, B-rich fluids.

  10. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  11. Teaching Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    A college teacher discusses his experiences of departing from the established literary canon to teach Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" as part of an upper-level American literature survey class. Students reacted to the novel and its characters, evaluated Alexie's writing techniques, and discussed their personal experiences with Native…

  12. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  13. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  14. "That Was Brilliant!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Penny; Fleetwood, Colin; Garnett, Rosie; Metcalfe, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on the Top Marks project and some of the successful activities that made assessment "real." The aim of Top Marks project was to "invigorate the assessment of science with fun, relevance, real-life and engagement". The project involved collaboration between schools and primary science consultants from the Centre…

  15. Practical utility of the blue spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some aspects of multispectral photography in the blue region are discussed briefly, and sample images are submitted to demonstrate the potential utility of the blue multispectral record for oceanography.

  16. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  17. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  1. Enhancement of Taihu blue algae anaerobic digestion efficiency by natural storage.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hengfeng; Lu, Minfeng; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-12-01

    Taihu blue algae after different storage time from 0 to 60 d were anaerobic fermented to evaluate their digestibility and process stability. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) of blue algae under 15 d natural storage led to the highest CH4 production of 287.6 mL g(-1) VS at inoculum substrate ratio 2.0, demonstrating 36.69% improvement comparing with that from fresh algae. Storage of blue algae led to cell death, microcystins (MCs) release and VS reduction by spontaneous fermentation. However, it also played an important role in removing algal cell wall barrier, pre-hydrolysis and pre-acidification, leading to the improvement in CH4 yield. Closer examination of volatile fatty acids (VFA) variation, VS removal rates and key enzymes change during AD proved short storage time (≤ 15 d) of blue algae had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation. Furthermore, AD presented significant biodegradation potential for MCs released from Taihu blue algae.

  2. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  3. Metal Complex Pigment Involved in the Blue Sepal Color Development of Hydrangea.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kin-ichi; Yamada, Tomomi; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao; Yoshida, Kumi

    2015-09-09

    Anthocyanins exhibit various vivid colors from red through purple to blue and are potential sources of food colorants. However, their usage is restricted because of their instability, especially as a blue colorant. The blue sepal color of Hydrangea macrophylla is due to a metal complex named "hydrangea-blue complex" composed of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, 1, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 2, and/or 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, 3, as copigments, and Al(3+) in aqueous solution at approximately pH 4.0. However, the ratio of each component ins not stoichiometric, but is fluctuates within a certain range. The hydrangea-blue complex exists only in aqueous solution, exhibiting a stable blue color, but attempts at crystallization have failed; therefore, the structure remains obscure. To clarify the basis of the character of the hydrangea-blue pigment and to obtain its structural information, we studied the mixing conditions to reconstruct the same blue color as observed in the sepals. In highly concentrated sodium acetate buffer (6 M, pH 4.0) we could measure (1)H NMR of both the hydrangea-blue complex composed of 1 (5 mM), 2 (10 mM), and Al(3+) (10 mM) and a simple 1-Al(3+) complex. We also recorded the spectra of complexes composed with structurally different anthocyanins and copigments. Comparison of those signals indicated that in the hydrangea-blue complex 1 might be under equilibrium between chelating and nonchelating structures having an interaction with 2.

  4. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  5. Blue phases of cholesteryl nonanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiboom, S.; Sammon, M.

    1981-07-01

    The transformation on heating of an ordinary (helical) cholesteric liquid crystal (CHOL) into the isotropic phase (ISO) often occurs via a number of intermediate "blue" phases. We find the following scheme of phase transitions in cholesteryl nonanoate: CHOL-->91.35BPI-->91.76BPII-->91.84BPIII-->91.95ISO. Here BPI, BPII, and BPIII indicate three distinct, thermodynamically stable phases; transition temperatures are in °C. From observations of supercooling and coexistence, we conclude that all these transformations are first order, except possibly the BPIII-->ISO, the character of which remains in doubt. A similar behavior is found in cholesteryl myristate and in a mixture of cholesteryl nonanoate and cholesteryl chloride. A few observations having a bearing on the structure of the blue phases are reported.

  6. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  8. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  9. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-01-01

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

  10. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-09-23

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants.

  11. Blue straggler stars: lessons from open clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.

    Open clusters enable a deep dive into blue straggler characteristics. Recent work shows that the binary properties (frequency, orbital elements and companion masses and evolutionary states) of the blue stragglers are the most important diagnostic for determining their origins. To date the multi-epoch radial-velocity observations necessary for characterizing these blue straggler binaries have only been carried out in open clusters. In this paper, I highlight recent results in the open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2682 (M67) and NGC 6819. The characteristics of many of the blue stragglers in these open clusters point directly to origins through mass transfer from an evolved donor star. Additionally, a handful of blue stragglers show clear signatures of past dynamical encounters. These comprehensive, diverse and detailed observations also reveal important challenges for blue straggler formation models (and particularly the mass-transfer channel), which we must overcome to fully understand the origins of blue straggler stars and other mass-transfer products.

  12. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  13. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  14. Analysis of methylene blue in human urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Borwitzky, Holger; Haefeli, Walter E; Burhenne, Jürgen

    2005-11-05

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of the dye methylene blue (tetramethylthionine, MB) in human urine depending on liquid/liquid-extraction and diode array detection has been developed, validated, and applied to samples of healthy individuals, who had been dosed with methylene blue within clinical studies. After extraction with dichloromethane and sodium hexanesulfonate, sample extracts were measured on an extended light path capillary. The dye was detected simultaneously at 292 and 592 nm using methylene violet 3 RAX as internal standard. The limit of quantification was 1.0 microg/ml. The accuracy of the method varied between -15.2 and +0.8% and the precision ranged from 2.0 to 12.0%. The method was linear at least within 1.0 and 60 microg/ml. In contrast to earlier indirect determinations no leuco methylene blue (LMB) was directly detected in urine, whereas in aqueous test solutions containing surplus amounts of ascorbic acid leuco methylene blue was well separated from MB in a single run.

  15. Organic/Inorganic Complex Pigments: Ancient Colors Maya Blue

    SciTech Connect

    Polette-Niewold, L.A.; Manciu, F.S.; Torres, B.; Alvarado, M.; Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2009-06-04

    Maya Blue is an ancient blue pigment composed of palygorskite clay and indigo. It was used by the ancient Maya and provides a dramatic background for some of the most impressive murals throughout Mesoamerica. Despite exposure to acids, alkalis, and chemical solvents, the color of the Maya Blue pigment remains unaltered. The chemical interaction between palygorskite and indigo form an organic/inorganic complex with the carbonyl oxygen of the indigo bound to a surface Al{sup 3+} in the Si-O lattice. In addition indigo will undergo an oxidation to dehydroindigo during preparation. The dehydro-indigo molecule forms a similar but stronger complex with the Al{sup 3+}. Thus, Maya Blue varies in color due to the mixed indigo/dehydroindigo complex. The above conclusions are the result of application of multiple techniques (X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy) to the characterization of the organic/inorganic complex. A picture of the bonding of the organic molecule to the palygorskite surface forming a surface complex is developed and supported by the results of density functional theory calculations. We also report that other organic molecules such as thioindigo form similar organic/inorganic complexes thus, opening an entirely new class of complex materials for future applications.

  16. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  17. Homogenization and lipase treatment of milk and resulting methyl ketone generation in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingkai; Fonseca, Leorges M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Rankin, Scott A

    2014-06-25

    A specific range of methyl ketones contribute to the distinctive flavor of traditional blue cheeses. These ketones are metabolites of lipid metabolism by Penicillium mold added to cheese for this purpose. Two processes, namely, the homogenization of milk fat and the addition of exogenous lipase enzymes, are traditionally applied measures to control the formation of methyl ketones in blue cheese. There exists little scientific validation of the actual effects of these treatments on methyl ketone development. The present study evaluated the effects of milk fat homogenization and lipase treatments on methyl ketone and free fatty acid development using sensory methods and the comparison of selected volatile quantities using gas chromatography. Initial work was conducted using a blue cheese system model; subsequent work was conducted with manufactured blue cheese. In general, there were modest effects of homogenization and lipase treatments on free fatty acid (FFA) and methyl ketone concentrations in blue cheese. Blue cheese treatments involving Penicillium roqueforti lipase with homogenized milk yielded higher FFA and methyl ketone levels, for example, a ∼20-fold increase for hexanoic acid and a 3-fold increase in 2-pentanone.

  18. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael

    2016-11-01

    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  19. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

  20. Blue and UV Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krukowski, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M.; Bockowski, M.; Porowski, S.

    2006-04-01

    Despite many technological difficulties the group III nitrides: GaN, AlN and InN and their alloys are primary candidates for electro-optical coherent light sources. In the recent years the research and technology of the nitride based continuous wave (CW) laser diodes (LDs) led to creation of blue-violet coherent light sources of power up to 200 mW. The progress has been attained by using various ways to attack the main obstacles in the technology of these devices such as insufficient size of high quality lattice matched substrates, low p-doping efficiency of Mg acceptor, poor contact to p-type semiconductor and low efficiency of radiative recombination. The two different approaches were used to overcome the substrate problem: hetero-epitaxy and homoepitaxy. Homoepitaxy used high pressure GaN high quality crystals. Heteroepitaxy used sapphire, SiC or GaAs substrates and very sophisticated techniques of reduction of the dislocation density. The low p-doping efficiency by using Mg acceptor is related to creation of Mg--H complexes due to hydrogen presence during the growth of laser diode quantum structures. In addition, Mg acceptor has low efficiency due to its high energy. High Mg concentrations can be obtained by using either MOCVD or ammonia source MBE growth. An alternative route is to use hydrogen-free plasma activated MBE (PA-MBE) method. The recent advances and the prospects of both approaches will be discussed. Solid AlGaInN solution offers a possibility to cover wide spectral range, starting from near UV to blue, green and red. Arsenide based laser diodes (LDs) are efficient coherent red light sources. Therefore, nitride based LDs are considered to be devices of choice for green, blue and UV spectral range. So far only blue and violet laser has been realized. The progress toward green and UV lasers is far less spectacular. The results in all these areas and future prospects will be discussed.

  1. Formation of nanoparticles of blue haze enhanced by anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Lin; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Jun; McGraw, Robert L; Molina, Luisa T

    2009-10-20

    The molecular processes leading to formation of nanoparticles of blue haze over forested areas are highly complex and not fully understood. We show that the interaction between biogenic organic acids and sulfuric acid enhances nucleation and initial growth of those nanoparticles. With one cis-pinonic acid and three to five sulfuric acid molecules in the critical nucleus, the hydrophobic organic acid part enhances the stability and growth on the hydrophilic sulfuric acid counterpart. Dimers or heterodimers of biogenic organic acids alone are unfavorable for new particle formation and growth because of their hydrophobicity. Condensation of low-volatility organic acids is hindered on nano-sized particles, whereas ammonia contributes negligibly to particle growth in the size range of 3-30 nm. The results suggest that initial growth from the critical nucleus to the detectable size of 2-3 nm most likely occurs by condensation of sulfuric acid and water, implying that anthropogenic sulfur emissions (mainly from power plants) strongly influence formation of terrestrial biogenic particles and exert larger direct and indirect climate forcing than previously recognized.

  2. Anti-cytomegalovirus activity of the anthraquinone atanyl blue PRL.

    PubMed

    Alam, Zohaib; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Zhu, Yali; McKee, Zachary; Parris, Deborah S; Parikh, Hardik I; Kellogg, Glen E; Kuchta, Alison; McVoy, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes significant disease in immunocompromised patients and serious birth defects if acquired in utero. Available CMV antivirals target the viral DNA polymerase, have significant toxicities, and suffer from resistance. New drugs targeting different pathways would be beneficial. The anthraquinone emodin is proposed to inhibit herpes simplex virus by blocking the viral nuclease. Emodin and related anthraquinones are also reported to inhibit CMV. In the present study, emodin reduced CMV infectious yield with an EC50 of 4.9μM but was cytotoxic at concentrations only twofold higher. Related anthraquinones acid blue 40 and alizarin violet R inhibited CMV at only high concentrations (238-265μM) that were also cytotoxic. However, atanyl blue PRL inhibited infectious yield of CMV with an EC50 of 6.3μM, significantly below its 50% cytotoxic concentration of 216μM. Atanyl blue PRL reduced CMV infectivity and inhibited spread. When added up to 1h after infection, it dramatically reduced CMV immediate early protein expression and blocked viral DNA synthesis. However, it had no antiviral activity when added 24h after infection. Interestingly, atanyl blue PRL inhibited nuclease activities of purified CMV UL98 protein with IC50 of 4.5 and 9.3μM. These results indicate that atanyl blue PRL targets very early post-entry events in CMV replication and suggest it may act through inhibition of UL98, making it a novel CMV inhibitor. This compound may provide valuable insights into molecular events that occur at the earliest times post-infection and serve as a lead structure for antiviral development.

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  4. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  5. Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H.; Liu, J.-H.

    2010-03-22

    This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

  6. Extractive spectrophotometric methods for determination of diltiazem HCl in pharmaceutical formulations using bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue and bromocresol green.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N; Hejaz-Azmi, S N

    2000-12-01

    Three simple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of diltiazem hydrochloride either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of coloured chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the drug with bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) and bromocresol green (BCG) in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 415 nm for all three methods. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.5-20.0, 2.5-10.0 and 2.5-12.5 microg ml(-1) with BTB, BPB and BCG, respectively. The methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets and capsules. Results of analysis were validated statistically and through recovery studies.

  7. Anion channels and the stimulation of anthocyanin accumulation by blue light in Arabidopsis seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noh, B.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Activation of anion channels by blue light begins within seconds of irradiation in seedlings and is related to the ensuing growth inhibition. 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) is a potent, selective, and reversible blocker of these anion channels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we show that 20 microM NPPB blocked 72% of the blue-light-induced accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in seedlings. Feeding biosynthetic intermediates to wild-type and tt5 seedlings provided evidence that NPPB prevented blue light from up-regulating one or more steps between and including phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone isomerase. NPPB was found to have no significant effect on the blue-light-induced increase in transcript levels of PAL1, CHS, CHI, or DFR, which are genes that encode anthocyanin-biosynthetic enzymes. Immunoblots revealed that NPPB also did not inhibit the accumulation of the chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, or flavanone-3-hydroxylase proteins. This is in contrast to the reduced anthocyanin accumulation displayed by a mutant lacking the HY4 blue-light receptor, as hy4 displayed reduced expression of the above enzymes. Taken together, the data indicate that blue light acting through HY4 leads to an increase in the amount of biosynthetic enzymes but blue light must also act through a separate, anion-channel-dependent system to create a fully functional biosynthetic pathway.

  8. Physiological adaptations to fasting in an actively wintering canid, the Arctic blue fox (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Puukka, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Hänninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological adaptations to fasting using the farmed blue fox (Alopex lagopus) as a model for the endangered wild arctic fox. Sixteen blue foxes were fed throughout the winter and 32 blue foxes were fasted for 22 d in Nov-Dec 2002. Half of the fasted blue foxes were food-deprived again for 22 d in Jan-Feb 2003. The farmed blue fox lost weight at a slower rate (0.97-1.02% body mass d(-1)) than observed previously in the arctic fox, possibly due to its higher initial body fat content. The animals experienced occasional fasting-induced hypoglycaemia, but their locomotor activity was not affected. The plasma triacylglycerol and glycerol concentrations were elevated during phase II of fasting indicating stimulated lipolysis, probably induced by the high growth hormone concentrations. The total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, urea, uric acid and total protein levels and the urea:creatinine ratio decreased during fasting. Although the plasma levels of some essential amino acids increased, the blue foxes did not enter phase III of starvation characterized by stimulated proteolysis during either of the 22-d fasting procedures. Instead of excessive protein catabolism, it is liver dysfunction, indicated by the increased plasma bilirubin levels and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, that may limit the duration of fasting in the species.

  9. The identification of a vacuolar iron transporter involved in the blue coloration of cornflower petals.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kumi; Negishi, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The blue petal color of the cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) is caused by protocyanin, a kind of metalloanthocyanin, which is a self-assembled supramolecular metal complex pigment. Protocyanin is composed of six molecules of anthocyanin, six molecules of flavone, one ferric ion, and one magnesium ion. The ferric ion is essential for blue color development. Here, we identify the vacuolar iron transporter gene (CcVIT) from the blue petals of C. cyanus and its function is identified and characterized. The CcVIT transcript was observed only in the petals. Its amino acid sequence is highly homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVIT1) and Tulipa gesneriana (TgVit1) vacuolar iron transporters. Heterologous expression of the CcVIT gene in yeast indicated that the corresponding gene product transports ferrous ion into vacuoles. Analysis of purple mutant-line petals clarified that the anthocyanin and flavone components were the same as those found in plants with blue petals, but the amount of iron ions in the colored cells decreased, and consequently the amount of blue protocyanin was reduced. The CcVIT gene was expressed even in purple mutant petals, however, an amino acid substitution (A236E) occurred in that case. This change in the CcVIT gene sequence also resulted in loss of iron transport activity. The CcVIT protein thus plays a critical role in the blue coloration of cornflower petals.

  10. Application of artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) to predict the changes of anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, Total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity during storage of red bayberry juice based on fractal analysis and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Jiang, Lingling; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Kong, Xuecheng; Lu, Hongfei

    2011-01-26

    Artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed to predict the changes of anthocyanin (AC), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenols (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (SA) in bayberry juice during storage based on fractal analysis (FA) and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values. The results show the root mean squared error (RMSE) of ANN-FA decreased 2.44 and 12.45% for AC (RMSE = 18.673 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.939) and AA (RMSE = 8.694 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.935) compared with PLSR-RGB, respectively. In addition, PLSR-FA (RMSE = 5.966%, R(2) = 0.958) showed a 12.01% decrease in the RMSE compared with PLSR-RGB for predicting SA. For the prediction of TP and TF, however, both models showed poor performances based on FA and RGB. Therefore, ANN and PLSR combined with FA may be a potential method for quality evaluation of bayberry juice during processing, storage, and distribution, but the selection of the most adequate model is of great importance to predict different nutritional components.

  11. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  12. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon.

  13. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  14. Highly efficient narrow-band green and red phosphors enabling wider color-gamut LED backlight for more brilliant displays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wang, Xiaojun; Kohsei, Takahashi; Yoshimura, Ken-ichi; Izumi, Makoto; Hirosaki, Naoto; Xie, Rong-Jun

    2015-11-02

    In this contribution, we propose to combine both narrow-band green (β-sialon:Eu(2+)) and red (K(2)SiF(6):Mn(4+)) phosphors with a blue InGaN chip to achieve white light-emitting diodes (wLEDs) with a large color gamut and a high efficiency for use as the liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting. β-sialon:Eu(2+), prepared by a gas-pressure sinteing technique, has a peak emission at 535 nm, a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 54 nm, and an external quantum efficiency of 54.0% under the 450 nm excitation. K(2)SiF(6):Mn(4+) was synthesized by a twe-step co-precipitation methods, and exhibits a sharp line emission spectrum with the most intensified peak at 631 nm, a FWHM of ~3 nm, and an external quantum efficiency of 54.5%. The prepared three-band wLEDs have a high color temperature of 11,184 - 13,769 K (i.e., 7,828 - 8,611 K for LCD displays), and a luminous efficacy of 91 - 96 lm/W, measured under an applied current of 120 mA. The color gamut defined in the CIE 1931 and CIE 1976 color spaces are 85.5 - 85.9% and 94.3 - 96.2% of the NTSC stanadard, respectively. These optical properties are better than those phosphor-cpnverted wLED backlights using wide-band green or red phosphoprs, suggesting that the two narrow-band phosphors investigated are the most suitable luminescent materials for achieving more bright and vivid displays.

  15. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

  17. Blue color formation of cyanobacteria with beta-cyclocitral.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ken-Ichi; Ozaki, Keiko; Tsuzuki, Sayaka; Kato, Hajime; Hasegawa, Masateru; Kuroda, Emilia K; Arii, Suzue; Tsuji, Kiyomi

    2009-11-01

    Volatile compounds, such as beta-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, from cyanobacteria showed a lytic activity against cyanobacteria. Particularly, beta-cyclocitral caused an interesting color change in the culture broth from green to blue during the lysis process. In the present study, the lytic behavior of various cyanobacteria with beta-cyclocitral was investigated, and a mechanism for the blue color formation was developed. beta-Cyclocitral lysed both the laboratory strains of any genera and bloom samples including many species of cyanobacteria, and caused the characteristic color change from green to blue. beta-Cyclocitral provided a characteristic behavior, such that the absorption maxima of chlorophyll-a and beta-carotene disappeared, but that of phycocyanin still remained after 12 h, which indicated that beta-cyclocitral decomposed chlorophyll-a and beta-carotene rapidly, so that the inherent colors from the tolerant water-soluble pigments became observable in the cultured broth. This phenomenon was confirmed by another experiment using Phormidium (NIES-611), which showed a pink color derived from phycoerythrin. beta-Cyclocitral was more easily oxidized when compared with similar aldehyde compounds, so that the pH of the solution quickly decreased to 4.5. An oxidation product of beta-cyclocitral in water solution was isolated and identified as 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid. This study provides support that beta-cyclocitral derived from cyanobacteria plays an important role in the lysis of cyanobacteria and participates in the blue color formation under natural conditions.

  18. Cyanobacterial Blue Color Formation during Lysis under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Kiyomi; Tomita, Koji; Hasegawa, Masateru; Bober, Beata; Harada, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as β-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, which show lytic activity against cyanobacteria. Among these compounds, only β-cyclocitral causes a characteristic color change from green to blue (blue color formation) in the culture broth during the lysis process. In August 2008 and September 2010, the lysis of cyanobacteria involving blue color formation was observed at Lake Tsukui in northern Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We collected lake water containing the cyanobacteria and investigated the VOCs, such as β-cyclocitral, β-ionone, 1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol, as well as the number of cyanobacterial cells and their damage and pH changes. As a result, the following results were confirmed: the detection of several VOCs, including β-cyclocitral and its oxidation product, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid; the identification of phycocyanin based on its visible spectrum; the lower pH (6.7 and 5.4) of the lysed samples; and characteristic morphological change in the damaged cyanobacterial cells. We also encountered the same phenomenon on 6 September 2013 in Lake Sagami in northern Kanagawa Prefecture and obtained almost the same results, such as blue color formation, decreasing pH, damaged cells, and detection of VOCs, including the oxidation products of β-cyclocitral. β-Cyclocitral derived from Microcystis has lytic activity against Microcystis itself but has stronger inhibitory activity against other cyanobacteria and algae, suggesting that the VOCs play an important role in the ecology of aquatic environments. PMID:25662969

  19. Cyanobacterial blue color formation during lysis under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Arii, Suzue; Tsuji, Kiyomi; Tomita, Koji; Hasegawa, Masateru; Bober, Beata; Harada, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Cyanobacteria produce numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as β-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, which show lytic activity against cyanobacteria. Among these compounds, only β-cyclocitral causes a characteristic color change from green to blue (blue color formation) in the culture broth during the lysis process. In August 2008 and September 2010, the lysis of cyanobacteria involving blue color formation was observed at Lake Tsukui in northern Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We collected lake water containing the cyanobacteria and investigated the VOCs, such as β-cyclocitral, β-ionone, 1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol, as well as the number of cyanobacterial cells and their damage and pH changes. As a result, the following results were confirmed: the detection of several VOCs, including β-cyclocitral and its oxidation product, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid; the identification of phycocyanin based on its visible spectrum; the lower pH (6.7 and 5.4) of the lysed samples; and characteristic morphological change in the damaged cyanobacterial cells. We also encountered the same phenomenon on 6 September 2013 in Lake Sagami in northern Kanagawa Prefecture and obtained almost the same results, such as blue color formation, decreasing pH, damaged cells, and detection of VOCs, including the oxidation products of β-cyclocitral. β-Cyclocitral derived from Microcystis has lytic activity against Microcystis itself but has stronger inhibitory activity against other cyanobacteria and algae, suggesting that the VOCs play an important role in the ecology of aquatic environments.

  20. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2016-11-15

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  1. [Biodegradation of reactive turquoise blue].

    PubMed

    Fu, L; Wen, X; Xu, L; Qian, Y

    2001-07-01

    In this study, the anaerobic degradation and the aerobic degradation of a kind of reactive dye--Reactive Turquoise Blue(RTB) were compared. The results proved that anaerobic sludge could only decompose RTB in the presence of glucose while aerobic sludge decomposed RTB with or without the presence of glucose (RTB of 20 mg/L was reduced by 37.4% through 24 hours' aerobic treatment with RTB as sole carbon source). The enhancement of glucose concentration was beneficial for both anaerobic and aerobic degradation of RTB: the anaerobic and the aerobic removal efficiencies were respectively 81.5% and 73.6% with RTB of 20 mg/L and glucose of 1200 mg/L. In the influent RTB concentration also had influence on the activity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. When glucose concentration was 800 mg/L or 1200 mg/L and RTB concentration was 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L, anaerobic removal efficiency of RTB was higher than aerobic removal efficiency by 4.9%-27.2%, which meant that anaerobic bacteria is more powerful than aerobic bacteria in terms of RTB removal.

  2. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  3. Evaluation of fruit quality and susceptibility to blue mold of nine Asian pear cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine Asian pear cultivars (Atago, Hosui, Isiiwase, Kosui, Olympic, Shinko, Shinsui, Ya Li, and Yoinashi) were evaluated for quality (firmness, titratable acidity, and soluble solids) and susceptibility to the blue mold pathogen Penicillium expansum. Fruit were grown at the University of Maryland Ext...

  4. Photoactivation of a psoralen-blocked luciferase gene by blue light.

    PubMed

    Stafforst, Thorsten; Stadler, Jens M

    2013-11-18

    A single psoralen cross-link completely blocks expression of a gene. An aminopyrene derivative has been found that allows the efficient light-triggered activation of cross-linked genes by UV or blue light. This paves the way to apply such psoralen cross-links for the photocleavable protection of nucleic acids.

  5. First report of Penicillium crustosum causing blue mold on stored apple fruit in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium crustosum Thom causes blue mold on pome fruits and is also regularly found on cheese, nuts and soil. The fungus produces an array of mycotoxins that impact human health, including penitrem A, roquefortine C, terrestric acid, and cyclopenol. In January and February 2013, decayed apples, ‘...

  6. Concurrent protein synthesis is required for in vivo chitin synthesis in postmolt blue crabs

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, M.N. )

    1990-12-01

    Chitin synthesis in crustaceans involves the deposition of a protein-polysaccharide complex at the apical surface of epithelial cells which secrete the cuticle or exoskeleton. The present study involves an examination of in vivo incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids and amino sugars into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Rates of incorporation of both 3H leucine and 3H threonine were linear with respect to time of incubation. Incorporation of 3H threonine into the endocuticle was inhibited greater than 90% in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, puromycin. Linear incorporation of 14C glucosamine into the cuticle was also demonstrated; a significant improvement of radiolabeling was achieved by using 14C-N-acetylglucosamine as the labeled precursor. Incorporation of 3H-N-acetylglucosamine into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs was inhibited 89% by puromycin, indicating that concurrent protein synthesis is required for the deposition of chitin in the blue crab. Autoradiographic analysis of control vs. puromycin-treated crabs indicates that puromycin totally blocks labeling of the new endocuticle with 3H glucosamine. These results are consistent with the notion that crustacean chitin is synthesized as a protein-polysaccharide complex. Analysis of the postmolt and intermolt blue crab cuticle indicates that the exoskeleton contains about 60% protein and 40% chitin. The predominant amino acids are arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, and threonine.

  7. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  8. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  9. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Cancer.gov

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  10. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2016-07-12

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  11. Blue Origin Tests BE-3 Engine

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin successfully fires the thrust chamber assembly for its new 100,000 pound thrust BE-3 liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen rocket engine. As part of the company's Reusable Booster System (RBS)...

  12. Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

    2003-09-01

    Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

  13. Blue Ribbon Panel Report Cover Letter

    Cancer.gov

    The letter from NCI Acting Director Douglas R. Lowy, M.D., to Vice President Biden that accompanied the Blue Ribbon Panel final report, thanking the Vice President for his commitment to and leadership of the Cancer Moonshot.

  14. Honeybee blue- and ultraviolet-sensitive opsins: cloning, heterologous expression in Drosophila, and physiological characterization.

    PubMed

    Townson, S M; Chang, B S; Salcedo, E; Chadwell, L V; Pierce, N E; Britt, S G

    1998-04-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) visual system contains three classes of retinal photoreceptor cells that are maximally sensitive to light at 440 nm (blue), 350 nm (ultraviolet), and 540 nm (green). We performed a PCR-based screen to identify the genes encoding the Apis blue- and ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive opsins. We obtained cDNAs that encode proteins having a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to other invertebrate and vertebrate visual pigments. The Apis blue opsin cDNA encodes a protein of 377 amino acids that is most closely related to other invertebrate visual pigments that are thought to be blue-sensitive. The UV opsin cDNA encodes a protein of 371 amino acids that is most closely related to the UV-sensitive Drosophila Rh3 and Rh4 opsins. To test whether these novel Apis opsin genes encode functional visual pigments and to determine their spectral properties, we expressed them in the R1-6 photoreceptor cells of blind ninaE mutant Drosophila, which lack the major opsin of the fly compound eye. We found that the expression of either the Apis blue- or UV-sensitive opsin in transgenic flies rescued the visual defect of ninaE mutants, indicating that both genes encode functional visual pigments. Spectral sensitivity measurements of these flies demonstrated that the blue and UV visual pigments are maximally sensitive to light at 439 and 353 nm, respectively. These maxima are in excellent agreement with those determined previously by single-cell recordings from Apis photoreceptor cells and provide definitive evidence that the genes described here encode visual pigments having blue and UV sensitivity.

  15. The inhibition by bromothymol blue of anion translocation across the mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, Z; Sweirczyński, J

    1975-02-28

    1. In rat liver mitochondria bromothymol blue inhibited the exchange of [14C]succinate for succinate, malonate, L-malate and inorganic phosphate; the [14C]citrate/citrate and [14C]citrate/malate exchange reactions and the phosphate/hydroxyl exchange were also inhibited by this dye. The inhibition of the rate of succinate, citrate and phosphate uptake by bromothymol blue is found to be competitive. 2. The degree of inhibition by bromothymol blue of the ]14C]succinate/malonate exchange reaction was pH dependent. It has been shown that the inhibition increased linearly while the pH was increased from 6.0 to 8.2. However, the binding rate of bromothymol blue to the mitochondria decreased with the rising pH of the medium. It is concluded that the binding of acidic bromothymol blue was not essential for the inhibitory effect. 3. Other sulfonephthalein derivatives also inhibited [14C]succinate/malonate exchange reaction. At pH 7.2 the relative order of the strength of the inhibitory action of the sulfonephthalein compounds tested was: thymol blue greater than bronocresol green greater than bromothymol blue greater than phenol red greater than bromocresol purple. The results do not indicate any correlation between the pK values of pH values of pH indicators and their extents of inhibition. 4. It is suggested that the negatively charged bromothymol blue interacts with the positively charged centers of the anion carrier systems causing inhibition of membrane permeability for anions.

  16. Si-based blue light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namavar, Fereydoon

    1994-05-01

    Phase 1 results demonstrated for the first time a strong, stable blue-green emission from C-implanted red-emitting porous silicon. The objective of Phase 1 was to obtain blue-green emission from porous Si structure either by increasing the bandgap of the substrate by growth of Si-C random alloys prior to forming nanostructures with quantum confined properties, or by increasing the confinement energy of red-emitting Si nanostructures. Porous structures fabricated from group 4 alloys epitaxially grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulted in an enhancement in light emission of about one order of magnitude after incorporation of a very small amount of carbon in the epitaxial grown films. Strong blue-green light emission was observed by the naked eye from C-implanted and annealed porous Si. Using AlGaAs as a reference, we observed that the intensity of blue-green emission was one order of magnitude higher than that of the original red-emitting porous Si. Catholuminescence measurements of our samples performed at the University of Colorado show blue emission at 1.80 eV and 2.80 eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of a blue-green emitting porous structure shows an IR absorption line identical to that of SiC and electron diffraction studies clearly show reflections corresponding to beta-SiC. Phase 1 results indicate that blue-green light is from SiC nanostructures with quantum confined properties. This material may be used to fabricate blue light-emitting Si-based devices which can be easily integrated into Si technology.

  17. Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masaaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Takeda, Kosaku

    2005-08-11

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We believe that this tetrametal complex may represent a previously undiscovered type of supermolecular pigment.

  18. Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance.

  19. Vibrio azureus emits blue-shifted light via an accessory blue fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Karatani, Hajime; Wada, Minoru; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2012-04-01

    Luminous marine bacteria usually emit bluish-green light with a peak emission wavelength (λ(max) ) at about 490 nm. Some species belonging to the genus Photobacterium are exceptions, producing an accessory blue fluorescent protein (lumazine protein: LumP) that causes a blue shift, from λ(max)  ≈ 490 to λ(max)  ≈ 476 nm. However, the incidence of blue-shifted light emission or the presence of accessory fluorescent proteins in bacteria of the genus Vibrio has never been reported. From our spectral analysis of light emitted by 16 luminous strains of the genus Vibrio, it was revealed that most strains of Vibrio azureus emit a blue-shifted light with a peak at approximately 472 nm, whereas other Vibrio strains emit light with a peak at around 482 nm. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this blue shift in V. azureus NBRC 104587(T) . Here, we describe the blue-shifted light emission spectra and the isolation of a blue fluorescent protein. Intracellular protein analyses showed that this strain had a blue fluorescent protein (that we termed VA-BFP), the fluorescent spectrum of which was almost identical to that of the in vivo light emission spectrum of the strain. This result strongly suggested that VA-BFP was responsible for the blue-shifted light emission of V. azureus.

  20. A study on Cu and Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles for the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant green dye: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Gnanaprakasam, A; Sivakumar, V M; Thirumarimurugan, M

    2016-09-01

    Novel polyvinyl pyrrolidone capped pure, Ag (1-3%) and Cu doped (1-3%) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized via the co-precipitation method. The synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to pure ZnO, the absorption bands of Ag and Cu doped ZnO NPs were shifted and, further, the band gap energy was also decreased which confirms the incorporation of Ag and Cu into the ZnO lattice. The XRD diffraction peak confirms that all the synthesized compounds are found to be of highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. In addition, the presence of Ag and Cu in the ZnO NPs was further evidenced from EDS analysis. FE-SEM images established the morphology of the doped ZnO NPs which was not affected by the addition of Ag and Cu. The photocatalytic activity of undoped, Ag doped (1-3%) and Cu doped (1-3%) ZnO NPs were tested with brilliant green dye under UV irradiation. Degradation study reveals that doping has a distinct effect on the photocatalytic behavior of ZnO NPs. In addition to that, kinetic, thermodynamic and reusability studies have been performed for the 2% Ag doped ZnO NPs.

  1. Caligus lini n.sp., a new caligid (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on the brilliant pomfret Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae) of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Cheng, Yu-Rong

    2016-02-10

    Caligus lini n.sp., a new species of caligid copepod parasitic on the gill rakers and caudal fin of the brilliant pomfret, Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae), is described from fish caught off Tai-Dong, Taiwan. The new species differs from its congeners by its possession of the following, unique combination of features: (1) middle two elements at the tip of leg 1 simple (without accessory process), (2) innermost element shortest and smallest of the four terminal elements on leg 1, (3) leg 4 exopod with an armature formula of I,III, and (4) complex leg 5 represented by 2 seta-bearing processes, a simple anterior process tipped with 1 plumose seta and quadripartite posterior process carrying 3 setae (1 simple and 2 plumose). The new species differs from its closest congener, Caligus tylosuri (Rangnekar, 1956), in the structure of the middle two elements (simple without carrying accessory process) at the tip of leg 1 and a quadripartite (instead of tripartite) posterior process on leg 5.

  2. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of reactive brilliant red X-3B in aqueous solution over three kinds of hydrotalcite-like LDHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Can; Yang, Shaogui; Chen, Hongzhe; He, Huan; Sun, Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Three kinds of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), including Ni/Al-LDH, Mg/Al-LDH and Co/Al-LDH, were adopted in this research to study the adsorption process of reactive brilliant red X-3B. Factors affecting adsorption such as contact time and temperature were investigated. The adsorption kinetic data fit well into the pseudo-second-order model, while the adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic tests indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of X-3B adsorption. In order to examine the adsorption mechanism, pH effect was investigated and adsorbents and adsorption products of Ni/Al- and Mg/Al-LDHs were characterized further by several physicochemical techniques in view of their relative large capacity. The pH effect tests illustrated that electrostatic reaction and hydrogen bonding between dye molecules and LDH layers may be the major mechanisms involved in adsorption. The FT-IR analysis revealed that there was ion exchange during the adsorption process. The XPS, TG, and NMR experiments further proved that the hydrogen bonding between the adsorbent and adsorbate played the dominant role in this process and the -SO3 was the interaction site.

  3. Mineralization and kinetics of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B by a combined anaerobic-aerobic bioprocess inoculated with the coculture of fungus and bacterium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengnan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Ang; Zhou, Jiti; Qu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B by a combined anaerobic-aerobic process which was inoculated with the co-culture of Penicillium sp. QQ and Exiguobacterium sp. TL was studied. The optimal conditions of decolorization were investigated by response surface methodology as follows: 132.67 g/L of strain QQ wet spores, 1.09 g/L of strain TL wet cells, 2.25 g/L of glucose, 2.10 g/L of yeast extract, the initial dye concentration of 235.14 mg/L, pH 6.5, and 33 °C. The maximal decolorization rate was about 96 % within 12 h under the above conditions. According to the Haldane kinetic equation, the maximal specific decolorization rate was 89.629 mg/g˙h. It was suggested that in the anaerobic-aerobic combined process, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic unit and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was mainly removed in the aerobic one. Inoculation of fungus QQ in the anaerobic unit was important for mineralization of X-3B. Besides, the divided anaerobic-aerobic process showed better performance of COD removal than the integrated one. It was suggested that the combined anaerobic-aerobic process which was inoculated with co-culture was potentially useful for the field application.

  4. Daytime Blue Light Enhances the Nighttime Circadian Melatonin Inhibition of Human Prostate Cancer Growth.

    PubMed

    Dauchy, Robert T; Hoffman, Aaron E; Wren-Dail, Melissa A; Hanifin, John P; Warfield, Benjamin; Brainard, George C; Xiang, Shulin; Yuan, Lin; Hill, Steven M; Belancio, Victoria P; Dauchy, Erin M; Smith, Kara; Blask, David E

    2015-12-01

    Light controls pineal melatonin production and temporally coordinates circadian rhythms of metabolism and physiology in normal and neoplastic tissues. We previously showed that peak circulating nocturnal melatonin levels were 7-fold higher after daytime spectral transmittance of white light through blue-tinted (compared with clear) rodent cages. Here, we tested the hypothesis that daytime blue-light amplification of nocturnal melatonin enhances the inhibition of metabolism, signaling activity, and growth of prostate cancer xenografts. Compared with male nude rats housed in clear cages under a 12:12-h light:dark cycle, rats in blue-tinted cages (with increased transmittance of 462-484 nm and decreased red light greater than 640 nm) evinced over 6-fold higher peak plasma melatonin levels at middark phase (time, 2400), whereas midlight-phase levels (1200) were low (less than 3 pg/mL) in both groups. Circadian rhythms of arterial plasma levels of linoleic acid, glucose, lactic acid, pO2, pCO2, insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were disrupted in rats in blue cages as compared with the corresponding entrained rhythms in clear-caged rats. After implantation with tissue-isolated PC3 human prostate cancer xenografts, tumor latency-to-onset of growth and growth rates were markedly delayed, and tumor cAMP levels, uptake-metabolism of linoleic acid, aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), and growth signaling activities were reduced in rats in blue compared with clear cages. These data show that the amplification of nighttime melatonin levels by exposing nude rats to blue light during the daytime significantly reduces human prostate cancer metabolic, signaling, and proliferative activities.

  5. Mucinous carcinoma: a translucent blue papule on an 89-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Hagele, Thomas J; Chiang, Charles; Serrao, Rocco; Trevino, Julian J

    2013-01-01

    An 89-year-old man with no significant medical history presented with a slow-growing, asymptomatic translucent blue mass noticed 1 year prior to evaluation. Review of symptoms was negative for constitutional symptoms, gastrointestinal (GI) disturbance, and visual complaints. Physical evaluation revealed a 4-mm firm light blue translucent papule on the left medial canthus (Figure 1). No cervical or axillary adenopathy was present. No further lesions were identified during full body skin examination, including chest wall masses. A diagnostic study was performed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (Figure 2) and periodic acid-Schiff (Figure 3).

  6. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  7. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  8. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  9. Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes.

  10. Identifying blues: an interview with lesbian blues musician and lyricist Gaye Adegbalola. Interview by Carmen Phelps.

    PubMed

    Adegbalola, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, blues lyricist and musician Gaye Adegbalola shares with audiences how various political, social, and artistic influences have inspired her work since her activist years during the Black Arts Movement leading up to the present day. As a lesbian blues artist, Adegbalola's personal and artistic development implicates the often inextricable and intimate relationships between artistic production, political involvement, and individual fulfillment.

  11. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  12. Blue cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines--a review.

    PubMed

    Skog, Kerstin

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of compounds formed when protein-rich foods, such as meat or fish, are prepared under normal cooking conditions, such as frying, grilling, or broiling. To evaluate and estimate the risks associated with HCAs contained in the diet, it is important to determine the levels in cooked foods, and the levels of HCAs and metabolites in the body. HCAs are normally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which necessitates a good purification method and a sensitive detection system. The objective of this review was to briefly present the current knowledge on the use of Blue Cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of HCAs.

  13. ALKALINE RIBONUCLEASE ACTIVITY INCREASE IN RAT KIDNEY CORTEX AND LIVER AFTER TRYPAN BLUE AND OTHER AZO DYES ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, M.; Brentani, R.; Ferreira, S.; Fausto, N.; Maack, T.

    1961-01-01

    Acid azo dyes, most of them naphtholdisulfonic acid derivatives, were given intraperitoneally to rats and their effect on "alkaline" ribonuclease activity was studied in total homogenates of kidney cortex and liver. Acid treatment was used to release bound enzyme activity. Several of the dyes, including trypan blue, increased RNase activity in both organs 3 days after administration of single doses, while others, like Evans blue, were inactive. Activity was apparently bound to the sulfonic substitution in the 3, 6 positions in the naphthalene rings, substitutions in the benzidine rings being not critical. All of the active and most of the inactive compounds were taken up by tubule cells of kidney cortex and by reticular and parenchymal cells of liver. While the effect on both liver and kidney was obtained 1 day after trypan blue administration, RNase remained increased for only about 3 days in the first organ, and for at least a month in the second. However, repeated trypan blue doses increased liver enzyme activity for at least 9 days. Serum RNase activity was decreased after trypan blue administration. Ethionine administration together with trypan blue markedly blocked the effect of the dye on liver RNase activity; simultaneously given methionine partially reversed the action of the antimetabolite. This suggests that de novo synthesis of RNase is induced in liver by trypan blue. The action of ethionine on the kidney RNase response to trypan blue was less marked although significant; in view of the possible kidney uptake of the plasma enzyme, interpretation of this finding must be postponed. Results are discussed with reference to the mechanism of the structural specificity of the compounds used, cytological localization of the dyes and their mechanism of action on liver and kidney RNase. PMID:13738846

  14. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (<1 Hz) to relatively high frequencies (∼kHz) and are also low-cost, lightweight, and easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  15. The correlation of blue shift of photoluminescence and morphology of silicon nanoporous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jumaili, Batool E. B.; Talib, Zainal A.; Josephine L., Y.; Paiman, Suriati B.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Al-Jumaily, Abdulmajeed H. J.; Ramizy, Asmiet; Abdulateef, Sinan A.; Muh'd, Ibrahim B.; Mofdal, Manahil E. E.

    2016-07-01

    Porous silicon with diameters ranging from 6.41 to 7.12 nm were synthesized via electrochemical etching by varied anodization current density in ethanoic solutions containing aqueous hydrofluoric acid up to 65mA/cm2.The luminescence properties of the nanoporous at room temperature were analyzed via photoluminescence spectroscopy. Photoluminescence PL spectra exhibit a broad emission band in the range of 360-700 nm photon energy. The PL spectrum has a blue shift in varied anodization current density; the blue shift incremented as the existing of anodization although the intensity decreased. The current blue shift is owning to alteration of silicon nanocrystal structure at the superficies. The superficial morphology of the PS layers consists of unified and orderly distribution of nanocrystalline Si structures, have high porosity around (93.75%) and high thickness 39.52 µm.

  16. Sequence and evolution of the blue cone pigment gene in old and new world primates

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.M.; Cowing, J.A.; Patel, R.

    1995-06-10

    The sequences of the blue cone photopigments in the talapoin monkey (Miopithecus talapoin), an Old World primate, and in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World monkey, are presented. Both genes are composed of 5 exons separated by 4 introns. In this respect, they are identical to the human blue gene, and intron sizes are also similar. Based on the level of amino acid identity, both monkey pigments are members of the S branch of pigments. Alignment of these sequences with the human gene requires the insertion/deletion of two separate codons in exon 1. The silent site divergence between these primate blue genes indicates a separation of the Old and New World primate lineages around 43 million years ago. 41 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. The blue-to-green reflectance ratio and lake water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piech, K. R.; Schott, J. R.; Stewart, K. M.

    1978-01-01

    Correlations between the relative values of the blue and green reflectances of a lake and water quality indices, such as depth of photic zone, Secchi disk transparency, attenuation coefficient, and chlorophyll concentration, have been observed during an intensive satellite, aircraft, and surface vessel study of Lake Ontario and Conesus Lake. Determinations of blue and green reflectances from Skylab S190A color imagery are in excellent agreement with values obtained from small-scale color imagery from aircraft. Further, the accuracy of the satellite data appears within that required for extrapolation to the water quality indices. The study has also determined that changes in chlorophyll, lignin, and humic acid concentration can be discriminated by the behavior of the blue-to-green reflectance ratio and the reflectances of the green and red bands.

  18. Synthesis of highly uniform Cu2O spheres by a two-step approach and their assembly to form photonic crystals with a brilliant color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xin; Chang, Jie; Wu, Suli; Tang, Bingtao; Zhang, Shufen

    2016-03-01

    Monodisperse semiconductor colloidal spheres with a high refractive index hold great potential for building photonic crystals with a strong band gap, but the difficulty in separating the nucleation and growth processes makes it challenging to prepare highly uniform semiconductor colloidal spheres. Herein, real monodisperse Cu2O spheres were prepared via a hot-injection & heating-up two-step method using diethylene glycol as a milder reducing agent. The diameter of the as prepared Cu2O spheres can be tuned from 90 nm to 190 nm precisely. The SEM images reveal that the obtained Cu2O spheres have a narrow size distribution, which permits their self-assembly to form photonic crystals. The effects of precursor concentration and heating rates on the size and morphology of the Cu2O spheres were investigated in detail. The results indicate that the key points of the method include the burst nucleation to form seeds at a high temperature followed by rapid cooling to prevent agglomeration, and appropriate precursor concentration as well as a moderate growth rate during the further growth process. Importantly, photonic crystal films exhibiting a brilliant structural color were fabricated with the obtained monodisperse Cu2O spheres as building blocks, proving the possibility of making photonic crystals with a strong band gap. The developed method was also successfully applied to prepare monodisperse CdS spheres with diameters in the range from 110 nm to 210 nm.Monodisperse semiconductor colloidal spheres with a high refractive index hold great potential for building photonic crystals with a strong band gap, but the difficulty in separating the nucleation and growth processes makes it challenging to prepare highly uniform semiconductor colloidal spheres. Herein, real monodisperse Cu2O spheres were prepared via a hot-injection & heating-up two-step method using diethylene glycol as a milder reducing agent. The diameter of the as prepared Cu2O spheres can be tuned from 90 nm to

  19. Bump in the blue axion isocurvature spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Upadhye, Amol

    2017-01-01

    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the nonapplicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  20. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  1. Blue Light-Induced Phosphorylation of a Plasma Membrane-Associated Protein in Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J. M.; Short, T. W.; Gallagher, S.; Briggs, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Blue light induces a variety of photomorphogenic responses in higher plants, among them phototropic curvature, the bending of seedlings toward a unidirectional light source. In dark-grown coleoptiles of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings, blue light induces rapid phosphorylation of a 114-kD protein at fluence levels that are sufficient to stimulate phototropic curvature. Phosphorylation in response to blue light can be detected in vivo in coleoptile tips preincubated in 32Pi or in vitro in isolated membranes supplemented with [[gamma]-32P]ATP. Phosphorylation reaches a maximum level in vitro within 2 min following an inductive light pulse, but substantial labeling occurs within the first 15 s. Isolated membranes remain activated for several minutes following an in vitro blue light stimulus, even in the absence of exogenous ATP. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the 114-kD protein detected phosphoserine and a trace of phosphothreonine. The kinase involved in phosphorylating the protein in vitro is not dependent on calcium. The 114-kD protein itself has an apparent binding site for ATP, detected by incubating with the nonhydrolyzable analog, 5[prime]-p-fluorosulfonyl-benzoyladenosine. This result suggests that the 114-kD protein, which becomes phosphorylated in response to blue light, may also be capable of kinase activity. PMID:12231896

  2. Red and blue lights induced oxidative stress tolerance promote cadmium rhizocomplexation in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and related stress responses have been investigated in red, blue and white lights exposed Oryza sativa L. cv MTU 7029. Cd translocation was reduced significantly by red and blue lights. Increase in amount of organic acids, thiols, and nutrients in the roots that cause Cd rhizocomplexation was the reason for reduction in Cd translocation. These effects were due to higher efficiency to perform photosynthesis and transpiration under red or blue lights compare with white light during Cd stress. Increased photosynthetic assimilate turnover was witnessed as a function of sugar content. Amount of redox regulators such as glutathione and ascorbate were also increased under red and blue light exposure. Together with up regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, these metabolites ensured redox balance in presence of reactive oxygen species produced due to Cd toxicity. Protection of photosynthesis from Cd inducible oxidative stress ensured supplies of sugar intermediates essential for the synthesis of metal chelators in roots. Therefore, it was inferred that red and blue lights promote Cd rhizocomplexation and ameliorated Cd stress in rice seedlings.

  3. An external substrate-free blue/white screening system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhoujie; Zhang, Zhao; Cao, Zhenju; Chen, Meng; Li, Pengwei; Liu, Weifeng; Qin, Hua; Zhao, Xuejin; Tao, Yong; Chen, Yihua

    2017-03-28

    Since the lacZα-based blue/white screening system was introduced to molecular biology, several different visual reporter systems were developed and used for various purposes in Escherichia coli. A common limit to the existent visual reporter systems is that an extracellular chromogenic substrate has to be added for the visible pigment production. In this study, we developed a new blue/white screening system based on a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase encoded by idgS from Streptomyces and a phosphopantetheinyl transferase encoded by sfp from Bacillus. When IdgS is activated from an apo-form to a holo-form via a posttranslational modification catalyzed by Sfp, it can synthesize a blue pigment indigoidine using L-glutamine, the amino acid abundant in cells, as a substrate. The new blue/white screening system contains a recipient E. coli strain with an optimized idgS gene cassette and a cloning vector harboring an sfp gene with an in-frame insertion of a multiple cloning site close to its N-terminal. We demonstrated that the IdgS/Sfp-based blue/white screening system is a powerful alternative to the lacZα-based screening system, which does not require any external substrate addition.

  4. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  5. Blue light induced A2E oxidation in rat eyes--experimental animal model of dry AMD.

    PubMed

    Wielgus, A R; Collier, R J; Martin, E; Lih, F B; Tomer, K B; Chignell, C F; Roberts, J E

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that short-wavelength blue visible light induces retinal injury and may be a risk factor for age related macular degeneration. A2E is a blue light absorbing retinal chromophore that accumulates with age. Our previous in vitro studies have determined that, although A2E itself has a low phototoxic efficiency, the oxidation products of A2E that are formed in the presence of visible light can contribute to observed retinal pigment epithelial photodamage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blue light on retinal phototoxicity and its relationship to A2E, oxidized A2E and its isomers. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were dark adapted for 24 h. Control rats remained in the dark while experimental rats were exposed to blue light (λ = 450 nm, 3.1 mW cm(-2)) for 6 h. Isolated retinas were homogenized in Folch extraction mixture and then in chloroform. The dried extracts were reconstituted and divided for determination of organic soluble compound. Esters of fatty acids were determined with GC-MS, A2E and other chromophores using HPLC, and A2E oxidation products with LC-MS. Exposure of rat eyes to blue light did not significantly change the fatty acid composition of the retina. The A2E concentration (normalized to fatty acid content) in blue light exposed animals was found to be lower than the A2E concentration in control rats. The concentrations of all-trans-retinal-ethanolamine adduct and iso-A2E a precursor and an isomer of A2E respectively, were also lower after blue-light exposure than in the retinas of rats housed in the dark. On the other hand, the amount of oxidized forms of A2E was higher in the animals exposed to blue light. We conclude that in the rat eye, blue-light exposure promotes oxidation of A2E and iso-A2E to the products that are toxic to retinal tissue. Although high concentrations of A2E may be cytotoxic to the retina, the phototoxicity associated with blue light damage to the retina is in part a result of

  6. Responses of Crepis japonica induced by supplemental blue light and UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Constantino, L F da S; Nascimento, L B Dos S; Casanova, L M; Moreira, N Dos S; Menezes, E A; Esteves, R L; Costa, S S; Tavares, E S

    2017-02-15

    Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation). We recorded the length, width, and weight of fresh and dry leaves, the thickness of the epidermis and mesophyll, and stomata density. The phenolic profiles of the aqueous extracts of the aerial parts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. There was an increase in the leaf size, stomatal density, and phenolic production, and a thickening of the mesophyll and epidermis. UV-A radiation increased the phenolic production more than blue light. Blue light and UV-A radiation both improved the production of caffeic acid by about 6 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to control. This compound was first reported as a constituent of the extract from the aerial parts together with caftaric acid. UV-A also promoted the production of chlorogenic acid (about 1.5 times in comparison to the control). We observed that the morphological and chemical parameters of C. japonica are modified in response to blue light and UV-A radiation, which can be used as tools in the cultivation of this species in order to improve its medicinal properties and nutritional value.

  7. Use of bromothymol blue solutions as a spectrophotometric dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehim, F. Abdel; Said, F. I. A.; Abdel-Azim, Abdel-Azim A.; El-Dessouky, M. M.; Youssef, N.

    Aqueous aerated solutions of bromothymol blue (BTB) were easily decolorised on gamma-irradiation. Aerated acidic and alkaline solutions showed a linear response of the decrease in optical absorbance up to a dose of 1.5 kGy. The decoloration yield, G(-BTB), of 1 × 10 -4M BTB solutions, obtained from the decrease in optical absorbance at the wavelength of maximum absorption at pH 4.1, 6.5 and 8.55, were 0.39 ± 0.02, 0.21 ± 0.01 and 0.33 ± 0.01 respectively. Possible use of such solutions for rediation dosimetry in the dosage range (0.1-1.5 kGy) is proposed.

  8. Methylene blue adsorption on a DMPA lipid langmuir monolayer.

    PubMed

    Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

    2010-07-12

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto a dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) Langmuir air/water monolayer is studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, UV reflection spectroscopy and surface potential measurements. The free-energy profile associated with MB transfer from water to the lipid monolayer shows two minima of -66 and -60 kJ mol(-1) for its solid and gas phase, respectively, corresponding to a spontaneous thermodynamic process. From the position of the free-energy minima, it is possible to predict the precise location of MB in the interior of the DMPA monolayer. Thus, MB is accommodated in the phosphoryl or carbonyl region of the DMPA Langmuir air/water interface, depending on the isomorphic state (solid or gas phase, respectively). Reorientation of MB, measured from the bulk solution to the interior of the lipid monolayer, passes from a random orientation in bulk solution to an orientation parallel to the surface of the lipid monolayer when MB is absorbed.

  9. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns.

  10. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  11. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  12. Bdellovibrios in Callinectus sapidus, the Blue Crab

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jacqueline I.; Williams, Henry N.

    1992-01-01

    Bdellovibrios were recovered from the gill tissue of all of 31 crabs sampled and from all samples of epibiota obtained from the ventral shell surface of 15 crabs. The results suggest that the blue crab is a reservoir for bdellovibrios. The association with crabs may be an important factor in the ecology of the bdellovibrios. PMID:16348706

  13. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  14. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  15. Prussian blue type nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Long, J; Guari, Y; Guérin, C; Larionova, J

    2016-11-28

    Prussian blue type nanoparticles are exciting nano-objects that combine the advantages of molecule-based materials and nanochemistry. Here we provide a short overview focalizing on the recent advances of these nano-objects designed for biomedical applications and give an outlook on the future research orientations in this domain.

  16. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  17. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  18. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  19. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time.

  20. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    PubMed

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments.

  1. A Discography of the Real Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Dean

    1972-01-01

    A short account of the rise and decline of the Blues and a discussion of the artists who performed it is followed by an annotated bibliography of periodicals, books, records and tapes related to this form of Black" music. (184 references) (NH)

  2. Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

  3. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Melcón, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  4. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  5. Phytochemical profile of main antioxidants in different fractions of purple and blue wheat, and black barley.

    PubMed

    Siebenhandl, Susanne; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Del Rio, Daniele; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pernice, Rita; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2007-10-17

    Two pigmented wheat genotypes (blue and purple) and two black barley genotypes were fractionated in bran and flour fractions, examined, and compared for their free radical scavenging properties against 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic acid composition, carotenoid composition, and total anthocyanin content. The results showed that fractionation has a significant influence on the antioxidant properties, TPC, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, and phenolic acid composition. Bran fractions had the greatest antioxidant activities (1.9-2.3 mmol TEAC/100 g) in all four grain genotypes and were 3-5-fold higher than the respective flour fractions (0.4-0.7 mmol TEAC/100 g). Ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in wheat genotypes (bran fractions) while p-coumaric acid was the predominant phenolic acid in the bran fractions of barley genotypes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin in all fractions with different distribution patterns within the genotypes. The highest contents of anthocyanins were found in the middlings of black barley genotypes or in the shorts of blue and purple wheat. These data suggest the possibility to improve the antioxidant release from cereal-based food through selection of postharvest treatments.

  6. Blue-hazard-free Candlelight OLED.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Singh, Meenu; Su, Yu-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hao; He, Zhe-Kai

    2017-03-19

    A candlelight-style organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a human-friendly type of lighting because it is blue-hazard-free and has a low correlated color temperature (CCT) illumination. The low CCT lighting is deprived of high-energy blue radiation, and it can be used for a longer duration before causing retinal damage. This work presents the comprehensive protocols for the fabrication of blue-hazard-free candlelight OLEDs. The emission spectrum of the OLED was characterized by the maximum exposure time limit of the retina and the melatonin suppression sensitivity. The devices can be fabricated using dry and wet processes. The dry-processed OLED resulted in a CCT of 1,940 K and exhibited a maximum retinal exposure limit of 1,287 s at a brightness of 500 lx. It showed 2.61% melatonin suppression sensitivity relative to 480 nm blue light. The wet-processed OLED, where the spin coating is used to deposit hole injection, hole transport, and emissive layers, making fabrication fast and economical, produced a CCT of 1,922 K and showed a maximum retinal exposure limit of 7,092 at a brightness of 500 lx. The achieved relative melatonin suppression sensitivity of 1.05% is 86% and 96% less than that of the light emitting diode (LED) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), respectively. Wet-processed blue-hazard-free candlelight OLED exhibited a power efficiency of 30 lm/W, which is 2 times that of the incandescent bulb and 300 times that of the candle.

  7. October Fireball: Brief and Brilliant

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Saturday, Oct. 2, 2010 at approximately 8:50 p.m. CDT, cameras operated by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., recorded a slow-moving firebal...

  8. Chiral heteropoly blues and controllable switching of achiral polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhan; Li, Haolong; Wu, Che; Yang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wu, Lixin

    2013-04-22

    Managing the blues: Chiral heteropoly blues of achiral polyoxometalate clusters were created through an intermolecular interaction with a chiral organic compound. Controllable chiroptical switching of the cluster complexes was possible through reversible photochromism of the polyoxometalates (see picture).

  9. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Kailash; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Wai; Thalappillil, Richard; Florence, F Barry; Kim, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the

  11. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the

  12. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  13. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  14. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  15. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  16. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  17. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  18. Is blue light good or bad for plants?

    PubMed

    Dougher, T A; Bugbee, B G

    1998-01-01

    Blue photons are energetically expensive so the most energy-efficient lamps contain the least blue light. Blue photons are not used efficiently in photosynthesis, but blue light has dramatic effects on plant development. We studied the growth and development of soybean, wheat, and lettuce plants under high-pressure sodium and metal halide lamps with yellow filters creating five fractions of blue light (0.5%, 3.5%, 6%, 1 8%, and 26% blue) at 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 and (< 0.1%, 1.7%, 6%, 12%, and 26%) at 200 mol m-2 s-1. The response was species dependent. Lettuce was highly sensitive to blue light fraction and had an optimum dry weight and leaf area at about 6% blue, but results were complicated by sensitivity to lamp type. Wheat and soybean were less sensitive to blue light, but dry mass and leaf area decreased steadily with increasing blue light. Blue light fraction significantly affected specific leaf area (SLA, m2 kg-1) and chlorophyll in lettuce, but had no significant effect on wheat and soybeans. The data suggest that lettuce benefits from some added blue light, but soybean and wheat may not.

  19. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of proposed award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA. SUMMARY... award temporary concession contracts for the conduct of certain visitor services within the Blue...

  20. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... C.I. Reactive Blue 246. Studies included guinea pig maximization studies, in vivo ocular irritation... copolymerized color additives of C. I. Reactive Blue 247. Studies included guinea pig maximization studies,...

  1. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated.

  2. Acute blue finger: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed; Elmasry, Mohamed; Mabote, Thato; Elsayed, Ayman; Sunthareswaran, Rame

    2014-01-01

    The management of the acute blue finger is controversial with many regarding it as a benign condition. However, we would argue that it should always be considered as an emergency. We present a challenging case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with a 1-week history of sudden onset blue discolouration of the left fifth digit, and a 6-week history of episodic joint problems. Examination showed bilateral normal radial and ulnar pulses. Following blood investigations, an initial working diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis with associated Raynaud's phenomenon was made. Also, infective endocarditis was considered due to temporary misleading physical signs. Later, CT angiography of the left upper limb arteries showed a significant proximal left subclavian stenosis. Subsequently, a diagnosis of the left subclavian arteritis associated with digit ischaemia from embolic debris was made and the patient underwent a left subclavian angioplasty. However, delayed management resulted in a necrotic digit, which was left to autoamputate. PMID:24429047

  3. Epikeratoplasty for keratoglobus associated with blue sclera.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J A; Cotter, J B; Risco, J M; Alvarez, H

    1991-04-01

    Patients with keratoglobus and blue sclera as part of a generalized connective tissue disorder are at a high risk of developing corneal perforations either spontaneously or after mild trauma. Six patients (6 eyes) between the ages of 2 and 16 years of age (mean, 7.5 years) with keratoglobus, blue sclera, hypermobile joints, and consanguineous parents were treated by epikeratoplasty, using commercially prepared 12.5-mm lenticules. Surgery was performed for tectonic support and/or visual improvement and was successful in five of six patients with a follow-up period of 11 to 27 months (mean, 21 months). One lenticule was removed because the epithelium did not heal. Peripheral interface opacities occurred in three patients.

  4. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  5. Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    very helpful. W. Krupke of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory contributed useful discussions on high power solid-state lasers . Financial support was...Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps F. W. Perkins CIAM * Accesion For7 DTIC TAB [] Urnannouriced lI Justification By...combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid-state laser to achieve an

  6. Indicator characteristics of bromothymol blue derivatives.

    PubMed

    Puschett, J B; Rao, B S; Karandikar, B M; Matyjaszewski, K

    1991-03-01

    Some Bromothymol Blue derivatives with a nitro, amino, isothiocyanato or sulfonamide group substituted on the sulfonated ring of the dibromothymolsulfonephthalein have been studied spectrometrically. All the dyes have two characteristic absorption peaks which can be used to measure pH in the physiological range. The molar absorptivities, wavelengths of maximum absorption and pK(a) values have been determined from the absorbances, and are similar for all four dyes.

  7. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  8. Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

  9. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  10. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  11. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  12. Blue Fermi flat spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Sbarrato, T.; Ghirlanda, G.; Maraschi, L.

    2012-09-01

    Many blazars detected by the Fermi satellite, observed spectroscopically in the optical, are line-less, and have been classified as BL Lac objects. Optical-ultraviolet (UV) photometry of nearly 100 of them allowed us to determine the redshift for a handful of objects and redshift upper limits in the great majority. A few of these are candidates to be 'blue quasars', namely flat spectrum radio quasars whose broad emission lines are hidden by an overwhelming synchrotron emission peaking in the UV. This implies that the emitting electrons have high energies. In turn, this requires relatively weak radiative cooling, a condition that can be met if the main radiative dissipation of the jet power occurs outside the broad-line region. We confirm this hypothesis by studying and modelling the spectral energy distributions of the four 'blue quasars' recently discovered. Furthermore, we discuss the distribution of Fermi blazars in the γ-ray spectral index-γ-ray luminosity plane, and argue that 'blue quasars' objects are a minority within the blazar populations.

  13. QCD and the BlueGene

    SciTech Connect

    Vranas, P

    2007-06-18

    Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

  14. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  15. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  16. Postnatal blues: a risk factor for postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, C; Foreman, D; Cox, J

    2004-01-01

    Postnatal blues have been regarded as brief, benign and without clinical significance. However, several studies have proposed a link between blues and subsequent depression but have methodological problems. We report a prospective, controlled study of postpartum women with severe blues which uses systematically devised and validated instruments for that purpose which tests the hypothesis that severe blues increases the risk of depression in the six months following childbirth. 206 first-time mothers were recruited in late pregnancy. Blues status was defined using the Blues Questionnaire and those with severe blues and their controls who had no blues (matched for age, marital status and social class) were followed for 6 months with postal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RDC diagnoses were made following SADS-L interview at the end of the protocol. Backwards stepwise Cox regression analysis found severe blues and past history of depression to be independent predictors each raising the risk by almost 3 times. Depression in those with severe blues onset sooner after delivery and lasted longer. The difference was largely accounted for by major depression. Severe postpartum blues are identified as an independent risk factor for subsequent postpartum depression. Screening and intervention programs could be devised.

  17. Quality issues in blue noise halftoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing; Parker, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    The blue noise mask (BNM) is a halftone screen that produces unstructured visually pleasing dot patterns. The BNM combines the blue-noise characteristics of error diffusion and the simplicity of ordered dither. A BNM is constructed by designing a set of interdependent binary patterns for individual gray levels. In this paper, we investigate the quality issues in blue-noise binary pattern design and mask generation as well as in application to color reproduction. Using a global filtering technique and a local 'force' process for rearranging black and white pixels, we are able to generate a series of binary patterns, all representing a certain gray level, ranging from white-noise pattern to highly structured pattern. The quality of these individual patterns are studied in terms of low-frequency structure and graininess. Typically, the low-frequency structure (LF) is identified with a measurement of the energy around dc in the spatial frequency domain, while the graininess is quantified by a measurement of the average minimum distance (AMD) between minority dots as well as the kurtosis of the local kurtosis distribution (KLK) for minority pixels of the binary pattern. A set of partial BNMs are generated by using the different patterns as unique starting 'seeds.' In this way, we are able to study the quality of binary patterns over a range of gray levels. We observe that the optimality of a binary pattern for mask generation is related to its own quality mertirc values as well as the transition smoothness of those quality metric values over neighboring levels. Several schemes have been developed to apply blue-noise halftoning to color reproduction. Different schemes generate halftone patterns with different textures. In a previous paper, a human visual system (HVS) model was used to study the color halftone quality in terms of luminance and chrominance error in CIELAB color space. In this paper, a new series of psycho-visual experiments address the 'preferred' color

  18. Rapid photometric determination of phosphorus in iron ores and related materials as phosphomolybdenum-blue.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, O P; Gmitro, M

    1984-04-01

    A rapid, simple and accurate method for determining phosphorus photometrically in iron ores and related materials, obviating the use of perchloric acid, is described. The sample is fused with sodium peroxide in a zirconium crucible and the melt dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The molybdenum-blue complex is developed by the addition of ammonium molybdate and hydrazine sulphate and the absorbance is measured at 725 nm. The range of the method is from 0.005 to 1.0% P. A batch of 6 samples can be analysed in about 2 hr.

  19. Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    experiments, cells received 2 mM ascorbic acid (AA; BP351-500; Fisher Scientific, Fair Lawn, ND or 1 mM A’- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ; A9165, Sigma...death from both cw and ml blue laser exposure, whereas similar treatment with A’- acetyl - L- cysteine (MAC) was less effective. CONCLUSIONS. The in vitro...Laser-Induced Photochemical Death by Overnight Pretreatment with Ascorbic Acid (AA) and A’- acetyl -l- cysteine (NAQ cw Laser Mode-Locked Laser Media

  20. Photo-degradation of methylene blue using Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Jizhou; Li Aidong; Li Xiangyu; Zhai Haifa; Zhang Wenqi; Gong Youpin; Li Hui; Wu Di

    2010-06-15

    A photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The structural, morphological properties and photocatalytic activity of 1 mol % Ta-doped ZnO samples annealed at different temperatures were characterized. The photo-oxidation of methylene blue under the visible-light irradiation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. It is found that the photocatalysis of 1% Ta-doped ZnO annealed at 700 {sup o}C showed excellent performance of the photodegradation of methylene blue, which was attributed to a competitive trade-off among the crystallinity, surface hydroxyl groups, and specific surface area. The processing parameter such as the pH value also played an important role in tuning the photocatalytic activity. The maximum photodecomposed rate was achieved at pH=8, and an novel model about the absorption of methylene blue on the surface of the catalysts was proposed. - Graphical abstract: This model describes the adsorption between the amphoteric behavior of the metal oxide and the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) on the surface of the catalyst at the acidic and alkaline condition.

  1. A simple chemical method for deposition of electrochromic Prussian blue thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Demiri, Sani; Najdoski, Metodija; Velevska, Julijana

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue thin films were prepared by a simple chemical deposition method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films can be easily prepared from aqueous solution of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films show good electrochromic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They change from deep blue color into green, and then back to blue and colorless. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PB thin films exhibit stability and excellent reversibility. -- Abstract: This paper is about a recently developed new chemical method for deposition of Prussian blue thin films. The films are easily prepared by successive immersion of the substrates into an acidic aqueous solution of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. It is calculated of the results from AFM analysis that the growth in the film thickness by one immersion cycle corresponds to an average increase of 6 nm. The characterization of the films with X-ray diffraction, SEM-EDS analysis and FTIR spectroscopy shows that the deposited material is amorphous hydrated Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}. The electrochromic properties are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and VIS spectrophotometry. The PB thin films exhibit stability and excellent reversibility, which make these films favorable for electrochromic devices.

  2. Phototropins mediate blue and red light-induced chloroplast movements in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Masahiro; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kiyosue, Tomohiro; Wada, Masamitsu

    2004-07-01

    Phototropin is the blue-light receptor that mediates phototropism, chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. Blue and red light induce chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella patens. To study the photoreceptors for chloroplast movement in P. patens, four phototropin genes (PHOTA1, PHOTA2, PHOTB1, and PHOTB2) were isolated by screening cDNA libraries. These genes were classified into two groups (PHOTA and PHOTB) on the basis of their deduced amino acid sequences. Then phototropin disruptants were generated by homologous recombination and used for analysis of chloroplast movement. Data revealed that blue light-induced chloroplast movement was mediated by phototropins in P. patens. Both photA and photB groups were able to mediate chloroplast avoidance, as has been reported for Arabidopsis phot2, although the photA group contributed more to the response. Red light-induced chloroplast movement was also significantly reduced in photA2photB1photB2 triple disruptants. Because the primary photoreceptor for red light-induced chloroplast movement in P. patens is phytochrome, phototropins may be downstream components of phytochromes in the signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this work is the first to show a function for the phototropin blue-light receptor in a response to wavelengths that it does not absorb.

  3. The first direct evidence of pre-columbian sources of palygorskite for Maya Blue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Dean E.; Bohor, Bruce F.; Neff, Hector; Feinman, Gary M.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; Dussubieux, Laure; Bishop, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Maya Blue, a nano-structured clay–organic complex of palygorskite and indigo, was used predominantly before the Spanish Conquest. It has fascinated chemists, material scientists, archaeologists and art historians for decades because it is resistant to the effect of acids, alkalis, and other reagents, and its rich color has persisted for centuries in the harsh tropical climate of southern Mesoamerica. One of its components, palygorskite, is part of modern Maya indigenous knowledge, and ethnohistoric and archaeological data suggest that its modern sources were probably utilized in Prehispanic times. Yet no direct evidence verifies that palygorskite was actually mined from these sources to make Maya Blue. Here we characterize these sources compositionally, and compare our analyses to those of Maya Blue from Chichén Itzá and Palenque. We demonstrate that the palygorskite in most of these samples came from modern mines, providing the first direct evidence for the use of these sources for making Maya Blue. These findings reveal that modern Maya indigenous knowledge about palygorskite, its mining, and its source locations, is at least seven centuries old.

  4. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits.

  5. Plant Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Grown Aeroponically under Different Blue- and Red-LEDs.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Qin, Lin; Chong, Emma L C; Choong, Tsui-Wei; Lee, Sing Kong

    2017-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a succulent, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics were studied when M. crystallinum plants were grown indoor under light emitting diodes (LED)-lighting with adequate water supply. Plants were cultured aeroponically for a 16-h photoperiod at an equal photosynthetic photon flux density of 350 μmol m(-2) s(-1) under different red:blue LED ratios: (1) 100:0 (0B); (2) 90:10 (10B); (3) 80:20 (20B); (4) 70:30 (30B); (5) 50:50 (50B); and (6)100:0 (100B). M. crystallinum grown under 10B condition had the highest shoot and root biomass and shoot/root ratio while those grown under 0B condition exhibited the lowest values. Compared to plants grown under 0B condition, all other plants had similar but higher total chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) contents and higher Chl a/b ratios. However, there were no significant differences in Chl/Car ratio among all plants grown under different red- and blue-LEDs. Photosynthetic light use efficiency measured by photochemical quenching, non-photochemical quenching, and electron transport rate, demonstrated that plants grown under high blue-LED utilized more light energy and had more effective heat dissipation mechanism compared to plants grown under 0B or lower blue-LED. Statistically, there were no differences in photosynthetic O2 evolution rate, light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate (Asat), and light-saturated stomatal conductance (gssat) among plants grown under different combined red- and blue-LEDs but they were significantly higher than those of 0B plants. No statistically differences in total reduced nitrogen content were found among all plants. For the total soluble protein, all plants grown under different combined red- and blue-LEDs had similar values but they were significantly higher than that of plants grown under 0B condition. However, plants grown under higher blue-LEDs had significant higher ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

  6. Plant Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Grown Aeroponically under Different Blue- and Red-LEDs

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Qin, Lin; Chong, Emma L. C.; Choong, Tsui-Wei; Lee, Sing Kong

    2017-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a succulent, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics were studied when M. crystallinum plants were grown indoor under light emitting diodes (LED)-lighting with adequate water supply. Plants were cultured aeroponically for a 16-h photoperiod at an equal photosynthetic photon flux density of 350 μmol m-2 s-1 under different red:blue LED ratios: (1) 100:0 (0B); (2) 90:10 (10B); (3) 80:20 (20B); (4) 70:30 (30B); (5) 50:50 (50B); and (6)100:0 (100B). M. crystallinum grown under 10B condition had the highest shoot and root biomass and shoot/root ratio while those grown under 0B condition exhibited the lowest values. Compared to plants grown under 0B condition, all other plants had similar but higher total chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) contents and higher Chl a/b ratios. However, there were no significant differences in Chl/Car ratio among all plants grown under different red- and blue-LEDs. Photosynthetic light use efficiency measured by photochemical quenching, non-photochemical quenching, and electron transport rate, demonstrated that plants grown under high blue-LED utilized more light energy and had more effective heat dissipation mechanism compared to plants grown under 0B or lower blue-LED. Statistically, there were no differences in photosynthetic O2 evolution rate, light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate (Asat), and light-saturated stomatal conductance (gssat) among plants grown under different combined red- and blue-LEDs but they were significantly higher than those of 0B plants. No statistically differences in total reduced nitrogen content were found among all plants. For the total soluble protein, all plants grown under different combined red- and blue-LEDs had similar values but they were significantly higher than that of plants grown under 0B condition. However, plants grown under higher blue-LEDs had significant higher ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

  7. Studying Mixing in Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions Using Color Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballescá-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. Methodology and Findings We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA) in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter) and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. Conclusion and Relevance Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general) in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB) can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions. PMID:25401332

  8. For-profit conversion and merger trends among Blue Cross Blue Shield health plans.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Joy M; Strunk, Bradley C

    2004-01-01

    Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) health plans, which insure nearly one in three Americans, historically have operated as local, nonprofit or mutual organizations. However, since the mid-1990s, BCBS plans increasingly have converted to for-profit companies and merged with Blue plans in other states. State insurance regulators, charged with weighing the costs and benefits of conversions and mergers to consumers, often wrestle with the legal complexities of these deals, according to Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. Although state regulatory scrutiny has slowed the pace of conversions recently, conversion activity is likely to accelerate again as the political and regulatory landscapes shift and plans adapt conversion strategies. The limited evidence available from HSC site visits and conversion proceedings suggests that conversions and mergers have had neither significant negative nor positive effects on consumers.

  9. Why are blue zhamanshinites blue? Liquid immiscibility in an impact melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Koeberl, Christian

    1991-01-01

    A study of the cause of the coloration of blue zhamanshinites, which are glassy impact melt rocks from the Zhamanshin crater in the USSR are reported. It is found that the blue color results from Rayleigh scattering from spherical, 100 nm-diameter inclusions of a separate Ca-Fe-Mg-P-rich silicate glass. These observations can best be explained by the operation of liquid immiscibility in the zhamanshinite melt, and suggest that liquid immiscibility may have a more general role in impactite evolution.

  10. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-11-10

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

  11. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  12. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  13. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  14. The curious conversion of Empire Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The for-profit conversion of Empire Blue Cross in New York challenges the case law and conventional policy wisdom that financial assets from formerly nonprofit organizations should be used to endow independent charitable foundations. The appropriation of Empire's assets by state government itself, and their subsequent deployment to subsidize health care institutions and repay political obligations, changes the conversion process from one that pits nonprofits against for-profits to one that pits private, nonprofit organizations against public-sector programs in the competition for new financial resources.

  15. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

  16. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  17. Photometric monitoring of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, Carla; Distefano, Elisa; Leto, Paolo; Schillirò, Francesco; Trigilio, Corrado; Umana, Grazia; Bernabei, Stefano; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from our program of intensive near-infrared photometric monitoring of a sample of confirmed and candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Clear long-term variability has been observed for Wray 17-96 and V481 Sct, with overall brightness variation greater than 1 mag in the J band. Other sources, such as LBV 1806-20 showed detectable variability with amplitudes of few tenths of a magnitude with a time-scale of about 60 days.

  18. Biosynthetic gene clusters for relevant secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium roqueforti in blue cheeses.

    PubMed

    García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2016-10-01

    Ripening of blue-veined cheeses, such as the French Bleu and Roquefort, the Italian Gorgonzola, the English Stilton, the Danish Danablu or the Spanish Cabrales, Picón Bejes-Tresviso, and Valdeón, requires the growth and enzymatic activity of the mold Penicillium roqueforti, which is responsible for the characteristic texture, blue-green spots, and aroma of these types of cheeses. This filamentous fungus is able to synthesize different secondary metabolites, including andrastins, mycophenolic acid, and several mycotoxins, such as roquefortines C and D, PR-toxin and eremofortins, isofumigaclavines A and B, and festuclavine. This review provides a detailed description of the main secondary metabolites produced by P. roqueforti in blue cheese, giving a special emphasis to roquefortine, PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid, and their biosynthetic gene clusters and pathways. The knowledge of these clusters and secondary metabolism pathways, together with the ability of P. roqueforti to produce beneficial secondary metabolites, is of interest for commercial purposes.

  19. UV/blue light-induced fluorescence for assessing apple maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hyun Kwon; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been researched for assessing fruit post-harvest quality and condition. The objective of this preliminary research was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring apple fruit quality. Ultraviolet (UV) and blue light was used as an excitation source for inducing fluorescence in apples. Fluorescence spectra were measured from 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 'Red Delicious' (RD) apples by using a visible/near-infrared spectrometer after one, three, and five minutes of continuous UV/blue light illumination. Standard destructive tests were performed to measure fruit firmness, skin and flesh color, soluble solids and acid content from the apples. Calibration models for each of the three illumination time periods were developed to predict fruit quality indexes. The results showed that fluorescence emission decreased steadily during the first three minutes of UV/blue light illumination and was stable within five minutes. The differences were minimal in the model prediction results based on fluorescence data at one, three or five minutes of illumination. Overall, better predictions were obtained for apple skin chroma and hue and flesh hue with values for the correlation coefficient of validation between 0.80 and 0.90 for both GD and RD. Relatively poor predictions were obtained for fruit firmness, soluble solids content, titrational acid, and flesh chroma. This research demonstrated that fluorescence spectroscopy is potentially useful for assessing selected quality attributes of apple fruit and further research is needed to improve fluorescence measurements so that better predictions of fruit quality can be achieved.

  20. Sustained effects of blue light on Streptococcus mutans in regrown biofilm.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Berneron, Julie; Steinberg, Doron; Featherstone, John D B; Feuerstein, Osnat

    2016-04-01

    In prior studies, exposure of Streptococcus mutans in biofilm to blue light using high fluences of up to 680 J/cm(2) did not interfere with bacterial capability to reform an initial biofilm; however, a delayed antibacterial effect was observed. Our aim was to determine the sustained effecttts of blue light-emitting diode (LED) curing light on the pathogenicity of the newly formed biofilm. S. mutans were grown to form biofilm that was exposed to blue light (wavelengths, 460-480 nm) for 1, 3, and 7 min (equivalent to 37, 112, and 262 J/cm(2), respectively). Then, bacteria were suspended and allowed to regrow into new biofilms. The regrown biofilms were assessed for bacterial quantification by optical density (OD) measurement and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), bacterial viability and extracellular polysaccharide production by fluorescent staining using confocal scanning laser microscopy, acid production by bacteria (acidogenicity), and bacterial survival at low pH (aciduricity) using qPCR. Bacterial growth in the regrown biofilms was increased when samples were previously exposed to light; however, under the confocal microscopy, a higher proportion of dead bacteria and a reduction in polysaccharide production were observed. The acidogenicity from the regrown biofilm was lowered as fluences of light increased. The aciduricity of the regrown biofilm was decreased, meaning less growth of bacteria into biofilm in low pH with increasing fluences. Blue light has sustained effects on S. mutans bacteria grown into new biofilm. Although bacterial growth in biofilm increased, bacterial viability and virulence characteristics were impaired. The cariogenic potential over time of S. mutans previously exposed to blue light when grown on tooth surfaces is yet to be determined.

  1. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  2. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades.

  3. Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

  4. Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Denisov, Nikolay A.

    2000-04-01

    We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF applications. Available to authors LEDs form Hewlett-Packard, Micro Electronics Corp., Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd. and Toyoda Gosei Co. were tested to comply with demands to a tissue excitation source for portable spectroscopes. The optical performance of LEDs has shown that selected group of InGaN LEDs could be successfully used for that. The miniature illuminator that includes LED, focusing condenser, filter set and distal fiberoptic light concentrator was designed and tested in conjunction with portable CCD- equipped spectroscope. Operating in dark condition the proposed LED illuminator provides the level of fluorescence signal sufficient to detect spectral abnormalities in human Caucasian skin and excised gastrointestinal samples. All tissue autofluorescence data taken under LED illumination were compared with readings under He-Cd laser excitation and showed a good match. A new diagnostic designs based on LEDs were considered for clinical use.

  5. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  6. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  7. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications. PMID:27666663

  8. Comparative study of calcium alginate, activated carbon, and their composite beads on methylene blue adsorption.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2014-02-15

    Three adsorbents, calcium alginate beads (AB), sodium hydroxide activated carbon based coconut shells (C), and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (ACB) were prepared. Their textural properties were characterized by N2-adsorption at -196°C and scanning electron microscopy. The porosity, surface area and total pore volume of C>ACB>AB, but AB adsorbent was more acidic function groups more than the other adsorbents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to examine the effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of methylene blue. Methylene blue adsorption on C, AB and ACB was observed at pH>6 to avoid the competition of H(+). The amount of dye adsorbed increases as the adsorbent dosage increase. Adsorption of dye follows pseudo-second order mechanism. Thermodynamic studies show spontaneous and endothermic nature of the overall adsorption process.

  9. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from dead blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Vigo, Germán B; Origlia, Javier; Gornatti, Daniel; Piscopo, Miguel; Salve, Angela; Caffer, María I; Pichel, Mariana; Binsztein, Norma; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2009-03-01

    Two blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) chicks died of fatal salmonellosis in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The birds were histopathologically and microbiologically examined. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and intestine of both birds. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The XbaI-PFGE profile of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from the two animals, which shared the same cage, was identical and showed a unique pattern compared with 301 isolates included in the PulseNet national database of Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. This is the first report that describes fatal cases of salmonellosis from blue and gold macaws.

  10. The uranium-Xylidyl Blue I complex and its application in linear sweep polarography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Cai, X; Li, P

    1987-09-01

    The linear sweep polarographic wave of the uranium-Xylidyl Blue I complex in ethylenediamine-1,10-phenanthroline-hydrochloric acid medium has been studied. The complex, corresponding to UO(2)(XBI)(2-)(2) with log beta' = 9.09 (by polarography), 8.81 (by spectrophotometry), is strongly adsorbed on the surface of the mercury electrode. The polarographic wave is attributed to the reduction of Xylidyl Blue I in the complex. The method is very sensitive with a detection limit of 3 x 10(-8)M. The wave height is proportional to the concentration of uranium over the range 8 x 10(-8)-7 x 10(-6)M. Solvent extraction is used to separate possible interferences. The recommended procedure has been applied to the determination of trace amounts of uranium in ores.

  11. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae cr cyanobacteria . Although cyanobacteria are found in almost any environment ranging from hot...p ecst Available Copy ~’ COPy Ni AD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS:’ I ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION < DTIC ANNUAL/FINAL...AA I 78 11. TITLE (In•.ju . ’,curry Ci.si fication) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolatior and CharacteriZation 12. PERSONAL

  12. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  13. Federal Blue-Collar Employees: A Workforce in Transistion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    should include example, a GAO study of the Mare Island explicit consideration of the needs of the blue-collar downsizing in 1990 noted that the layoff ...setting personnel policies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES Federal Government, blue-collar workforce, downsizing , performance managem pg...Federal BIW-Colar Emp£lo .: A Workforn in Transition v contents Downsizing in the Blue-Collar W orkforce

  14. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  15. Catalytic reduction of methylene blue by sulfide ions in the presence of nanoAlMCM-41 material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Rakhshaee, R.; Radaee, A.; Heidarian, S.

    2010-03-01

    This article reports the reduction of methylene blue (MB) by sulfide ions (S 2-) in aqueous solution by a nanoAlMCM-41 catalyst. The results obtained showed that, under acidic conditions (pH=2) MB was reduced to the Leuco methylene blue (LMB) form by sulfide ions and by changing the pH between 2.0 and 7.0 a reduction of the MB dye to the MBH 2+ form was observed. In alkaline media (pH=8), a reduction of methylene blue by sulfide ions to the MBH 2+ form and demethylation of the dye was observed simultaneously. The demethylation of MB leads to a thionine dye product. Using nanoAlMCM-41 but with encapsulated CoS nanoparticles only causes demethylation of MB in aqueous solution.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light over Cr doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Inamur Rahman; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Hassan, Mallick Shamshi; Yang, O-Bong

    2010-05-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and chromium doped SrTiO3 (Cr/SrTiO3) were prepared by modified sol-gel method with the citric acid as a chelating agent in the ethylene glycol solution for the effective photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. The synthesized doped and un-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles were structurally characterized and their photoresponse performances for the efficient degradation of methylene blue dye have been demonstrated. After introducing the Cr on SrTiO3, UV-Vis absorption was appeared the red-shift at 566 nm from 392 nm as compare with bare SrTiO3. The photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr/SrTiO3 was significantly improved to 60% degradation of methylene blue in 3 h under visible light, which is approximately 5 times higher than that of the bare SrTiO3.

  17. [Sensitive determination of Bi3+ by spectrofluorimetry based on graphene oxide-methylene blue system].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qiu-ge; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yan-ming

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The interaction of graphene with methylene blue was studied by UV absorption, the intensity of two main absorption peaks of methylene blue decreased significantly after the fluorescence was quenched, and the energy transfer didn't occur because the overlap of the absorption spectrum of GO and the emission spectrum of MB is too small. Therefore, the fluorescence quenching of MB and GO was static. When adding a certain amount of Bi3+ in the graphene-methylene blue system, Bi3+ replaces the methylene blue from the graphene-methylene blue complexes because Bi3+ has the smaller volume and is more positively charged. The methylene blue therefore dissociates from the GO-MB complexes, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence of the system. Furthermore, the fluorescence of the system increases with the increase in the amount of Bi3+ due to the enhanced amount of MB in the system. A novel spectrofluorimetric method was therefore developed for the sensitive determination of Bi3+. Some parameters including the concentration of methylene blue, the amount of graphene oxide, the amount of nitric acid and the sequence of reagent adding were optimized to obtain higher sensitivity. The fluorescence of the system was detected at an emission wavelength of 667 nm with excitation at 690 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of Bi3+ showed good linear relationships with the fluorescence intensity in the range of 0.5-100 micromol x L(-1), with correlation coefficients of r = 0.9955. The limits of detection for Bi3+ was 1.0 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1) (S/N=3). The selectivity of the proposed method was evaluated and the results showed that 1000-fold K+, Ca+, Na+, Mg2+, Cu2+; 100-fold Fe3+, Be2+, SiO2- Al3+, Ni2+, Sb3+, NO3-, Cl-, F-, and 20-fold Pb2+, Hg2+, Cd2+ had negligible interference with the determination of Bi3+. The method has advantages of

  18. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2012-10-16

    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin.

  19. Separation of molybdenum from interfering elements by extraction as phosphomolybdenum blue.

    PubMed

    Yatirajam, V; Ram, J

    1973-09-01

    A simple method is described for the separation of molybdenum from titanium, zirconium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, uranium and aluminium in a wide variety of samples in <30 min. Phosphomolybdenum blue is produced by boiling for 2 min a molybdate solution containing phosphate to give Mo/P = 20-37 (w/w) with hydrazine sulphate in 0.1N sulphuric acid. The volume and acidity are adjusted to give a molybdenum concentration of 0.6-5 my/ml in 0.4-0.5N sulphuric acid. The phosphomolybdenum blue is 99.5% extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone in a single extraction. The residual molybdenum and hydrazine in the aqueous phase are oxidized with a few drops of liquid bromine and the molybdenum is quantitatively extracted with the same solvent from 1N sulphuric acid as its reddish brown thiosulphato complex. The molybdenum is stripped by ammonia-hydrogen peroxide solution. The back-extract is heated to boiling and filtered to remove the insoluble hydroxides of traces of accompanying elements. The thiosulphate in the filtrate is destroyed by boiling for 4-5 min with excess of hydrogen peroxide in slightly ammoniacal medium. The molybdenum is determined finally by cerimetry or other standard methods.

  20. Radiation sensitive indicator based on tetrabromophenol blue dyed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshir, W. B.

    2013-05-01

    Radiation sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing acid- sensitive dye (tetrabromophenol blue, TBPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl3·CH·(OH)2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo color change from blue (the alkaline form of TBPB) to yellow (the acidic form of TBPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maximum of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 8 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 0 to 70% as good post irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature. The overall combined uncertainty (at 2σ) associated with measurement of response (ΔA mm-1) at 623 nm for dose range 1-8 kGy is 4.53%.

  1. High resolution clear native electrophoresis is a good alternative to blue native electrophoresis for the characterization of the Escherichia coli membrane complexes.

    PubMed

    Diéguez-Casal, Ernesto; Freixeiro, Paula; Costoya, Liliana; Criado, M Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos; Sánchez, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    Blue native electrophoresis (BNE) has become the most popular method for the global analysis of membrane protein complexes. Although it has been shown to be very useful for that purpose, it can produce the dissociation of complexes with weak interactions and, due to the use of Coomassie Brilliant Blue, does not allow the subsequent application of fluorimetric and/or enzymatic techniques. Recently, we have successfully used the high resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) for the analysis of Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane porin complexes. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the complexome of the Escherichia coli envelope by using hrCNE and to compare our results with those previously obtained using BNE. The bidimensional electrophoresis approaches used, hrCN/hrCNE and hrCN/SDS-PAGE, coupled to mass spectrometry allowed a detailed analysis of the complexome of E. coli membranes. For the first time, the three subunits of the formate dehydrogenase FDH-O were identified forming a single complex and hrCNE also allowed the identification of both the HflK and HflC proteins as components of the HflA complex. This technique also allowed us to suggest a relationship between OmpF and DLDH and, although OmpA is considered to be monomeric in vivo, we found this protein structured as homodimers. Thus hrCNE provides a good tool for future analyses of bacterial membrane proteins and complexes and is an important alternative to the commonly used BNE.

  2. Be an acid rain detective

    SciTech Connect

    Atwill, L.

    1982-07-01

    Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

  3. New self-assembled material based on Ru nanoparticles and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for reduction of brilliant yellow azo dye in water: a new model catalytic reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, Darsi; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Dhir, Abhimanew

    2016-12-01

    New self-assembled material ( Ru@SC) with ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene (SC) is synthesized in water at room temperature. Ru@SC is characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, powder x-ray diffraction, TEM and SEM analysis. The size of Ru nanoparticles in the self-assembly is approximately 5 nm. The self-assembled material Ru@SC shows an efficient catalytic reduction of toxic `brilliant yellow' (BY) azo dye. The reduced amine products were successfully separated and confirmed by single-crystal XRD, NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ru@SC showed a better catalytic activity in comparison with commercial catalysts Ru/C (ruthenium on charcoal 5 %) and Pd/C (palladium on charcoal 5 and 10 %). The catalyst also showed a promising recyclability and heterogeneous nature as a catalyst for reduction of `BY' azo dye.

  4. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  5. Phototropins but not cryptochromes mediate the blue light-specific promotion of stomatal conductance, while both enhance photosynthesis and transpiration under full sunlight.

    PubMed

    Boccalandro, Hernán E; Giordano, Carla V; Ploschuk, Edmundo L; Piccoli, Patricia N; Bottini, Rubén; Casal, Jorge J

    2012-03-01

    Leaf epidermal peels of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking either phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) or cryptochromes 1 and 2 (cry1 and cry2) exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light. Since phot and cry are UV-A/blue light photoreceptors, they may be involved in the perception of the blue light-specific signal that induces the aperture of the stomatal pores. In leaf epidermal peels, the blue light-specific effect saturates at low irradiances; therefore, it is considered to operate mainly under the low irradiance of dawn, dusk, or deep canopies. Conversely, we show that both phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 have reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis, particularly under the high irradiance of full sunlight at midday. These mutants show compromised responses of stomatal conductance to irradiance. However, the effects of phot and cry on photosynthesis were largely nonstomatic. While the stomatal conductance phenotype of phot1 phot2 was blue light specific, cry1 cry2 showed reduced stomatal conductance not only in response to blue light, but also in response to red light. The levels of abscisic acid were elevated in cry1 cry2. We conclude that considering their effects at high irradiances cry and phot are critical for the control of transpiration and photosynthesis rates in the field. The effects of cry on stomatal conductance are largely indirect and involve the control of abscisic acid levels.

  6. Croconic acid - An absorber in the Venus clouds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Karen K.; Wolff, Andrew R.; Travis, Larry D.

    1989-01-01

    The absorbing species responsible for the UV cloud features and pale yellow hue of the Venus clouds is presently suggested to be the carbon monoxide-polymer croconic acid, which strongly absorbs in the blue and near-UV. Laboratory absorption-coefficient measurements of a dilute solution of croconic acid in sulfuric acid are used as the bases of cloud-scattering models; the Venus planetary albedo's observed behavior in the blue and near-UV are noted to be qualitatively reproduced. Attention is given to a plausible croconic acid-production mechanism for the Venus cloudtop region.

  7. A hybrid artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for prediction of removal of hazardous dye brilliant green from aqueous solution using zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Ansari, A.; Bahari, F.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Vafaei, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R2) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively.

  8. A hybrid artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for prediction of removal of hazardous dye brilliant green from aqueous solution using zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Ansari, A; Bahari, F; Ghaedi, A M; Vafaei, A

    2015-02-25

    In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively.

  9. Determination of brilliant green from fish pond water using carbon nanotube assisted pseudo-stir bar solid/liquid microextraction combined with UV-vis spectroscopy-diode array detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Khooni, Maliheh Ahmadi-Kalateh; Heidari, Tahereh

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new design of hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) for determination of brilliant green (BG) residues in water fish ponds. This method consists of an aqueous donor phase and carbon nanotube reinforced organic solvent (acceptor phase) operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores and lumen of a porous polypropylene hollow fiber. It is in contact directly with the aqueous donor phase. In this method the solid/liquid extractor phase is supported using a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane. Both ends of the hollow fiber segment are sealed with magnetic stoppers. This device is placed inside the donor solution and plays the rule of a pseudo-stir bar. It is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of carry-over problems. Brilliant green (BG) after extraction from the aqueous samples with mentioned HF-SLPME device was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy with diode array detection (UV-vis/DAD). The absorption wavelength was set to 625 nm ( λmax). The effect of different variables on the extraction was evaluated and optimized to enhance the sensitivity and extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.00-10,000 μg L -1 of BG in the initial solution with R2 = 0.979. Detection limit, based on three times the standard deviation of the blank, was 0.55 μg L -1. All experiments were carried out at room temperature (25 ± 0.5 °C).

  10. Thermal-pressure-mediated hydrolysis of Reactive Blue 19 dye.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Maria; Farooq, Robina; Khalid, Abda; Farooq, Ather; Mahmood, Qaisar; Farooq, Umar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Shaukat, Saleem Farooq

    2009-12-30

    The thermal-pressure-mediated hydrolysis rates and the degradation kinetics of environmentally persistent Reactive Blue (RB) 19 dye were studied. The dye decomposition was studied at 40-120 degrees C, pH 2-10, and atmospheric pressure range of 1-2 atm. The intermediates and end products formed during the degradation were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a possible degradation pathway of RB 19 was proposed. The stability of the dye in aqueous solution was influenced by changes in pH. At pH 4, half-life was 2247.5 min at 40 degrees C and it reduced to 339.4 min when the temperature was increased to 120 degrees C. Acidic conditions were more conducive to enhance hydrolysis rate than basic ones as the decomposition was optimum at pH 4. The kinetic studies indicated that the rate of hydrolysis apparently followed first order reaction. A linear relationship was observed between hydrolysis rate of RB 19 dye and increasing temperatures and pressures. Overall, 23% dye decomposition occurred in 120 minutes at pH 4, 120 degrees C and pressure of 2 atm. Along with thermal-pressure, a combination of techniques like physico-chemical, biological, enzymatic etc. may be more suitable choice for the effective treatment of RB19 dye.

  11. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  12. Lysis of Blue-Green Algae by Myxobacter

    PubMed Central

    Shilo, Miriam

    1970-01-01

    Enrichment from local fishponds led to the isolation of a bacterium capable of lysing many species of unicellular and filamentous blue-green algae, as well as certain bacteria. The isolate is an aflagellate, motile rod which moves in a gliding, flexuous manner; the organism is capable of digesting starch and agar, but not cellulose and gelatin. Its deoxyribonucleic acid base pair composition (per cent guanine plus cytosine ∼70) shows a close resemblance to that of the fruiting myxobacteria. Algae in lawns on agar plates were lysed rapidly by the myxobacter, but only limited and slow lysis occurred in liquid media, and no lysis took place when liquid cultures were shaken. No diffusible lytic factors would be demonstrated. Continuous observation of the lytic process under a phase-contrast microscope suggested that a close contact between the polar tip of the myxobacter and the alga is necessary for lysis. The lytic action is limited to the vegetative cells of the algae, whereas heterocysts are not affected. The gas vacuoles of the algal host are the only remnant visible after completion of digestion by the myxobacter. Images PMID:4990764

  13. Blue-Print Autophagy: Potential for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Susan; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment represents a very rich source of biologically active compounds with pharmacological applications. This is due to its chemical richness, which is claiming considerable attention from the health science communities. In this review we give a general overview on the marine natural products involved in stimulation and inhibition of autophagy (a type of programmed cell death) linked to pharmacological and pathological conditions. Autophagy represents a complex multistep cellular process, wherein a double membrane vesicle (the autophagosome) captures organelles and proteins and delivers them to the lysosome. This natural and destructive mechanism allows the cells to degrade and recycle its cellular components, such as amino acids, monosaccharides, and lipids. Autophagy is an important mechanism used by cells to clear pathogenic organism and deal with stresses. Therefore, it has also been implicated in several diseases, predominantly in cancer. In fact, pharmacological stimulation or inhibition of autophagy have been proposed as approaches to develop new therapeutic treatments of cancers. In conclusion, this blue-print autophagy (so defined because it is induced and/or inhibited by marine natural products) represents a new strategy for the future of biomedicine and of biotechnology in cancer treatment. PMID:27455284

  14. Approaches toward a blue semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.

    1989-01-01

    Possible approaches for obtaining semiconductor diode laser action in the blue region of the spectrum are surveyed. A discussion of diode lasers is included along with a review of the current status of visible emitters, presently limited to 670 nm. Methods are discussed for shifting laser emission toward shorter wavelengths, including the use of II-IV materials, the increase in the bandgap of III-V materials by addition of nitrogen, and changing the bandstructure from indirect to direct by incorporating interstitial atoms or by constructing superlattices. Non-pn-junction injection methods are surveyed, including avalanche breakdown, Langmuir-Blodgett diodes, heterostructures, carrier accumulation, and Berglund diodes. Prospects of inventing new multinary semiconducting materials are discussed, and a number of novel materials described in the literature are tabulated. New approaches available through the development of quantum wells and superlattices are described, including resonant tunneling and the synthesis of arbitrary bandgap materials through multiple quantum wells.

  15. Red spectra from white and blue noise

    PubMed Central

    Balmforth, N. J.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E. A.; Martens, M.; Tresser, C.; Wu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The value of maps of the interval in modelling population dynamics has recently been called into question because temporal variations from such maps have blue or white power spectra, whereas many observations of real populations show time-series with red spectra. One way to deal with this discrepancy is to introduce chaotic or stochastic fluctuations in the parameters of the map. This leads to on–off intermittency and can markedly redden the spectrum produced by a model that does not by itself have a red spectrum. The parameter fluctuations need not themselves have a red spectrum in order to achieve this effect. Because the power spectrum is not invariant under a change of variable, another way to redden the spectrum is by a suitable transformation of the variables used. The question this poses is whether spectra are the best means of characterizing a fluctuating variable.

  16. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  17. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  18. A clock reaction based on molybdenum blue.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich; Negron, Arnaldo; Jensen, Klavs F

    2013-05-30

    Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow molybdenum complex as precursor, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the concomitant color change is reversible, enabling multiple clock cycles to be executed consecutively. The kinetics of the clock reaction were experimentally characterized, and by adding insights from quantum chemical calculations, a plausible reaction mechanism was postulated. Key elementary reaction steps comprise sigmatropic rearrangements with five-membered or bicyclo[3.1.0] transition states. Importantly, numerical kinetic modeling demonstrated the mechanism's ability to reproduce the experimental findings. It also revealed that clock behavior is intimately connected to the sudden exhaustion of hydrogen peroxide. Due to the stoichiometric coproduction of ketone, the reaction bears potential for application in alcohol oxidation catalysis.

  19. Blue Dots Team Transits Working Group Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Afonso, C.; Alonso, R.; Blank, D. L.; Catala, C.; Deeg, H.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hellier, C.; Latham, D. W.; Minniti, D.; Pont, F.; Rauer, H.

    2010-10-01

    Transiting planet systems offer a unique opportunity to observationally constrain proposed models of the interiors (radius, composition) and atmospheres (chemistry, dynamics) of extrasolar planets. The spectacular successes of ground-based transit surveys (more than 60 transiting systems known to-date) and the host of multi-wavelength, spectro-photometric follow-up studies, carried out in particular by HST and Spitzer, have paved the way to the next generation of transit search projects, which are currently ongoing (CoRoT, Kepler), or planned. The possibility of detecting and characterizing transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of their parent stars appears tantalizingly close. In this contribution we briefly review the power of the transit technique for characterization of extrasolar planets, summarize the state of the art of both ground-based and space-borne transit search programs, and illustrate how the science of planetary transits fits within the Blue Dots perspective.

  20. Sunspot temperatures from red and blue photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Preminger, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Photometric images are used to measure the temperature of sunspots at different wavelengths. Images at 672.3 nm and 472.3 nm are obtained at the San Fernando Observatory using the CFDT2 (2.5'' x 2.5'' pixels). Images at 607.1 nm and 409.4 nm are obtained by the PSPT at Mauna Loa Observatory. Monochromatic intensities are converted to temperatures as in Steinegger et al (1990). The pixel by pixel temperature for a sunspot is converted into a bolometric contrast for that sunspot according to Chapman et al (1994). Sunspot temperatures, i.e., their bolometric contrasts, are calculated from both red (672.3 nm) and blue wavelengths (472.3 nm) and compared.