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Sample records for acid calcium salt

  1. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  9. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products.

  10. Preparation and characterization of uniform particles of flufenamic acid and its calcium and barium salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amr Ali; Matijević, Egon

    2012-09-01

    Uniform fully dispersed particles of flufenamic acid, a widely used anti-inflammatory drug, were prepared by two different methods. In the first one, the drug solution in organic solvents was added to a non-solvent (water or aqueous solutions of stabilizers); while in the second procedure the drug was precipitated by acidifying its basic aqueous solutions. In addition calcium and barium salts of uniform spherical particles were obtained by precipitation in aqueous basic solutions of the drug. These salts are supposed to improve the drug reactivity. The prepared dispersions of the drug and its salts were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and electrophoresis.

  11. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  12. Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; Burdock, G A; Preuss, H G; Stohs, S J; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, D

    2004-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10-30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is to systematically review the available safety/toxicity literature on HCA to determine its safety in-use. The primary mechanism of action of HCA appears to be related to its ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), primary building blocks of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium-HCA extract (HCA-SX), is considerably more soluble and bioavailable than calcium-based HCA ingredients. Acute oral toxicity studies in animals demonstrate that CitriMax (50% HCA as calcium salt) has a low acute oral toxicity. In a subchronic study in rats, the gavage administration of HCA-SX at doses up to 2500 mg/kg/day for a period of 90 days caused a significant decrease in body weight and reduction in feed consumption without any adverse effects. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of use of HCA and other toxicity studies indicate that HCA-SX is unlikely to cause reproductive or developmental effects. HCA-SX was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation in Ames genotoxicity assays in strains TA98 and TA102. HCA-SX-induced increases in number of revertants in other strains (TA100 and TA1535 in the absence of metabolic activation and in strain TA1537 in the presence of metabolic activation) but these were not considered as biologically indicative of a mutagenic effect. In several, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials employing up to 2800 mg/day HCA, no treatment-related adverse

  13. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  14. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

    PubMed

    Downs, Bernard W; Bagchi, Manashi; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Shara, Michael A; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

  15. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Garis, R I; Bramble, J D; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Rao, C V S; Satyanarayana, S

    2005-01-01

    The weight-loss efficacy of a novel, water-soluble, calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) was re-examined in 90 obese subjects (BMI: 30-50.8 kg/m2). We combined data from two previously reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in order to achieve a better statistical evaluation based on a larger population. This re-examination of data also allowed us to reflect more intensely on various aspects of weight loss studies. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: group A received a daily dose of HCA-SX 4, 667 mg (providing 2,800 mg HCA per day); group B was given a daily dose of a combination of HCA-SX 4,667 mg, niacin-bound chromium (NBC) 4 mg (providing 400 microg elemental chromium), and Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) 400 mg (providing 100 mg gymnemic acid); and group C received a placebo in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before each meal. All subjects were provided a 2,000 kcal diet/day and participated in a supervised walking program for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. Eighty-two subjects completed the study. At the end of 8 weeks, in group A, both body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4%, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were reduced by 12.9% and 6.9%, respectively, while high-density lipoprotein levels increased by 8.9%, serum leptin levels decreased by 38%, serotonin levels increased by 44.5% and urinary excretion of fat metabolites increased by 32-109%. Group B demonstrated similar beneficial changes, but generally to a greater extent. No significant adverse effects were observed. The combined results confirm that HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX plus NBC and GSE reduce body weight and BMI, suppress appetite, improve blood lipid profiles, increase serum leptin and serotonin levels and increase fat oxidation more than placebo. We conclude that dosage levels, timing of administration, subject compliance and bioavailability of HCA-SX significantly affect results and

  16. Structure and properties of the sodium, potassium and calcium salts of 2-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)aminobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszynski, Rafal; Trzesowska-Kruszynska, Agata; Majewski, Piotr; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Majewska, Kamila; Sierański, Tomasz; Lewiński, Bartłomiej

    2010-04-01

    The mefenamic acid sodium, potassium, and calcium salts with general formulae [Na(mef)(H 2O) 2] n· nH 2O, [K(mef)(H 2O)] n and [Ca(mef) 2(H 2O) 2] n· nH 2O have been synthesised, studied by X-ray crystallography, 1H and 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. The complex salts are air stable and soluble in water. During heating the Na and K complexes melt in the complexed water and next recrystallise in anhydrous form. In the solid state all salts create one-dimensional coordination polymers. The central atoms are five, six and seven coordinated, respectively, for Na, K and Ca complexes. In all structures exist O sbnd H⋯O, N sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The vibrational analysis has been carried out for mefenamic acid and its three coordination polymer compounds on the basis of experimental results as well as quantum mechanical calculations. The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies are similar and reveal characteristic vibrations for all IR active oscillators. In the IR spectra of salts exist strong bands at ca. 1365 and 1600 cm -1 typical for carboxylate groups.

  17. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  18. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  19. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  20. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  1. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  2. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  3. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  4. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake.

  5. Intake, performance, and efficiency of nutrient utilization in Saanen goat kids fed diets containing calcium salts of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Ana Paula Silva; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; de Souza, Rodrigo; Gomes, Ludmila Couto; de Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca; Martins, Elias Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Saanen goat kids with calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) in diet, on intake, performance, digestibility of nutrients, and blood parameters. Twenty-eight uncastrated male goat kids, with round average age to 112.86 ± 4.81 days and an average body weight (BW) of 19.54 ± 2.76 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design distributed into four groups with seven animals per group: one control group fed a diet containing 2.5 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg dry matter (DM) and three groups fed a diet containing 2.6, 2.7, or 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM, with CSFA added to increase the energy levels. The animals were fed the diets until they reached an average BW of 28 kg. There was hardly any apparent effect of dietary CSFA on intake of DM and organic matter (OM). The digestibility of DM and OM showed an improvement with 2.64 and 2.65 Mcal ME/kg DM in the diet. The diets containing CSFA improved average daily gain and reduced the time on the feedlot to 30 days fed diet with 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM. However, lipid supplementation increased serum cholesterol levels. Thus, CSFA can be used to increase the energy density of the diet in finisher Saanen goat kids and improve performance by reducing days on feedlot.

  6. Safety assessment of a calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Lau, Francis C; Kim, Doun; Kim, Seung Un; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2010-11-01

    The safety of Garcinia cambogiaextract, its active ingredient (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), and the marketed weight management formula, Super CitriMax(®) (HCA-SX), is supported by numerous in vitro and animal experimental studies as well as several clinical studies. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis, and decrease body weight. A series of toxicological tests including acute, short-term, and sub-chronic studies as well as teratogenicity/reproduction and genotoxicity studies were performed on HCA-SX. In the acute oral toxicity study, administration of a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg of HCA-SX did not reveal any significant changes for all examined tissues. Following the high dose safety testing, there were no remarkable changes or differences observed in any of the experimental conditions monitored. There were no macroscopic abnormalities for any examined tissues at scheduled necropsies. On the basis of these findings, the consumption of HCA-SX at dose level of up to 4667 mg/day is considered safe.

  7. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  8. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  9. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  10. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  11. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  12. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely used in foods for...

  13. Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment

  14. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows

  15. Effects of supplementing with calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids or hydrogenated tallow on ewe milk production and twin lamb growth.

    PubMed

    Appeddu, L A; Ely, D G; Aaron, D K; Deweese, W P; Fink, E

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Polypay ewes nursing twin lambs to evaluate the effects of supplementing fat (calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids or hydrogenated tallow) on ewe lactation. In Exp. 1, ewes were fed a 52% concentrate:48% hay-based diet (as-fed basis) consisting of alfalfa hay (n = 4), endophyte-free fescue hay (n = 4), or fescue hay with 3.7% fatty acids (n = 4) from d 4 to 56 of lactation. In Exp. 2, ewes were fed similar diets that had endophyte-free fescue hay (n = 6), fescue hay with 3.7% fatty acids (n = 5), or fescue hay with 3.1% tallow (n = 6) from d 14 before lambing until d 57 of lactation. Diet formulations with supplemental fat were more nutrient dense, and treatments were fed to meet ewe nutrient requirements; this caused diets with added fat to be offered at 10 and 17% lower rates than unsupplemented diets in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Lambs were maintained to consume only ewe milk. Ewe milk production and composition were determined using a portable milking machine following a 3-h separation from lambs. In Exp. 1, milk fat content was increased (P < 0.01) when ewes consumed fescue hay with fatty acids vs. the fescue hay diet (11.4 vs. 8.3%). Ewes fed fescue hay with fatty acids lost the most (P < 0.05) weight over lactation (-8.6 kg) compared with ewes fed the alfalfa hay (-2.4 kg) and fescue hay (-3.8 kg) diets. Other milk measures, lamb gain, and production efficiencies were not changed. In Exp. 2, ewes supplemented with fatty acids produced more (P < 0.05) milk fat than those fed tallow (290 vs. 210 g/d). The proportion of synthesized milk fat 14:0 was decreased (P < 0.01), but the percentage of incorporated 16:0 increased (P < 0.05) when fatty acids were fed. Dietary fat digestibility by ewes was increased (P < 0.01) by fatty acid supplementation but decreased (P < 0.01) when tallow was added. Although ewe weight measures were not changed in Exp. 2, twin lamb gain per ewe organic matter intake was most efficient (P < 0

  16. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  17. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  18. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  19. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  20. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  1. Effects of whole flaxseed, raw soybeans, and calcium salts of fatty acids on measures of cellular immune function of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Barletta, R V; Mingoti, R D; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Oliveira, L J; Takiya, C S; Kfoury, J R; Wiltbank, M C; Renno, F P

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) sources on cellular immune function of transition dairy cows. Animals were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (n-3 FA source; n=11), 60 and 80g/kg of whole flaxseed [diet dry matter (DM) basis] during pre- and postpartum, respectively; whole raw soybeans (n-6 FA source; n=10), 120 and 160g/kg of whole raw soybeans (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated FA (Megalac-E, n-6 FA source; n=10), 24 and 32g/kg of calcium salts of unsaturated FA (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively. Supplemental FA did not alter DM intake and milk yield but increased energy balance during the postpartum period. Diets containing n-3 and n-6 FA sources increased phagocytosis capacity of leukocytes and monocytes and phagocytosis activity of monocytes. Furthermore, n-3 FA source increased phagocytic capacity of leukocytes and neutrophils and increased phagocytic activity in monocytes and neutrophils when compared with n-6 FA sources. Supplemental FA effects on adaptive immune system included increased percentage of T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, cells that expressed IL-2 receptors, and CD62 adhesion molecules. The results of this study suggest that unsaturated FA can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immunity and trigger a proinflammatory response. The n-3 FA seems to have a greater effect on phagocytic capacity and activity of leukocytes when compared with n-6 FA.

  2. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous... prescribed conditions: (a) The additives meet the following specifications: (1) Fumaric acid contains...

  3. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  4. The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and/or L-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, K H; Abo-El maaty, Amal M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids with or without of l-carnitine on ovarian activity using 24 Rahmani ewes randomly allocated to four treatments. Control animals (n=6) were fed a basal diet of hay (64.2%) and barley grain (35.0%) plus minerals and vitamins (0.8%). Ewes on the three treatments received the same basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids (CSFA) at 3% of the basal diet dry matter intake (1.4 kg/ewe/d); 250 ppm l-carnitine (LC); or both these supplements (CSFA+LC). All use exhibited natural estrus on one or two occasions and were weighed at the start and the end of the study as well as body condition score was assessed at the end of study. All ewes were then synchronised for estrus using intravaginal sponges for 12 d prior to the start of the nutritional treatments and three weeks after the nutritional treatments began. The nutritional treatments were imposed for a total of 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of treatments and every two weeks thereafter except after sponge removal of first and second synchronisation where the blood samples were collected daily for progesterone assay. The results revealed that Rahmani ewes received basal diet (control) and l-carnitine had significantly decrease final body weight and body condition score (36.3+/-0.4; 36.8+/-0.3; 2.2+/-0.04; 2.1+/-0.05; p<0.05, respectively) than those on CSFA and CSFA+LC (38.6+/-0.9; 39.5+/-0.6; 3.3+/-0.07; 3.4+/-0.06; respectively). At the second ultrasound examination, the control animals had significantly fewer total follicles (7.3+/-0.8; p<0.05) than those on the CSFA (8.4+/-0.8), l-carnitine (8.7+/-1.5) and CSFA+LC (8.0+/-0.6) treatments. The increased numbers occurred in the medium and large categories of follicles. In addition, the ovulation rates were significantly lower (p<0.05) for control (1.3+/-0.2) and l-carnitine (1.5+/-0.00) than for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3) and

  5. Calcium-based Lewis acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Begouin, Jeanne-Marie; Niggemann, Meike

    2013-06-17

    Recently, Lewis acidic calcium salts bearing weakly coordinating anions such as Ca(NTf₂)₂, Ca(OTf)₂, CaF₂ and Ca[OCH(CF₃)₂]₂ have been discovered as catalysts for the transformation of alcohols, olefins and carbonyl compounds. High stability towards air and moisture, selectivity and high reactivity under mild reaction conditions render these catalysts a sustainable and mild alternative to transition metals, rare-earth metals or strong Brønsted acids.

  6. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-09-01

    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA.

  7. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

    2014-01-01

    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  8. The impact of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on the acid-base balance and calcium metabolism of non-lactating, non-pregnant dairy cows fed equal amounts of different anionic salts.

    PubMed

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Leonie Loeffler, S; Frömer, Sven; Engel, Maike; Hartmann, Helmut; Männer, Klaus; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated the impact of the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the influence of anionic salts (AS) on the metabolism of dairy cows using a study-design that included control of feed intake. Ten mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant, Holstein-Friesian-crossbreed cows received 2000 mEq of either one of the seven anionic salts tested, two combinations of the anionic salts or water as control via a rumen cannula. Salts and controls were assigned in a 10x10 Latin square design. Whole blood, serum and urine samples were taken during treatment (TP) and washout period. Samples of whole blood were tested for pH, base-excess and bicarbonate concentrations. In urine, pH and net acid-base excretion (NABE) were analysed. Calcium was measured in serum and urine. According to the different batches of hay, five groups of DCAD were created regarding cluster analysis. Changes in urine and blood parameters were statistically analysed for each DCAD group separately. The different DCAD had an impact on the amount of change in acid-base balance (ABB) and calcium metabolism and for how long these changes lasted. In the DCAD group receiving the highest amount of AS (239 mEq/kg dry matter with AS), changes of ABB were only noticeable in urine and these changes only differed from day zero in the first week of TP (P<0.05). In the other four groups changes of ABB were also visible in blood parameters, but only on a few days of TP did the deviations differ significantly (P<0.05) from day zero. Changes of ABB parameters in urine samples were more pronounced than those in blood and differed clearly from day zero (P<0.05). Parallel to the changes of ABB, calcium concentrations in these samples were significantly increased (P<0.001) in all DCAD groups. Except for the highest DCAD group, ionized calcium concentrations changed over time (P<0.020). However, the differences were very small and only differed from day zero on a few TP days. We conclude that the DCAD of a dairy cow's diet has an

  9. Effects of calcium salts on beef longissimus quality.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T E; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Kastner, C L; Johnson, D E

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of injection marination with calcium salts on beef longissimus quality traits. Strip loins were injected (11% by weight) with distilled water or a 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 M solution of calcium ascorbate, calcium chloride, or calcium lactate. Non-injected loins served as controls. Visual and instrumental color evaluations indicated that calcium ascorbate accelerated myoglobin oxidation, and increasing molar concentration of any calcium salt caused faster (P<0.05) discoloration. Aerobic microbial plate counts were lower (P<0.05) for treatments containing calcium lactate than those with calcium chloride or calcium ascorbate. Calcium ascorbate inhibited lipid oxidation whereas calcium lactate and calcium chloride appeared to be pro-oxidants of lipid oxidation. No differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force or sensory panel tenderness were found among the calcium salts; however, 0.3 M treatments had lower shear values and were judged more tender than 0.1 M treatments. Calcium ascorbate and calcium chloride treatments resulted in less (P<0.05) beef flavor and more (P<0.05) off-flavors than calcium lactate treatments. In addition, 0.1 M treatments had higher (P<0.05) beef flavor scores while 0.3 M treatments had higher (P<0.05) off-flavor scores. Considering the effects on color life, microbial inhibition, shear force, and sensory traits, we recommend injecting beef longissimus with a 0.1 M solution of calcium lactate to enhance both uncooked and cooked quality.

  10. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  11. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  16. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with /sup 45/Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO/sub 3/ and CaCl/sub 2/ than from CaC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  17. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Martin, B R; Ebner, J S; Krueger, C A

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO3 and CaCl2 than from CaC2O4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  18. Identifying acid salts of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.; Thivierge, R.F. Jr.; Xu, W.W.

    1987-11-05

    In preliminary work they found that significant quantities of certain nitrogen oxides and of sulfuric acid were absorbed by lower hydrates of magnesium sulfate. It appeared that acid salts were being formed but the known chemistry of group IIA (group 2) sulfates and acid sulfates which was worked out many years ago did not provide an explanation of their observations. They developed a new technique for delineating the solidus boundary of ternary mixtures using friability tests and applied it to the systems of interest. Magnesium acid salt hydrates with compositions on the solidus boundary could be readily identified. X-ray powder patterns confirmed the existence of two previously unknown ternary compounds, Mg/sub 2/(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O and Mg(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 3H/sub 2/O. Mixed acid sulfate-nitrate-hydrates could be detected but fuming at room temperatures interfered with quantitative determinations of the solidus boundary and X-ray measurements.

  19. Effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and rumen-protected methionine on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Fukumori, R; Sugino, T; Shingu, H; Moriya, N; Hasegawa, Y; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Obitsu, T; Kushibiki, S; Taniguchi, K

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CLFAs) and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide, and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows. Four Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 by 4 Latin square experiment in each 2-wk period. Cows were fed corn silage-based diets with supplements of CLFAs (1.5% added on dry matter basis), RPM (20 g/d), CLFAs plus RPM, and without supplement. Jugular blood samples were taken from 1 h before to 2 h after morning feeding at 10-min intervals on day 12 of each period. CLFAs decreased dry matter intake, but RPM did not affect dry matter intake. Both supplements of CLFAs and RPM did not affect metabolizable energy intake and milk yield and composition. Plasma concentrations of NEFAs, triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (T-Cho) were increased with CLFAs alone, but increases of plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho were moderated by CLFAs plus RPM. Calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids increased plasma ghrelin concentration, and the ghrelin concentration with CLFAs plus RPM was the highest among the treatments. Plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, and insulin were decreased with CLFAs, whereas adding RPM moderated the decrease of plasma glucagon concentration by CLFAs. These results indicate that the addition of methionine to cows given CLFAs increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and glucagon associated with the decrease in plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho.

  20. Effect of anions or foods on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yukari; Taira, Zenei

    2013-01-01

    We studied the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium L-lactate in mice using pharmacokinetics, and reviewed the absolute bioavailability of calcium from three other calcium salts in mice previously studied: calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium ascorbate. The results showed that calcium metabolism is linear between intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, and is not affected by anions. Results after oral calcium administration of 150 mg/kg showed that the intestinal absorption process was significantly different among the four calcium salts. The rank of absolute bioavailability of calcium was calcium ascorbate > calcium L-lactate ≥ calcium acetate > calcium chloride. The mean residence time (MRTab) of calcium from calcium ascorbate (32.2 minutes) in the intestinal tract was much longer than that from calcium L-lactate (9.5 minutes), calcium acetate (15.0 minutes) and calcium chloride (13.6 minutes). Furthermore, the foods di-D-fructo-furanose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride, sudachi (Citrus sudachi) juice, and moromi-su (a Japanese vinegar) increased the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium chloride by 2.46-fold, 2.86-fold, and 1.23-fold, respectively, and prolonged MRTab by 48.5 minutes, 43.1 minutes, and 44.9 minutes, respectively. In conclusion, the prolonged MRTab of calcium in the intestinal tract by anion or food might cause the increased absorbability of calcium.

  1. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  5. [The identification of several saturated fatty acids and their salts by means of infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui

    2007-02-01

    It is considered that saturated fatty acids and their salts may be potential hydrocarbon-generation matters in carbonate rocks. However, there is no effective method to distinguish them from natural sediments, making recognizing their distribution in sediments a challenge. Formic acid, acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium formate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate, and magnesium stearate from some chemical plants were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Their infrared spectra were obtained and the distinctions of the infrared spectra between saturated fatty acids and their salts were studied in detail. The differences in the group's electron-releasing ability, molecular reduced mass, ion configuration and the length of carbon chain can cause wavelength shifts of infrared absorption peaks of the saturated fatty acids and their salts. The research provides a method for the identification of saturated fatty acids and their salts in samples from nature.

  6. Simulating calcium salt precipitation in the nephron using chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Allen L; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham; Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2011-08-01

    Theoretical modeling of urinary crystallization processes affords opportunities to create and investigate scenarios which would be extremely difficult or impossible to achieve in in vivo experiments. Researchers have previously hypothesized that calcium renal stone formation commences in the nephron. In the present study, concentrations of urinary components and pH ranges in different regions of the nephron were estimated from concentrations in blood combined with a knowledge of the renal handling of individual ions. These were used in the chemical speciation program JESS to determine the nature of the solution complexes in the different regions of the nephron and the saturation index (SI) of the stone-forming salts calcium oxalate (CaOx), brushite (Bru), hydroxyapatite (HAP) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP). The effect of independent precipitation of each of the latter on the SI values of other salts was also investigated. HAP was the only salt which was supersaturated throughout the nephron. All of the other salts were supersaturated only in the middle and distal regions of the collecting duct. Supersaturations were pH sensitive. When precipitation of CaOx, Bru and OCP was simulated in the distal part of the collecting duct, little or no effect on the SI values of the other stone forming salts was observed. However, simulation of HAP precipitation caused all other salts to become unsaturated. This suggests that if HAP precipitates, a pure stone comprising this component will ensue while if any of the other salts precipitates, a mixed CaOx/CaP stone will be formed. Application of Ostwald's Rule of Stages predicts that the mixed stone is likely to be CaOx and Bru. Our modelling demonstrates that precipitation of stone-forming salts in the nephron is highly dependent on the delicate nature of the chemical equilibria which prevail and which are themselves highly dependent on pH and component concentrations.

  7. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium on the germinating soybean response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongqi; Yang, Runqiang; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2015-01-15

    Calcium enhances salt stress tolerance of soybeans. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of calcium's involvement in resistance to salt stress is unclear. A comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate protein profiles in germinating soybeans under NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-LaCl3 treatments. A total of 80 proteins affected by calcium in 4-day-old germinating soybean cotyledons and 71 in embryos were confidently identified. The clustering analysis showed proteins were subdivided into 5 and 6 clusters in cotyledon and embryo, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in signal transduction and energy pathways, in transportation, and in protein biosynthesis were largely enriched while those involved in proteolysis were decreased. Abundance of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and three antioxidant enzymes were visibly increased by calcium. Accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and polyamines was also detected after application of exogenous calcium. This was consistent with proteomic results, which showed that proteins involved in the glutamate and methionine metabolism were mediated by calcium. Calcium could increase the salt stress tolerance of germinating soybeans via enriching signal transduction, energy pathway and transportation, promoting protein biosynthesis, inhibiting proteolysis, redistributing storage proteins, regulating protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, enriching antioxidant enzymes and activating their activities, accumulating secondary metabolites and osmolytes, and other adaptive responses. Biological significance Soybean (Glycine max L.), as a traditional edible legume, is being targeted for designing functional foods. During soybean germination under stressful conditions especially salt stress, newly discovered functional components such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are rapidly accumulated. However, soybean plants are relatively salt-sensitive and the growth, development and biomass of germinating soybeans are significantly

  8. Effects of pyruvate salts, pyruvic acid, and bicarbonate salts in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Tanaka, T; Morozumi, M

    1986-05-01

    Sodium pyruvate, potassium pyruvate, pyruvic acid, sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate were added to a calcium-oxalate lithogenic diet (a glycolic-acid diet) in order to determine their effects in preventing lithogenicity. Male Wistar-strain rats who had been fed the glycolic-acid diet developed marked urinary calculi within four weeks. Rats in the sodium and potassium pyruvate groups had, however, almost no stones in the urinary system. Rats in the bicarbonate and pyruvic-acid groups showed slightly less effect than those in the pyruvate groups. Urinary oxalate excretion was high in all the groups during the experiment. The urinary oxalate concentration was relatively higher in the sodium-pyruvate group, and significantly higher in the potassium-pyruvate group, than in the glycolic-acid group. Urinary citrate excretion was high both in the pyruvate and bicarbonate groups; the urinary citrate concentration was, however, significantly higher in the pyruvate groups than in the bicarbonate groups at the fourth experimental week. The urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations were irrelevant to the diets administered. Therefore, it can be concluded that pyruvate salts inhibit urinary calculi formation, not by decreasing oxalate synthesis, but by increasing the urinary citrate concentration; bicarbonate salts work in the same manner, but a little less effectively.

  9. Influence of salt-to-moisture ratio on starter culture and calcium lactate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Powers, J R; Swanson, B G; Chen, S; Clark, S

    2008-08-01

    The occurrence of L(+)-lactate crystals in hard cheeses continues to be an expense to the cheese industry. Salt tolerance of the starter culture and the salt-to-moisture ratio (S:M) in cheese dictate the final pH of cheese, which influences calcium lactate crystal (CLC) formation. This research investigates these interactions on the occurrence of CLC. A commercial starter was selected based on its sensitivity to salt, less than and greater than 4.0% S:M. Cheddar cheese was made by using either whole milk (3.25% protein, 3.85% fat) or whole milk supplemented with cream and ultrafiltered milk (4.50% protein, 5.30% fat). Calculated amounts of salt were added at milling (pH 5.40 +/- 0.02) to obtain cheeses with less than 3.6% and greater than 4.5% S:M. Total and soluble calcium, total lactic acid, and pH were measured and the development of CLC was monitored in cheeses. All cheeses were vacuum packaged and gas flushed with nitrogen gas and aged at 7.2 degrees C for 15 wk. Concentration of total lactic acid in high S:M cheeses ranged from 0.73 to 0.80 g/100 g of cheese, whereas that in low S:M cheeses ranged from 1.86 to 1.97 g/100 g of cheese at the end of 15 wk of aging because of the salt sensitivity of the starter culture. Concentrated milk cheeses with low and high S:M exhibited a 30 to 28% increase in total calcium (1,242 and 1,239 mg/100 g of cheese, respectively) compared with whole milk cheeses with low and high S:M (954 and 967 mg/100 g of cheese, respectively) throughout aging. Soluble calcium was 41 to 35% greater in low S:M cheeses (low-salt whole milk cheese and low-salt concentrated milk cheese; 496 and 524 mg/100 g of cheese, respectively) compared with high S:M cheeses (high-salt whole milk cheese and high-salt concentrated milk cheese; 351 and 387 mg/100 g of cheese, respectively). Because of the lower pH of the low S:M cheeses, CLC were observed in low S:M cheeses. However, the greatest intensity of CLC was observed in gas-flushed cheeses made with

  10. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  14. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  15. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  16. Variations of Dietary Salt and Fluid Modulate Calcium and Magnesium Transport in Renal Distal Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Te; Lien, Yeong-Hau H; Lai, Li-Wen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The renal distal tubule serves as the fine tuning of renal epithelial calcium transport. Dietary intake of salt and fluid varies day to day and the kidney adapts accordingly to maintain the homeostasis. The alternations in salt and fluid balance affect calcium and magnesium transport in the distal tubule, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into high salt, low salt and dehydration treatment. Daily intake, water consumption and urine output were recorded. At the end of experiment, blood and urine samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical testes. Genetic analysis, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence studies were then performed to assess the alterations of calcium and magnesium transport-related molecules. Results High salt treatment increased urinary sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion. Low salt treatment and dehydration were associated with decreased urinary excretion of all electrolytes. High salt treatment was associated with increased intact parathyroid hormone levels. Significant increase in gene expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k and TRPM6 was found during high salt treatment while low salt and dehydration diminished the expression. These findings were confirmed with immunofluorescence studies. High salt and low salt intake or dehydration did not cause any significant changes in WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4. Conclusions Alternations in salt and water intake affect renal calcium and magnesium handling. High salt intake increases distal delivery of the divalent cations which upregulates distal tubule calcium and magnesium transport molecules, while the opposite effects are associated with low salt intake or dehydration. PMID:23774784

  17. The Synthesis of Calcium Salt from Brine Water by Partial Evaporation and Chemical Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalasari, L. H.; Widowati, M. K.; Natasha, N. C.; Sulistiyono, E.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    In this study would be investigated the effects of partial evaporation and chemical precipitation in the formation of calcium salt from brine water resources. The chemical reagents used in the study was oxalate acid (C2H2O4), ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) with reagent concentration of 2 N, respectively. The procedure was 10 liters brine water evaporated until 20% volume and continued with filtration process to separate brine water filtrate from residue (salt). Salt resulted from evaporation process was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Filtrate then was reacted with C2H2O4, (NH4)2CO3 and NH4OH reagents to get salt products in atmospheric condition and variation ratio volume brine water/chemicals (v/v) [10/1; 10/5; 10/10; 10/20; 10/30; 10:50; 20/1; 20/5; 20/10; 20/20; 20/30; 20:50]. The salt product than were filtered, dried, measured weights and finally characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. The result of experiment showed the chemical composition of brine water from Tirta Sanita, Bogor was 28.87% Na, 9.17% Mg, 2.94% Ca, 22.33% O, 0.71% Sr, 30.02% Cl, 1.51% Si, 1.23% K, 0.55% S, 1.31% Al. The chemical composition of salt resulted by partial evaporation was 53.02% Ca, 28.93%O, 9.50% Na, 2.10% Mg, 1.53% Sr, 1.20% Cl, 1.10% Si, 0.63% K, 0.40% S, 0.39% Al. The salt resulted by total evaporation was indicated namely as NaCl. Whereas salt resulted by partial evaporation was CaCO3 with a purity of 90 % from High Score Plus analysis. In the experiment by chemical precipitation was reported that the reagents of ammonium carbonate were more reactive for synthesizing calcium salt from brine water compared to reagents of oxalate acid and ammonium hydroxide. The salts precipitated by NH4OH, (NH4)2CO3, and H2C2O4 reagents were indicated as NaCl, CaCO3 and CaC2O4.H2O, respectively. The techniques of partial evaporation until 20% volume sample of brine water and

  18. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  20. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  1. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  6. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  7. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with... residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  12. Triboelectrification of active pharmaceutical ingredients: week acids and their salts.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Kenta; Ishii, Yuji; Yashihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Estuo; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Tarada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-30

    The effect of salt formulation on the electrostatic property of active pharmaceutical ingredients was investigated. The electrostatic property of weak acids (carboxylic acids and amide-enole type acid) and their sodium salts was evaluated by a suction-type Faraday cage meter. Free carboxylic acids showed negative chargeability, whereas their sodium salts showed more positive chargeability than the free acids. However, no such trend was observed for amide-enole type acids.

  13. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. Layered Calcium Structures of p-Phosphonic Acid O-Methyl-Calix[6]arene

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Thomas E.; Martin, Adam; Makha, Mohamed; Sobolev, Alexandre N.; Su, Dian; Rohrs, Henry W.; Gross, Michael L.; Raston, Colin L.

    2010-01-01

    Hexamethoxy-calix[6]arene has been fully functionalized with p-phosphonic acid groups on the upper rim in 57% yield over three steps, and has been authenticated in the solid state by X-ray diffraction as either a nitrate salt or one of two calcium complexes. The latter differ by the ratio of calcium ions per calixarene, either 3:1 or 4:1. In both structures the coordination sphere of the calcium ions is made up of oxygen atoms from the phosphonic acid groups and from water of crystallization, as part of extended polymeric layers in the extended 3D packing. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows extensive O…H and O…Ca interactions for the phosphonic acid moieties in both calcium structures. MALDI-TOF MS of the hexaphosphonic acid shows nano-arrays consisting of up to a maximum of 28 calixarene units. PMID:20657793

  17. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  18. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid-base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for (1)H, and (31)P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3-40min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤6.7kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100-800μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering.

  19. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  11. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  12. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  8. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  16. Effects of salts on preparation and use of calcium silicates for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Kind, K.K.; Wassermann, P.D.; Rochelle, G.T. )

    1994-02-01

    High surface area calcium silicate hydrates that are highly reactive with SO[sub 2] can be made by slurrying fly ash and lime in water at elevated temperatures for several hours. This concept is the basis for the ADVACATE (ADVAnced siliCATE) process for flue gas desulfurization. This paper examines the impact of salts on such a system. Two low calcium fly ashes, from the Shawnee and Clinch River power plants, were examined. The addition of gypsum (CaSO[sub 4][center dot]2H[sub 2]O) or calcium chloride to the slurry system increased the dissolved calcium concentration, allowing the reaction rate to increase and the maximum surface area to more than double in some cases. This increase came despite a lower solution hydroxide level. The salts also enhanced the reaction of the sorbent with sulfur dioxide. This resulted from the higher equilibrium moisture on the sorbent at any humidity due to the deliquescent properties of some of the salts used (calcium chloride and calcium nitrate). Solids made without the deliquescent salts exhibited equilibrium moisture adsorption consistent with a type-II BET isotherm while the deliquescent salts caused hysteresis in the adsorption/desorption isotherm. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  18. Effect of acute bile acid pool depletion on total and ionized calcium concentrations in human bile.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D; Murphy, G M; Dowling, R H

    1995-04-01

    Although calcium salts are important components of gallstones, there are few data on the total and ionized calcium content of human bile. Therefore, in 14 fasting T-tube patients studied 7-11 days after cholecystectomy, we measured bile flow, bile acid [BA], total [CaTOT] and free ionized [Ca++] calcium concentrations, in 20-30 min bile collections during acute BA pool depletion induced by 6-8 h of continuous bile drainage. During washout of the BA pool there were parallel falls in bile flow, BA output and total calcium output (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.99; P < 0.02-0.001). In 12 of the 14 patients, [CaTOT] also fell (from 1.84 +/- 0.29 to 1.32 +/- 0.34 mmol L-1) in parallel with [BA] (from 34.0 +/- 14.0 to 8.2 +/- 8.0 mmol L-1; r = 0.75-0.98; P < 0.005). In contrast, biliary [Ca++] remained virtually unchanged. These data suggest that the BAs are linked to the bound, rather than to the free, ionized, fraction of biliary calcium, which is consistent with in vivo calcium binding by BAs. A model is proposed in which BA-induced biliary calcium secretion results from (i) bile acid-induced water flow via solvent drag; and (ii) calcium binding in the bile canaliculus by bile acids, which induces paracellular diffusion of Ca++, thereby maintaining [Ca++] independent of [BA].

  19. Preparation and characterization of uniform particles of uric acid and its salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amr Ali; Matijević, Egon

    2013-02-15

    Uric acid, the major component in many kinds of kidney stones, as well as its sodium, ammonium, calcium, and barium salts were successfully prepared as uniform dispersions by precipitation in basic aqueous solutions. The effects of the reactant concentrations, pH, and the stabilizers were evaluated in detail. Except for the platelets of the pure acid, all prepared compounds appeared as needles or their aggregates. The electron micrographs showed that kidney stones consisted of such aggregates although less regular in size and morphology. All prepared urate salts had a 1:1 cation/uric acid ratio, regardless of the valence of the cation. The electrokinetic measurements showed all these particles to have negative ζ-potentials over the pH range 3-9. The precipitated salt particles were chemically and morphologically unstable at low pH values by decomposing into ill-defined aggregates of the pure uric acid.

  20. Purification and characterization of a rabbit salivary protein, a potent inhibitor of crystal growth of calcium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A I; Bernstein, A; Hay, D I; Blum, M; Bennick, A

    1991-01-01

    Human saliva is supersaturated with respect to basic calcium phosphate salts but is stabilized by specific macromolecules that inhibit calcium phosphate precipitation. One of the families of inhibitory proteins in human and monkey saliva is the acidic proline-rich proteins. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize inhibitors of calcium phosphate precipitation from rabbit parotid saliva. Saliva was fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Individual fractions were assayed for their ability to inhibit calcium phosphate crystal growth and the fraction associated with the inhibition was purified by repeated anion exchange chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis and electroelution. A major (APRP) and two minor proteins (AM1, AM2) that were inhibitory were purified. APRP is an acidic proline-rich phospho-glycoprotein and a very potent inhibitor of secondary crystal growth of calcium phosphate as it was active at a concentration of 2 x 10(-8) M in a standard assay. The N-terminal sequence of one APRP was EYENLDGSLAATQNDDD?Q and a clostripain fragment of APRP had the following N-terminal sequence PQHRPPRPGGH-????SPPP?GN???PPP. Although the N-terminal segment of APRP does not resemble that of proline-rich proteins, alignment of the clostripain fragment with the repeat region of such proteins from rat, mouse, monkey and man revealed a high degree of similarity, indicating a structural relationship with the proline-rich protein family.

  1. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C 8 -C 18 Saturated); Exemption from the... fatty acids (C 8 -C 18 saturated) applied pre- and post-harvest on all raw agricultural commodities when... eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of ammonium salts of fatty acids...

  2. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal growth in vitro by uropontin: another member of the aspartic acid-rich protein superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Shiraga, H; Min, W; VanDusen, W J; Clayman, M D; Miner, D; Terrell, C H; Sherbotie, J R; Foreman, J W; Przysiecki, C; Neilson, E G

    1992-01-01

    The majority of human urinary stones are primarily composed of calcium salts. Although normal urine is frequently supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate, most humans do not form stones. Inhibitors are among the multiple factors that may influence the complex process of urinary stone formation. We have isolated an inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal growth from human urine by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and acidic amino acid content of this aspartic acid-rich protein, uropontin, are similar to those of other pontin proteins from bone, plasma, breast milk, and cells. The inhibitory effect of uropontin on calcium oxalate crystal growth in vitro supports the concept that pontins may have a regulatory role. This function would be analogous to that of other members of the aspartic acid-rich protein superfamily, which stereospecifically regulate the mineralization fronts of calcium-containing crystals. Images PMID:1729712

  3. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095) is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder...

  4. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  5. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  14. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X.; Smith, Roger D.; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  15. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X; Smith, Roger D; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  16. Effects of anionic salts in a pre-partum dairy ration on calcium metabolism.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, C J; Lourens, D C

    2001-06-01

    The effects of anionic salts in the transition diet on serum and urine calcium at calving and on peripartal health, subsequent milk production and fertility performance were studied in a well-managed, high-producing Friesland dairy herd. Over a period of a year, approximately 21 days before the expected date of calving, 28 pre-partum heifers and 44 multiparous dry cows were randomly allocated within parity to 1 of 2 transition diets, designated control and experimental anionic diets. The anionic diet contained the same quantities of the basic transition ration fed to the control group as well as a standard anionic salt mixture containing 118 g NH4Cl, 36 g (NH4)2SO4 and 68 g MgSO4 (total 222 g) per animal per day. This reduced the DCAD to -11.68 mEq/100 g dietary dry matter compared to +13.57 for the control diet. Blood and urine were randomly sampled from 7 to 8 animals within each category within 3 hours post-partum. Serum calcium (total and ionised) and creatinine, urine calcium and creatinine and the fractional clearance of calcium were assessed. Relevant clinical, milk production, and fertility data were collected. The total serum calcium (2.07 versus 1.60 mmol/l), serum ionised calcium (1.12 vs 1.02 mmol/l), urine calcium (0.92 vs 0.10 mmol/l) and the fractional clearance of calcium (1.88 vs 0.09%) were significantly higher(P <0.01) at calving for multiparous cows fed the anionic diet compared to those fed the control diet. In the primiparous cows there were no significant differences in serum calcium levels. However, the urine calcium (1.07 vs 0.43 mmol/l) and the fractional clearance of calcium was higher (1.75 vs 0.45%) in cows fed the anionic diet (P <0.05 and 0.01 respectively). These results illustrated that there were benefits, although no differences were demonstrated with respect to health, milk production or fertility. The supplementation of diets with anionic salts in the last 2-3 weeks before calving has the potential to significantly improve

  17. Interactive role of nitric oxide and calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nasir; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a small diffusible, ubiquitous bioactive molecule, acts as prooxidant as well as antioxidant, and also regulates remarkable spectrum of plant cellular mechanisms. The present work was undertaken to investigate the role of nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and/or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) in the tolerance of excised mustard leaves to salt stress. After 24h, salt stressed leaves treated with SNP and/or CaCl(2), showed an improvement in the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and nitrate reductase (NR), and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and leaf ion concentration as compared with the leaves treated with NaCl only. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in H(2)O(2) content and membrane damage which is witnessed by enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage. By contrast, such increases were blocked by the application of 0.2mM SNP and 10mM CaCl(2) to salt stressed leaves. Application of SNP and/or CaCl(2) alleviated NaCl stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and by enhancing proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) accumulation with a concomitant decrease in H(2)O(2) content, TBARS and electrolyte leakage, which is manifested in the tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Moreover, application of SNP with CaCl(2) was more effective to reduce the detrimental effects of NaCl stress on excised mustard leaves. In addition to this, ameliorating effect of SNP was not effective in presence of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide]. To put all these in a nut shell, the results advocate that SNP in association with CaCl(2) plays a role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to salt stress by improving antioxidative defence system, osmolyte accumulation and ionic

  18. Release of calcium from endolysosomes increases calcium influx through N-type calcium channels: Evidence for acidic store-operated calcium entry in neurons.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liang; Geiger, Nicholas H; Bloor-Young, Duncan; Churchill, Grant C; Geiger, Jonathan D; Chen, Xuesong

    2015-12-01

    Neurons possess an elaborate system of endolysosomes. Recently, endolysosomes were found to have readily releasable stores of intracellular calcium; however, relatively little is known about how such 'acidic calcium stores' affect calcium signaling in neurons. Here we demonstrated in primary cultured neurons that calcium released from acidic calcium stores triggered calcium influx across the plasma membrane, a phenomenon we have termed "acidic store-operated calcium entry (aSOCE)". aSOCE was functionally distinct from store-operated calcium release and calcium entry involving endoplasmic reticulum. aSOCE appeared to be governed by N-type calcium channels (NTCCs) because aSOCE was attenuated significantly by selectively blocking NTCCs or by siRNA knockdown of NTCCs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NTCCs co-immunoprecipitated with the lysosome associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), and that aSOCE is accompanied by increased cell-surface expression levels of NTCC and LAMP1 proteins. Moreover, we demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of LAMP1 or Rab27a, both of which are key proteins involved in lysosome exocytosis, attenuated significantly aSOCE. Taken together our data suggest that aSOCE occurs in neurons, that aSOCE plays an important role in regulating the levels and actions of intraneuronal calcium, and that aSOCE is regulated at least in part by exocytotic insertion of N-type calcium channels into plasma membranes through LAMP1-dependent lysosome exocytosis.

  19. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  4. Self-assembly of fatty acids and hydroxyl derivative salts.

    PubMed

    Novales, Bruno; Navailles, Laurence; Axelos, Monique; Nallet, Frédéric; Douliez, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    We report the dispersions of a fatty acid and hydroxyl derivative salts in aqueous solutions that were further used to produce foams and emulsions. The tetrabutyl-ammonium salts of palmitic acid, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, and omega-hydroxy palmitic acid formed isotropic solutions of micelles, whereas the ethanolamine salts of the same acids formed turbid birefringent lamellar solutions. The structure and dimension of those phases were confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering and NMR. Micelles exhibited a surprisingly small radius of about 20 A, even for hydroxyl fatty acids, suggesting the formation of hydrogen bonds between lipids in the core of the micelles. In the case of ethanolamine salts of palmitic and 12-hydroxy stearic acids, the lipids were arranged in bilayers, with a phase transition from gel to fluid upon heating, whereas for omega-hydroxy palmitic acid, monolayers formed in accordance with the bola shape of this lipid. Foams and emulsions produced from ethanolamine salt solutions were more stable than those obtained from tetrabutyl-ammonium salt solutions. We discuss these results in terms of counterion size, lipid molecular shape, and membrane curvature.

  5. Basal and Activated Calcium Sensitization Mediated by RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway in Rats with Genetic and Salt Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bencze, Michal; Vaněčková, Ivana; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Calcium sensitization mediated by RhoA/Rho kinase pathway can be evaluated either in the absence (basal calcium sensitization) or in the presence of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems (activated calcium sensitization). Our aim was to compare basal and activated calcium sensitization in three forms of experimental hypertension with increased sympathetic tone and enhanced calcium entry—spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), heterozygous Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), and salt hypertensive Dahl rats. Activated calcium sensitization was determined as blood pressure reduction induced by acute administration of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil in conscious rats with intact sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Basal calcium sensitization was studied as fasudil-dependent difference in blood pressure response to calcium channel opener BAY K8644 in rats subjected to RAS and SNS blockade. Calcium sensitization was also estimated from reduced development of isolated artery contraction by Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Activated calcium sensitization was enhanced in all three hypertensive models (due to the hyperactivity of vasoconstrictor systems). In contrast, basal calcium sensitization was reduced in SHR and TGR relative to their controls, whereas it was augmented in salt-sensitive Dahl rats relative to their salt-resistant controls. Similar differences in calcium sensitization were seen in femoral arteries of SHR and Dahl rats. PMID:28197417

  6. Basal and Activated Calcium Sensitization Mediated by RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway in Rats with Genetic and Salt Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Behuliak, Michal; Bencze, Michal; Vaněčková, Ivana; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Calcium sensitization mediated by RhoA/Rho kinase pathway can be evaluated either in the absence (basal calcium sensitization) or in the presence of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems (activated calcium sensitization). Our aim was to compare basal and activated calcium sensitization in three forms of experimental hypertension with increased sympathetic tone and enhanced calcium entry-spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), heterozygous Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), and salt hypertensive Dahl rats. Activated calcium sensitization was determined as blood pressure reduction induced by acute administration of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil in conscious rats with intact sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Basal calcium sensitization was studied as fasudil-dependent difference in blood pressure response to calcium channel opener BAY K8644 in rats subjected to RAS and SNS blockade. Calcium sensitization was also estimated from reduced development of isolated artery contraction by Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Activated calcium sensitization was enhanced in all three hypertensive models (due to the hyperactivity of vasoconstrictor systems). In contrast, basal calcium sensitization was reduced in SHR and TGR relative to their controls, whereas it was augmented in salt-sensitive Dahl rats relative to their salt-resistant controls. Similar differences in calcium sensitization were seen in femoral arteries of SHR and Dahl rats.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  8. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  9. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  10. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  11. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  12. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  13. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  14. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  15. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  16. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  17. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  18. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  19. Polyimide amic acid salts and polyimide membranes formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz; Macheras, James Timothy

    2004-04-06

    The invention relates to preparation and uses of novel polymeric materials, polyimide amic acid salts (PIAAS). The use of these materials for the fabrication of fluid separation membranes is further disclosed.

  20. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  1. Reduction of HCl, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions of powerplants using organic salts of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Courtemanch, B.; Steciak, J.; Wise, D.L.

    1998-04-01

    Results from laboratory investigations are described that show the benefits in using organic salts of calcium to control emissions of powerplants. These salts include calcium formate (CF, Ca(COOH){sub 2}), calcium acetate (CA, Ca(CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 2}), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA, CaMg{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 6}), calcium propionate (CP, Ca(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 2}) and calcium benzoate (CB, Ca(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}COOH){sub 2})- Such calcium-containing chemicals are sprayed in the post-combustion region of furnaces to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, HCl and NO{sub x}.

  2. Efficacy of calcium glycerophosphate vs conventional mineral salts for total parenteral nutrition in low-birth-weight infants: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hanning, R M; Atkinson, S A; Whyte, R K

    1991-11-01

    To test the efficacy of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGlyP) vs the conventional mineral salts, calcium gluconate plus KH2PO4 + K2HPO4 (CaGluc + P), in promoting mineral retention, 72-h mineral balance, biochemical status, net acid excretion, and growth were assessed in 16 low-birth-weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) containing approximately 1.5 mmol Ca and P.kg-1.d-1 for 5 d. Net retentions of calcium (1.2 +/- 0.2 vs 1.0 +/- 0.2 mmol.kg-1.d-1, means +/- SD) and phosphorus (1.1 +/- 0.3 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3 mmol.kg-1.d-1) from CaGluc + P vs CaGlyP, respectively, were similar, as were retentions of magnesium and sodium, urinary pH, and net acid excretion. Plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin were normal and not different between groups. CaGlyP is as effective as CaGluc + P in promoting mineral retention and normal mineral homeostasis. However, at intakes of less than or equal to 1.5 mmol Ca and P.kg-1.d-1 from either mineral salt, retention represented only 60% and 45%, respectively, of the predicted intrauterine accretion for calcium and phosphorus. Larger intakes permitted by the more-soluble CaGlyP may be desirable for infants receiving TPN.

  3. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  4. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  5. Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

  6. A nuclear calcium-sensing pathway is critical for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingmei; Wu, Jianmin; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhu, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    Salt stress is an important environmental factor that significantly limits crop productivity worldwide. Studies on responses of plants to salt stress in recent years have identified novel signaling pathways and have been at the forefront of plant stress biology and plant biology in general. Thus far, research on salt stress in plants has been focused on cytoplasmic signaling pathways. In this study, we discovered a nuclear calcium-sensing and signaling pathway that is critical for salt stress tolerance in the reference plant Arabidopsis. Through a forward genetic screen, we found a nuclear-localized calcium-binding protein, RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1), which is required for salt tolerance, and identified its interacting partner, RITF1, a bHLH transcription factor. We show that RSA1 and RITF1 regulate the transcription of several genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated by salt stress and that they also regulate the SOS1 gene that encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter essential for salt tolerance. Together, our results suggest the existence of a novel nuclear calcium-sensing and -signaling pathway that is important for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance.

  7. Intracellular ionic consequences of dietary salt loading in essential hypertension. Relation to blood pressure and effects of calcium channel blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, L M; Gupta, R K; DiFabio, B; Barbagallo, M; Mann, S; Marion, R; Laragh, J H

    1994-01-01

    To study the ionic basis of salt sensitivity in hypertension, 19F-, 13P-, and 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to measure cytosolic free calcium (Cai), pH (pHi), free magnesium (Mgi), and sodium (Nai) in erythrocytes of essential hypertensive subjects (n = 19). Individuals were studied for 2 mo each on low- (UNaV < 50 meq/d) and high- (UNaV > 200 meq/d) salt diets, with the concomitant administration of nifedipine (10 mg t.i.d.) or placebo tablets for 1 mo of each diet. Salt loading elevated Cai and Nai while suppressing Mgi and pHi; these changes occurred predominantly in salt-sensitive subjects (n = 9). Nifedipine blunted the pressor response to salt loading > 50% (delta diastolic BP [high-low salt vs placebo] = 5 +/- 2 vs 14 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.05) and reversed salt-induced ionic changes, lowering Cai and elevating Mgi and pHi. Regardless of the definition of salt sensitivity, continuous relationships were observed between the pressure response to salt loading, the levels of Cai (r = 0.726, P < 0.001), Nai (r = 0.747, P < 0.001), and pHi (r = -0.754, P < 0.001), and the salt-induced change in Mgi (r = -0.757, P < 0.001). Altogether, these results emphasize the reciprocal and coordinate nature of intracellular ionic changes in response to dietary salt loading and calcium channel blockade in essential hypertension. They suggest that salt sensitivity is mediated by cellular calcium accumulation from the extracellular space, in association with magnesium depletion and acidification. Lastly, interpretation of intracellular ion measurements in the future will require concurrent assessment of dietary salt intake. Images PMID:8083368

  8. Hydrogen bonding Part 38. IR and thermodynamic study of phosphorylcholine chloride calcium salt tetrahydrate and monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Kenneth M.; Akin, Anne C.

    1991-09-01

    Vapor pressure vs. H 2O content studies demonstrate that phosphorylcholine chloride calcium salt forms two hydrates, a monohydrate and a tetrahydrate, in the range 0-4 mol H 20 mol -1 of salt; there is no dihydrate or trihydrate. Equilibrium vapor pressure measurements show that ΔH 0 of dissociation per mol H 20 lost is greater for the tetrahydrate (16.08 kcal mol -1) than for the monohydrate (12.49 kcal mo -1); the lower stability of the tetrahydrate arises from entropy effects. The IR spectrum of the tetrahydrate is that of a framework clathrate hydrate and suggests that the -P0 3 group may act as a very weak hydrogen-bond acceptor. In the monohydrate the -P0 3 group is not involved in hydrogen bonding. Neither hydrate contains POH bonds.

  9. Influence of salt purity on Na+ and palmitic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-12-19

    The influence of salt purity on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the carboxylate (COO(-)) head group of palmitic acid (PA) monolayers is studied in the COO(-) and OH stretching regions using broad-band vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous solution preparation after proper pretreatment. The time evolution of VSFG spectra of PA monolayers on solutions made from these two grades of salts is different, which reveals that the salt purity has a significant impact on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the COO(-) group of PA. The trace metal impurities in ACS grade salt, which are more abundant than those in UP grade salt, are responsible for this difference due to their stronger affinity for the carboxylate group relative to Na(+) and further affects the interfacial water structure. These results suggest that the alkali salt grade even after pretreatment is critical in the studies of alkali cation-carboxylate interactions and comparison of relative binding affinities of different cations.

  10. Effect of excess dietary salt on calcium metabolism and bone mineral in a spaceflight rat model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Fung, Paul; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of salt promote urinary calcium (UCa) loss and have the potential to cause bone mineral deficits if intestinal Ca absorption does not compensate for these losses. To determine the effect of excess dietary salt on the osteopenia that follows skeletal unloading, we used a spaceflight model that unloads the hindlimbs of 200-g rats by tail suspension (S). Rats were studied for 2 wk on diets containing high salt (4 and 8%) and normal calcium (0.45%) and for 4 wk on diets containing 8% salt (HiNa) and 0.2% Ca (LoCa). Final body weights were 9-11% lower in S than in control rats (C) in both experiments, reflecting lower growth rates in S than in C during pair feeding. UCa represented 12% of dietary Ca on HiNA diets and was twofold higher in S than in C transiently during unloading. Net intestinal Ca absorption was consistently 11-18% lower in S than in C. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was unaffected by either LoCa or HiNa diets in S but was increased by LoCa and HiNa diets in C. Despite depressed intestinal Ca absoption in S and a sluggish response of the Ca endocrine system to HiNa diets, UCa loss did not appear to affect the osteopenia induced by unloading. Although any deficit in bone mineral content from HiNa diets may have been too small to detect or the duration of the study too short to manifest, there were clear differences in Ca metabolism from control levels in the response of the spaceflight model to HiNa diets, indicated by depression of intestinal Ca absorption and its regulatory hormone.

  11. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  12. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified in the...

  13. Uric acid disorders in patients with calcium stones.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, A

    1976-02-01

    Plasma and uric acid levels were measured in 132 men with calcium-containing renal stones and in 24 healthy men of similar ages. Fasting resulted in a significant fall in the mean plasma uric acid level of normal subjects. Intermittent hyperuricaemia was observed in 7% of fasting patients. Intermittent hyperuricosuria was found in 17% of non-fasting patients but in only 2 to 6% of fasting subjects. Most of the uric acid abnormalities in patients with calcium stones therefore appear to be due to diet and may be prevented by reducing the consumption of purine-rich foods. A direct relationship was observed between uric acid excretion and urine flow at normal flow rates. It is suggested that the apparent increase in stone incidence, which occurs with rising living standards, may be due partly to increased consumption of purine-rich foods.

  14. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids may

  15. Acidic calcium stores open for business: expanding the potential for intracellular Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandip; Docampo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Changes in cytosolic calcium concentration are crucial for a variety of cellular processes in all cells. It has long been appreciated that calcium is stored and released from intracellular calcium stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum. However, emerging evidence indicates that calcium is also dynamically regulated by a seemingly disparate collection of acidic organelles. Here, we review the defining features of these acidic calcium stores and highlight recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of uptake and release of calcium from these stores. We also examine the nature of calcium buffering within the stores and summarize the physiological and patho-physiological significance of these ubiquitous organelles in calcium signaling. PMID:20303271

  16. Experimental study of fouling and cleaning of sintered stainless steel membrane in electro-microfiltration of calcium salt particles.

    PubMed

    Qin, Frank G F; Mawson, John; Zeng, Xin An

    2011-05-30

    Sintered stainless steel (SSS) microfiltration membranes, which served as electrode directly, were used for the experiment of separating Alamin, a calcium salt and protein containing particles, found in dairy processing. Fouling and cleaning of the SSS membranes under the application of an external electric field were studied. The imposed electric field was found, diverging the pH of permeate and retentate. This in turn altered the solubility of the calcium salt and impacted the performance of electro microfiltration membrane. Using electric field as an enhanced cleaning-in-place (CIP) method in back flushing SSS membrane was also studied.

  17. THE BASIS OF STABILITY IN LYSINE AND ARGININE SALTS OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LINOLEIC ACID , STABILIZATION), (* FATTY ACIDS , STABILITY), (*AMINO ACIDS , SALTS), (*ANTIOXIDANTS, AMINO ACIDS ), DEHYDRATED FOODS, ADDITIVES...PRESERVATION, COMPLEX COMPOUNDS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, INFRARED SPECTRA, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CRYSTAL LATTICES, MOLECULAR ISOMERISM, FATTY ACID ESTERS

  18. Sea salt particles react with organic acids in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-10-01

    Sea salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), particles lofted into the atmosphere by the motion of ocean waves affect atmospheric chemistry; these particles can undergo reactions with trace atmospheric gases and internal mixing with anthropogenic pollutants depositing on particle surface. Several studies have found that NaCl particles in the atmosphere are depleted in chloride and have attributed this to reactions with inorganic acids. However, reactions with inorganic acids do not fully account for the observed chloride depletion in some locations; it has been suggested that organic acids, likely of anthropogenic origin, may also play a role in chloride depletion, but results have been uncertain.

  19. GsCBRLK, a calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase, is a positive regulator of plant tolerance to salt and ABA stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Guo, Dianjing

    2010-05-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases play vital roles in protein phosphorylation in eukaryotes, yet little is known about the phosphorylation process of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and its role in stress signal transduction in plants. A novel plant-specific calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase (GsCBRLK) has been isolated from Glycine soja. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsCBRLK is localized in the plasma membrane. Binding assays demonstrated that calmodulin binds to GsCBRLK with an affinity of 25.9 nM in a calcium-dependent manner and the binding motif lies between amino acids 147 to169 within subdomain II of the kinase domain. GsCBRLK undergoes autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation in the presence of calcium. It was also found that calcium/calmodulin positively regulates GsCBRLK kinase activity through direct interaction between the calmodulin-binding domain and calmodulin. So, it is likely that GsCBRLK responds to an environmental stimulus in two ways: by increasing the protein expression level and by regulating its kinase activity through the calcium/calmodulin complex. Furthermore, cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress induce GsCBRLK gene transcripts. Over-expression of GsCBRLK in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA and increased the expression pattern of a number of stress gene markers in response to ABA and high salt. These results identify GsCBRLK as a molecular link between the stress- and ABA-induced calcium/calmodulin signal and gene expression in plant cells.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1221 Calcium propionate. (a) Calcium propionate (C6H10CaO4, CAS Reg. No. 4075-81-4) is the calcium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as white crystals or a crystalline solid, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. It is prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1221 Calcium propionate. (a) Calcium propionate (C6H10CaO4, CAS Reg. No. 4075-81-4) is the calcium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as white crystals or a crystalline solid, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. It is prepared by...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  8. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  7. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  9. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  13. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45... Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.45 Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4) may be safely used in food...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  5. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  6. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures.

  7. Modulation of polyepoxysuccinic acid on crystallization of calcium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanqing; Tang, Yongming; Xu, Jinqiu; Zhang, Dongqin; Lu, Gang; Jing, Wenheng

    2015-11-15

    The influence of polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA) on the phase composition and crystal morphology of calcium oxalate was investigated in this paper. It was found that the presence of PESA inhibited the growth of the monoclinic calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal and promoted the nucleation of the tetragonal calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). In addition, with the increase in PESA concentration, the aggregation of COD crystals was reduced but the particle size was increased. Under the conditions of low calcium-to-oxalate ratio and high CaOx concentration, PESA could not effectively stabilize the formation of COD. Based on molecular dynamic simulations, the adsorption of PESA on CaOx crystal faces was confirmed. - Graphical abstract: Introduction of PESA into crystallization solutions promotes the formation of calcium oxalate dehydrate and modifies the morphology of crystals. - Highlights: • PESA induces the formation of COD at low supersaturation. • Establishment of Ca-rich surface augments the adsorption of PESA. • At Ca/Ox=0.5 PESA cannot induce the formation of COD compared with Ca/Ox=2. • Interaction of PESA with COM faces is stronger than that with COD faces.

  8. Stable aerobic granules for continuous-flow reactors: Precipitating calcium and iron salts in granular interiors.

    PubMed

    Juang, Yu-Chuan; Sunil S, Adav; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2010-11-01

    Aerobic sludge granules are compact, strong microbial aggregates that have excellent settling ability and capability to efficiently treat high-strength and toxic wastewaters. The aerobic granules cultivated with low ammonium and phosphates lost structural stability within 3 days in continuous-flow reactors. Conversely, stable aerobic granules were cultivated in substrate with high levels of ammonium salts that could stably exist for 216 days in continuous-flow reactors with or without submerged membrane. The scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis and the confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging detected large amounts of calcium and iron precipitates in granule interiors. The Visual MINTEQ version 2.61 calculation showed that the phosphates and hydroxides were the main species in the precipitate.

  9. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); a “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.

  10. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    DOE PAGES

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); amore » “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.« less

  11. Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

  12. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  15. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  20. 76 FR 52875 - 2-Propenoic Acid, Polymer With Ethenylbenzene and (1-methylethenyl) Benzene, Sodium Salt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ..., Sodium Salt; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule...-Propenoic acid, polymer with ethenylbenzene and (1-methylethenyl) benzene, sodium salt when used as an inert... residues of 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with ethenylbenzene and (1- methylethenyl) benzene, sodium salt...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  2. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  5. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  8. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  9. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  2. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  3. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  4. Evaluation of calcium magnesium acetate and road salt for contact hypersensitivity potential and dermal irritancy in humans.

    PubMed

    Cushman, J R; Duff, V A; Buteau, G H; Aust, L B; Caldwell, N; Lazer, W

    1991-04-01

    Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and road salt are both de-icing agents to which workers may be dermally exposed. A commercial formulation of CMA (Chevron Ice-B-Gon Deicer) and road salt were tested in a human repeat insult patch test to evaluate the contact hypersensitivity potential of these materials and to evaluate irritation following single or multiple applications. 72 of the initial 82 panelists completed the study. CMA and road salt (each at 10% and 30% w/w in distilled water; 0.3 ml) were administered under occlusive patches on the forearm for 14 h 3 x per week for 3 weeks. The panelists were challenged 2 weeks later; 2 panelists who had mild reactions were subsequently rechallenged 6 weeks later. Neither CMA nor road salt produced contact hypersensitivity in any panelists. Following the first application, moderate acute irritation was observed only at 1 skin site exposed to 30% road salt. Repeated exposure to CMA or road salt produced mild to moderate irritation. The highest incidence of moderate irritation was observed with 30% road salt. Thus, neither material is expected to cause significant dermal effects in exposed workers. CMA is expected to cause dermal irritation equivalent to or less than that caused by road salt.

  5. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid from Canada with...

  6. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... citric acid from Canada with respect to JBL Canada covering the period November 20, 2008, through May...

  7. Unique precipitation and exocytosis of a calcium salt of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in larval Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Irigoín, Florencia; Casaravilla, Cecilia; Iborra, Francisco; Sim, Robert B; Ferreira, Fernando; Díaz, Alvaro

    2004-12-15

    The ubiquitous intracellular molecule myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is present extracellularly in the hydatid cyst wall (HCW) of the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus. This study shows that extracellular IP6 is present as its solid calcium salt, in the form of deposits that are observed, at the ultrastructural level, as naturally electron dense granules some tens of nanometers in diameter. The presence of a calcium salt of IP6 in these structures was determined by two different electron microscopy techniques: (i) the analysis of the spatial distribution of phosphorus and calcium in the outer, acellular layer of the HCW (the laminated layer, LL) through electron energy loss spectroscopy, and (ii) the observation, by transmission electron microscopy, of HCW that were selectively depleted of IP6 by treatment with EGTA or phytase, an enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of IP6. The deposits of the IP6-Ca(II) salt are also observed inside membrane vesicles in cells of the germinal layer (the inner, cellular layer of the HCW), indicating that IP6 precipitates with calcium within a cellular vesicular compartment and is then secreted to the LL. Thus, much as in plants (that produce vesicular IP6 deposits), the existence of transporters for IP6 or its precursors in internal membranes is needed to explain the compound's cellular localisation in E. granulosus.

  8. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  9. Phytic acid plus calcium, but not phytic acid alone, decreases fluoride bioavailability in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cerklewski, F.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Results of in vitro studies have suggested that fluoride becomes insoluble when some soy-based infant formulas are diluted with fluoridated water because of the presence of phytate, added calcium or a combination of these factors. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in vivo. Male albino rats were fed a purified diet containing phytic acid, calcium and fluoride for 4 weeks in a factorial design of treatments. Phytic acid was added to the diet by chemically reacting a phytic acid concentrate with casein prior to diet preparation to mimic a soy-protein. Food intake, weight gain and femur P were unaffected by dietary treatments. Both phytic acid and supplemental calcium alone had little or no effect upon fluoride uptake into either bone or teeth. The combination of phytic acid plus supplemental calcium, however, significantly increased % of fluoride intake found in the feces which was reflected in a significant decrease in fluoride concentration of femur, 2nd molar teeth and vertebrate bone. These results provide evidence that insoluble complex formation produced by a calcium and phytate interaction can explain reduced fluoride solubility in some soy-based infant formulas as well as decreased fluoride absorbability in vivo.

  10. Lysophosphatidic acids. Influence on platelet aggregation and intracellular calcium flux.

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, J. M.; Kindom, S. E.; Peterson, D. A.; Peller, J.; Krantz, K. E.; White, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Decanoyl-, palmitoyl-, and oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) were studied for their effects on platelet aggregation and intracellular calcium flux. Palmitoyl-LPA and oleoyl-LPA both caused a concentration-dependent aggregation of human blood platelets at concentrations of 12--300 microM. Aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was enhanced at slightly lower concentrations. First-wave aggregation induced by these LPAs was not blocked by aspirin, indomethacin, or heparin, suggesting similarities to ADP aggregation. However, in washed platelets with a high calcium concentration, no serotonin secretion was observed, even though full aggregation occurred, suggesting that aggregation was not due to released ADP. This concept was supported by studies of platelets deficient in the storage pool of ADP and serotonin, which had a normal first-wave aggregation response to palmitoyl-LPA. Aggregation induced by palmitoyl LPA was inhibited by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), theophylline, and ethylenediaminotetraacetate (EDTA), though in the presence of EDTA shape change occurred. Aggregation stimulated by palmitoyl-LPA or oleoyl-LPA was characterized by changes in the shape of the platelets with development of pseudopods and centralization of granules closely surrounded by contractile microfilaments and supporting microtubules. The addition of palmitoyl-LPA and oleoyl-LPA, but not decanoyl-LPA, caused the release of calcium from a platelet membrane fraction that contains elements of the intracellular calcium storage system and actively concentrates this cation in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and magnesium. It is suggested that LPAs cause aggregation by stimulating the release of calcium intracellularly. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Text-Figure 6 PMID:112871

  11. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  12. Effect of poly(aspartic acid) on calcium phosphate removal from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, Felicia

    Calcium phosphate deposition causes cleaning problems in a number of situations including water treatment, dairy processing, and dental applications. This problem is exacerbated by the limited choices of cleaning chemicals that meet environmental regulations. To promote the development of biodegradable, non-toxic alternatives, this research examines the removal of calcium phosphate deposits consisting of brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate; DCPD) and a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and DCPD from stainless steel in the presence of poly(aspartic acid) and its sodium salt (PASP). The effects of solvent pH, PASP concentration, and flow rate on the calcium phosphate removal rates are measured from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions using a solid scintillation detection technique. A mechanistic evaluation of the cleaning data in the absence of PASP indicates that DCPD removal is dominated by shear while HAP/DCPD deposit removal is limited by a combination of mass transfer and interfacial processes. Although the removal mechanisms differ, the results conclusively show that PASP promotes calcium phosphate removal under conditions that favor calcium sequestration in both cases. An in-depth study of DCPD removal in the presence of PASP reveals that this additive is most effective under conditions where calcium sequestration and phosphate protonation occur simultaneously.

  13. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  14. Lactose behaviour in the presence of lactic acid and calcium.

    PubMed

    Wijayasinghe, Rangani; Vasiljevic, Todor; Chandrapala, Jayani

    2016-08-01

    Physical properties of lactose appeared influenced by presence of lactic acid in the system. Some other components such as Ca may further attenuate lactose behaviour and impact its phase transition. A model-based study was thus implemented with varying concentrations of Ca (0·12, 0·072 or 0·035% w/w) and lactic acid (0·05, 0·2, 0·4 or 1% w/w) in establishing the effects of these two main acid whey constituents on lactose phase behaviour. Concentrated solutions (50% w/w) containing lactose, lactic acid and Ca were analysed for thermal behaviour and structural changes by Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Presence of 1% (w/w) lactic acid and 0·12% (w/w) Ca in lactose solution significantly increased the evaporation enthalpy of water, delayed and increased the energy required for lactose crystallisation as compared to pure lactose. FTIR analysis indicated a strong hydration layer surrounding lactose molecules, restricting water mobility and/or inducing structural changes of lactose, hindering its crystallisation. The formation of calcium lactate, which restricts the diffusion of lactose molecules, is also partly responsible. It appears that Ca removal from acid whey may be a necessary step in improving the processability of acid whey.

  15. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

  16. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as... of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is...

  18. Interactions between red light, abscisic acid, and calcium in gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; LaFavre, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of red light on orthogravitropism of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots has been attributed to its effects on the transduction phase of gravitropism (AC Leopold, SH Wettlaufer [1988] Plant Physiol 87:803-805). In an effort to characterize the orthogravitropic transduction system, comparative experiments have been carried out on the effects of red light, calcium, and abscisic acid (ABA). The red light effect can be completely satisfied with added ABA (100 micromolar) or with osmotic shock, which is presumed to increase endogenous ABA. The decay of the red light effect is closely paralleled by the decay of the ABA effect. ABA and exogenous calcium show strong additive effects when applied to either Merit or a line of corn which does not require red light for orthogravitropism. Measurements of the ABA content show marked increases in endogenous ABA in the growing region of the roots after red light. The interpretation is offered that red light or ABA may serve to increase the cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium, and that this may be an integral part of orthogravitropic transduction.

  19. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  20. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Y; Heo, T R

    2000-02-01

    Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel concentration and bead size. The initial cell numbers in the beads affected the numbers of survivors after exposure to these solutions; however, the death rates of the viable cells were not affected. Accordingly, a mathematical model was formulated which expressed the influences of several parameters (gel concentration, bead size, and initial cell numbers) on the survival of entrapped bifidobacteria after sequential exposure to simulated gastric juices followed by a bile salt solution. The model proposed in this paper may be useful for estimating the survival of bifidobacteria in beads and establishing optimal entrapment conditions.

  1. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  13. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  16. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  17. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  5. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada.\\1\\ The review... period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain...

  6. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... availability of EPA's proposed registration review decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, and... acid is a fungicide and bactericide that is used to control fungi and bacteria in stored hay and...

  7. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  8. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... preliminary results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter of...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  19. Salts of phenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with Cinchona alkaloids: Crystal structures, thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2016-06-01

    Seven salts were formed with phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) and the Cinchona alkaloids; cinchonidine (CIND), quinidine (QUID) and quinine (QUIN). For all the structures the proton was transferred from the carboxylic acid of the PAA/HPAA to the quinuclidine nitrogen of the respective Cinchona alkaloid. For six of the salts, water was included in the crystal structures with one of these also incorporating an isopropanol solvent molecule. However HPAA co-crystallised with quinine to form an anhydrous salt, (HPAA-)(QUIN+). The thermal stability of the salts were determined and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the (HPAA-)(QUIN+) salt had the highest thermal stability compared to the other salt hydrates. The salts were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (PAA-)(QUID+)·H2O and (PAA-)(QUIN+)·H2O are isostructural and Hirshfeld surface analysis was completed to compare the intermolecular interactions in these two structures.

  20. The role of citric acid in oral peptide and protein formulations: relationship between calcium chelation and proteolysis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Welling, Søren H; Hubálek, František; Jacobsen, Jette; Brayden, David J; Rahbek, Ulrik L; Buckley, Stephen T

    2014-04-01

    The excipient citric acid (CA) has been reported to improve oral absorption of peptides by different mechanisms. The balance between its related properties of calcium chelation and permeation enhancement compared to a proteolysis inhibition was examined. A predictive model of CA's calcium chelation activity was developed and verified experimentally using an ion-selective electrode. The effects of CA, its salt (citrate, Cit) and the established permeation enhancer, lauroyl carnitine chloride (LCC) were compared by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of insulin and FD4 across Caco-2 monolayers and rat small intestinal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. Proteolytic degradation of insulin was determined in rat luminal extracts across a range of pH values in the presence of CA. CA's capacity to chelate calcium decreased ~10-fold for each pH unit moving from pH 6 to pH 3. CA was an inferior weak permeation enhancer compared to LCC in both in vitro models using physiological buffers. At pH 4.5 however, degradation of insulin in rat luminal extracts was significantly inhibited in the presence of 10mM CA. The capacity of CA to chelate luminal calcium does not occur significantly at the acidic pH values where it effectively inhibits proteolysis, which is its dominant action in oral peptide formulations. On account of insulin's low basal permeability, inclusion of alternative permeation enhancers is likely to be necessary to achieve sufficient oral bioavailability since this is a weak property of CA.

  1. Stimulation of phosphatidic acid of calcium influx and cyclic GMP synthesis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohsako, S; Deguchi, T

    1981-11-10

    Phosphatidic acid added to the medium markedly elevated intracellular cyclic GMP content in cultured neuroblastoma N1E 115 cells. There was a significant elevation of cyclic GMP with 1 micrograms/ml and a maximum (70-fold) elevation with 100 micrograms/ml of phosphatidic acid. Other natural phospholipids did not increase, or increased only slightly, the cyclic GMP content in the cells. The elevation of cyclic GMP content by phosphatidic acid was absolutely dependent on extracellular calcium. Phosphatidic acid stimulated the influx of calcium into neuroblastoma cells 2- to 5-fold. The pattern of the calcium influx induced by phosphatidic acid was comparable to that of cyclic GMP elevation. The stimulation of calcium influx by phosphatidic acid was also observed in cultured heart cells, indicating that phosphatidic acid acts as a calcium ionophore or opens a specific calcium-gate in a variety of cell membranes. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with phospholipase C increased 32Pi labeling of phosphatidic acid, stimulated the influx of calcium, and elevated the cyclic GMP content in the cells. Thus exogenous as well as endogenous phosphatidic acid stimulates the translocation of calcium across cell membranes and, as a consequence, induces the synthesis of cyclic GMP in the neuroblastoma cells.

  2. A rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK12 oppositely modulates salt-stress tolerance and blast disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takayuki; Hayashi, Nagao; Kobayashi, Michie; Aoki, Naohiro; Miyao, Akio; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Komatsu, Setsuko; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Ohsugi, Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) regulate the downstream components in calcium signaling pathways. We investigated the effects of overexpression and disruption of an Oryza sativa (rice) CDPK (OsCPK12) on the plant's response to abiotic and biotic stresses. OsCPK12-overexpressing (OsCPK12-OX) plants exhibited increased tolerance to salt stress. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) in the leaves was less in OsCPK12-OX plants than in wild-type (WT) plants. Genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes (OsAPx2 and OsAPx8) were more highly expressed in OsCPK12-OX plants than in WT plants, whereas the expression of the NADPH oxidase gene, OsrbohI, was decreased in OsCPK12-OX plants compared with WT plants. Conversely, a retrotransposon (Tos17) insertion mutant, oscpk12, and plants transformed with an OsCPK12 RNA interference (RNAi) construct were more sensitive to high salinity than were WT plants. The level of H(2) O(2) accumulation was greater in oscpk12 and OsCPK12 RNAi plants than in the WT. These results suggest that OsCPK12 promotes tolerance to salt stress by reducing the accumulation of ROS. We also observed that OsCPK12-OX seedlings had increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and increased susceptibility to blast fungus, probably resulting from the repression of ROS production and/or the involvement of OsCPK12 in the ABA signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that OsCPK12 functions in multiple signaling pathways, positively regulating salt tolerance and negatively modulating blast resistance.

  3. Salicylic acid and calcium-induced protection of wheat against salinity.

    PubMed

    Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Basalah, Mohammed O

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the important environmental factors that produce serious agricultural problems. The objective of the present study was to determine the interactive effect of salicylic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca) on plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline (Pro) concentration, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes of Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Samma) under salt stress. Application of 90 mM of NaCl reduced plant growth (plant height, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, CA activity) and enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) and Pro concentration. However, the application of SA or Ca alone as well as in combination markedly improved plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, Pro concentration, CA activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under salt stress. It was, therefore, concluded that application of SA and Ca alone as well as in combination ameliorated the adverse effect of salinity, while combined application proved more effective to reduce the oxidative stress generated by NaCl through reduced MDA accumulation, Chl a/b ratio and Chls degradation and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  5. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  6. 77 FR 68686 - Xylenesulfonic Acid, Sodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Xylenesulfonic Acid, Sodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt (also known as sodium xylene sulfonate) (CAS Reg. No. 1300-72-7) when used as an inert ingredient...

  7. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  8. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

  9. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  10. 76 FR 77772 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

  11. 76 FR 33219 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's...

  12. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

  13. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages.

  14. Carboxylic Acid Ionophores as Probes of the Role of Calcium in Biological Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, P. W.

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of calcium ionophores are described, focusing on arachidonic acid oxygenation, and the formation of a number of oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid. These metabolites are involved in a number of bodily functions, and their production may be regulated by calcium.

  15. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  16. Determination of molecular species of calcium salts of MDP produced through decalcification of enamel and dentin by MDP-based one-step adhesive.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yoko; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Enamel and dentin particles were added to an experimental 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based one-step adhesive to react for 30 s. After enamel and dentin reactants were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) techniques, curve-fitting analysis was performed on the (31)P NMR spectra of enamel and dentin reactants. By varying the molar ratio of calcium chloride to MDP, a series of three types of MDP-Ca salts were synthesized. The molecular species of calcium salts of MDP (MDP-Ca salts) produced by decalcification of enamel or dentin were determined based on the XRD and (31)P NMR analysis results of these three types of synthesized MDP-Ca salts. Curve-fitting analysis showed that enamel and dentin developed several types of MDP-Ca salts and amorphous dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) during decalcification. The molecular species of MDP-Ca salts produced by enamel and dentin were mono-calcium salts of MDP monomer and MDP dimer. In addition, dentin produced a di-calcium of MDP dimer.

  17. Salt-Related MYB1 Coordinates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling during Salt Stress in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Tohge, Takayuki; Ivakov, Alexander; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mutwil, Marek; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Persson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cause global yield loss of all major crop plants. Factors and mechanisms that can aid in plant breeding for salt stress tolerance are therefore of great importance for food and feed production. Here, we identified a MYB-like transcription factor, Salt-Related MYB1 (SRM1), that negatively affects Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed germination under saline conditions by regulating the levels of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Accordingly, several ABA biosynthesis and signaling genes act directly downstream of SRM1, including SALT TOLERANT1/NINE-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE3, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION26, and Arabidopsis NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN19. Furthermore, SRM1 impacts vegetative growth and leaf shape. We show that SRM1 is an important transcriptional regulator that directly targets ABA biosynthesis and signaling-related genes and therefore may be regarded as an important regulator of ABA-mediated salt stress tolerance. PMID:26243618

  18. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin. PMID:26839810

  19. Nucleation of calcium carbonate in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Westin, K-J; Rasmuson, A C

    2005-02-15

    The influence of four calcium complexing additives, i.e., citric acid (CIT), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pyromellitic acid (PMA), and their concentration on the induction time of calcium carbonate nucleation has been studied. The experiments were performed by rapidly mixing a sodium carbonate solution and a calcium chloride solution of various concentrations. The induction time was obtained by recording the white light absorption of the solution. Chemical speciation was used to estimate the initial thermodynamic driving force of each experiment. The induction time was found to increase with additive concentration. The effect varies from one additive to another. CIT causes the greatest increase in induction time and PMA the least. Using classical nucleation theory the experimental data were evaluated in terms of the interfacial energy. In pure water a value of 37.8 mJ m(-2) was obtained, showing good agreement with other works. CIT, DTPA and EDTA caused a notable increase of the interfacial energy at a concentration of 0.5 mmol l(-1). PMA does not appear to have any effect at all on the interfacial energy. Different mechanisms for the influence of the additives on the measured induction time and on the estimated interfacial energy are discussed.

  20. Effects of amine, amine salt and amide on the behaviour of carbon dioxide absorption into calcium hydroxide suspension to precipitate calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Chuajiw, Wittaya; Nakano, Mitsuru; Takatori, Kazumasa; Kojima, Toshiya; Wakimoto, Yoshiki; Fukushima, Yoshiaki

    2013-12-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration besides the pH of aqueous solution were observed during the CO2 absorption to precipitate calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). A reaction rate-limiting effect of an amount of CO2 absorption without any organic additives in the early stage of the precipitation was observed, which was attributed to an interruption effect of bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) on the precipitation of CaCO3. The improvement for the reaction rate was achieved not only by amine additives but also by neutral additives such as epsilon-caprolactam or amine salt. When the hexamethylene diamine was dissolved in the solution, successive change of crystal forms of CaCO3 aragonite to calcite in aqueous suspensions, confirmed by Ca2+ concentration change and X-ray diffraction, was concluded that a local environment around the amine group in aqueous solution and an interaction of the diamine with precipitated CaCO3 particles were important factors for these reactions.

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  2. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    PubMed

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  3. Determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic acids in acetic acid by catalytic thermometric titration.

    PubMed

    Vajgand, V J; Gaál, F F

    1967-03-01

    A new method of determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic adds in acetic acid solution, to which about 2 % of water and 8% acetic anhydride are added, is described. After the equivalence point, the excess of perchloric acid catalyses the exothermic reaction of water with acetic anhydride. The end-point is determined from the graph of temperature against volume of added titrant. If a slightly soluble compound is produced during the titration, the precision of the new method is superior to that of the potentiometric method.

  4. Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Prinsen, E; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates have been implicated in responses to water deficit and wounding. We compared the molecular and physiological effects of jasmonic acid (JA) (< or = 10 microM), ABA, and salt stress in roots of rice. JA markedly induced a cationic peroxidase, two novel 32- and 28-kD proteins, acidic PR-1 and PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins, and the salt stress-responsive SalT protein in roots. Most JA-responsive proteins (JIPs) from roots also accumulated when plants were subjected to salt stress. None of the JIPs accumulated when plants were treated with ABA. JA did not induce an ABA-responsive group 3 late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. Salt stress and ABA but not JA induced oslea3 transcript accumulation. By contrast, JA, ABA, and salt stress induced transcript accumulation of salT and osdrr, which encodes a rice PR-10 protein. However, ABA also negatively affected salT transcript accumulation, whereas JA negatively affected ABA-induced oslea3 transcript levels. Endogenous root ABA and methyl jasmonate levels showed a differential increase with the dose and the duration of salt stress. The results indicate that ABA and jasmonates antagonistically regulated the expression of salt stress-inducible proteins associated with water deficit or defense responses. PMID:9437865

  5. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  10. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent to...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  16. 76 FR 6347 - (S,S)-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid Trisodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 (S,S)-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid Trisodium Salt; Exemption From the... disuccinic acid trisodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 178949-82-1) when used as an inert ingredient (sequestrant or...)-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid trisodium salt. DATES: This regulation is effective February 4, 2011....

  17. The Acetic Acid Tolerance Response induces cross-protection to salt stress in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, E J; Brocklehurst, T F

    2006-10-15

    Salmonella typhimurium induces an Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) upon exposure to mildly acidic conditions in order to protect itself against severe acid shock. This response can also induce cross-protection to other stresses such as heat and salt. We investigated whether both the acetic acid induced and lactic acid induced ATR in S. typhimurium provided cross-protection to a salt stress at 20 degrees C. Acid-adapted cells were challenged with both a sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) shock and their ability to survive ascertained. Acetic acid adaptation provided cells with protection against both NaCl and KCl stress. However, lactic acid adaptation did not protect against either osmotic stressor and rendered cells hypersensitive to NaCl. These results have implications for the food industry where hurdle technology means multiple sub-lethal stresses such as mild pH and low salt are commonly used in the preservation of products.

  18. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, S.; Kumar, S.; Dey, S. K.

    2015-06-24

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br···π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  19. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, S.; Dey, S. K.; Kumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br...π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  20. Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenge; Pacella, Michael S; Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Nelea, Valentin; Vali, Hojatollah; Hazen, Robert M; Gray, Jeffrey J; McKee, Marc D

    2017-04-13

    Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a 'right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas 'left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality. Nanoparticle tilting after binding of chiral amino acids is proposed as a chiral growth mechanism, where a 'mother' subunit nanoparticle spawns a slightly tilted, consequential 'daughter' nanoparticle, which by amplification over various length scales creates oriented mineral platelets and chiral vaterite suprastructures. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for how biomineralization-related enantiomers might exert hierarchical control to form extended chiral suprastructures.

  1. Chromatographic resolution of a salt into its parent acid and base constituents.

    PubMed

    Davankov, Vadim; Tsyurupa, Maria

    2006-12-08

    Based on the results of the earlier proposed process of separation of mixtures of mineral electrolytes by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), it has been suggested that a mineral salt must spontaneously resolve, at least partially, into its parent acid and base constituents, provided that the separating media discriminates the anion and cation of the salt according to their size. Indeed, migration of a zone of an aqueous salt solution through a bed of neutral nanoporous hypercrosslinked polystyrene-type packing was shown to result in the generation of acidic and alkaline effluent fractions. The principle of spontaneous salt resolution has been extended to other types of discriminating interactions between the stationary phase and the two ions of the salt. The idea was exemplified by the resolution of ammonium acetate, due to hydrophobic retention of the acetate, into fractions enriched in ammoniac and then acetic acid.

  2. Enhancing the solubility of calcium phosphate ceramics by calcium salt infiltration for the purpose of hematopoietic stem cell culturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinghao

    The hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been unquestionably important to therapies that involve blood and immune system replacement. However, the in-vitro culture and the expansion of HSCs inhibit their application. This work aims to develop a composite biodegradable 3D scaffold that would simulate key aspects of the in-vivo microenvironment (niche) in which expansion of the hematopoietic stem cells takes place in human bone marrow. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been chosen as a scaffold material because of its biocompatibility and the ability to create an osteogenic scaffold and thereby simulate trabecular bone that is known to be important to the HSC niche in bone marrow. It is hypothesized that the use of a Ca-rich HA scaffold will create a three dimensional, protective environment for HSCs and further promote their in-vitro expansion by releasing Ca ions into the culture medium. The first part of this study examined the processing of Ca-rich HA and the release of calcium ions into saline over time. The Ca-rich phase was introduced into the HA by an infiltration process and has been shown to release calcium into the culture medium over 42 days. The second part of this study examined the effect of the scaffold material on the fate of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS), a well-known endothelial progenitor model. The results showed, for the first time, that at least some HUVEC cells have hematopoietic potential and that the scaffold promoted differentiation down the hematopoietic cell lineage. This is thought to be due to hemangioblast character in the HUVEC cells which is also shared by HSCs. Finally the effects of the scaffold on the in-vitro co-culture of an osteoblast cell line and primary human bone marrow derived HSCs was studied. The infiltrated scaffolds were shown to stimulate the HSC population to differentiate down the hematopoietic lineage and also showed greater potential to differentiate down the HSC lineage in consequent CFU assays.

  3. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  4. Pathogenesis and treatment of calcium stones.

    PubMed

    Parks, J H; Coe, F L

    1996-09-01

    Calcium stones arise from imbalances between urinary excretions of insoluble salts and water. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperparathyroidism are the calcium disorders usually associated with elevated levels of calcium in the urine. Renal tubular acidosis is associated with a disordered acid-base status that results in low urine citrate. Hypocitraturia itself is a cause of calcium stones because it leaves urine calcium free to complex with either oxalate or phosphate. Elevated urine oxalate is commonly associated with dietary excesses, bowel disease, and, rarely, primary hyperoxaluria. Hyperuricosuria, usually of dietary origin, when reversed can cause a fall in new calcium stones.

  5. Direct Imaging of Hippocampal Epileptiform Calcium Motifs Following Kainic Acid Administration in Freely Behaving Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berdyyeva, Tamara K.; Frady, E. Paxon; Nassi, Jonathan J.; Aluisio, Leah; Cherkas, Yauheniya; Otte, Stephani; Wyatt, Ryan M.; Dugovic, Christine; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Lovenberg, Timothy; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with microendoscopic calcium imaging of pyramidal cells in the CA1 hippocampal region of freely behaving mice treated with the pro-convulsant kainic acid (KA). We observed that KA administration led to systematic patterns of epileptiform calcium activity: a series of large-scale, intensifying flashes of increased calcium fluorescence concurrent with a cluster of low-amplitude EEG waveforms. This was accompanied by a steady increase in cellular calcium levels (>5 fold increase relative to the baseline), followed by an intense spreading calcium wave characterized by a 218% increase in global mean intensity of calcium fluorescence (n = 8, range [114–349%], p < 10−4; t-test). The wave had no consistent EEG phenotype and occurred before the onset of motor convulsions. Similar changes in calcium activity were also observed in animals treated with 2 different proconvulsant agents, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), suggesting the measured changes in calcium dynamics are a signature of seizure activity rather than a KA-specific pathology. Additionally, despite reducing the behavioral severity of KA-induced seizures, the anticonvulsant drug valproate (VA, 300 mg/kg) did not modify the observed abnormalities in calcium dynamics. These results confirm the presence of pathological calcium activity preceding convulsive motor seizures and support calcium as a candidate signaling molecule in a pathway connecting seizures to subsequent cellular damage. Integrating in vivo calcium imaging with traditional assessment of seizures could potentially increase translatability of pharmacological

  6. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  7. Identity of the Perchlorate Parent Salt(s) at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Based on Reanalysis of the Calcium Sensor Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Folds, K. E.; Hansen, V. M.; Weber, A. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Chaniotakis, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008 the first comprehensive wet chemical analyses of the martian soil were performed by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on board the Phoenix Mars lander [1-4]. In addition to being dominated by Ca2+ and Mg2+ carbonates, SO4=, and other minor soluble species, the soil contained about 0.6 %wt perchlorate (ClO4-). Its discovery on Mars has broad implications for that planet's water cycle, astrobiology, human habitability, and possible formation of liquid brines. One remaining important question raised by the WCL discovery of ClO4- on Mars is the identity of the parent perchlorate salt. New refined analysis of the Phoenix WCL sensor data and laboratory analyses and equilibrium modeling, indicate that the identity and ratios of the ClO4- parent salts are different than initially proposed. The analyses performed by the Phoenix WCL, along with previous mission results [5], indicated that K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, or Fe2/3+, either singly or as a mixture, were possible candidate counter cations that could be associated with the amount of ClO4- present in solution. If we assumed 100% association of the ClO4- in the soil, then Ca2+ or Mg2+ could account for 100% in each case, since there is in effect a more than sufficient supply of these two counter cations. For other cations, measured concentrations limit the ClO4- salt potentially present, with Na+ accounting for < 30%, K+ < 5%, and Fe2/3+ < 3%. Clearly, Mg(ClO4)2 or Ca(ClO4)2 could constitute as much as 100% of the perchlorate salt present in the soil, either alone or in combination. To definitively identify the parent salt of the ClO4- detected by WCL, we have; (1) reexamined the original Phoenix WCL data in terms of the perchlorate and calcium sensor response; (2) performed a set of laboratory analyses using a WCL testbed to better understand the behavior of the sensor responses on Mars; and (3) have modeled possible chemical equilibrium and the effect of the perchlorate parent salt on other minerals present. The new

  8. Acid diet (high meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review: Update recent advancements regarding the effect of high animal protein on calcium utilization and bone health. Recent findings: Increased potential renal acid load resulting from a high protein (meat) intake has been closely associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. How...

  9. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content.

  10. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... percent maximum. Ammonia 0.3 percent maximum. Arsenic 3 parts per million maximum. Heavy metals such as... 26 to 34 percent. Calcium hydroxide 3 percent maximum. Water 14 percent maximum. Arsenic 3 parts...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  13. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  14. Effect of multivalent salts -- calcium and aluminum -- on the flocculation of kaolin suspension with anionic polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.; Di, P. . Dept. of Mineral Processing Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The effects of calcium and aluminum ions on the interaction behavior of anionic polyacrylamide (anionic PAM or HPAM) and kaolin are important in determining the efficient flocculation of kaolin. While kaolin surfaces are negatively charged in media such as water, they exhibit the positive surface charge characteristic at pH below 3.2 in the solution of calcium cation, and at pH below 9.2 in the solution of aluminum cation. The. experimental results show that both calcium and aluminum ions suppress the kaolin flocculation process. The results are analyzed and explained by molecular orbital theory, solution chemistry, infrared spectra, and electronic probe examination of kaolin treated with and without anionic PAM. Analysis results indicate that the specific adsorption of Ca[sup 2+], Al[sup 3+] and their hydroxo complexes on anionic PAM causes the loss of anionic character in the low pH range and leads to a low flocculation efficiency. In the high pH range, the poor kaolin flocculation can be attributed to precipitation of calcium and aluminum hydroxides on active functional groups, which inhibits the hydrogen bonding between anionic PAM and kaolin surfaces. At neutral pH values, the trivalent aluminum ion has more significant adverse effect on the kaolin flocculation than the divalent calcium ion.

  15. Physico-functional and mechanical properties of chitosan and calcium salts incorporated fish gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jeevithan, E; Jeya Shakila, R; Varatharajakumar, A; Jeyasekaran, G; Sukumar, D

    2013-09-01

    Four types of fish gelatin scaffolds viz. gelatin (G), gelatin-chitosan (GC), gelatin-calcium acetate (GCA) and gelatin-chitosan-calcium acetate (GCCA) prepared were investigated for their functional properties, biomechanical strength, microstructural changes in relation to biodegradation. GC scaffold was superior with pH 3.15 and viscosity 9.40 cP. Chitosan and calcium acetate improved tensile strength (TS) and Young's modulus (YM), but lowered elongation at break (EAB). GCCA scaffold possessed moderate TS of 19.6 MPa, EAB of 4.76% and YM of 185 MPa. Foaming ability ratio of GC scaffold was high (3.41). GCA and GCCA scaffolds remained for 4 days before complete in vitro biodegradation. GC scaffold had larger cavities (180-300 μm) that were responsible for low swelling ratios and shrinkage factor. GCCA scaffold with moderate swelling rates, mechanical, functional properties and lowered biodegradation rate were found more suitable for biomedical applications.

  16. Enhanced skin permeation of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid by salt formation.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vijay; Kumar, H Yogish; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare salts of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA) to improve its physicochemical properties for percutaneous application. 6-MNA, an active metabolite of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nabumetone has long half life and has the tendency to penetrate well into synovial fluid. The physicochemical properties of 6-MNA salts were investigated by solubility measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR). The DSC thermograms and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra indicated that 6-MNA formed salts with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts formed with amine bases (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine and diethylamine) had lower melting points while alkali metal salt (sodium) had higher melting point than 6-MNA. The salts had higher solubilities than 6-MNA as determined in phosphate buffer at pH 5.0 and 7.4. There is no significant difference in partition coefficient (log P) values between salts and 6-MNA at pH 5.0 but, at pH 7.4, the log P values for the salts increased by 4-10 times as compared to 6-MNA. In vitro permeation studies showed that all the salts increased the flux in comparision to 6-MNA, and the ethanolamine salt (1b) was found to be having 7.7 and 9.4 times higher permeability as compared to 6-MNA at pH 5.0 and 7.4, respectively.

  17. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  18. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel.

  19. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2010, through December... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  20. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See... and Certain Citrate Salts, 74 FR 25705 (May 29, 2009). On May 2, 2011, the Department published...

  1. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on June 6, 2012.\\1\\ The period of... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Post- Preliminary...

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

  3. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  4. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Activate Calcium Channels in Ventricular Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, James Min-Che; Xian, Hu; Bacaner, Marvin

    1992-07-01

    Nonesterified fatty acids accumulate at sites of tissue injury and necrosis. In cardiac tissue the concentrations of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, and other fatty acids increase greatly during ischemia due to receptor or nonreceptor-mediated activation of phospholipases and/or diminished reacylation. In ischemic myocardium, the time course of increase in fatty acids and tissue calcium closely parallels irreversible cardiac damage. We postulated that fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids may be involved in the increase of intracellular calcium. We report here that low concentrations (3-30 μM) of each long-chain unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and saturated (palmitic, stearic, and arachidic) fatty acid tested induced multifold increases in voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, neither short-chain fatty acids (<12 carbons) or fatty acid esters (oleic and palmitic methyl esters) had any effect on ICa, indicating that activation of calcium channels depended on chain length and required a free carboxyl group. Inhibition of protein kinases C and A, G proteins, eicosanoid production, or nonenzymatic oxidation did not block the fatty acid-induced increase in ICa. Thus, long-chain fatty acids appear to directly activate ICa, possibly by acting at some lipid sites near the channels or directly on the channel protein itself. We suggest that the combined effects of fatty acids released during ischemia on ICa may contribute to ischemia-induced pathogenic events on the heart that involve calcium, such as arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial damage due to cytotoxic calcium overload.

  5. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See... of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit....

  6. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt on Phase Changes and Damage Development in Cementitious Materials

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Yaghoob; Dick, Sarah; Wiese, Andrew; Davis, Jeffrey; Bentz, Dale; Weiss, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The conventional CaCl2-H2O phase diagram is often used to describe how calcium chloride behaves when it is used on a concrete pavement undergoing freeze-thaw damage. However, the chemistry of the concrete can alter the appropriateness of using the CaCl2-H2O phase diagram. This study shows that the Ca(OH)2 present in a hydrated portland cement can interact with CaCl2 solution creating a behavior that is similar to that observed in isoplethal sections of a ternary phase diagram for a Ca(OH)2-CaCl2-H2O system. As such, it is suggested that such isoplethal sections provide a reasonable model that can be used to describe the behavior of concrete exposed to CaCl2 solution as the temperature changes. Specifically, the Ca(OH)2 can react with CaCl2 and H2O resulting in the formation of calcium oxychloride. The formation of the calcium oxychloride is expansive and can produce damage in concrete at temperatures above freezing. Its formation can also cause a significant decrease in fluid ingress into concrete. For solutions with CaCl2 concentrations greater than about 11.3 % (by mass), it is found that calcium oxychloride forms rapidly and is stable at room temperature (23 °C). PMID:26692655

  7. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt on Phase Changes and Damage Development in Cementitious Materials.

    PubMed

    Farnam, Yaghoob; Dick, Sarah; Wiese, Andrew; Davis, Jeffrey; Bentz, Dale; Weiss, Jason

    2015-11-01

    The conventional CaCl2-H2O phase diagram is often used to describe how calcium chloride behaves when it is used on a concrete pavement undergoing freeze-thaw damage. However, the chemistry of the concrete can alter the appropriateness of using the CaCl2-H2O phase diagram. This study shows that the Ca(OH)2 present in a hydrated portland cement can interact with CaCl2 solution creating a behavior that is similar to that observed in isoplethal sections of a ternary phase diagram for a Ca(OH)2-CaCl2-H2O system. As such, it is suggested that such isoplethal sections provide a reasonable model that can be used to describe the behavior of concrete exposed to CaCl2 solution as the temperature changes. Specifically, the Ca(OH)2 can react with CaCl2 and H2O resulting in the formation of calcium oxychloride. The formation of the calcium oxychloride is expansive and can produce damage in concrete at temperatures above freezing. Its formation can also cause a significant decrease in fluid ingress into concrete. For solutions with CaCl2 concentrations greater than about 11.3 % (by mass), it is found that calcium oxychloride forms rapidly and is stable at room temperature (23 °C).

  8. Calcineurin and Calcium Channel CchA Coordinate the Salt Stress Response by Regulating Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Homeostasis in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sha; Liu, Xiao; Qian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The eukaryotic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is crucial for the environmental adaption of fungi. However, the mechanism of coordinate regulation of the response to salt stress by calcineurin and the high-affinity calcium channel CchA in fungi is not well understood. Here we show that the deletion of cchA suppresses the hyphal growth defects caused by the loss of calcineurin under salt stress in Aspergillus nidulans. Additionally, the hypersensitivity of the ΔcnaA strain to extracellular calcium and cell-wall-damaging agents can be suppressed by cchA deletion. Using the calcium-sensitive photoprotein aequorin to monitor the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in living cells, we found that calcineurin negatively regulates CchA on calcium uptake in response to external calcium in normally cultured cells. However, in salt-stress-pretreated cells, loss of either cnaA or cchA significantly decreased the [Ca2+]c, but a deficiency in both cnaA and cchA switches the [Ca2+]c to the reference strain level, indicating that calcineurin and CchA synergistically coordinate calcium influx under salt stress. Moreover, real-time PCR results showed that the dysfunction of cchA in the ΔcnaA strain dramatically restored the expression of enaA (a major determinant for sodium detoxification), which was abolished in the ΔcnaA strain under salt stress. These results suggest that double deficiencies of cnaA and cchA could bypass the requirement of calcineurin to induce enaA expression under salt stress. Finally, YvcA, a member of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) protein family of vacuolar Ca2+ channels, was proven to compensate for calcineurin-CchA in fungal salt stress adaption. IMPORTANCE The feedback inhibition relationship between calcineurin and the calcium channel Cch1/Mid1 has been well recognized from yeast. Interestingly, our previous study (S. Wang et al., PLoS One 7:e46564, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal

  9. The Combined Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Calcium Salts on the Stability, Solubility and Gel Formation of β-Lactoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Saalfeld, Daniel; Riegel, Ina; Kulozik, Ulrich; Gebhardt, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Stability, aggregation and gelation of β-Lactoglobulin are affected by high pressure and salts of the Hofmeister series. Little is known about their combined effects on structure formation processes of β-Lactoglobulin, mainly because many salts of the series are not suitable for use in food. Here, we investigate the effect of calcium salts on the strength of pressure-induced gels, inspired by the fact that high pressure and salts change the water structure in a similar way. We find that the larger the applied pressures, the higher the strength of the gels. In addition to pressure, there is a significant influence by the type of anions and the amount of added calcium salts. Gel strength increases in the order CaCl2 < Ca (NO3)2 < CaI2. This trend correlates with the position of the salts in the Hofmeister series. The results are explained by analogy with the thermal aggregate formation by taking reaction rates for unfolding and aggregation, as well as specific/non-specific salts effect into consideration. PMID:28231200

  10. Nitrooleic Acid Attenuates Lipid Metabolic Disorders and Liver Steatosis in DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiping; Sun, Jing; Jia, Zhanjun; Yang, Tianxin; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Bing; Yu, Kezhou; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrooleic acid (OA-NO2) is endogenous ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The present study was aimed at investigating the beneficial effects of OA-NO2 on the lipid metabolism and liver steatosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate- (DOCA-) salt induced hypertensive mice model. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided to receive DOCA-salt plus OA-NO2 or DOCA-salt plus vehicle and another group received neither DOCA-salt nor OA-NO2 (control group). After 3-week treatment with DOCA-salt plus 1% sodium chloride in drinking fluid, the hypertension was noted; however, OA-NO2 had no effect on the hypertension. In DOCA-salt treated mice, the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased compared to control mice, and pretreatment with OA-NO2 significantly reduced these parameters. Further, the histopathology of liver exhibited more lipid distribution together with more serious micro- and macrovesicular steatosis after DOCA-salt treatment and that was consistent with liver tissue triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) content. The mice pretreated with OA-NO2 showed reduced liver damage accompanied with low liver lipid content. Moreover, the liver TBARS, together with the expressions of gp91phox and p47phox, were parallelly decreased. These findings indicated that OA-NO2 had the protective effect on liver injury against DOCA-salt administration and the beneficial effect could be attributed to its antihyperlipidemic activities.

  11. Efficient Fractionation and Analysis of Fatty Acids and their Salts in Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposits.

    PubMed

    Benecke, Herman P; Allen, Sara K; Garbark, Daniel B

    2017-02-01

    A fractionation methodology of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits was developed based on the insolubility of fatty acid salts in dichloromethane (DCM) and the relatively high solubility of fatty acids and triglycerides in DCM. Using this method, coupled with spectral analysis, it was shown that fatty acids rather than fatty acid salts were the predominant species in FOG deposits obtained from three metropolitan locations in the United States and that fatty acid triglycerides were either not detected or were present in very small concentrations. This solubility-based fractionation approach also revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing compounds that had not been previously detected in FOG deposits including peptides and (or) proteins. The comparison of the ratios of stearic acid salts to stearic acid versus the ratio of palmitic acid salts to palmitic acid in FOG deposits may indicate that the initial step in FOG deposit formation is the preferential precipitation of stearic acid salts.

  12. Catalytic biodiesel production mediated by amino acid-based protic salts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingbo; Guo, Zheng

    2017-02-06

    Hetero-/homo-geneous acid catalysts are effective catalysts for biodiesel produced from oils containing high free fatty acids. The protic salts synthesized from natural amino acids were examined for their catalytic activity and efficiency for esterification of oleic acid after structural identification and characterization. The melting points of the protic salts were measured. In the esterification reaction of oleic acid with methanol, [Asp][NO3] performed the best, correlating to its higher Hammett acidity. The optimal reaction conditions for esterification of oleic acid to achieve 97% biodiesel yield were: temperature 70 °C, catalyst 10% (w/w, on oleic acid basis), methanol to oleic acid ratio 7.5:1, and 5 h. [Asp][NO3] could be a generally good catalyst for esterification of oleic acid with alcohols with chain length up to 6. The biodiesel yield of 93.86% was obtained from palm fatty acid distillate, implying potential industrial application of the catalyst. Kinetic study indicated that the reaction followed a pseudo-first order reaction, with activation energy and pre-exponential of 57.36 kJ/mol and 44.24×105 min-1. In conclusion, the aspartic acid derived protic salt is a promising, operational simply, sustainable, renewable, and possible biodegradable catalyst for converting high content of free fatty acids into biodiesel.

  13. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Thai, Van Viet; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C.

  14. Factors affecting calcium precipitation during neutralisation in a simulated intestinal environment.

    PubMed

    Goss, Sandra; Prushko, Jennifer; Bogner, Robin

    2010-10-01

    Maintaining soluble calcium in the gastrointestinal tract after administration of a calcium supplement is essential for intestinal absorption. Due to the low solubility of calcium carbonate, calcium may precipitate as the carbonate salt during intestinal neutralisation with bicarbonate. The influence of neutralising solution, calcium salt and the presence of amino acids and bile components were determined in an in vitro system. After dissolution of calcium citrate or chloride salt in 0.1 N HCl, the mixture was neutralised to pH 7 with either HCO3(-) or OH(-). For further investigation, amino acids or bile components were added to the initial solution to simulate the effect of digested protein and bile, respectively. The pH and PCO2 were monitored, and samples were analysed for calcium during neutralisation. Precipitation of calcium occurred with the citrate salt, while the chloride salt only precipitated at a high secretion rate of HCO3(-), where no calcium remained in solution at pH 7 and PCO2 was at saturation. There was a buffering effect by amino acids, and bile components maintained calcium in solution. The total soluble calcium under the different physiological conditions in vitro may be used to further understand calcium solubility in vivo, a contributing factor of calcium absorption.

  15. Salt-enhanced chemical weathering of building materials and bacterial mineralization of calcium carbonate as a treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Jroundi, F.; Gonzalez-Muñoz, M. T.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2012-04-01

    Salt weathering is an important mechanism contributing to the degradation and loss of stone building materials. In addition to the physical weathering resulting from crystallization pressure, the presence of salts in solution greatly enhances the chemical weathering potential of pore waters. Flow through experiments quantify the dissolution rates of calcite and quartz grains (63-125 micrometer diameter) when subjected to 1.0 ionic strength solutions of MgSO4, MgCl, Na2SO4 or NaCl. Results indicate that the identity of the cation is the primary control over the dissolution rate of both calcite and quartz substrates, with salt-enhanced dissolution occurring most rapidly in Mg2+ bearing solutions. It has been observed that weathering rates of rocks in nature, as well as building stones, are slowed down by naturally occurring or artificially produced patinas. These tend to be bacterially produced, durable mineralized coatings that lend some degree of protection to the underlying stone surface [1]. Our research shows that bacterially produced carbonate coatings can be quite effective at reducing chemical weathering of stone by soluble salts. The calcite-producing-bacteria used in this study were isolated from stone monuments in Granada, Spain [2] and cultivated in an organic-rich culture medium on a variety of artificial and natural substrates (including limestone, marble, sandstone, quartz, calcite single crystals, glass cover-slips, and sintered porous glass). Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to image bacterial calcite growth and biofilm formation. In-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) enabled calculation of dissolution rates of untreated and bacterially treated surfaces. 2D-XRD showed the mineralogy and crystallographic orientation of bacterial calcium carbonate. Results indicate that bacterially produced calcite crystals form a coherent, mechanically resistant surface layer in perfect crystallographic continuity with the calcite substrate (self

  16. Interaction of a dietary fiber (pectin) with gastrointestinal components (bile salts, calcium, and lipase): a calorimetry, electrophoresis, and turbidity study.

    PubMed

    Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; McClements, David Julian

    2014-12-31

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model consisting of oral, gastric, and intestinal phases was used to elucidate the impact of pectin on the digestion of emulsified lipids. Pectin reduced the extent of lipid digestion, which was attributed to its binding interactions with specific gastrointestinal components. The interaction of pectin with bile salts, lipase, CaCl2, and NaCl was therefore investigated by turbidity, microstructure, electrophoresis, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C. ITC showed that the interaction of pectin was endothermic with bile salts, but exothermic with CaCl2, NaCl, and lipase. Electrophoresis, microstructure, and turbidity measurements showed that anionic pectin formed electrostatic complexes with calcium ions, which may have decreased lipid digestion due to increased lipid flocculation or microgel formation because this would reduce the surface area of lipid exposed to the lipase. This research provides valuable insights into the physicochemical and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of pectin with gastrointestinal components that may affect the rate and extent of lipid digestion.

  17. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method.

  18. Closed cycle ion exchange method for regenerating acids, bases and salts

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A method for conducting a chemical reaction in acidic, basic, or neutral solution as required and then regenerating the acid, base, or salt by means of ion exchange in a closed cycle reaction sequence which comprises contacting the spent acid, base, or salt with an ion exchanger, preferably a synthetic organic ion-exchange resin, so selected that the counter ions thereof are ions also produced as a by-product in the closed reaction cycle, and then regenerating the spent ion exchanger by contact with the by-product counter ions. The method is particularly applicable to closed cycle processes for the thermochemical production of hydrogen.

  19. [Effect of calcium on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liancheng; Wang, Cong; Dong, Juan'e; Su, Hui; Zhuo, Zequn; Xue, Yaxin

    2013-07-01

    We studied medium alkalinization in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures treated with salicylic acid and the effect of Ca2+ in this process through application of calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil, LaCl3, LiCl, 2-APB) and ionophore A23187. The results show that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture. Verapamil and LaCl3 or LiCl and 2-APB, two different groups of calcium channel antagonist, significantly inhibited the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid. However, the suppression effect of verapamil or LaCl3 on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was higher than that of LiCl or 2-APB. When two types of calcium channel inhibitor (LaCl3 and 2-APB) were used together, the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was completely suppressed and even reduced the pH in medium. On the other hand, A23187 could promote the medium alkalinization. Based on the results above, we speculated that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture, depending on the calcium from both extracell and intracell. Moreover, calcium from extracell plays a more dominant role in this process. Reveal of relationship in this research between Ca2+ and medium alkalinization can provide theory evidence for mechanism of the plant secondary metabolism.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. Copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt: Effective waterproofing agent for oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, O.N.; Avvakumova, N.I.

    1992-08-10

    In the development of technology for the copolymerization of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt (MAA-MAA{center_dot}DEA), the polymer-like reaction of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with diethylamine (DEA) and the polymerization of MAA in the presence of DEA have been studied. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  4. cGMP regulates hydrogen peroxide accumulation in calcium-dependent salt resistance pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    PubMed

    Li, Jisheng; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yanli; Jia, Honglei; Bi, Yurong

    2011-10-01

    3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is an important second messenger in plants. In the present study, roles of cGMP in salt resistance in Arabidopsis roots were investigated. Arabidopsis roots were sensitive to 100 mM NaCl treatment, displaying a great increase in electrolyte leakage and Na(+)/K(+) ratio and a decrease in gene expression of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. However, application of exogenous 8Br-cGMP (an analog of cGMP), H(2)O(2) or CaCl(2) alleviated the NaCl-induced injury by maintaining a lower Na(+)/K(+) ratio and increasing the PM H(+)-ATPase gene expression. In addition, the inhibition of root elongation and seed germination under salt stress was removed by 8Br-cGMP. Further study indicated that 8Br-cGMP-induced higher NADPH levels for PM NADPH oxidase to generate H(2)O(2) by regulating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity. The effect of 8Br-cGMP and H(2)O(2) on ionic homeostasis was abolished when Ca(2+) was eliminated by glycol-bis-(2-amino ethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca(2+) chelator) in Arabidopsis roots under salt stress. Taken together, cGMP could regulate H(2)O(2) accumulation in salt stress, and Ca(2+) was necessary in the cGMP-mediated signaling pathway. H(2)O(2), as the downstream component of cGMP signaling pathway, stimulated PM H(+)-ATPase gene expression. Thus, ion homeostasis was modulated for salt tolerance.

  5. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  6. Calcium-D-glucarate.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    Calcium-D-glucarate is the calcium salt of D-glucaric acid, a substance produced naturally in small amounts by mammals, including humans. Glucaric acid is also found in many fruits and vegetables with the highest concentrations to be found in oranges, apples, grapefruit, and cruciferous vegetables. Oral supplementation of calcium-D-glucarate has been shown to inhibit beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme produced by colonic microflora and involved in Phase II liver detoxification. Elevated beta-glucuronidase activity is associated with an increased risk for various cancers, particularly hormone-dependent cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Other potential clinical applications of oral calcium-D-glucarate include regulation of estrogen metabolism and as a lipid-lowering agent.

  7. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  8. Conformation of the umifenovir cation in the molecular and crystal structures of four carboxylic acid salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orola, Liana; Sarcevica, Inese; Kons, Artis; Actins, Andris; Veidis, Mikelis V.

    2014-01-01

    The umifenovir salts of maleic, salicylic, glutaric, and gentisic acid as well as the chloroform solvate of the salicylate were prepared. Single crystals of the five compounds were obtained and their molecular and crystal structures determined by X-ray diffraction. In each structure the conformation of phenyl ring with respect to the indole group of the umifenovir moiety is different. The water solubility and melting points of the studied umifenovir salts have been determined.

  9. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  14. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on citric acid and... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  15. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from..., 2011, Huangshi Xinghua Biochemical Co., Ltd. (``Xinghua''), a producer and exporter of citric...

  16. 77 FR 33167 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On May 29, 2009, the Department published a CVD order on citric acid...

  17. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  18. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review...

  19. [Preparation and antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of verticinone-bile acids salts].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Zhou; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Ruan, Han-Li; Pi, Hui-Fang; Chen, Chang; Wu, Ji-Zhou

    2007-03-01

    To search for potential drugs with potent antitussive, expectorant, antiasthmatic activities and low toxicity, a series of verticinone-bile acids salts were prepared based on the clearly elucidated antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of verticinone in bulbs of Fritillaria and different bile acids in Snake Bile. The antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of these verticinone-bile acid salts were then screened with different animal models. Ver-CA (verticinone-cholic acid salt) and Ver-CDCA (verticinone-chenodeoxycholic acid salt) showed much more potent activities than other compounds. The bioactivities of Ver-CA and Ver-CDCA are worthy to be intensively studied, and it is also deserved to pay much attention to their much more potent antitussive effects than codeine phosphate. In order to elucidate whether they have synergistic effect and attenuated toxicity, their activities will be continuously compared with single verticinone, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid at the same doses on different animal models. The application of "combination principles" in traditional Chinese medicinal formulations may be a novel way in triditional Chinese medicine research and discovery.

  20. Intergranular fracture of lithium fluoride-22 percent calcium fluoride hypereutectic salt at 800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Subramanium V.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Substantial strain-hardening was noted during the initial stages of deformation in constant-velocity compression tests conducted on as-cast samples of the LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 hypereutectic salt at 800 K. The deformed specimens exhibited extensive grain-boundary cracking and cavitation, suggesting that such cracking, in conjunction with interfacial sliding, is important for cavity nucleation at grain boundaries and at the LiF-CaF2 interfaces. Cavity growth and interlinkage occur through the preferential failure of the weaker LiF phase.

  1. The Role of Uric Acid in Hypertension of Adolescents, Prehypertension and Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Hu, Jia-Wen; Lv, Yong-Bo; Chu, Chao; Wang, Ke-Ke; Zheng, Wen-Ling; Cao, Yu-Meng; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Metabolic disorders of uric acid are associated with many disease states. Substantial evidence suggests the possible role of uric acid as a mediator of high blood pressure. Elevated uric acid is closely associated with new onset essential hypertension in adolescents and prehypertension; and urate-lowering agents can significantly improve these early stages of hypertension. Uric acid also influences salt sensitivity of blood pressure through two phases. Local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation initiates renal damage, arteriolopathy, and endothelium dysfunction, which is followed by the dysregulation of sodium homeostasis, thereby leading to increased salt sensitivity. In this review we summarize the available evidence to contribute to a better understanding of the casual relationship between uric acid and early or intermediate stages of hypertension. We hope our review can contribute to the prevention of hypertension or provide new insights into a treatment that would slow the progression of hypertension. PMID:28190873

  2. [Study on solid dispersion of precipitated calcium carbonate-based oleanolic acid].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Jia, Xiao-bin; Jiang, Yan-rong; Sun, E

    2015-05-01

    Oleanolic acid-precipitated calcium carbonate solid dispersion was prepared by using solvent evaporation method. The microscopic structure and physicochemical properties of solid dispersion were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). And its in vitro release also was investigated. The properties of the precipitated calcium carbonate was studied which was as a carrier of oleanolic acid solid dispersion. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested that oleanolic acid may be present in solid dispersion as amorphous substance. The in vitro release determination results of oleanolic acid-precipitated calcium carbonate (1: 5) solid dispersion showed accumulated dissolution rate of.oleanolic acid was up to 90% at 45 min. Accelerating experiment showed that content and in vitro dissolution of oleanolic acid solid dispersion did not change after storing over 6 months. The results indicated that in vitro dissolution of oleanolic acid was improved greatly by the solid dispersion with precipitated calcium carbonate as a carrier. The solid dispersion is a stabilizing system which has actual applied value.

  3. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  4. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  5. Effects of dietary saturated or unsaturated fatty acids and calcium levels on performance and mineral metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Leeson, S

    1984-11-01

    The effects of inclusion of 8% oleic, palmitic, or a 50/50 mixture of oleic and palmitic acids as the major source of fat in the presence of .8, 1.2, or 1.6% calcium in broiler diets was investigated using broiler chicks from day-old to 3 weeks of age. Supplementation of broiler diets with oleic acid reduced feed intake (P less than .05) and improved feed efficiency (P less than .01) compared to other treatments. Chicks fed diets supplemented with oleic acid or a mixture of oleic and palmitic acid gained more weight (P less than .01) over a 3-week period. Significant interactions were observed between type of dietary fatty acid and calcium level on metabolizable energy of diets (P less than .01), magnesium retention (P less than .05), calcium and fat retention (P less than .01), and proportion of excreta fatty acid that was present as soap (P less than .01). Although all fatty acids tested formed soap in the small intestine, soaps of oleic acid were efficiently utilized as opposed to soaps of palmitic acid. There was a significant (P less than .05) reduction in bone ash and bone calcium content of chicks fed diets supplemented with palmitic acid. There was a significant interaction (P less than .05) between type of fatty acid and calcium level on bone magnesium content. Increasing the calcium content of diets aggravated the decrease in calcium retention and bone calcium content associated with addition of fat.

  6. OsCCD1, a novel small calcium-binding protein with one EF-hand motif, positively regulates osmotic and salt tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pei; Zou, Juanzi; Kong, Lin; Hu, Shiqi; Wang, Biying; Yang, Jun; Xie, Guosheng

    2016-06-01

    Calcium-binding proteins play key roles in the signal transduction in the growth and stress response in eukaryotes. However, a subfamily of proteins with one EF-hand motif has not been fully studied in higher plants. Here, a novel small calcium-binding protein with a C-terminal centrin-like domain (CCD1) in rice, OsCCD1, was characterized to show high similarity with a TaCCD1 in wheat. As a result, OsCCD1 can bind Ca(2+) in the in vitro EMSA and the fluorescence staining calcium-binding assays. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged OsCCD1 in rice protoplasts showed that OsCCD1 was localized in the nucleus and cytosol of rice cells. OsCCD1 transcript levels were transiently induced by osmotic stress and salt stress through the calcium-mediated ABA signal. The rice seedlings of T-DNA mutant lines showed significantly less tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses than wild type plants (p<0.01). Conversely, its overexpressors can significantly enhance the tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses than wild type plants (p<0.05). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that, OsDREB2B, OsAPX1 and OsP5CS genes are involved in the rice tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses. In sum, OsCCD1 gene probably affects the DREB2B and its downstream genes to positively regulate osmotic and salt tolerance in rice seedlings.

  7. Removal of arsenic(III) and arsenic(IV) ions from aqueous solutions with lanthanum(III) salt and comparison with aluminum(III), calcium(II), and iron(III) salts

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, S.; Yokoyama, S.; Wasay, S.A.

    1999-05-01

    Interactions of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) ions with a lanthanum salt were studied with the aim of developing a new precipitation method for removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions. Performance was compared to those of aluminum, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), calcium, and iron(III) salts. Arsenic(III) was removed by iron(III) and lanthanum in a narrow pH range with less than 605 removal. Arsenic(V) was removed more efficiently by aluminum, PAC, iron(III), and lanthanum. Lanthanum was most effective, meeting Japanese effluent and drinking water standards by adding three times as much lanthanum as arsenic(V).

  8. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  9. Mechanism of Calcium Lactate Facilitating Phytic Acid Degradation in Soybean during Germination.

    PubMed

    Hui, Qianru; Yang, Runqiang; Shen, Chang; Zhou, Yulin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-07-13

    Calcium lactate facilitates the growth and phytic acid degradation of soybean sprouts, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, calcium lactate (Ca) and calcium lactate with lanthanum chloride (Ca+La) were used to treat soybean sprouts to reveal the relevant mechanism. Results showed that the phytic acid content decreased and the availability of phosphorus increased under Ca treatment. This must be due to the enhancement of enzyme activity related to phytic acid degradation. In addition, the energy metabolism was accelerated by Ca treatment. The energy status and energy metabolism-associated enzyme activity also increased. However, the transmembrane transport of calcium was inhibited by La(3+) and concentrated in intercellular space or between the cell wall and cell membrane; thus, Ca+La treatment showed reverse results compared with those of Ca treatment. Interestingly, gene expression did not vary in accordance with their enzyme activity. These results demonstrated that calcium lactate increased the rate of phytic acid degradation by enhancing growth, phosphorus metabolism, and energy metabolism.

  10. Deuterium isotope effect on 13C chemical shifts of tetrabutylammonium salts of Schiff bases amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rozwadowski, Z

    2006-09-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shift of tetrabutylammonium salts of Schiff bases, derivatives of amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-methionine) and various ortho-hydroxyaldehydes in CDCl3 have been measured. The results have shown that the tetrabutylammonium salts of the Schiff bases amino acids, being derivatives of 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde and 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde, exist in the NH-form, while in the derivatives of salicylaldehyde and 5-bromosalicylaldehyde a proton transfer takes place. The interactions between COO- and NH groups stabilize the proton-transferred form through a bifurcated intramolecular hydrogen bond.

  11. Influence of different calcium contents in diets supplemented with anionic salts on bone metabolism in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Liesegang, A; Chiappi, C; Risteli, J; Kessler, J; Hess, H D

    2007-04-01

    At the initiation of lactation, Ca homeostatic mechanisms have to react to a tremendous increase in demand for Ca. Mobilization of Ca from bone and increased absorption from the gastrointestinal tract are required to re-establish homeostasis. It has been shown that dietary anions play an important role in the prevention of milk fever by mobilizing Ca from bone and by increasing Ca absorption in the GI tract. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different Ca contents in diets supplemented with anionic salts on bone metabolism of dairy cows. Twenty-four holstein cows (housed inside, second to fourth lactation) without a milk fever history were divided into four groups (A, B, C, D). Each group was fed a different diet which was given from day 263 of gestation till the day of parturition. Group A and B received a low calcium diet (4 g/kg DM) whereas group C and D received a high Ca diet (8 g/kg DM). In addition group B and D received anionic salts. The DCAD was calculated with the formula: DCAD (mEq/kg DM)=(0.2 Ca2++0.16 Mg2++Na++K+)-(Cl-+0.6 S2-+0.65 P3-). Blood and urine samples were collected on days 256, 270 and 277 of gestation, on the day of parturition as well as the following 5 days and on days 9, 14 and 19 after parturition. Serum Ca, P, Mg, ICTP, OC, VITD, PTH and urinary pH were analysed. The bone resorption marker ICTP showed a significant increase after parturition in all the groups. On the contrary, the bone formation marker OC decreased after parturition in all the groups. The VITD concentrations in group D and the urinary pH in group B were significantly lower compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The Ca concentrations tended to be higher in group B around parturition than in all the other groups. No significant influence of the four different diets on all the other parameters could be shown. In conclusion, this data showed that the addition of anions and the different Ca contents had no significant influence on bone

  12. Effect of calcium, tannic acid, phytic acid and pectin over iron uptake in an in vitro Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M; Briones, L; Jaramillo, A; Pizarro, F; Arredondo, M

    2014-04-01

    Calcium, phytic acid, polyphenols and fiber are major inhibitors of iron absorption and they could be found in excess in some diets, thereby altering or modifying the iron nutrition status. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of calcium, tannic acid, phytic acid, and pectin over iron uptake, using an in vitro model of epithelial cells (Caco-2 cell line). Caco-2 cells were incubated with iron (10-30 μM) with or without CaCl2 (500 and 1,000 μM) for 24 h. Then, cells were challenged with phytic acid (50-150 μM); pectin (50-150 nM) or tannic acid (100-500 μM) for another 24 h. Finally, (55)Fe (10 μM) uptake was determined. Iron dialyzability was studied using an in vitro digestion method. Iron uptake in cells pre-incubated with 20 and 30 μM Fe was inhibited by CaCl2 (500 μM). Iron uptake decreased in cells cultured with tannic acid (300 μM) and CaCl2 (500-1,000 μM) (two-way ANOVA, p = 0.002). Phytic acid also decreased iron uptake mainly when cells were treated with CaCl2 (1,000 μM) (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05). Pectin slightly decreased iron uptake (p = NS). Iron dialyzability decreased when iron was mixed with CaCl2 and phytic or tannic acid (T test p < 0.0001, for both) but not when mixed with pectin. Phytic acid combined with calcium is a strong iron uptake inhibitor. Pectin slightly decreased iron uptake with or without calcium. Tannic acid showed an unexpected behavior, inducing an increase on iron uptake, despite its low Fe dialyzability.

  13. Three-Dimensional Quantification of Calcium Salt-Composite Resorption (CSC) In Vitro by Micro-computed Tomography (Micro-CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, T.; Dai, X. Y.; Mielke, G.; Vogt, S.; Buechner, H.; Schantz, J. T.; Harder, Y.; Machens, H. G.; Morlock, M. M.; Schilling, A. F.

    2014-04-01

    The commonly applied cell-based, two-dimensional (2D) in vitro resorption assays for biomaterials are limited in a variety of cases, including high initial roughness of material surface, uncontrollable solubilization (or resorption) of the entire material surface, or complex three-dimensional (3D) structure of the bioactive material itself. All these make the accurate assessment and successful selection of the optimal bone substitute material difficult. In vivo, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has been widely applied for the analysis of bone physiology and pathology, as well as for the 3D analysis of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this study, we show that micro-CT can also be applied for the in vitro analysis of osteoclast-mediated resorption of biomaterials. For our experiments, we chose a calcium salt-composite (composite of calcium sulphate (CSC), calcium carbonate, glycerin-1,2,3-tripalmiate), which evades common 2D in vitro resorption analysis as a result of its high surface roughness and material composition. Human osteoclasts were differentiated from precursor cells on the surface of the material for 28 days. Cells were analyzed for expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), multinuclearity, and size. Volumetric analysis of resorption was performed by micro-CT. Multinucleated osteoclasts developed on the surface of the material. TRAP5b expression of the cells on CSC was comparable with TRAP5b expression of cells cultivated on dentin for the first 3 weeks of culture. At day 28, TRAP5b expression, cell number, and size of the TRAP+ cells were reduced on the CSC when compared with cells on dentin. Volumetric anaylsis by micro-CT showed a strong cellular effect on resorption of CSC. We consider micro-CT to be a promising technique for 3D quantification of cell-based resorption that will allow the study of cellular resorption of materials in vitro, which were up to now confined to animal experimental analysis.

  14. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  15. Impaired Compensation for Salt-Induced Urinary Calcium Loss in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Harper, J. S.; Evans, J.; Fung, P.; Wolinsky, I.; Arnaud, S. B.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The loss of urinary calcium (UCa) induced by high sodium (HiNa) diets is compensated for by an increase in net intestinal Ca absorption (abs.). To determine the capacity of the intestine to absorb Ca in a space flight model in which the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) is suppressed, we induced Ca loss with HiNa diets (8%) and restricted dietary Ca (0.2%). In 200 g rats with hind limbs unloaded by tail suspension (S), we examined intestinal Ca abs. by direct measurement in the duodenum (everted gut sac or S/M), vitamin D receptors (VDR) and Ca balance. We also measured serum ionized calcium (ICa), pH, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25D. PTH was related to ICa (r = -0.44, p is less than 0.02), pH (r = -0.47, p is less than 0.02) and %Ca abs. (r = -0.40, p is less than 0.05). 1,25-D was related to %Ca abs. (r = 0.60, p is less than 0.001) but not VDR or S/M. Effects of the model were lower serum 1,25-D (110 +/- 59 vs. 199 +/- 80 pg/ml, p is less than 0.005), %Ca abs. (83 +/- 6.9 vs. 93 +/- 3.2, p is less than 0.03) and Ca balance (27 +/- 0.2 vs. 30 +/- 0.3 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in S than controls (C). The HiNa diet increased UCa excretion from 2 to 13% of dietary Ca. Responses to HiNa diets, compared to normal Na, revealed no differences in 1,25-D, Ca abs. or VDR. Ca balances were lower in HiNa (27 +/- 0.3 vs. 30 +/- 0.4 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in spite of higher Ca intakes. The failure of S rats fed HiNa diets to increase Ca abs. in response to Na-induced Ca loss appears to be related to suppressed 1,25-D in the space flight model, the cause of which remains obscure.

  16. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not accounting for surface

  17. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium if you have heart disease. Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if ... heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema. High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): ...

  18. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    SciTech Connect

    Damron, D.S.; Dorman, R.V. )

    1990-06-01

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca{sup 2}{sup +}-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca{sup 2}{sup +} with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca{sup 2}{sup +} influx and that at least 80% of the ({sup 3}H)free fatty acid accumulation required calcium.

  19. Activation of Oral Trigeminal Neurons by Fatty Acids is Dependent upon Intracellular Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Shah, Bhavik P.; Hansen, Dane R.; Park-York, MieJung; Gilbertson, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The chemoreception of dietary fat in the oral cavity has largely been attributed to activation of the somatosensory system that conveys the textural properties of fat. However, the ability of fatty acids, which are believed to represent the proximate stimulus for fat taste, to stimulate rat trigeminal neurons has remained unexplored. Here, we found that several free fatty acids are capable of activating trigeminal neurons with different kinetics. Further, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), activates trigeminal neurons by increasing intracellular calcium concentration and generating depolarizing receptor potentials. Ion substitution and pharmacological approaches reveal that intracellular calcium store depletion is crucial for LA-induced signaling in a subset of trigeminal neurons. Using pseudorabies virus (PrV) as a live cell tracer, we identified a subset of lingual nerve-innervated trigeminal neurons that respond to different subsets of fatty acids. Quantitative real-time PCR of several transient receptor potential (TRP) channel markers in individual neurons validated that PrV labeled a subset but not the entire population of lingual-innervated trigeminal neurons. We further confirmed that the LA-induced intracellular calcium rise is exclusively coming from the release of calcium stores from the endoplasmic reticulum in this subset of lingual nerve-innervated trigeminal neurons. PMID:22644615

  20. The selective activation of the cardiac sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger by plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Hale, C C; Ebeling, E G; Hsu, F F; Ford, D A

    1998-01-30

    Since plasmalogens are the predominant phospholipid of cardiac sarcolemma, the activation of the sodium-calcium exchanger by either plasmenylethanolamine or plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D was explored. Sodium-calcium exchange activity was 7-fold greater in proteoliposomes comprised of plasmenylethanolamine compared to proteoliposomes comprised of only plasmenylcholine. Phospholipase D treatment of proteoliposomes resulted in 1 mol % conversion of plasmenylcholine or phosphatidylcholine to their respective phosphatidic acid molecular species with a concomitant 8-fold or 2-fold activation of sodium-calcium exchange activity, respectfully. Thus, phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of plasmalogens to phosphatidic acid may be an important mechanism for the regulation of the sodium-calcium exchanger.

  1. Altered nucleic acid partitioning during phenol extraction or silica adsorption by guanidinium and potassium salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Peng; Song, Ping; Su, Ruirui; Zhu, Guoping

    2011-12-15

    Nucleic acids were found to partition into the phenol phase during phenol extraction in the presence of guanidinium at certain concentrations under acidic conditions. The guanidinium-concentration-dependent nucleic acid partitioning patterns were analogous to those of the nucleic acid adsorption/partitioning onto silica mediated by guanidinium, which implied that phenol and silica interact with nucleic acids through similar mechanisms. A competition effect was observed in which the nucleic acids that had partitioned into the phenol phase or onto the silica solid phase could be recovered to the aqueous phases by potassium in a molecular weight-salt concentration-dependent manner (the higher molecular weight nucleic acids needed higher concentrations of potassium to be recovered, and vice versa). Methods were developed based on these findings to isolate total RNA from Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of guanidinium and potassium salts used before phenol extraction or silica adsorption, we can selectively recover total RNA but not the high molecular weight genomic DNA in the aqueous phases. Genomic DNA-free total RNA obtained by our methods is suitable for RT-PCR or other purposes. The methods can also be adapted to isolate small RNAs or RNA in certain molecular weight ranges by changing the salt concentrations used.

  2. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-06

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  8. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period...

  9. Study of the chemical mechanisms of the reaction of neutralization of calcium hydroxide by phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgadi, M.; Mejdoubi, E.; Elansari, L. L.; Essaddek, A.; Abouricha, S.; Lamhamdi, A.

    2005-03-01

    Calcium phosphates reported in this study, are prepared following an acido-basic reaction between phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide. These phosphates are the brushite, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and oxygenated apatite. The follow-up of the reaction by infra-red spectroscopy of absorption showed that the alkaline pH of calcium hydroxide solution, favours the formation of carbonated apatite, at the start of the reaction. Following the addition of phosphoric acid, the pH becomes increasingly favourable to the formation of the desired phase. The insertion of molecular oxygen in the apatitic tunnel is carried out by the use of hydrogen peroxide. The molecular oxygen rate in the apatite is then determined by volumetric analysis.

  10. Ammonium salts of polymaleic acids and use as corrosion inhibitors in water-in-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenlaender, K.; Barthold, K.; Stork, K.

    1984-03-13

    The subject invention relates to salts of polymaleic acids having a molecular weight between 200 and 1500 and to their use in preventing the corrosion of metal caused by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in water-in-oil emulsions such as crude oil.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  13. 35Cl NQR and Crystal Structure Studies of Salts of Chlorodifluoro- and Dichloroacetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaran, Reha; Dou, Shi-qi; Weiss, Alarich

    1992-02-01

    The 35Cl NQR spectra of several chlorodifluoroacetates were studied as a function of temperature, including the acid ClF2CCOOH. The cations were: Ammonium, guanidinium, paramethylanilinium. Also some acid salts M⊕ClF2CCOO⊖ • n - ClF2CCOOH ( n > l ) were studied by 35Cl NQR. The bleaching temperatures of the NQR signals were determined. In the para-methylanilinium salt and in the guanidinium salt a phase transition has been observed. The crystal structure of guanidinium chlorodifluoroacetate has been determined at room temperature (a = 1089 pm, 6 = 845 pm, c = 832 pm, space group Pnma, Z = 4). For comparison, guanidinium dichloroacetate was studied by 35Cl NQR and by X-ray diffraction, too: P21/c, Z = 4 , a = 804pm, b = 1202 pm, c = 1080 pm, ß = 131.58°. For guanidinium chlorodifluoroacetate and chlorodifluoroacetic acid, the 35Cl spin lattice relaxation time T1 and the line width have been followed up as a function of temperature. Therefrom, the activation energies of the reorientation motion of the group -CF2C1 have been determined to be 14 kJ • mol-1 (from T1) and 12.5 kJ • mol- 1 (from Δv) for the pure acid and 9.2 kJ • mol-1 and 8.8 kJ • mol-1 , respectively, for the guanidinium salt.

  14. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  15. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  16. Short hydrogen bonds in a new salt of pyromellitic acid: An experimental charge density investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, Leonardo H. R.; Rodrigues, Bernardo L.; Idemori, Ynara M.; Fernandes, Nelson G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of intra- and intermolecular short hydrogen bonds in a new salt of nicotinic acid (3-pyridinecarboxylic acid), Nic, and pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid), H4Pm, with formula (HNic)2(H2Pm), 1, has been carried out by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method at 120 K. The experimental charge density has been performed using multipolar functions and analyzed by Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, which gave evidence for the partly covalent character of those interactions.

  17. Equimolar CO2 capture by N-substituted amino acid salts and subsequent conversion.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Hua; Ma, Ran; Song, Chan; Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Yu, Ao; Cai, Yu; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing; Song, Qing-Wen

    2012-11-05

    Steric bulk controls CO(2) absorption: N-substituted amino acid salts in poly(ethylene glycol) reversibly absorb CO(2) in nearly 1:1 stoichiometry. Carbamic acid is thought to be the absorbed form of CO(2); this was supported by NMR and in situ IR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. The captured CO(2) could be converted directly into oxazolidinones and thus CO(2) desorption could be sidestepped.

  18. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calcium or sodium salts of a fatty acid mixture that is predominately stearic acid. Associated fatty acids... fatty acids may be contained in the mixture, but such associated fatty acids in aggregate do not exceed 35 percent by weight of the mixture. The fatty acids may be derived from feed-grade fats or oils....

  19. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  20. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  1. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from 2.9 to 3.5, meanwhile exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 to 0.82 cmolc kg-1, which was well below the critical Al toxicity level for rice growth of 2 cmolc kg-1. It was noted that the dissolution of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) supplied substantial amount of Ca2+ and H4SiO42- ions into the soil, noted with increment in Si (silicate) content from 21.21 to 40 mg kg-1 at day 30 and reduction of exchangeable Al at day 90 from 4.26 to below 2 cmolc kg-1. During the first 60 days of incubation, Si content was positively correlated with soil pH, while the exchangeable Al was negatively correlated with Si content. It is believed that the silicate anions released by calcium silicate were active in neutralizing H+ ions that governs the high acidity (pH 2.90) of the acid sulphate soils. This scenario shows positive effect of calcium silicate to reduce soil acidity, therefore creates a favourable soil condition for good rice growth during its vegetative phase (30 days). Thus, application of calcium silicate to alleviate Al toxicity of acid sulphate soils for rice cultivation is a good soil amendment.

  2. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  3. Enhancing the antioxidant characteristics of phenolic acids by their conversion into cholinium salts

    PubMed Central

    Sintra, Tânia E.; Luís, Andreia; Rocha, Samuel N.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I. M. C.; Gonçalves, Fernando; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Neves, Bruno M.; Freire, Mara G.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the close relation between oxidative stress and a plethora of inflammatory diseases, antioxidants have received an increased attention for incorporation into dermatological products. Their use and absorption is however limited by their low solubility in water-rich formulations. Herein, a set of novel cholinium-based salts, namely dicholinium ellagate and cholinium caffeate, syringate, vanillate, gallate and salicylate were synthetized and characterized. Their melting and decomposition temperatures, water solubility, and toxicological, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and pro-/anti-inflammatory activities were addressed. These new salts, exclusively composed of ions derived from natural sources, display a high thermal stability – up to 150 ºC. The synthesized compounds are significantly more soluble in water (in average, 3 orders of magnitude higher) than the corresponding phenolic acids. Furthermore, they present not only similar but even higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as comparable cytotoxicity and lower ecotoxicity profiles than their acidic precursors. Amongst all the investigated salts, dicholinium ellagate is the most promising synthesized salt when considering the respective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Since all the synthesized salts are based on the cholinium cation, they can further be envisaged as essential nutrients to be used in oral drugs. PMID:28255528

  4. Acetylsalicylic acid provides cerebrovascular protection from oxidant damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki

    2008-03-26

    Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

  5. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate.

  6. Formation of iodoacetic acids during cooking: interaction of iodized table salt with chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Becalski, A; Lau, B P-Y; Schrader, T J; Seaman, S W; Sun, W F

    2006-10-01

    Iodoacetic and chloroiodoacetic acids were formed when municipal chlorinated tap water was allowed to react with iodized (with potassium iodide) table salt or with potassium iodide itself. Iodoacetic acid was recently shown to be a potent cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. For analysis, samples were extracted with t-amyl methyl ether and converted to the corresponding methyl esters using methanol and sulfuric acid. The concentration of iodoacetic acid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using an authentic standard. The identities of iodoacetic and chloroiodoacetic acids were further confirmed by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Certain influences of sodium hypochlorite and humic acid as well as the concentration of potassium iodide on the yields of these acids were investigated. The concentration of iodoacetic acid in tap water samples boiled with 2 g l-1 of iodized table salt was found to be in the 1.5 microg l-1 range, whilst the concentration of chloroiodoacetic acid was estimated to be three to five times lower.

  7. Metabolism, uptake, and excretion of a D-glucaric acid salt and its potential use in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Walaszek, Z; Szemraj, J; Narog, M; Adams, A K; Kilgore, J; Sherman, U; Hanausek, M

    1997-01-01

    D-Glucaric acid (GA) is a nontoxic, natural compound. One of its derivatives is the potent beta-glucuronidase inhibitor D-glucaro-1,4-lactone (1,4-GL). The goal of this study was to demonstrate the in vivo formation of 1,4-GL from a D-glucarate salt and determine its metabolism, uptake by selected organs, and excretion following oral administration of potassium hydrogen D-[14C]glucarate to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. 1,4-GL increases detoxification of carcinogens and tumor promoters/progressors by inhibiting beta-glucuronidase and preventing hydrolysis of their glucuronides. 1,4-GL and its precursors, such as potassium hydrogen D-glucarate and calcium D-glucarate, may exert their anticancer action, in part, through alterations in steroidogenesis accompanied by changes in the hormonal environment and the proliferative status of the target organ. Thus, GA derivatives may be useful as new or adjuvant cancer preventive and therapeutic agents. In our study, 1,4-GL was found to be formed from the D-glucarate salt in the stomach of rats. It was apparently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, transported with the blood to different internal organs, and excreted in the urine and to a lesser extent in bile. There were no significant differences in the metabolism of PHG between male and female rats. Thus, formation of 1,4-GL from D-glucaric acid derivatives may be prerequisite for their inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis in rodents and prevention of breast, prostate, and colon cancer in humans.

  8. Interactions of calcium ions with weakly acidic active ingredients slow cuticular penetration: a case study with glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Schönherr, Jörg; Schreiber, Lukas

    2004-10-20

    Potassium and calcium salts of glyphosate were obtained by titrating glyphosate acid with the respective bases to pH 4.0, and rates of penetration of these salts across isolated astomatous cuticular membranes (CMs) were measured at 20 degrees C and 70, 80, 90, and 100% humidity. K-glyphosate exhibited first-order penetration kinetics, and rate constants (k) increased with increasing humidity. Ca-glyphosate penetrated only when the humidity above the salt residue was 100%. At 90% humidity and below, Ca-glyphosate formed a solid residue on the CMs and penetration was not measurable. With Ca-glyphosate, the k value at 100% humidity decreased with time and the initial rates were lower than for K-glyphosate by a factor of 3.68. After equimolar concentrations of ammonium oxalate were added to Ca-glyphosate, high penetration rates close to those measured with K-glyphosate were measured at all humidities. Adding ammonium sulfate or potassium carbonate also increased rates between 70 and 100% humidity, but they were not as high as with ammonium oxalate. The data indicate that at pH 4.0 one Ca2+ ion is bound to two glyphosate anions. This salt has its deliquescence point near 100% humidity. Therefore, it is a solid at lower humidity and does not penetrate. Its molecular weight is 1.82 times larger than that of K-glyphosate, and this greatly slows down rates of penetration, even at 100% humidity. The additives tested have low solubility products and form insoluble precipitates with Ca2+ ions, but only ammonium oxalate binds Ca2+ quantitatively. The resulting ammonium salt of glyphosate penetrates at 70-100% humidity and at rates comparable to K-glyphosate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the hard water antagonism observed with glyphosate. It is argued that other pesticides and hormones with carboxyl functions are likely to respond to Ca2+ ions in a similar fashion. In all of these cases, ammonium oxalate is expected to overcome hard water antagonism.

  9. Intra-Arterial Calcium Gluconate Treatment After Hydrofluoric Acid Burn of the Hand

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. Jaeger, U.; Sagoschen, I.; Lamberti, C.; Wilhelm, K.

    2009-01-15

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a colorless corrosive acid used in different industrial branches. Exposure to HF typically results from spills, and most often the hand or fingers are involved. Tissue damage through cutaneous HF exposure occurs through corrosive burns due to the free hydrogen ions and through skin penetration of the fluoride ions, causing a depletion of calcium in the deep tissue layers, ultimately leading to cell death and tissue necrosis. Treatment of HF burns consists of thoroughly flushing the exposed area with water and applying calcium gluconate gel to the skin. If topical treatment does not suffice, subcutaneous injections, as well as intravascular-both intravenous and intra-arterial-calcium gluconate therapy, have been advocated. We report for the first time a case of HF burn of the hand and digits associated with vasospasm. Pain and vasospasm were successfully treated by repeated intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection. We conclude that intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection is a successful and well-tolerated therapy for HF burn associated with Raynaud's syndrome. Intra-arterial injection allows for well-controlled delivery of therapy as well as assessment of the vascular status.

  10. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  11. Iridium-Catalyzed ortho-Arylation of Benzoic Acids with Arenediazonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangbin; Hackenberger, Dagmar; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2015-10-19

    In the presence of catalytic [{IrCp*Cl2 }2 ] and Ag2 CO3 , Li2 CO3 as the base, and acetone as the solvent, benzoic acids react with arenediazonium salts to give the corresponding diaryl-2-carboxylates under mild conditions. This C-H arylation process is generally applicable to diversely substituted substrates, ranging from extremely electron-rich to electron-poor derivatives. The carboxylate directing group is widely available and can be removed tracelessly or employed for further derivatization. Orthogonality to halide-based cross-couplings is achieved by the use of diazonium salts, which can be coupled even in the presence of iodo substituents.

  12. Diclofenac salts. III. Alkaline and earth alkaline salts.

    PubMed

    Fini, Adamo; Fazio, Giuseppe; Rosetti, Francesca; Angeles Holgado, M; Iruín, Ana; Alvarez-Fuentes, Josefa

    2005-11-01

    Diclofenac salts containing the alkaline and two earth alkaline cations have been prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX spectroscopy; and by thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): all of them crystallize as hydrate when precipitated from water. The salts dehydrate at room temperature and more easily on heating, but recovery the hydration, when placed in a humid environment. X-ray diffraction spectra suggest that on dehydration new peaks appear on diffractograms and the lattice of the salts partially looses crystallinity. This phenomenon is readily visible in the case of the calcium and magnesium salts, whose thermograms display a crystallization exotherm, before melting or decomposing at temperatures near or above 200 degrees C; these last salts appear to form solvates, when prepared from methanol. The thermogram of each salt shows a complex endotherm of dehydration about 100 degrees C; the calcium salt displays two endotherms, well separated at about 120 and 160 degrees C, which disappear after prolonged heating. Decomposition exotherms, before or soon after the melting, appear below 300 degrees C. The ammonium salt is thermally unstable and, when heated to start dehydration, dissociates and leaves acidic diclofenac.

  13. Diffusion dialysis. Effect of membrane composition on acid/salt separation

    SciTech Connect

    Narebska, A.; Warszawski, A. )

    1992-05-01

    Diffusion dialysis is an energy-saving separation technique. In order to highlight the relationship between membrane composition and ability to separate acid/salt mixtures by diffusion dialysis, a few anion-exchange membranes were examined. Experiments on solubility/diffusivity phenomena were carried out in contact with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solutions (single- and two-solute experiments). Computations using Glueckauf and Tye models have indicated high nonuniformity in the distribution of fixed charged within the membranes and different accessibilities of the internal membrane volumes for the acid and salt. The Neosepta AFN-7 membrane (Tokuymam Soda Co.) has proved effective in differentiating the permeants by sorption (k{sub HCl}/k{sub NaCl} {approx} 2) and diffusivity ({bar D}{sub HCl}/{bar D}{sub NaCl} up to 10). This membrane is also the only one which, when in contact with two-solutes solutions, absorbs the acid preferentially to the salt. For this membrane the preferential sorption and transport of the acid depends not only on the physical structure of the membrane but also on the chemical nature of the polymer which contains pyridine moieties.

  14. Effect of reacted acidic monomer with calcium on bonding performance.

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Ma, S; Aida, M; Maeda, T; Ikemi, T; Hirata, M; Nishiyama, N

    2011-05-01

    We determined the number of reacted and unreacted 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) molecules with calcium during the demineralization process of hydroxyapatite or dentin by 10-MDP-based one-step (Clearfil Tri-S Bond, TS) or two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond Primer, SE). We then examined the effects of the number of reacted and/or unreacted 10-MDP molecules on the initial bond strength and bond durability of the resultant adhesive layer. The null hypotheses were that (1) the etching efficacy of tooth apatite by 10-MDP used in TS was the same as that in SE, and (2) the unreacted 10-MDP polymer included within the adhesive layer does not affect bond durability. Addition of hydroxyapatite or dentin to the TS and SE resulted in decreases in the NMR peak intensities for 10-MDP. The peak intensity for 10-MDP showed a greater reduction in SE than in TS, consistent with the observation that SE provided significantly higher initial mean bond strengths than TS. Further, the unreacted 10-MDP polymer within the adhesive layer did not decrease the mean bond strength, despite the application of 20,000x thermo-cycling.

  15. Development of fatty acid calcium stone ileus after initiation of human milk fortifier.

    PubMed

    Murase, Masahiko; Miyazawa, Tokuo; Taki, Motohiro; Sakurai, Motoichiro; Miura, Fumihiro; Mizuno, Katsumi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Toki, Akira

    2013-02-01

    We report a case who was born with extremely low birth weight infant and had experienced abdominal operation for necrotizing enterocolitis, eventually developed ileus due to fatty acid calcium stones after giving human milk fortifier. He had developed necrotizing enterocolitis on day 30 of his age, such that we performed enterectomy and ileostomy. He could not tolerate enteral feeding fully, because intestinal fistula infection was repeated. Although we administered hindmilk, he grew up slowly and he suffered cholestasis as well. We performed end-to-end anastomosis to prevent fistula infections on day 87. After this operation, breast milk feeding volume was increased easily. However, we started to add HMF of half-strength on day 124, because his body weight gain remained very poor. And we confirmed to intensify the ratio of HMF full-strength on day 128. After that his abdomen had distended on day 131. As there is no effect of conservative therapy to occlusive ileus, we did emergency laparotomy on day 139. Intestinal calculi were impacted at anastomic portion. Although all stones were removed, he died on 144 days due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and renal failure. Calculi analysis revealed that all of them were fatty acid calcium stones. There is no report about like our case. We speculate that the construction of fatty acid calcium result from either high concentration of calcium/phosphorus or rapid increase in the fortification. We could have prevented this case happened by slower increment of fortification.

  16. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  17. Catalytic conversion of dihydroxyacetone to lactic acid using metal salts in water.

    PubMed

    Rasrendra, Carolus B; Fachri, Boy A; Makertihartha, I Gusti B N; Adisasmito, Sanggono; Heeres, Hero J

    2011-06-20

    We herein present a study on the application of homogeneous catalysts in the form of metal salts on the conversion of trioses, such as dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glyceraldehyde (GLY) to lactic acid (LA) in water. A wide range of metal salts (26 in total) were examined. Al(III) salts were identified as the most promising and essentially quantitative LA yields (>90 mol%) were obtained at 140 °C and a reaction time of 90 min. A reaction pathway is proposed and a kinetic model using the power law approach was developed for the conversion of DHA to LA with pyruvaldehyde (PRV) as the intermediate. Good agreement between experimental data and the model was obtained. Model predictions, supported by experiments, indicate that a high yield of LA is favoured in dilute solutions of DHA (0.1 M) at elevated temperatures (180 °C) and reaction times less than 10 min.

  18. Improvement in the docosahexaenoic acid production of Schizochytrium sp. S056 by replacement of sea salt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Pengpeng; Zhu, Yuanmin; Xie, Chen; Ma, Lin; Wang, Xiaopeng; Bao, Zhendong; Yu, Longjiang

    2016-02-01

    Schizochytrium is a marine microalga that requires high concentrations of sea salt for growth, although problems arise with significant amounts of chloride ions in the culture medium, which corrodes the fermenters. In this work, we evaluated that cell growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production can be improved when using 1 % (w/v) sodium sulfate instead of 2 % (w/v) sea salt in the culture medium for Schizochytrium sp. S056. In practice, the use of sodium sulfate as the sodium salt led to chloride ion levels in the medium that can be completely removed, thus avoiding fermenter corrosion during Schizochytrium sp. S056 growth, reducing cost and increasing DHA production, and simplifying the disposal of fermentation wastewater. Additionally, we demonstrated that the osmolality of growth media did not play a crucial role in the production of DHA. These findings may be significantly important to companies involved in production of PUFAs by marine microbes.

  19. The formation of calcium lactate crystals is responsible for concentrated acid whey thickening.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, A; Bouhallab, S; Famelart, M H; Naegele, D; Schuck, P

    2007-01-01

    The use of spray drying for dehydration of acid whey is generally limited by the appearance of uncontrolled thickening and solidifying of the whey mass during the lactose crystallization step. The origin of this physical change is still unknown and probably linked to complex interactions between physical properties and chemical composition of these products. To understand this phenomenon, we simulated the thickening of concentrated acid whey on a laboratory scale by measuring the flow resistance changes as a function of time and whey composition. The thickening process was characterized by an amplitude of torque and a lag time (induction time). Thickening of lactic acid whey concentrate occurred regardless of the presence of whey proteins or lactose crystals. Moreover, this work clearly demonstrated that the thickening process was due to the formation of filamentous structures corresponding to calcium lactate crystals and showed a large dependence on calcium and lactate contents, pH, and phosphate concentration.

  20. Characterization of modified calcium-silicate cements exposed to acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Josette

    2011-01-15

    Portland cement which is used as a binder in concrete in the construction industry has been developed into a biomaterial. It is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate and is used in dentistry. This material has been reported to be very biocompatible and thus its use has diversified. The extended use of this material has led to developments of newer versions with improved physical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acidic environments found in the oral cavity on fast setting calcium silicate cements with improved physical properties using a combination of techniques. Two fast setting calcium silicate cements (CSA and CFA) and two cement composites (CSAG and CFAG) were assessed by subjecting the materials to lactic acid/sodium lactate buffer gel for a period of 28 days. At weekly intervals the materials were viewed under the tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The two prototype cements exhibited changes in their internal chemistry with no changes in surface characteristics. Since the changes observed were mostly sub-surface evaluation of surface characteristics of cement may not be sufficient in the determination of chemical changes occurring. - Research Highlights: {yields} An acidic environment affects modified fast setting calcium silicate-based cements. {yields} No surface changes are observed in acidic environment. {yields} An acidic environment causes sub-surface changes in the material chemistry which are only visible in fractured specimens. {yields} A combination of techniques is necessary in order to evaluate the chemical changes occurring.