Science.gov

Sample records for acid capped cadmium

  1. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Wu, Jerry J

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes. PMID:27131144

  2. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Wu, Jerry J.

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes.

  3. A rapid and sensitive assay for determination of doxycycline using thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashkhourian, Javad; Absalan, Ghodratollah; Jafari, Marzieh; Zare, Saber

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric sensor for determination of doxycycline based on its interaction with thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA/CdTe QDs) has been developed. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the sensor exhibited a fast response time of <10 s. The results revealed that doxycycline could quench the fluorescence of TGA/CdTe QDs via electron transfer from the QDs to doxycycline through a dynamic quenching mechanism. The sensor permitted determination of doxycycline in a concentration range of 1.9 × 10-6-6.1 × 10-5 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.1 × 10-7 mol L-1. The sensor was applied for determination of doxycycline in honey and human serum samples.

  4. Indoleacetic acid movement in the root cap.

    PubMed

    Pernet, J J; Pilet, P E

    1976-01-01

    When applied on the root cap of Zea mays L., indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) may enter the root tip and move basipetally inside the cap. From the cap to the apex (quiescent centre and meristem) the IAA transport is very slow. Polarity of IAA movement, in relation to growth, is discussed.

  5. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  6. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. elegans, bcmo-1 was expressed in the intestine and was cadmium inducible. Similarly, in Hepa 1–6 cells, Bcmo1 was induced by cadmium. Retinoic acid-mediated signaling increased after 24-h exposures to 5 and 10 μm cadmium in Hepa 1–6 cells. Examination of gene expression demonstrated that the induction of retinoic acid signaling by cadmium may be mediated by overexpression of Bcmo1. Furthermore, cadmium inhibited the expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1, which are involved in retinoic acid degradation. These results indicate that cadmium-induced teratogenicity may be due to the ability of the metal to increase the levels of retinoic acid by disrupting the expression of retinoic acid-metabolizing genes. PMID:19556237

  7. Effect of dietary phytic acid and cadmium on the availability of cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Turecki, T.; Ewan, R.C.; Stahr, H.M.

    1995-05-01

    The main route of cadmium intake for general population, both human and animal, is via ingestion. The intestinal absorption of cadmium is relatively low, 6% of a single oral dose for humans and less than 2% for various animal species. However, due to poor excretion, accumulation of cadmium occurs, primarily in kidney. The chronic exposure even to low levels of dietary cadmium can lead to the development of renal disturbances. Fox (1988) suggests that phytic acid might be a dietary component capable to influence the intestinal absorption of cadmium. Phytic acid naturally occurs as the major phosphorus storage constituent of most cereals, legumes, and oilseeds. At physiological pH, phytic acid is ionized and has a strong affinity for divalent cations. The potential of phytic acid to decrease the availability of Zn has been for long time of concern for nutritionists. Phytic acid has also been reported to decrease the availability of other trace metals. For nonessential elements, reduced availability of lead has been observed. The experimental data concerning the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of dietary cadmium are limited to the work of Rose and Quarterman (1984). The objective of this experiment was to examine: (1) the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of cadmium under conditions of chronic dietary exposure of rats to cadmium, and (2) the effect of dietary phytic acid and of chronic dietary exposure to cadmium on the availability of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots stabilized by castor oil and ricinoleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyobe, Joseph William; Mubofu, Egid Beatus; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-02-01

    Castor oil and ricinoleic acid (an isolate of castor oil) are environmentally friendly bio-based organic surfactants that have been used as capping agents to prepare nearly spherical cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) at 230, 250 and 280 °C. The prepared quantum dots were characterized by Ultra violet-visible (UV-vis), Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) giving an overall CdS QDs average size of 5.14±0.39 nm. The broad XRD pattern and crystal lattice fringes in the HRTEM images showed a hexagonal phase composition of the CdS QDs. The calculated/estimated average size of the prepared castor oil capped CdS QDs for various techniques were 4.64 nm (TEM), 4.65 nm (EMA), 5.35 nm (UV-vis) and 6.46 nm (XRD). For ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs, the average sizes were 5.56 nm (TEM), 4.78 nm (EMA), 5.52 nm (UV-vis) and 8.21 nm (XRD). Optical properties of CdS QDs showed a change of band gap energy from its bulk band gap of 2.42-2.82 eV due to quantum size confinement effect for temperature range of 230-280 °C. Similarly, a blue shift was observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show that the as-synthesized CdS QDs structures are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) studies confirms the formation of castor oil and ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs.

  9. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils. PMID:17349675

  10. Generalized chemical route to develop fatty acid capped highly dispersed semiconducting metal sulphide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Jayesh D.; Mighri, Frej; Ajji, Abdellah

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Chemical route for the synthesis of OA-capped CdS, ZnS and PbS at low temperature. ► Synthesized nanocrystals via thermolysis of their metal–oleate complexes. ► Size quantized nanocrystals were highly dispersed and stable at room temperature. -- Abstract: This work deals with the synthesis of highly dispersed semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) of cadmium sulphide (CdS), zinc sulphide (ZnS) and lead sulphide (PbS) through a simple and generalized process using oleic acid (OA) as surfactant. To synthesize these NCs, metal–oleate (M–O) complexes were obtained from the reaction at 140 °C between metal acetates and OA in hexanes media. Subsequently, M–O complexes were sulphurized using thioacetamide at the same temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations show that the synthesized products are of nanoscale-size with highly crystalline cubic phase. The optical absorption of OA-capped metal sulphide NCs confirms that their size quantization induced a large shift towards visible region. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CdS NCs shows a broad band-edge emission with shallow and deep-trap emissions, while PL spectrum of ZnS NCs reveals a broad emission due to defects states on the surface. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that fatty acid monolayers were bound strongly on the nanocrystal surface as a carboxylate and the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate were coordinated symmetrically to the surface of the NCs. The strong binding between the fatty acid and the NCs surface enhances the stability of NCs colloids. In general, this generalized route has a great potential in developing nanoscale metal sulphides for opto-electronic devices.

  11. Upconversion nanoparticles with a strong acid-resistant capping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recalde, Ileana; Estebanez, Nestor; Francés-Soriano, Laura; Liras, Marta; González-Béjar, María; Pérez-Prieto, Julia

    2016-03-01

    Water-dispersible upconversion nanoparticles (β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+, UCNP) coated with a thin shell of a biocompatible copolymer comprising 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulphonsulphonic acid (AMPS), which we will term COP, have been prepared by multidentate grafting. This capping is remarkably resistant to strong acidic conditions as low as pH 2. The additional functionality of the smart UCNP@COP nanosystem has been proved by its association to a well-known photosensitizer (namely, methylene blue, MB). The green-to-red emission ratio of the UC@COP@MB nanohybrid exhibits excellent linear dependence in the 7 to 2 pH range as a consequence of the release of the dye as the pH decreases.Water-dispersible upconversion nanoparticles (β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+, UCNP) coated with a thin shell of a biocompatible copolymer comprising 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulphonsulphonic acid (AMPS), which we will term COP, have been prepared by multidentate grafting. This capping is remarkably resistant to strong acidic conditions as low as pH 2. The additional functionality of the smart UCNP@COP nanosystem has been proved by its association to a well-known photosensitizer (namely, methylene blue, MB). The green-to-red emission ratio of the UC@COP@MB nanohybrid exhibits excellent linear dependence in the 7 to 2 pH range as a consequence of the release of the dye as the pH decreases. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional spectra and data of HEMA, AMPS, COP, UCNP@oleate, UCNP@COP, and UCNP@COP@MB. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06653k

  12. Mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence probe for the determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Bunkoed, Opas; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2015-11-01

    Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dot (QDs) fluorescent probes were synthesized in aqueous solution and used for the determination of salicylic acid. The interaction between the MPA-capped CdTe QDs and salicylic acid was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and some parameters that could modify the fluorescence were investigated to optimize the measurements. Under optimum conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity of MPA-capped CdTe QDs was linearly proportional to the concentration of salicylic acid in the range of 0.5-40 µg mL(-1) with a coefficient of determination of 0.998, and the limit of detection was 0.15 µg mL(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceutical products, and satisfactory results were obtained that were in agreement with both the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and the claimed values. The recovery of the method was in the range 99 ± 3% to 105 ± 9%. The proposed method is simple, rapid, cost effective, highly sensitivity and eminently suitable for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparation. The possible mechanisms for the observed quenching reaction was also discussed.

  13. Luminescent behavior of cadmium sulfide quantum dots for gallic acid estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Suman; Garg, Sourav; Chahal, Jitender; Raheja, Khushboo; Singh, Deepak; Singla, M. L.

    2013-03-01

    Thioglycolic acid capped cadmium sulfide (CdS/T) quantum dots have been synthesized using wet chemistry and their optical behavior has been investigated using UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The role of the capping agent, sulfide source concentration, pH and temperature has been studied and discussed. Studies showed that alkaline pH leads to a decrease in the size of quantum dots and reflux temperature above 70 °C resulted in red-shift of emission spectra which is due to narrowing of the bandgap. Further, to reduce the toxicity and photochemical instability of quantum dots, the quantum dots have been functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which resulted in a 20% enhancement of the fluorescence intensity. The application potential of CdS/T-PEG quantum dots was further studied using gallic acid as a model compound. The sensing is based on fluorescence quenching of quantum dots in the presence of gallic acid, and this study showed linearity in the range from 1.3 × 10-8 to 46.5 × 10-8 mM, with a detection limit of 3.6 × 10-8 mM.

  14. Response of soybean seed germination to cadmium and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting Ting; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region. Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd(2+) and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated that the single treatment with the low level of Cd(2+) (0.18, 1.0, 3.0 mg L(-1)) or acid rain (pH ≥3.0) could not affect the seed germination of soybean, which was resulted in the increased activities of peroxidase and catalase. The single treatment with the high concentration of Cd(2+) (>6 mg L(-1)) or acid rain at pH 2.5 decreased the activities of peroxidase and catalase, damaged the cell membrane and then decreased the seed germination of soybean. Meanwhile, the same toxic effect was observed in the combined treatment with Cd(2+) and acid rain, and the combined treatment had more toxic effect than the single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain. Thus, the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain had more potential threat to the seed germination of soybean than the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain.

  15. Response of soybean seed germination to cadmium and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting Ting; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region. Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd(2+) and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated that the single treatment with the low level of Cd(2+) (0.18, 1.0, 3.0 mg L(-1)) or acid rain (pH ≥3.0) could not affect the seed germination of soybean, which was resulted in the increased activities of peroxidase and catalase. The single treatment with the high concentration of Cd(2+) (>6 mg L(-1)) or acid rain at pH 2.5 decreased the activities of peroxidase and catalase, damaged the cell membrane and then decreased the seed germination of soybean. Meanwhile, the same toxic effect was observed in the combined treatment with Cd(2+) and acid rain, and the combined treatment had more toxic effect than the single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain. Thus, the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain had more potential threat to the seed germination of soybean than the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain. PMID:21479540

  16. A circular dichroism sensor for Ni(2+) and Co(2+) based on L-cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tedsana, Wimonsiri; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2015-03-31

    A new circular dichroism sensor for detecting Ni(2+) and Co(2+) was proposed for the first time using chiral chelating quantum dots. The detection principle was based on changing of circular dichroism signals of the chiral quantum dots when forming a chiral complex with Ni(2+) or Co(2+). L-Cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots (L-Cyst-CdS QDs) were proposed as a chiral probe. The CD spectrum of L-Cyst-CdS QDs was significantly changed in the presence of Ni(2+) and Co(2+). On the other hand, other studied cations did not alter the original CD spectrum. Moreover, when increasing the concentration of Ni(2+) or Co(2+), the intensity of the CD spectrum linearly increased as a function of concentration and could be useful for the quantitative analysis. The proposed CD sensor showed linear working concentration ranges of 10-60 μM and 4-80 μM with low detection limits of 7.33 μМ and 1.13 μM for the detection of Ni(2+) and Co(2+), respectively. Parameters possibly affected the detection sensitivity such as solution pH and incubation time were studied and optimized. The proposed sensor was applied to detect Ni(2+) and Co(2+) in real water samples, and the results agreed well with the analysis using the standard ICP-OES.

  17. A circular dichroism sensor for Ni(2+) and Co(2+) based on L-cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tedsana, Wimonsiri; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2015-03-31

    A new circular dichroism sensor for detecting Ni(2+) and Co(2+) was proposed for the first time using chiral chelating quantum dots. The detection principle was based on changing of circular dichroism signals of the chiral quantum dots when forming a chiral complex with Ni(2+) or Co(2+). L-Cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots (L-Cyst-CdS QDs) were proposed as a chiral probe. The CD spectrum of L-Cyst-CdS QDs was significantly changed in the presence of Ni(2+) and Co(2+). On the other hand, other studied cations did not alter the original CD spectrum. Moreover, when increasing the concentration of Ni(2+) or Co(2+), the intensity of the CD spectrum linearly increased as a function of concentration and could be useful for the quantitative analysis. The proposed CD sensor showed linear working concentration ranges of 10-60 μM and 4-80 μM with low detection limits of 7.33 μМ and 1.13 μM for the detection of Ni(2+) and Co(2+), respectively. Parameters possibly affected the detection sensitivity such as solution pH and incubation time were studied and optimized. The proposed sensor was applied to detect Ni(2+) and Co(2+) in real water samples, and the results agreed well with the analysis using the standard ICP-OES. PMID:25813022

  18. [Relationships between cadmium accumulation and organic acids in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a cadmium-hyperaccumulator].

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui-lian; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2006-04-01

    The influence of different cadmium concentrations on the organic acid level in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L., in particular, the relationship of organic acids with Cd accumulation in S. nigrum was investigated based on the pot-culture experiment. The results showed that the Cd concentration in S. nigrum leaves exceeded 100 microg x g(-1), the threshold value used to define Cd-hyperaccumulators, and the bioaccumulation coefficient of cadmium in shoots of S. nigrum was higher than 1 when Cd concentration in soil was 25 microg x g(-1). The level of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum had significant differences between the seedling stage and the mature stage. At the seedling stage, the sequence of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum was acetic acid> tartaric acid> malic acid> citric acid. On the contrary, the accumulation of organic acids in S. nigrum at the mature stage was approximately in the following sequence malic acid> tartaric acid, acetic acid> citric acid. The significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and the concentration of tartaric acid in leaves of S. nigrum was observed at the seedling stage, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and both acetic and citric acid concentrations at the mature stage. These results indicated that tartaric, acetic and citric acids in leaves of S. nigrum might act as the indication of Cd hyperaccumulation. PMID:16768003

  19. N- and C-capping preferences for all 20 amino acids in alpha-helical peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Doig, A. J.; Baldwin, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    We have determined the N- and C-capping preferences of all 20 amino acids by substituting residue X in the peptides NH2-XAKAAAAKAAAAKAAGY-CONH2 and in Ac-YGAAKAAAAKAAAAKAX-CO2H. Helix contents were measured by CD spectroscopy to obtain rank orders of capping preferences. The data were further analyzed by our modified Lifson-Roig helix-coil theory, which includes capping parameters (n and c), to find free energies of capping (-RT ln n and -RT ln c), relative to Ala. Results were obtained for charged and uncharged termini and for different charged states of titratable side chains. N-cap preferences varied from Asn (best) to Gln (worst). We find, as expected, that amino acids that can accept hydrogen bonds from otherwise free backbone NH groups, such as Asn, Asp, Ser, Thr, and Cys generally have the highest N-cap preference. Gly and acetyl group are favored, as are negative charges in side chains and at the N-terminus. Our N-cap preference scale agrees well with preferences in proteins. In contrast, we find little variation when changing the identity of the C-cap residue. We find no preference for Gly at the C-cap in contrast to the situation in proteins. Both N-cap and C-cap results for Tyr and Trp are inaccurate because their aromatic groups affect the CD spectrum. The data presented here are of value in rationalizing mutations at capping sites in proteins and in predicting the helix contents of peptides. PMID:7670375

  20. The influence of humic acids on the phytoextraction of cadmium from soil.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Daghan, Hatice; Schaeffer, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Cadmium poses a major environmental and human health threat because of its constant release through anthropogenic activities. A need, therefore, exists for cost-effective remediation procedures. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract contaminants from soils and groundwater, has revealed great potential. However, it is limited by the fact that plants need time, nutrient supply and, moreover, have a limited metal uptake capacity. Synthetic chelators have shown positive effects in enhancing heavy metal extraction through phytoremediation, but they have also revealed a vast number of negative side-effects. The objective of this research was to investigate the use of humic acids as an alternative to synthetic chelators. Humic acids were applied to a cadmium-contaminated soil at various dosages, and the uptake of cadmium into Nicotiana tabacum SR-1 was determined in relation to the amounts of total and bioavailable cadmium in the soil. It was found that the theoretical bioavailability of cadmium, as determined by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, did not change, but its plant uptake was enhanced significantly, in some cases up to 65%. Humic acids added at a rate of 2 g kg(-1) soil increased the cadmium concentration in the shoots from 30.9 to 39.9 mg kg(-1). A possible reason for this enhancement is the decrease in pH, resulting in higher cadmium availability. Another possibility taken into account is that plants may take up cadmium complexes with humic acid fragments, which result from microbiological degradation or, self-dissociation.

  1. Cadmium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cadmium ; CASRN 7440 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  2. Effect of L-ascorbic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in the male Fischer (F344/NCr) rat.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Uno, H; Waalkes, M P

    1993-12-31

    Some studies have indicated that cadmium-induced lethality and selective injurious effects to specific tissues, such as testes or liver, can be prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid). However, the basis of this tolerance is unclear. We examined the effects of ascorbic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) rats. Cadmium treatment alone (25 mumol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) proved lethal, causing a 93% mortality within 72 h, but in rats pretreated with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg, s.c. 24, 12 and 1 h) cadmium-induced lethality was nearly prevented. Hepatic lesions, including hepatocellular necrosis, induced by cadmium were at least partially ameliorated by ascorbic acid pretreatment. Ascorbic acid pretreatment had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular lesions nor on cadmium content in testes, liver, kidney and urine. Ascorbic acid alone modestly increased hepatic metallothionein (MT), but not renal MT and had no effect on induction of hepatic or renal MT by cadmium. In contrast to liver and kidney, testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) in rats exposed to cadmium alone decreased markedly. Moreover, the level of TCBP decreased unexpectedly in ascorbic acid pretreated rats as compared with control. These results indicate that ascorbic acid pretreatment decreases the toxicity of cadmium in the rat without markedly modifying its toxicokinetics or markedly stimulating MT synthesis. PMID:8303714

  3. Kinetics of Reductive Acid Leaching of Cadmium-Bearing Zinc Ferrite Mixture Using Hydrazine Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Min, Xiaobo; Wang, Mi; Zhou, Bosheng; Shen, Chen

    2015-09-01

    The reductive acid leaching kinetics of synthetic cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite was investigated, and the influence of reaction temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate were studied. The results illustrated that an increase in the reaction temperature, initial sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate significantly enhanced the extraction efficiencies of cadmium, zinc and iron. The leaching kinetics were controlled by a surface chemical reaction based on a shrinking core model. The empirical equation applied was found to fit well with the kinetics analysis; the leaching processes of cadmium, zinc and iron were similar and the activation energies were 79.9 kJ/mol, 77.9 kJ/mol and 79.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent orders of cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite dissolution with respect to sulfuric acid concentration were 0.83, 0.83 and 0.84 for Cd, Zn and Fe, respectively.

  4. Carbonate-containing apatite (CAP) synthesis under moderate conditions starting from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Pham Minh, Doan; Tran, Ngoc Dung; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of carbonate-containing apatite (CAP) from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid under moderate conditions was investigated. In all cases, complete precipitation of orthophosphate species was observed. The reaction temperature influenced strongly the decomposition of calcium carbonate and therefore the composition of formed products. The reaction temperature of 80 °C was found to be effective for the complete decomposition of calcium carbonate particles after 48 h of reaction. Infra-red spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetry/mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) coupling, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations allowed the identification of the composition of formed products. By increasing the reaction temperature from 20 °C to 80 °C, the content of A-type CAP increased and that of B-type CAP decreased, according to the favorable effect of temperature on the formation of A-type CAP. The total amount of carbonate content incorporated in CAP's structure, which was determined by TG-MS analysis, increased with the reaction temperature and reached up to 4.1% at 80 °C. At this temperature, the solid product was mainly composed of apatitic components and showed the typical flat-needle-like structure of CAP particles obtained in hydrothermal conditions. These results show an interesting one-step synthesis of CAP from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid as low cost but high purity starting materials.

  5. Phospholipid End-Capped Acid-Degradable Polyurethane Micelles for Intracellular Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    John, Johnson V; Thomas, Reju George; Lee, Hye Ri; Chen, Hongyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kim, Il

    2016-08-01

    Nanoscale drug carriers fabricated by phospholipid end-capped polyurethane bearing acetal backbones that degrade in acidic conditions are fabricated. These micelles effectively allow drugs to enter the blood circulation, and then disintegrate in acidic endosomes and lysosomes for intelligent delivery of payloads. PMID:27245616

  6. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress. PMID:25113613

  7. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  8. Regulation of the synthesis of barley aleurone. cap alpha. -amylase by gibberellic acid and calcium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Carbonell, J.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) and calcium ions on the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase and acid phosphatase by isolated aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) were studied. Aleurone layers not previously exposed to GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ show qualitative and quantitative changes in hydrolase production following incubation in either GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ or both. In cubation in H/sub 2/O or CA/sup 2 +/ results in the production of low levels of ..cap alpha..-amylase or acid phosphatase. The addition of GA/sub 3/ to the incubation medium causes 10- to 20-fold increase in the amounts of these enzymes released from the tissue, and addition of CA/sup 2 +/ at 10 millimolar causes a further 8- to 9-fold increase in ..cap alpha..-amylase release and a 75% increase in phosphatase release. Production of ..cap alpha..-amylase isoenzymes is also modified by the levels of GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. ..cap alpha..-amylase 2 is produced under all conditions of incubation, while ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 appears only when layers are incubated in GA/sub 3/ or GA/sub 3/ plus CA/sup 2 +/. The synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylases 3 and 4 requires the presence of both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis shows that two distinct groups of ..cap alpha..-amylase antigens are present in incubation media of aleurone layers incubated with both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/, while only one group of antigens is found in media of layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. Strontium ions can be substituted for CA/sup 2 +/ in increasing hydrolase production, although higher concentrations of Sr/sup 2 +/ are requried for maximal response. We conclude that GA/sub 3/ is required for the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 and that both GA/sub 3/ and either CA/sup 2 +/ or Sr/sup 2 +/ are required for the production of isoenzymes 3 and 4 of barley aleurone ..cap alpha..-amylase. 22 references, 8

  9. Enzymatic preparation of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -deuterated or tritiated amino acids with l-methionine. gamma. -lyase

    SciTech Connect

    Esaki, N.; Sawada, S.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K.

    1982-01-15

    L-Methionine ..gamma..-lyase catalyzes the exchange of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-hydrogens of L-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine with deuterium or tritium of solvents. The rate of ..cap alpha..-hydrogen exchange with deuterium was about 40 times faster than that of the elimination reactions. The deuterium and tritium were exchanged also with the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-hydrogens of the straight-chain amino acids which do not undergo the elimination: L-alanine, L-..cap alpha..-aminobutyrate, L-norvaline, and L-norleucine. No exchange occurs for the D-isomers, acidic L-amino acids, basic L-amino acids, and branched-chain L-amino acids, although ..cap alpha..-hydrogen of glycine, L-trypotophan, and L-phenylalanine is exchanged slowly. These enzymatic hydrogen-exchange reactions facilitate specific labeling of the L-amino acids with deuterium and tritium.

  10. Photodegradation of Mercaptopropionic Acid- and Thioglycollic Acid-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Buffer Solutions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanping; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Jie; Du, Yingying; He, Haiyan; Liu, Yunshi

    2015-06-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thioglycollic acid (TGA) as capping agents. It is confirmed that TGA and MPA molecules were attached on the surface of the QDs using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The movement of the QDs in agarose gel electrophoresis indicated that MPA-capped CdTe QDs had small hydrodynamic diameter. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of TGA-capped QDs is higher than that of MPA-capped QDs at same QD concentration because of the surface passivation of TGA. To systemically investigate the photodegradation, CdTe QDs with various PL peak wavelengths were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and Tris-borate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TBE) buffer solutions. It was found that the PL intensity of the QDs in PBS decreased with time. The PL peak wavelengths of the QDs in PBS solutions remained unchanged. As for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, the results of PL peak wavelengths in TBE buffer solutions indicated that S(2-) released by TGA attached to Cd(2+) and formed CdS-like clusters layer on the surface of aqueous CdTe QDs. In addition, the number of TGA on the CdTe QDs surface was more than that of MPA. When the QDs were added to buffer solutions, agents were removed from the surface of CdTe QDs, which decreased the passivation of agents thus resulted in photodegradation of CdTe QDs in buffer solutions.

  11. An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing; Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q.; Sun, X. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; Lei, W.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.

    2009-04-13

    In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

  12. Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and sodium N-benzyl-N-dithiocarboxy-D-glucamine as antagonists for cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jones, M M; Basinger, M A; Topping, R J; Gale, G R; Jones, S G; Holscher, M A

    1988-08-01

    Orally administered meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is an effective antagonist for acute oral cadmium chloride (1 mmol/kg) intoxication in mice when administered up to 8 h after cadmium ingestion. Administration of sodium N-benzyl-N-dithiocarboxy-D-glucamine (NaB) i.p. along with DMSA p.o. resulted in kidney and liver cadmium levels only marginally smaller than those obtained with DMSA alone. Both chelation treatment regimens permitted survival of 80% or more of the animals, in comparison to a survival rate of 40-50% in untreated animals. Intraperitoneally administered NaB by itself is a very effective antagonist for cadmium chloride administered intraperitoneally in either acute or chronic cadmium intoxication. A dose-response study was made of the mobilization of cadmium from the liver and kidney of cadmium-loaded mice by NaB; this showed that NaB is one of the most effective cadmium mobilizing agents developed to date. We have also confirmed the earlier report of Kojima and his co-workers of the ability of NaB to remove cadmium from animals which have been treated with cadmium over an extended period of time. NaB causes a very large increase in the biliary excretion of cadmium. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 113Cd in bile from treated animals and model solutions indicates that such cadmium is undergoing rapid ligand exchange.

  13. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  14. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples. PMID:26599728

  15. The fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cells modulates their tolerance to methylmercury and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ferain, Aline; Bonnineau, Chloé; Neefs, Ineke; Rees, Jean François; Larondelle, Yvan; Schamphelaere, Karel A C De; Debier, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of fish tissues, which generally reflects that of the diet, affects various cellular properties such as membrane structure and fluidity, energy metabolism and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Since these cellular parameters can play an important role in the cellular response to organic and inorganic pollutants, a variation of the PUFA supply might modify the toxicity induced by such xenobiotics. In this work, we investigated whether the cellular fatty acid profile has an impact on the in vitro cell sensitivity to two environmental pollutants: methylmercury and cadmium. Firstly, the fatty acid composition of the rainbow trout liver cell line RTL-W1 was modified by enriching the growth medium with either alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) or docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6). These modified cells and their control (no PUFA enrichment) were then challenged for 24h with increasing concentrations of methylmercury or cadmium. We observed that (i) the phospholipid composition of the RTL-W1 cells was profoundly modulated by changing the PUFA content of the growth medium: major modifications were a high incorporation of the supplemented PUFA in the cellular phospholipids, the appearance of direct elongation and desaturation metabolites in the cellular phospholipids as well as a change in the gross phospholipid composition (PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels and n-3/n-6 ratio); (ii) ALA, EPA and DPA enrichment significantly protected the RTL-W1 cells against both methylmercury and cadmium; (iv) DHA enrichment significantly protected the cells against cadmium but not methylmercury; (v) AA and LA enrichment had no impact on the cell tolerance to both methylmercury and cadmium; (vi) the abundance of 20:3n-6, a metabolite of the n-6 biotransformation pathway, in

  16. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Kawasaki, Akira; Baba, Koji; Mori, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    Rice consumption is a major source of cadmium and arsenic for the population of Asia. We investigated the effects of water management in rice paddy on levels of cadmium and arsenic in Japanese rice grains. Flooding increased arsenic concentrations in rice grains, whereas aerobic treatment increased the concentration of cadmium. Flooding for 3 weeks before and after heading was most effective in reducing grain cadmium concentrations, but this treatment increased the arsenic concentration considerably, whereas aerobic treatment during the same period was effective in reducing arsenic concentrations but increased the cadmium concentration markedly. Flooding treatment after heading was found to be more effective than flooding treatment before heading in reducing rice grain cadmium without a concomitant increase in total arsenic levels, although it increased inorganic arsenic levels. Concentrations of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain were very low under aerobic conditions but increased under flooded conditions. DMA accounted for 3-52% of the total arsenic concentration in grain grown in soil with a lower arsenic concentration and 10-80% in soil with a higher arsenic concentration. A possible explanation for the accumulation of DMA in rice grains is that DMA translocates from shoots/roots to the grains more readily than does inorganic arsenic. PMID:20000530

  17. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils. PMID:26087302

  18. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jinzhong; Meng, Die; Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils.

  19. Chronic effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: An evaluation of the role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide in biological availability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J.; Benyi, S.J.; Mahony, J.D.; Corbin, J.M.; Pratt, S.D.; Toro, D.M. di |; Abel, M.B.

    1996-12-01

    The role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) in controlling the bioavailability of sediment-associated metal was examined using the chronic saltwater benthic colonization test. Sediments were spiked to achieve nominal cadmium/AVS molar ratios of 0.0 (control), 0.1, 0.8, and 3.0 in this 118-d test. Oxidation of AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm within 2 to 4 weeks resulted in sulfide profiles similar to those occurring naturally in local sediments. In the nominal 0.1 cadmium/AVS treatment measured simultaneously extracted metal (SEM{sub Cd}) was always less than AVS. Interstitial cadmium concentrations were less than those likely to cause biological effects. No significant biological effects were detected. In the nominal 0.8 cadmium/AVS treatment, measured SEM{sub Cd} commonly exceeded AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm of sediment. Interstitial cadmium concentrations were of likely toxicological significance to highly sensitive species. Shifts in the presence or absence over all taxa, and fewer macrobenthic polychaetes (Mediomastus ambiseta, Streblospio benedicti, and Podarke obscurea) and unidentified meiofaunal nematodes, were observed. In the nominal 3.0 cadmium/AVS treatment, concentrations of SEM{sub Cd} were always greater than AVS throughout the sediment column. Interstitial cadmium ranged from 28,000 to 174,000 {micro}g/L. In addition to the effects above, the sediments were colonized by fewer macrobenthic species, polychaete species, and harpacticoids; had lower densities of diatoms; lacked bivalve molluscs; and exhibited other impacts. Over all treatments, the observed biological responses were consistent with SEM{sub Cd}/AVS ratios in surficial sediments and interstitial water cadmium concentrations.

  20. Synthesis of p-azobenzenediazoaminoazobenzene sulfonic acid and its application for spectrophotometric determination of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Wanquan; Zhu Yurui ); Teng Enjiang; Wei Fusheng )

    1992-02-01

    The synthesis and characteristics of a new chromogenic reagent p-azobenzenediazoaminoazobenzene sulfonic acid (ADAAS) is reported. ADAAS forms a dark-violet red complex with cadmium in the presence of Triton X-100 and in ammonia medium. The molar absorptivity of the complex is 2.02 {times} 10{sup 5} 1 mol{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} at 532 nm, and the formation constant of the complex is 6 {times} 10{sup 21}. Beer's law is obeyed for cadmium concentrations of between 3.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} M and 4.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M. The effect of foreign ion can been eliminated completely by use of masking agents. The proposed method has been used for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium in water samples.

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE RAT BRAIN UNDER CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Yu P; Prischepa, I V; Si, U; Nedzvetsky, V S; Kot, Y G; Persky, E E; Ushakova, G A

    2015-01-01

    The chronic effects of low doses of cadmium on the distribution of soluble and filament forms of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and their polypeptide fragments in different parts of the rat brain were investigated. Obtained results showed dose-dependent effect of cadmium on the soluble form of GFAP and more pronounced effect on the filament form and composition of the polypeptide fragments of the protein in the rat brain. Prolonged intoxication by cadmium ions in a dose of 1.0 μg/kg of body weight induced a significant decrease in soluble GFAP and an increase in the filament form in the rat brain, pointing to the development of reactive astrogliosis and the risk of neurodegeneration.

  2. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood ascorbic acid, vitamin E, an lipid peroxide in chronic cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, S Z; Ognjanović, B I; Stajn, A S; Zikić, R V; Saicić, Z S; Petrović, V M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on ascorbic acid (AsA), vitamin E (vit E), and lipid peroxide (LP) concentrations in the blood of rats chronically treated with cadmium. Results were compared to those obtained in control animals, as well as to those obtained in animals treated with olive oil. Compared to that of the control animals, the AsA concentration was significantly increased in rats treated with CoQ10 and olive oil, whereas vit E concentration was significantly increased in animals treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. A significant decrease in LP concentration was noted in animals treated with cadmium or with cadmium + CoQ10o, whereas a significant increase was seen in animals treated with olive oil. Compared to that of the animals treated with olive oil, the ascorbic acid concentration was significantly decreased in rats treated with cadmium or with cadmium + CoQ10, whereas vit E concentration was significantly increased in animals treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. LP concentration was significantly decreased in rats treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. Our study showed that CoQ10 administration in rats chronically exposed to exogenous cadmium exerts beneficial effects on the nonenzymatic components of the antioxidant defense system, such as AsA and vit E, resulting in a decreased concentration of LP in the blood. PMID:11394712

  3. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs) have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM) lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM) increased cell proliferation (6%) at 7 days (p < 0.05). However, higher concentrations (>4.92 nM) increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30%) at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of < 3.28 nM, neither in cells nor chicken embryos. Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell

  4. MSA-capped gold nanoparticle-supported alumina for the determination of Pb and Cd in various environmental water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, K.

    2014-11-01

    2-Mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA)-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were used to determine the level of concentration of lead and cadmium metals in various environmental samples. Alumina-coated MSA-capped GNPs easily remove lead and cadmium present in various samples. The absorbance spectrum was obtained at 547 nm. Effects of pH, reagent concentration, interferences, were studied. This method is simple, selective and successfully applied for the determination of lead and cadmium species in various water samples collected in and around four industries.

  5. Abscisic acid, xanthoxin and violaxanthin in the caps of gravistimulated maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Arroyave, N. J.; Sun, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of abscisic acid (ABA), xanthoxin (Xa) and the carotenoid violaxanthin (Va) were investigated in root tips of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Merit). In roots grown in the dark, Va and ABA were present in relatively high amounts in the root cap and in low amounts in the adjacent terminal 1.5 mm of the root. Xanthoxin was present in equal concentrations in both regions. In roots exposed to light, the ABA distribution was reversed, with relatively low levels in the root cap and high levels in the adjacent 1.5-mm segment. Light also caused a decrease in Va in both regions of the root and an increase in Xa, especially in the cap. In the maize cultivar used for this work, light is necessary for gravitropic curving. This response occurs within the same time frame as the light-induced ABA redistribution as well as the changes in the levels of Va and Xa. These data are consistent with a role for ABA in root gravitropism and support the proposal that Xa may arise from the turnover of Va.

  6. Application of mercaptosuccinic acid capped CdTe quantum dots for latent fingermark development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun; Zuo, Shengli; Yu, Yingchun; Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin

    2013-09-10

    The aqueous synthesis of mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) solution for quickly and sensitively developing latent fingermarks is described. The rapid growth mechanism of CdTe/MSA QDs, which depends on the molecule structure of MSA, is briefly discussed and compared with that of thioglycolic acid (TGA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe QDs. Development of latent fingermarks with the synthesized CdTe/MSA QDs was faster and the ridge details were clearer compared with CdTe/TGA QDs. In addition, latent fingermarks developed with CdTe/MSA QDs showed less background and better contrast than that of gentian violet or rhodamine 6G. Latent fingermarks could be well developed on black tape, scotch tape, tinfoil, aluminum alloy, stainless steel as well as on the adhesive side of yellow tape, even when the latter were aged up to seven days. As immersion time greatly reduced to 10 s by using CdTe/MSA QDs, a preliminary result of latent fingermark development by spraying was presented also.

  7. Suppressed blinking behavior of thioglycolic acid capped CdTe quantum dot by amine functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Abhijit; Tamai, Naoto

    2011-12-01

    Prepared water soluble thioglycolic acid capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were further surface functionalized by ethylene diamine (EDA). Amine functionalized CdTe QDs demonstrate enhanced luminescence intensity at ensemble measurements and suppressed luminescence intermittency behavior at the single molecule level. A clear decrease in the power law exponent for "on" time behavior is observed in amine modified CdTe QDs. Our results show that surface of CdTe QDs modified by EDA can lead to an important physical mechanism to enhance fluorescence intensity, reduce blinking, and increase photostability.

  8. Effect of cadmium on germination, coleoptile and root growth of barley seeds in the presence of gibberellic acid and kinetin.

    PubMed

    Munzuroglu, Omer; Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag

    2006-10-01

    Effect of cadmium on barley seeds treated with kinetin and gibberellic acid was investigated. As usual, cadmium has inhibited seed germination, and showed important inhibitory effects on roots and coleoptile growth after germination. In general, increase in cadmium concentration caused a greater inhibition of germination, root and coleoptile growth. The adverse effect of cadmium on root and coleoptile growth was more pronounced than that on germination. While testa was pierced by radicle (an indication of germination), no root or coleoptile development was observed above at concentration of 3-9.5 mM CdCl2xH2O. Low concentrations of cadmium have inhibited the root growth more than it did on coleoptile growth. Treatment of seeds with gibberellic acid and kinetin did not show any significant difference on the effect of cadmium in germination. However, inhibition of coleoptile elongation by cadmium has decreased a very much after kinetin application. The same result, although with lower rates when compared to kinetin, has been obtained for GA3 as well. In addition, the inhibitory effect of cadmium on root growth increased even more after kinetin application. The results have been found statistically significant through the least significant different (LSD) test at levels ofp < 0.05 and p < 0.01.

  9. CAP-D3 Promotes Bacterial Clearance in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Repressing Expression of Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Jacqueline R.; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Deutschman, Emily; Kim, Yeojung; West, Gail; Sadler, Tammy; Stylianou, Eleni; Krokowski, Dawid; Hatzoglou, Maria; de la Motte, Carol; Rubin, Brian P.; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Defects in colonic epithelial barrier defenses are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). The proteins that regulate bacterial clearance in the colonic epithelium have not been completely identified. The chromosome-associated protein D3 (dCAP-D3), regulates responses to bacterial infection. We examined whether CAP-D3 promotes bacterial clearance in human colonic epithelium. METHODS Clearance of Salmonella or adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82 was assessed by gentamycin protection assays in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells expressing small hairpin RNAs against CAP-D3. We used immunoblot assays to measure levels of CAP-D3 in colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC and healthy individuals (controls). RNA sequencing identified genes activated by CAP-D3. We analyzed the roles of CAP-D3 target genes in bacterial clearance using gentamycin protection and immunofluorescence assays and studies with pharmacologic inhibitors. RESULTS CAP-D3 expression was reduced in colonic epithelial cells from patients with active UC. Reduced CAP-D3 expression decreased autophagy and impaired intracellular bacterial clearance by HT-29 and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Lower levels of CAP-D3 increased transcription of genes encoding SLC7A5 and SLC3A2, whose products heterodimerize to form an amino acid transporter in HT-29 cells following bacterial infection; levels of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 were increased in tissues from patients with UC, compared with controls. Reduced CAP-D3 in HT-29 cells resulted in earlier recruitment of SLC7A5 to Salmonella-containing vacuoles, increased activity of mTORC1, and increased survival of bacteria. Inhibition of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 or mTORC1 activity rescued the bacterial clearance defects of CAP-D3– deficient cells. CONCLUSIONS CAP-D3 downregulates transcription of genes that encode amino acid transporters (SLC7A5 and SLC3A2) to promote bacterial autophagy by colon epithelial cells. Levels of CAP-D3 protein are reduced in patients with

  10. Exogenous malic and acetic acids reduce cadmium phytotoxicity and enhance cadmium accumulation in roots of sunflower plants.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Dresler, Sławomir; Matraszek, Renata

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) are involved in heavy metal resistance mechanisms in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous malic (MA) or acetic (AA) acids on the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Single Cd stress (5 μM Cd for 14 days) induced strong phytotoxic effects, as indicated by a decrease in all growth parameters, concentration of photosynthetic pigments, and root activity, as well as a high level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Exogenous MA or AA (250 or 500 μM) applied to the Cd-containing medium enhanced the accumulation of Cd by the roots and limited Cd translocation to the shoots. Moreover, the MA or AA applied more or less reduced Cd phytotoxicity by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, decreasing accumulation of H2O2, and improving the root activity. Of the studied organic acids, MA was much more efficient in mitigation of Cd toxicity than AA, probably by its antioxidant effects, which were stronger than those of AA. Plant response to Cd involved decreased production of endogenous LMWOA, probably as a consequence of severe Cd toxicity. The addition of MA or AA to the medium increased endogenous accumulation of LMWOA, especially in the roots, which could be beneficial for plant metabolism. These results imply that especially MA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation, and tolerance in plants. PMID:26115548

  11. Interactive effects of cadmium and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Minmin; Wang, Lei; Liang, Chanjuan; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    Interactive effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain and the combined treatment decreased the content of chlorophyll, Hill reaction rate, the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase, maximal photochemical efficiency and maximal quantum yield, increased initial fluorescence and damaged the chloroplast structure in soybean seedlings. In the combined treatment, the change in the photosynthetic parameters and the damage of chloroplast structure were stronger than those of any single pollution. Meanwhile, Cd(2+) and acid rain had the interactive effects on the test indices in soybean seedlings. The results indicated that the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain on the photosynthetic parameters due to the serious damage to the chloroplast structure.

  12. effect of fulvic acids of the syr Dar'ya River on the behavior of the radionuclides mercury-203, cadmium-109, and zinc-65 in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmatov, R.A.; Kist, A.A.; Rakmatov, V.; Volkov, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    The interaction of fulvic acids isolated from natural waters of arid zone with the radionuclides mercury-203, cadmium-109, and zinc-65 is studied by radiogel chromatography. It is shown that mercury-203 and cadmium-109 form complexes with the high-molecular-weight fractions of fulvic acids. Zinc-65 does not form complexes with fulvic acids.

  13. A synthetic snRNA m3G-CAP enhances nuclear delivery of exogenous proteins and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro M D; Wenska, Malgorzata; Lundin, Karin E; Wrange, Orjan; Strömberg, Roger; Smith, C I Edvard

    2009-04-01

    Accessing the nucleus through the surrounding membrane poses one of the major obstacles for therapeutic molecules large enough to be excluded due to nuclear pore size limits. In some therapeutic applications the large size of some nucleic acids, like plasmid DNA, hampers their access to the nuclear compartment. However, also for small oligonucleotides, achieving higher nuclear concentrations could be of great benefit. We report on the synthesis and possible applications of a natural RNA 5'-end nuclear localization signal composed of a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap (m(3)G-CAP). The cap is found in the small nuclear RNAs that are constitutive part of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in nuclear splicing. We demonstrate the use of the m(3)G signal as an adaptor that can be attached to different oligonucleotides, thereby conferring nuclear targeting capabilities with capacity to transport large-size cargo molecules. The synthetic capping of oligos interfering with splicing may have immediate clinical applications.

  14. Effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: Role of interstitial cadmium and acid volatile sulfide in bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.; Berry, W.; Benyi, S.; Mahony, J.; Corbin, J.; Pratt, S.; Able, M.

    1995-12-31

    The role of interstitial cadmium and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in controlling the bioavailability of sediment-associated metal was examined using the chronic saltwater benthic colonization test. Sediments were spiked with cadmium to achieve simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS molar ratios of 0. 0 (control), 0.1, 0.8 and 3.0 in this 118-day test. Oxidation of AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm within two to four weeks resulted in sulfide profiles similar to those occurring naturally in local sediments. In the nominal 0.1 SEM/AVS treatment, measured SEM was always less than AVS. Interstitial cadmium concentrations (< 3--10 {micro}g/L) were below those likely to cause biological effects. No significant biological effects were detected. In the nominal 0.8 SEM/AVS treatment, measured SEM commonly exceeded AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm of sediment. Interstitial cadmium concentrations (24--157 {micro}g/L) were likely of toxicological significance to sensitive species. Shifts were observed in presence/absence of species, and there were fewer macrobenthic polychaetes (Mediomastus ambiseta, Strebloapio benedicti and Podarke obscura) and unidentified meiofaunal nematodes. In the nominal 3.0 SEM/AVS treatment, concentrations of SEM were always greater than AVS throughout the sediment column. Interstitial cadmium ranged from 28,000 to 174,000 {micro}g/L. In addition to the effects above, these sediments were colonized by fewer macrobenthic species, polychaete species and harpacticoids; had lower densities of diatoms; lacked bivalve molluscs and exhibited other impacts. The observed biological responses were consistent with measured SEM/AVS ratios in surficial sediments and interstitial water cadmium concentrations, further supporting their utility in predicting metals bioavailability.

  15. Bioresponsive hyaluronic acid-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaowei; Li, Zhenhua; Lin, Youhui; Yin, Meili; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-28

    In this paper, we present a facile strategy to synthesize hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSP) for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery, in which the anchored HA polysaccharides not only act as capping agents but also as targeting ligands without the need of additional modification. The nanoconjugates possess many attractive features including chemical simplicity, high colloidal stability, good biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and precise cargo release, making them promising agents for biomedical applications. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the nanoconjugates are shown to release cargoes from the interior pores of MSPs upon HA degradation in response to hyaluronidase-1 (Hyal-1). Moreover, after receptor-mediated endocytosis into cancer cells, the anchored HA was degraded into small fragments, facilitating the release of drugs to kill the cancer cells. Overall, we envision that this system might open the door to a new generation of carrier system for site-selective, controlled-release delivery of anticancer drugs.

  16. Modulatory effects of lipoic acid and selenium against cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Nassar, Noha N

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals including cadmium has become an increasingly recognized source of illness worldwide. Cadmium (Cd(2+) ) is one of the environmental pollutants affecting various tissues and organs including testis. The protective effect of lipoic acid and selenium on Cd(2+) -induced testicular damage was investigated. Accordingly, male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups (n = 8; each). Gp I: (control), whereas the other 3 groups received CdCl(2) (2 mg/kg, i.p. for 28 days) alone or in combination with either (i) lipoic acid (35 mg/kg, p.o) or (ii) selenium (0.35 mg/kg, p.o) throughout the experiment. Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels significantly decreased in the Cd(2+) -exposed rats. The activities of testicular key androgenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17 β-HSD significantly decreased in Cd(2) exposed rats compared to the control counterparts. In addition, the activities of testicular marker enzymes were significantly altered in cadmium-treated animals. Significant reductions in body and testicular weight as well as antioxidant status were also observed in Cd(2+) -exposed rats. Moreover, some testicular metal levels were altered. Lipoic acid and selenium significantly increased serum testosterone level and restored testicular activity of 3β-HSD and 17 β-HSD and were effective in modulation of most of the measured biochemical parameters. The biochemical parameters were further confirmed with histopathological findings. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the beneficial influences of lipoic acid and selenium in reducing harmful effects of Cd(2+) in rats' testes. PMID:20957662

  17. Amino acid composition of cadmium-binding protein induced in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Y.; Kawaguchi, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Organisms living in environments polluted with heavy metals develop tolerance against these contaminants. The tolerance has been attributed to the ability to synthesize metal binding substances. These recent findings imply metal binding complexes from animals and plants, although having very similar functional properties, may have entirely different amino acid compositions. Researchers reported that cadystin from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was composed of only glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A year later, a heavy metal binding substance was isolated from Rauwolfia serpetina which contains only Glu, Cys, and Gly. Heavy metal binding complexes isolated from the water hyacinth and morning glory Datura innoxia also showed an amino acid composition similar to cadystin or phytochelatin. In this study, the cadmium binding protein induced in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was isolated and purified and its amino acid composition determined.

  18. Control of. cap alpha. -amylase mRNA accumulation by gibberellic acid and calcium in barley aleurone layers

    SciTech Connect

    Deikman, J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pulse-labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) aleurone layers incubated for 13 hours in 2.5 micromolar gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) with or without 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ shows that ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 are not synthesized in vivo in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. No difference was observed in ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels between layers incubated for 12 hours in 2.5 micromolar GA/sub 3/ with 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ and layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. RNA isolated from layers incubated for 12 hours in GA/sub 3/ with and without CA/sup 2 +/. A cDNA clone for ..cap alpha..-amylase was isolated and used to measure ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels in aleurone layers incubated in the presence and absence of Ca/sup 2 +/ was translated in vitro and was found to produce the same complement of translation products regardless of the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Immunoprecipitation of translation products showed that the RNA for ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesized in Ca/sup 2 +/-deprived aleurone layers was translatable. Ca/sup 2 +/ is required for the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 at a step after mRNA accumulation and processing.

  19. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L.

  20. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  1. Efficacy of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide on cadmium induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francielli W; Zeni, Gilson; Rocha, Joao B T; do Nascimento, Paulo C; Marques, Marieli S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2005-12-01

    The deleterious effect of acute cadmium-intoxication in mice testes was evaluated. Animals received a single dose of CdCl2 (2.5 or 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and a number of toxicological parameters in mice testes were examined, such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, lipid peroxidation, hemoglobin and ascorbic acid contents. Furthermore, the parameters that indicate tissue damage such as plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also determined. Thus, a possible protective effect of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonic acid (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 were studied. The results demonstrated an inhibition of delta-ALA-D activity, a reduction of ascorbic acid and an increase of lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium, indicating testes damage. Furthermore, we observed an increase of plasma LDH, AST and ALT activities. DMPS (400 mol/kg) and (PhSe)2 (100 micromol/kg) partially protected from the inhibitory effect of 2.5 mg/kg CdCl2 on delta-ALA-D and from the increase of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive species) levels. (PhSe)2 therapy was effective in ameliorate ascorbic acid content when the cadmium dose was 2.5 mg/kg. Treatment with DMPS and (PhSe)2, individually or combined, was inefficient in reducing cadmium-induced plasma LDH and ALT activity increase. The use of combined therapy (DMPS plus (PhSe)2) proved to be efficient in decreasing cadmium levels in testes and in ameliorating plasma AST activity from animals that received the highest dose of cadmium. PMID:16000234

  2. Selective extraction of melamine using 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles followed by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Wei; Chu, Shang-Ping; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the use of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles (MUA-AuNPs) for selective extraction of melamine prior to analysis by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. The highest degree of melamine-induced aggregation of MUA-AuNPs was found to occur at pH 5.0, indicating that the NP aggregation is mainly because of hydrogen bonding between the carboxylate groups of MUA and the amine groups of melamine. Moreover, the degree of melamine-induced NP aggregation gradually increased when the chain length of the mercaptoalkanoic acid was increased from two to 12 carbon atoms. At pH 5.0, the extraction efficiency of melamine was highly dependent on the concentration of MUA-AuNPs, the concentration of dithiothreitol (DTT), the extraction time between MUA-AuNPs and melamine, and the incubation time between melamine-adsorbed AuNPs and DTT. The separation of the extracted melamine and DTT (releasing agent) was accomplished using a solution of 10 mM phosphate (pH 6.0) containing 1.6% (v/v) poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Under the optimum extraction and separation conditions, the limit of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was estimated to be 77 pM for melamine, with linear range of 1-1000 nM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in tap water and in milk.

  3. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings.

  4. Nonsteroidal management of canine pruritus: chlorpheniramine and a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps) in combination, and the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H

    1990-10-01

    Forty-three dogs having pruritus associated with atopy, flea bite hypersensitivity, and idiopathy were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment protocols. Twenty-three dogs received chlorpheniramine in combination with a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps). Twenty dogs received the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage. All 43 dogs were known to be unresponsive to chlorpheniramine and the manufacturer's recommended dosage of the fatty acid supplement when either drug was used alone. Pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 34.8% of the dogs in the chlorpheniramine--DVM Derm Caps protocol. No dog in the double DVM Derm Caps protocol showed a beneficial response. Side effects were uncommon and mild with either protocol.

  5. Clearance of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid during in-situ perfusion of the guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Sikov, M.R.

    1983-05-01

    Extensive investigation of the transport of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; a nonmetabolized amino acid) has shown that AIB is actively transported from mother to fetus across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig. As a step towards clarifying the relative rolls of active and passive movements of amino acids across the placenta, it would be useful to obtain concurrent measurements of transplacental movements of a substance which crosses the placenta rapidly by simple diffusion (water) and of a substance which is actively transported across the placenta (AIB). In our study, placentas from guinea pigs between 59 and 61 days of gestation were perfused in situ through cannulated umbilical vessels with the maternal circulation left intact. Tritiated water and /sup 14/C-AIB were injected into a maternal jugular vein and maternal blood samples were obtained at 1 to 10 minute intervals; perfusate samples were collected sequentially after one pass through the placenta. Clearance of /sup 14/C-AIB from mother to fetus (AIB/sub MF/) and AIB concentrations in placental tissue, maternal plasma, and perfusate were consistent in magnitude with data obtained by other invetigators who have clearly shown an active transport of AIB in the placenta. On the other hand, in this study AIB/sub MF/ ranged from approximately 50% to 96% of the clearance of /sup 3/H-labeled water from mother to fetus (T/sub MF/) and that changes in AIB/sub MF/ correlated closely with changes in T/sub MF/ in all perfusions. Thus, it appears that AIB/sub MF/ closely paralleled T/sub MF/ and these data suggest that a relatively large component of AIB/sub MF/ is of passive origin in the in situ placenta.

  6. Cadmium Toxicity and Alleviating Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid in Iris hexagona.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Chen, Gang; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxictity and possible role of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating Cd-induced toxicity were investigated on ornamental hydrophyte Iris hexagona. Compared to the control, treatments with 100 and 500 µM Cd for 7 days significantly decreased dry weight, the contents of chlorophyll, photosynthetic parameters, and increased the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Pretreatment of the roots of I. hexagona seedlings with 1 µM SA before Cd exposure may increase dry weight, photosynthetic rate, activities of antioxidant enzymes, improve the cell ultrastructure and protect plants from Cd-induced oxidative stress damage. However, SA pretreatment had no significant effect on Cd concentrations in the leaves and roots. It is suggested that SA-induced Cd tolerances in I. hexagona are likely associated with increases in antioxidant enzyme activities and vacuolar compartmentation, rather than Cd uptake.

  7. Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase composition on acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2012-01-01

    At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, acid concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric acid, is herein explained based on the structural composition of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and acid concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural composition of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency. PMID:22519122

  8. Ascorbic acid protects against cadmium-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a testicular toxicant which induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes. This study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on Cd-evoked ER stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl(2) (2.0 mg/kg). As expected, a single dose of Cd induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Interestingly, Cd-triggered testicular germ cell apoptosis was almost completely inhibited in mice treated with ascorbic acid. Interestingly, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-induced upregulation of GRP78 in testes. In addition, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-triggered testicular IRE1α and eIF2α phosphorylation and XBP-1 activation, indicating that this antioxidant counteracts Cd-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in testes. Finally, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-evoked upregulation of CHOP and JNK phosphorylation, two components in ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, ascorbic acid protects mice from Cd-triggered germ cell apoptosis via inhibiting ER stress and UPR in testes. PMID:22569276

  9. Protective effect of boric acid on lead- and cadmium-induced genotoxicity in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Ustündağ, Aylin; Behm, Claudia; Föllmann, Wolfram; Duydu, Yalçin; Degen, Gisela H

    2014-06-01

    The toxic heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are important environmental pollutants which can cause serious damage to human health. As the metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) accumulate in the organism, there is special concern regarding chronic toxicity and damage to the genetic material. Metal-induced genotoxicity has been attributed to indirect mechanisms, such as induction of oxidative stress and interference with DNA repair. Boron is a naturally occurring element and considered to be an essential micronutrient, although the cellular activities of boron compounds remain largely unexplored. The present study has been conducted to evaluate potential protective effects of boric acid (BA) against genotoxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and lead chloride (PbCl2) in V79 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity assays (neutral red uptake and cell titer blue assay) served to determine suitable concentrations for subsequent genotoxicity assays. Chromosomal damage and DNA strand breaks were assessed by micronucleus tests and comet assays. Both PbCl2 and CdCl2 (at 3, 5 and 10 µM) were shown to induce concentration-dependent increases in micronucleus frequencies and DNA strand breaks in V79 cells. BA itself was not cytotoxic (up to 300 µM) and showed no genotoxic effects. Pretreatment of cells with low levels of BA (2.5 and 10 µM) was found to strongly reduce the genotoxic effects of the tested metals. Based on the findings of this in vitro study, it can be suggested that boron provides an efficient protection against the induction of DNA strand breaks and micronuclei by lead and cadmium. Further studies on the underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of boron are needed.

  10. Capping hazardous red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite for plant growth.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2014-01-01

    A nearly three-year microcosm experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of capping red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite in sustaining the growth of a grass species. This 'sandwich-structured' design allowed self-sustaining growth of the plants under rain-fed conditions no matter whether the underlying red mud was neutralized or not. During the initial stage, the plants grew better when the red mud was not neutralized with MgCl2 probably due to pH rise in the root zone. Neutralization of red mud led to salinization and pH decrease in the root zone. However, the difference in plant growth performance between these scenarios became less remarkable over time due to gradual improvement of soil conditions in the neutralized scenarios. Continuous leaching of soluble salts and alkali by rainwater extended the root zone to the red mud layer. As a result of vegetative production, soil organic matter rapidly accumulated. This, combined with increase in pH and decrease in salinity, markedly facilitated microbial activities and consequently improved the supply of nutrients. This study provides abasis for field-scale experimental design that will have implications for effectively establishing vegetative cover in red mud disposal sites to control dust hazards.

  11. Potent antimicrobial activity of bone cement encapsulating silver nanoparticles capped with oleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Prokopovich, Polina; Köbrick, Mathias; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Perni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Bone cement is widely used in surgical treatments for the fixation for orthopaedic devices. Subsequently, 2–3% of patients undergoing these procedures develop infections that are both a major health risk for patients and a cost for the health service providers; this is also aggravated by the fact that antibiotics are losing efficacy because of the rising resistance of microorganisms to these substances. In this study, oleic acid capped silver nanoparticles (NP) were encapsulated into Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cement samples at various ratios. Antimicrobial activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii was exhibited at NP concentrations as low as 0.05% (w/w). Furthermore, the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the bone cement containing these NP were assessed to guarantee that such material is safe to be used in orthopaedic surgical practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 273–281, 2015. PMID:24819471

  12. Synthesis and bioactivities of silver nanoparticles capped with 5-Amino-?-resorcylic acid hydrochloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conjugated and drug loaded silver nanoparticles are getting an increased attention for various biomedical applications. Nanoconjugates showed significant enhancement in biological activity in comparison to free drug molecules. In this perspective, we report the synthesis of bioactive silver capped with 5-Amino-?-resorcylic acid hydrochloride dihydrate (AR). The in vitro antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal), enzyme inhibition (xanthine oxidase, urease, carbonic anhydrase, ?-chymotrypsin, cholinesterase) and antioxidant activities of the developed nanostructures was investigated before and after conjugation to silver metal. Results The conjugation of AR to silver was confirmed through FTIR, UV¿vis and TEM techniques. The amount of AR conjugated with silver was characterized through UV¿vis spectroscopy and found to be 9% by weight. The stability of synthesized nanoconjugates against temperature, high salt concentration and pH was found to be good. Nanoconjugates, showed significant synergic enzyme inhibition effect against xanthine and urease enzymes in comparison to standard drugs, pure ligand and silver. Conclusions Our synthesized nanoconjugate was found be to efficient selective xanthine and urease inhibitors in comparison to Ag and AR. On a per weight basis, our nanoconjugates required less amount of AR (about 11 times) for inhibition of these enzymes. PMID:25201390

  13. 6LiF oleic acid capped nanoparticles entrapment in siloxanes for thermal neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Marchi, T.; Gramegna, F.; Cinausero, M.; Quaranta, A.; Palma, M. Dalla

    2016-07-01

    The good light output of siloxane based scintillators as displayed under γ-rays and α particles has been exploited here to obtain clear and reliable response toward thermal neutrons. Sensitization towards thermal neutrons has been pursued by adding 6LiF, in form of nanoparticles. Aiming at the enhancement of compatibility between the inorganic nanoparticles and the low polarity, siloxane based surrounding medium, oleic acid-capped 6LiF nanoparticles have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of Li trifluoroacetate. Thin pellets siloxane scintillator maintained their optical transmittance up to weight load of 2% of 6Li. Thin samples with increasing 6Li concentration and thicker ones with fixed 6Li amount have been prepared and tested with several sources (α, γ-rays, moderated neutrons). Light output as high as 80% of EJ212 under α irradiation was measured with thin samples, and negligible changes have been observed as a result of 6LiF addition. In case of thick samples, severe light loss has been observed, as induced by opacity. Nevertheless, thermal neutrons detection has been assessed and the data have been compared with GS20, based on Li glass, taken as a reference material.

  14. Complete amino acid sequence of human plasma Zn-. cap alpha. /sub 2/-glycoprotein and its homology to histocompatibility antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Gejyo, F.; Takagaki, K.; Haupt, H.; Schwick, H.G.; Buergi, W.; Marti, T.; Schaller, J.; Rickli, E.; Brossmer, R.

    1988-02-01

    In the present study the complete amino acid sequence of human plasma Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein was determined. This protein whose biological function is unknown consists of a single polypeptide chain of 276 amino acid residues including 8 tryptophan residues and has a pyroglutamyl residue at the amino terminus. The location of the two disulfide bonds in the polypeptide chain was also established. The three glycans, whose structure was elucidated with the aid of 500 MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy, were sialylated N-biantennas. The molecular weight calculated from the polypeptide and carbohydrate structure is 38,478, which is close to the reported value of approx. = 41,000 based on physicochemical measurements. The predicted secondary structure appeared to comprised of 23% ..cap alpha..-helix, 27% ..beta..-sheet, and 22% ..beta..-turns. The three N-glycans were found to be located in ..beta..-turn regions. An unexpected finding was made by computer analysis of the sequence data; this revealed that Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein is closely related to antigens of the major histocompatibility complex in amino acid sequence and in domain structure. There was an unusually high degree of sequence homology with the ..cap alpha.. chains of class I histocompatibility antigens. Moreover, this plasma protein was shown to be a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein appears to be truncated secretory major histocompatibility complex-related molecule, and it may have a role in the expression of the immune response.

  15. Improved cadmium uptake and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii: the impact of citric acid and tartaric acid* #

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Ting-qiang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of a natural strategy for metal hyperaccumulation enables the rational design of technologies for the clean-up of metal-contaminated soils. Organic acid has been suggested to be involved in toxic metallic element tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. The impact of exogenous organic acids on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in the zinc (Zn)/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in the present study. By the addition of organic acids, short-term (2 h) root uptake of 109Cd increased significantly, and higher 109Cd contents in roots and shoots were noted 24 h after uptake, when compared to controls. About 85% of the 109Cd taken up was distributed to the shoots in plants with citric acid (CA) treatments, as compared with 75% within controls. No such effect was observed for tartaric acid (TA). Reduced growth under Cd stress was significantly alleviated by low CA. Long-term application of the two organic acids both resulted in elevated Cd in plants, but the effects varied with exposure time and levels. The results imply that CA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation and tolerance in S. alfredii, whereas the impact of TA is mainly on the root uptake of Cd. PMID:23365009

  16. Improved cadmium uptake and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii: the impact of citric acid and tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Ting-qiang

    2013-02-01

    The elucidation of a natural strategy for metal hyperaccumulation enables the rational design of technologies for the clean-up of metal-contaminated soils. Organic acid has been suggested to be involved in toxic metallic element tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. The impact of exogenous organic acids on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in the zinc (Zn)/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in the present study. By the addition of organic acids, short-term (2 h) root uptake of (109)Cd increased significantly, and higher (109)Cd contents in roots and shoots were noted 24 h after uptake, when compared to controls. About 85% of the (109)Cd taken up was distributed to the shoots in plants with citric acid (CA) treatments, as compared with 75% within controls. No such effect was observed for tartaric acid (TA). Reduced growth under Cd stress was significantly alleviated by low CA. Long-term application of the two organic acids both resulted in elevated Cd in plants, but the effects varied with exposure time and levels. The results imply that CA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation and tolerance in S. alfredii, whereas the impact of TA is mainly on the root uptake of Cd. PMID:23365009

  17. Improved cadmium uptake and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii: the impact of citric acid and tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Ting-qiang

    2013-02-01

    The elucidation of a natural strategy for metal hyperaccumulation enables the rational design of technologies for the clean-up of metal-contaminated soils. Organic acid has been suggested to be involved in toxic metallic element tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. The impact of exogenous organic acids on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in the zinc (Zn)/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in the present study. By the addition of organic acids, short-term (2 h) root uptake of (109)Cd increased significantly, and higher (109)Cd contents in roots and shoots were noted 24 h after uptake, when compared to controls. About 85% of the (109)Cd taken up was distributed to the shoots in plants with citric acid (CA) treatments, as compared with 75% within controls. No such effect was observed for tartaric acid (TA). Reduced growth under Cd stress was significantly alleviated by low CA. Long-term application of the two organic acids both resulted in elevated Cd in plants, but the effects varied with exposure time and levels. The results imply that CA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation and tolerance in S. alfredii, whereas the impact of TA is mainly on the root uptake of Cd.

  18. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings. PMID:26298186

  19. Amino acid sequence of the small cadmium-binding protein (MP II) from Nereis diversicolor (annelida, polychaeta). Evidence for a myohemerythrin structure.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, S; Li, K W; Van der Schors, R; Dhainaut-Courtois, N

    1993-10-01

    The primary sequence of the low-molecular-mass cadmium-binding protein metalloprotein II of Nereis diversicolor (Hediste diversicolor, recent denomination) has been determined. This protein is composed of 119 amino acids and has 80.8% identity with the N. diversicolor myohemerythrin [Takagi, T. & Cox, J. A. (1991) FEBS Lett. 285, 25-27]. The fact that iron, which normally binds to myohemerythrin, is not found to be associated with the cadmium-binding protein metalloprotein II in cadmium-exposed animals could be the result of the complete abolition of the iron-binding capacity of the protein due to the binding of cadmium.

  20. Colorimetric Detection of Cadmium Ions Using DL-Mercaptosuccinic Acid-Modified Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Chen, Jun; Yang, Jing-Hua; Bai, Lian-Yang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A colorimetric assay has been developed for detection of Cd²⁺ utilizing DL-mercaptosuccinic acid-modified gold nanoparticles (MSA-AuNPs). The method showed good selectivity for Cd²⁺ over other metal ions. As a result, the linear relationships (r > 0.9606) between concentration 0.07 mM and 0.20 mM for cadmium ion were obtained. The detection limit was as low as 0.07 mM by the naked eye. The effect of pH on the aggregation was optimized. The MSA-AuNPs probe could be used to detect Cd²⁺ in an aqueous solution based on the aggregation-induced color change of MSA-AuNPs. PMID:27398533

  1. Acid volatile sulfide predicts the acute toxicity of cadmium and nickel in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, D.M.; Mahony, J.D.; Hansen, D.J.; Scott, K.J.; Carlson, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests using amphipods, oligochaetes, and snails with spiked freshwater and marine sediments and with contaminated sediments collected from an EPA Superfund site demonstrate that no significant mortality occurs relative to controls if the molar concentration of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in the sediment is greater than the molar concentration of simultaneously extracted cadmium and/or nickel. Although it is well-known that these metals can form insoluble sulfides, it apparently has not been realized that AVS is a reactive pool of solid-phase sulfide that is available to bind metals and render that portion unavailable and nontoxic to biota. Thus, the AVS concentration of a sediment establishes the boundary below which these metals cease to exhibit an acute toxicity in freshwater and marine sediments.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of chlorogenic acid on cadmium-induced oxidative neuropathy in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    HAO, MAO-LIN; PAN, NING; ZHANG, QING-HUA; WANG, XIAO-HONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether chlorogenic acid (CA) is able to modulate cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative brain damage. Cd-treated rats displayed numerous pathological effects, including the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, elevated lipid peroxidation, the depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, the reduction of membrane-bound ATPase activity, mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment of the rats with CA significantly attenuated these effects. These results lead to the hypothesis that the mechanisms by which CA attenuates the effects of Cd-induced oxidative brain damage include the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis, inhibition of the membrane effects and the perpetuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. These data support the potential of CA as a beneficial intervention in the prevention of heavy metal poisoning due to Cd exposure. PMID:26136910

  3. Growth and characterization of oriented cadmium sulphide nanocrystals under Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of arachidic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, U. N.; Ingale, A.; Kukreja, L. M.; Mishra, S.; Ganesan, V.; Rustagi, K. C.

    Cadmium sulphide nanocrystals were grown at room temperature (20 °C) under arachidic acid monolayers floating over an aqueous solution of CdCl2 inside an enclosed Langmuir-Blodgett set-up, through slow infusion of H2S gas. X-ray diffraction spectra suggest an oriented growth of the crystallites. The particle sizes were found to increase with duration of exposure to the H2S gas. Atomic force microscopy indicated that the particles were nearly circular pellets with uniform morphology throughout. In Raman spectra, the FWHM of the LO phonon was found to be large ( 20 cm-1) for all the films grown with different exposure times in H2S gas, and was found to reduce to 8 cm-1 after annealing a typical sample at 500 °C for 45 min.

  4. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed.

  5. Transport of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid by Streptococcus pyogenes and its derived L-form

    SciTech Connect

    Reizer, J.; Panos, C.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) in Streptococcus pyogenes and its physiologically isotonic L-form. S. pyogenes cells starved for glucose or treated with carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone accumulated limited amounts of AIB. A high apparent K/sub m/ value characterized the glucose-independent transport of AIB. The rate and extent of AIB accumulation significantly increased in the presence of glucose. Two saturable transport components with distinct apparent K/sub m/values characterized glycolysis-coupled transport of AIB. A biphasic Lineweaver-Burk plot was also obtained for L-alanine transport by glycolyzing S. pyogenes cells. AIB seems to share a common transport system(s) with glycine, L- and D-anine, L-serine, and L-valine. This was shown by the competitive exchange efflux of accumulated AIB. About 30% of the AIB uptake was not inhibited by a saturating amount of L-valine, indicating the existence of more than one system for AIB transport, p-Chloromercuribenzoate markedly inhibited the accumulation of AIB by both glycolyzing and glucose-starved cells. In contrast, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone affected only metabolism-dependent uptake of AIB, which was also sensitive to dinitrophenol, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate, fluoride (NaF), arsenate, and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. These results are interpreted according to the chemiosmotic theory of Mitchell, whereby a proton motive force constitutes the driving force for AIB accumulation. AIB was not accumulated by the L-form. However, a temporary accumulation of AIB by a counterflow mechanism and a saturable system with a low apparent affinity were demonstrated for AIB transport by this organism. We suggest that a deficiency in the coupling of energy to AIB transport is responsible for the apparent lack of active AIB accumulation by the L-form.

  6. Contribution of cell walls, nonprotein thiols, and organic acids to cadmium resistance in two cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyun; Cui, Jin; Luo, Chunling; Gao, Lu; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-02-01

    To study possible cadmium (Cd) resistance mechanisms in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), several parameters of metal uptake, distribution, and complexation were compared between two varieties Chunfeng [CF (Cd-tolerant)] and Lvfeng [LF (Cd-sensitive)]. Results showed that CF contained significantly lower Cd concentrations in leaves and higher Cd concentrations in roots than LF. Approximately 70 to 74 % and 66 to 68 % of Cd taken up by LF and CF, respectively, was transported to shoots. More Cd was bound to the cell walls of leaves, stems, and roots in CF than in LF. The higher capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots could be explained by immobilization of Cd in root cell walls. Compared with control groups, Cd treatment also significantly increased concentrations of nonprotein thiols, phytochelatins (PCs), and citric acid in the leaves and roots of the two varieties; the increases were more pronounced in CF than in LF. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater Cd resistance in CF than in LF may be attributable to the greater capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots and complex Cd in cell walls and metal binding ligands, such as PCs and citric acid. However, the contributions of PCs and citric acid to Cd detoxification might be smaller than those in cell walls.

  7. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Popova, Losanka P; Maslenkova, Liliana T; Yordanova, Rusina Y; Ivanova, Albena P; Krantev, Aleksander P; Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, Tibor

    2009-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. The exposure of pea plants to increasing Cd concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 microM) during early stages of their establishment, caused a gradual decrease in shoot and root fresh weight accumulation, the rate of CO2 fixation and the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC, E.C. 4.1.1.39), the effect being most expressed at higher Cd concentrations. In vivo the excess of Cd-induced alterations in the redox cycling of oxygen-evolving centers and the assimilatory capacity of the pea leaves as revealed by changes in thermoluminescence emission after flash illumination. The levels of some important parameters associated with oxidative stress, namely lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and proline production were increased. Seed pretreatment with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cd on growth, photosynthesis, carboxylation reactions, thermoluminescence characteristics and chlorophyll content, and led to decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Cd. The data suggest that the beneficial effect of SA during an earlier growth period could be related to avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to cadmium thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. In addition, the observed high endogenous levels of SA after treatment with Cd suggests that SA may act directly as an antioxidant to scavenge the reactive oxygen species and/or indirectly modulate redox balance through activation of antioxidant responses. Taken together these evidences could explain at some extend the protective role of SA on photochemical activity of chloroplast membranes and photosynthetic carboxylation reactions in Cd-stressed pea plants.

  8. Stimulation of the synthesis of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1. cap alpha. / (6-keto-PGF/sub 1. cap alpha. /) by cultured human umbilical veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, B.O.; Johnson, A.R.; Falck, J.R.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-03-05

    These studies were designed to investigate the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in cultured human endothelial cells. The identification of the 15-HETE in these cells was made by UV absorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Specific radioimmunoassays were developed to quantify the synthesized 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE. The release of 15-HETE and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was stimulated by arachidonic acid, histamine or the calcium ionophore A23187. The release of 15-HETE paralleled the release of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and was both concentration-related and time-dependent. Aspirin, ibuprofen and indomethacin inhibited both the formation of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in similar concentrations. These data indicate that agents which stimulate PGI/sub 2/ synthesis also stimulate the synthesis of 15-HETE. Also, they implicate the cyclooxygenase pathway in the synthesis of 6-keto PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in human endothelial cells.

  9. Determination of trace cadmium in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after preconcentration with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid on Ambersorb 572.

    PubMed

    Kendüzler, Erdal; Türker, Ali Rehber

    2005-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of trace amount of cadmium after adsorption of its 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid chelate on Ambersorb 572 has been proposed. This chelate is adsorbed on the adsorbent in the pH range 3-8 from large volumes of aqueous solution of water samples with a preconcentration factor of 200. After being sorbed, cadmium was eluted by 5 mL of 2.0 mol L(-1) nitric acid solution and determined directly by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometery (FAAS). The detection limit (3sigma) of cadmium was 0.32 microg L(-1). The precision of the proposed procedure, calculated as the relative standard deviation of recovery in sample solution (100 mL) containing 5 microg of cadmium was satisfactory (1.9%). The adsorption of cadmium onto adsorbent can formally be described by a Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 19.6 mg g(-1) and a binding constant of 6.5 x 10(-3) L mg(-1). Various parameters, such as the effect of pH and the interference of a number of metal ions on the determination of cadmium, have been studied in detail to optimize the conditions for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium in water samples. This procedure was applied to the determination of cadmium in tap and river water samples.

  10. Cadmium toxicity in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum in relation to calcium and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Mastrángelo, Martina; Afonso, María Dos Santos; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2011-08-01

    Bioassays were carried out to study the differences in cadmium (Cd) toxicity to premetamorphic tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum, in aqueous solutions with variable contents of calcium in the presence and absence of humic acids, and to analyze the relationship between the free Cd(2+) ion concentrations calculated by chemical modeling and the biological results. The correlation analysis of the free Cd(2+) concentration calculated by chemical speciation and the analytical Cd yielded a direct relationship between the degree of toxicity and the slope value. The lowest slope was obtained from the treatments with lowest free Cd(2+) ion concentration and lowest toxicity, whereas the highest slope was obtained from the most toxic treatment. At comparable concentrations of free Cd(2+), intralarval Cd increased as the Ca in the solution decreased. At equal contents of Ca, in the presence of humic acids, the content of Cd in larvae was higher and the toxicity values lower. The results obtained in this study show that waterborne Ca could offer some protection from metal uptake and accumulation by competitive inhibition in the uptake mechanism that involves active transport via cell membrane. In the systems with humic materials, a certain proportion of the Cd present in the solution was associated to them and thus became less bioavailable.

  11. Comparative study of cadmium and lead accumulations in Cambarus bartoni (Fab. ) (Decapoda, Crustacea) from an acidic and a neutral lake

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, S.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare concentrations of lead and cadmium in the sediment and water, as well as in the crayfish, Cambarus Bartoni (Fab.) (Decapoda - Crustacea) trapped from an acidic and a neutral lake in the Sudbury district of Northeastern Ontario. Hepatopancreatic, alimentary canal, tail muscles and exoskeletal concentrations in the crayfish are also examined to determine specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  12. Amino acids of the Torpedo marmorata acetylcholine receptor. cap alpha. subunit labeled by a photoaffinity ligand for the acetylcholine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, M.; Giraudat, J.; Kotzyba-Hibert, F.; Goeldner, M.; Hirth, C.; Chang, J.Y.; Lazure, C.; Chretien, M.; Changeux, J.P.

    1988-04-05

    The acetylcholine-binding sites on the native, membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata were covalently labeled with the photoaffinity reagent (/sup 3/H)-p-(dimethylamino)-benzenediazonium fluoroborate (DDF) in the presence of phencyclidine by employing an energy-transfer photolysis procedure. The ..cap alpha..-chains isolated from receptor-rich membranes photolabeled in the absence or presence of carbamoylcholine were cleaved with CNBr and the radiolabeled fragments purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid and/or sequence analysis demonstrated that the ..cap alpha..-chain residues Trp-149, Tyr-190, Cys-192, and Cys-193 and an unidentified residue(s) in the segment ..cap alpha.. 31-105 were all labeled by the photoaffinity reagent in an agonist-protectable manner. The labeled amino acids are located within three distinct regions of the large amino-terminal hydrophilic domain of the ..cap alpha..-subunit primary structure and plausibly lie in proximity to one another at the level of the acetylcholine-binding sites in the native receptor. These findings are in accord with models proposed for the transmembrane topology of the ..cap alpha..-chain that assign the amino-terminal segment ..cap alpha.. 1-210 to the synaptic cleft. Furthermore, the results suggest that the four identified (/sup 3/H)DDF-labeled resides, which are conserved in muscle and neuronal ..cap alpha..-chains but not in the other subunits, may be directly involved in agonist binding.

  13. The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium accumulation of two ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Lijin; Luo, Li; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lai, Yunsong; Tang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The study of the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium (Cd) accumulation of two ecotypes (mining and farmland) of Solanum photeinocarpum was operated through a pot experiment. The results showed that the biomass and chlorophyll content of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum increased with increasing ABA concentration. Applying exogenous ABA increased Cd content in the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum. The maximum Cd contents in shoots of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum were obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA; shoot Cd contents respectively for the mining and farmland ecotypes were 33.92 and 24.71% higher than those for the control. Applying exogenous ABA also increased Cd extraction by the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum, and the highest Cd extraction was obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA with 569.42 μg/plant in shoots of the mining ecotype and 520.51 μg/plant in shoots of the farmland ecotype respectively. Therefore, exogenous ABA can be used for enhancing the Cd extraction ability of S. photeinocarpum, and 20 μmol/L ABA was the optimal dose. PMID:26899030

  14. The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium accumulation of two ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Lijin; Luo, Li; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lai, Yunsong; Tang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The study of the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium (Cd) accumulation of two ecotypes (mining and farmland) of Solanum photeinocarpum was operated through a pot experiment. The results showed that the biomass and chlorophyll content of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum increased with increasing ABA concentration. Applying exogenous ABA increased Cd content in the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum. The maximum Cd contents in shoots of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum were obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA; shoot Cd contents respectively for the mining and farmland ecotypes were 33.92 and 24.71% higher than those for the control. Applying exogenous ABA also increased Cd extraction by the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum, and the highest Cd extraction was obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA with 569.42 μg/plant in shoots of the mining ecotype and 520.51 μg/plant in shoots of the farmland ecotype respectively. Therefore, exogenous ABA can be used for enhancing the Cd extraction ability of S. photeinocarpum, and 20 μmol/L ABA was the optimal dose.

  15. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  16. Transfer of cadmium from a sandy acidic soil to man: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Staessen, J.A.; Celis, H.G.; Fagard, R.H.; Lijnen, P.J.; Thijs, L.B.; Amery, A.K. ); Vyncke, G. ); Lauwerys, R.R.; Roels, H.A. ); Claeys, F. ); Dondeyne, F. ); Ide, G. ); Rondia, D.; Sartor, F. )

    1992-06-01

    This population study included 230 subjects (age range 20-83 years) who consumed vegetables grown in kitchen gardens on a sandy acidic soil (mean pH {approximately}6.3). The study investigated the association between the Cd (cadmium) levels in blood and urine and the Cd concentration in the soil (range 0.2-44 ppm). Seventy-six subjects were current smokers and 122 participants lived in a district with known Cd pollution. Urinary Cd in the 230 subjects averaged 8.7 nmole/24 hr, (range 1.3 to 47 nmole/24 hr) after age adjustment positively correlated with the Cd level in the soil; a twofold increase of the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 7% rise in urinary Cd in men and by a 4% rise in women. Blood Cd averaged 11.5 nmole/liter (range 1.8-41 nmole/liter) and was negatively associated with the Cd level in the soil. After adjustment for significant covariates (smoking and serum {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase in both sexes, and age and serum ferritin in women), a twofold increase in the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 6% decrease in blood Cd in men and by a 10% decrease in women. In conclusion, in a rural population, consuming vegetables grown on a sandy acidic soil, 2 to 4% of the variance of urinary Cd was directly related to the Cd level in the soil. The negative correlation with blood Cd, a measure of more recent exposure, was biased by the implementation of preventive measures in the polluted district.

  17. The U.S. Acid rain program: Key insights from the design, operation, and assessment of a Cap-and-Trade program

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, Sam; Schreifels, Jeremy; Stevens, Gabrielle; Witt, Maggie; LaCount, Melanie; Forte, Reynaldo; Smith, Kenon

    2007-08-15

    The authors' 15 years of experience with the Acid Rain Program suggests that for regional or larger-scale air pollution problems, such as acid rain and pollution transport, a well-designed cap-and-trade program can be cost-effective, flexible, and easy to implement with clear benefits that can be sustained into the future. (author)

  18. Multifunctional supramolecular vesicles based on the complex of ferrocenecarboxylic acid capped pillar[5]arene and a galactose derivative for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yincheng; Hou, Chenxi; Ren, Jingli; Xin, Xiaoting; Pei, Yuxin; Lu, Yuchao; Cao, Shoupeng; Pei, Zhichao

    2016-07-21

    Supramolecular vesicles based on the host-guest complexation of ferrocenecarboxylic acid capped pillar[5]arene and a galactose derivative have been constructed, which showed dual-responsiveness and cancer cells targetability resulting from its ferrocenecarboxylic acid units and galactose units, respectively. This work provides a good example for the construction of multifunctional nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:27387299

  19. Influence of sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and citric acid on phenolic and organic acids in Brassica juncea grown in excess of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Irtelli, Barbara; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2006-11-01

    Brassica juncea cv. 426308 was grown in soils containing 150 mg Cd(2+)kg(-1) soil. After 38 days, the soil was amended with two rates of citric acid or NTA (10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil). Control soil was not amended with chelates. Plants were harvested during growth, immediately before and seven days after chelate addition. Shoot composition of organic and phenolic acids and shoot Cd(2+) concentration were determined. Cadmium concentration remained constant during the growth and increased following NTA and citric acid amendments depending on chelate type and concentration. The highest increments in Cd(2+) were measured after the addition of NTA. Compared to the control, 10 and 20 NTA-treated plants showed two- and three-fold increases, respectively. At 150 mg Cd(2+)kg(-1) soil the amount of organic and phenolic acids in the leaves of B. juncea was always higher than that detected in the control. A direct correlation between organic acid concentration and cadmium content was detected both during growth and after chelate addition. On the contrary, the amount of phenols seemed to be correlated with the metal content only in non-amended and NTA-treated plants. The 10 and 20 citric acid additions caused 45% and 90% increases in shoot phenolic acids although cadmium content rose to a smaller extent. The inhibition of citrate synthase and the entrance of phosphoenolpyruvate in shikimate pathway leading to the formation of aromatic compounds might come into play. The increase in phenylalanine ammonialyase activity following citric acid amendments suggested this metabolic response.

  20. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  1. Effect of trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids on blood levels of prostaglandins E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2. cap alpha. / and of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Vartanyan, G.S.; Panosyan, A.G.; Karagezyan, K.G.; Gevorkyan, G.A.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of the trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (THODA) fraction on blood levels of some eicosanoids and, in particular, of prostaglandins E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2..cap alpha../(PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../), and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) in rats with alloxan diabetes was studied. Concentrations of PGE/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../, and 5-HETE in peripheral blood plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. To assess the loss of substances during extraction and chromatography, /sup 3/H/sub 8/-PGE/sub 2/, /sup 3/H/sub 8/-PGF/sub 2..cap alpha.., and /sup 3/H/sub 8/-5-HETE were used. Plasma PGE/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../, and 5-HETE levels in albino rats with alloxan diabetes and after injection of THODA are shown.

  2. Photo-induced interaction of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots with cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelbar, Mostafa F.; Fayed, Tarek A.; Meaz, Talaat M.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2016-11-01

    The photo-induced interaction of three different sizes of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) with two monomethine cyanine dyes belonging to the thiazole orange (TO) family has been studied. Positively charged cyanines interact with QDs surface which is negatively charged due to capping agent carboxylate ions. The energy transfer parameters including Stern-Volmer constant, Ksv, number of binding sites, n, quenching sphere radius, r, the critical energy transfer distance, R0, and energy transfer efficiencies, E have been calculated. The effect of structure and the number of aggregating molecules have been studied as a function of CdTe QDs particle size. Combining organic and inorganic semiconductors leads to increase of the effective absorption cross section of the QDs which can be utilized in novel nanoscale designs for light-emitting, photovoltaic and sensor applications. A synthesized triplet emission of the studied dyes was observed using CdTe QDs as donors and this is expected to play a potential role in molecular oxygen sensitization and in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications.

  3. Effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the photocatalytic activities and flat-band potentials of cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide

    SciTech Connect

    Uchihara, Toshio ); Matsumura, Michio; Ono, Junichi; Tsubomura, Hiroshi )

    1990-01-11

    Photocatalyzed hydrogen evolution on Pt-loaded CdS powder from aqueous solutions of sodium sulfite is enhanced by addition of a small amount of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the solution. EDTA is hardly consumed by the reaction. It has been concluded from the measurements of the flat-band potential of CdS electrodes that EDTA and other chelating agents, such as 1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid, are adsorbed strongly on the surface of CdS and shift the conduction band energy toward the negative. The enhancement of the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by the addition of EDTA is explained as being caused by the upward shift of the conduction band energy of CdS due to the negative charge of the chelating agents. The change of the conduction band energy by the adsorption of EDTA is observed also for CdSe electrodes. Although Pt-loaded CdSe powder is inactive for the hydrogen evolution from aqueous solutions of sodium sulfite, it generates hydrogen when EDTA is added to the solution.

  4. Effects of norflurazon, an inhibitor of carotenogenesis, on abscisic acid and xanthoxin in the caps of gravistimulated maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Sun, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Maize seeds were germinated in the dark in the presence of the carotenoid synthesis inhibitor norflurazon and the levels of abscisic acid, xanthoxin and total carotenoids were measured in the root cap and in the adjacent 1.5 mm segment. In norflurazon-treated roots abscisic acid levels were markedly reduced, but an increase occurred in the levels of xanthoxin, a compound structurally and physiologically similar to abscisic acid. In the cultivar of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Merit) used for this work, brief illumination of the root is required for gravitropic curving. Following illumination both control and norflurazon-treated roots showed normal gravitropic curvature; however, the rate of curvature was delayed in norflurazon-treated roots. Our data from norflurazon-treated roots are consistent with a role for xanthoxin in maize root gravitropism. The increase in xanthoxin in the presence of an inhibitor of carotenoid synthesis suggests that xanthoxin and abscisic acid originate, at least in part, via different metabolic pathways.

  5. Antibacterial potential of rutin conjugated with thioglycolic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Jagadeeswari, Sivanadanam; Nagarajan, Natarajan; Renganathan, Rajalingam; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots not only act as nanocarrier but also act as stable and resistant natural fluorescent bio markers used in various in vitro and in vivo photolabelling and biological applications. In this study, the antimicrobial potential of TGA-CdTe QDs and commercial phenolics (rutin and caffeine) were investigated against Escherichiacoli. UV absorbance and fluorescence quenching study of TGA-CdTe QDs with rutin and caffeine complex was measured by spectroscopic technique. QDs-rutin conjugate exhibited excellent quenching property due to the -OH groups present in the rutin structure. But the same time caffeine has not conjugated with QDs because of lacking of -OH group in its structure. Photolabelling of E. coli with QDs-rutin and QDs-caffeine complex was analyzed by fluorescent microscopic method. Microbe E. coli cell membrane damage was assessed by atomic force (AFM) and confocal microscopy. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that QDs-rutin conjugate enhance the antimicrobial activity more than the treatment with QDs, rutin and caffeine alone.

  6. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  7. Cadmium, lead and zinc leaching from smelter fly ash in simple organic acids--simulators of rhizospheric soil solutions.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtech; Vrtisková, Růzena; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Grygar, Tomás; Drahota, Petr

    2009-10-30

    Emissions from base-metal smelters are responsible for high contamination of the surrounding soils. Fly ash from a secondary Pb smelter was submitted to a batch leaching procedure (0.5-168 h) in 500 microM solutions of acetic, citric, or oxalic acids to simulate the release of toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) in rhizosphere-like environments. Organic acids increased dissolution of fly ash by a factor of 1.3. Cadmium and Pb formed mobile chloro- and sulphate-complexes, whereas Zn partly present in a citrate (Zn-citrate(-)) complex is expected to be less mobile due to sorption onto the positively charged surfaces of hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) and organic matter (OM) in acidic soil.

  8. Insights into cadmium induced physiological and ultra-structural disorders in Juncus effusus L. and its remediation through exogenous citric acid.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Ullah; Jilani, Ghulam; Ali, Shafaqat; Sarwar, Muhammad; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Weijun

    2011-02-15

    This study appraised cadmium (Cd) toxicity stress in wetland plant Juncus effusus, and explored its potential for Cd phytoextraction through chelators (citric acid and EDTA). Cadmium altered morphological and physiological attributes of J. effusus as reflected by growth retardation. Citric acid in the presence of 100 μM Cd significantly countered Cd toxicity by improving plant growth. Elevated Cd concentrations reduced translocation factor that was increased under application of both chelators. Citric acid enhanced Cd accumulation, while EDTA reduced its uptake. Cadmium induced oxidative stress modified the antioxidative enzyme activity. Both levels of citric acid (2.5 and 5.0 mM) and lower EDTA concentration (2.5 mM) helped plants to overcome oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidative enzyme activities. Cadmium damaged the root cells through cytoplasmic shrinkage and metal deposition. Citric acid restored structure and shape of root cells and eliminated plasmolysis; whereas, EDTA exhibited no positive effect on it. Shoot cells remained unaffected under Cd treatment alone or with citric acid except for chloroplast swelling. Only EDTA promoted starch accumulation in chloroplast reflecting its negative impact on cellular structure. It concludes that Cd and EDTA induce structural and morphological damage in J. effusus; while, citric acid ameliorates Cd toxicity stress. PMID:21159423

  9. Insights into cadmium induced physiological and ultra-structural disorders in Juncus effusus L. and its remediation through exogenous citric acid.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Ullah; Jilani, Ghulam; Ali, Shafaqat; Sarwar, Muhammad; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Weijun

    2011-02-15

    This study appraised cadmium (Cd) toxicity stress in wetland plant Juncus effusus, and explored its potential for Cd phytoextraction through chelators (citric acid and EDTA). Cadmium altered morphological and physiological attributes of J. effusus as reflected by growth retardation. Citric acid in the presence of 100 μM Cd significantly countered Cd toxicity by improving plant growth. Elevated Cd concentrations reduced translocation factor that was increased under application of both chelators. Citric acid enhanced Cd accumulation, while EDTA reduced its uptake. Cadmium induced oxidative stress modified the antioxidative enzyme activity. Both levels of citric acid (2.5 and 5.0 mM) and lower EDTA concentration (2.5 mM) helped plants to overcome oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidative enzyme activities. Cadmium damaged the root cells through cytoplasmic shrinkage and metal deposition. Citric acid restored structure and shape of root cells and eliminated plasmolysis; whereas, EDTA exhibited no positive effect on it. Shoot cells remained unaffected under Cd treatment alone or with citric acid except for chloroplast swelling. Only EDTA promoted starch accumulation in chloroplast reflecting its negative impact on cellular structure. It concludes that Cd and EDTA induce structural and morphological damage in J. effusus; while, citric acid ameliorates Cd toxicity stress.

  10. Acid Fluid-Rock Interactions with Shales Comprising Unconventional Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and with Shale Capping Carbon Storage Reservoirs: Experimental Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Bratcher, J.; Marcon, V.; Herz-Thyhsen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Injection of HCl is often a first stage in the hydraulic fracturing process. These acidic fluids react with marls or shales in unconventional reservoirs, reactions generally comparable to reaction between shale caprocks and acidic, carbonated formation waters in a carbon storage reservoir. Hydrothermal experiments examine acid fluid-rock interaction with 1) an unconventional shale reservoir and 2) a model shale capping a carbon storage reservoir. In the former, unconventional reservoir rock and hydraulic fracturing fluid possessing a range of ionic strengths (I = 0.01, 0.15) and initial pH values (2.5 and 7.3) reacted at 115°C and 35 MPa for 28 days. In the latter, a model carbon storage reservoir (Fe-rich dolomite), shale caprock (illite), and shale-reservoir mixture each reacted with formation water (I = 0.1 and pH 6.3) at 160°C and 25 MPa for ~15 days. These three experiments were subsequently injected with sufficient CO2 to maintain CO2 saturation in the water and allowed to react for ~40 additional days. Acidic frac fluid was rapidly buffered (from pH 2.5 to 6.2 after 38 hrs) by reaction with reservoir rock whereas the pH of near-neutral frac fluid decreased (from 7.3 to 6.9) after 47 hrs. Carbonate dissolution released Ca and Sr into solution and feldspar dissolution released SiO2 and Li; the extent of reaction was greater in the experiment containing acidic frac fluid. All three carbon storage experiments displayed a similar pH decrease of 1.5 units after the addition of CO2. The pH remained low for the duration of the experiments because the immiscible supercritical CO2 phase provided an infinite reservoir of carbonic acid that could not be consumed by reaction with the rock. In all three experiments, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and SO4 increase with injection, but slowly decline through termination of the experiments. This trend suggests initial dissolution followed by re-precipitation of carbonates, which can be seen in modeling and SEM results. New clay minerals

  11. Positive effects of salicylic acid pretreatment on the composition of flax plastidial membrane lipids under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-01-01

    Interest in use of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as cadmium (Cd)-accumulating plant for phytoextraction of contaminated soils opened up a new and promising avenue toward improving tolerance of its varieties and cultivars to Cd stress. The aim of this study is to get insights into the mechanisms of Cd detoxification in cell membranes, by exploring the effects of salicylic acid (SA)-induced priming on fatty acids and lipid composition of flax plantlets, grown for 10 days with 50 and 100 μM Cd. At leaf level, levels of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and neutral lipids (NL) have shifted significantly in flax plantlets exposed to toxic CdCl2 concentrations, as compared to that of the control. At 100 μM Cd, the linoleic acid (C18:2) decreases mainly in digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and all phospholipid species, while linolenic acid (C18:3) declines mostly in MGDG and NL. Conversely, at the highest concentration of the metal, SA significantly enhances the levels of MGDG, PG and phosphatidic acid (PA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids mainly C18:2 and C18:3. Furthermore, SA pretreatment seems to reduce the Cd-induced alterations in both plastidial and extraplastidial lipid classes, but preferentially preserves the plastidial lipids by acquiring higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that flax plantlets pretreated with SA exhibits more stability of their membranes under Cd-stress conditions.

  12. An ultrasensitive and selective method for the determination of Ceftriaxone using cysteine capped cadmium sulfide fluorescence quenched quantum dots as fluorescence probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Naser; Narimani, Saeedeh

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, L-cysteine (Cys) coated CdS quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared, which have excellent water-solubility and are highly stable in aqueous solution. These QDs is proposed as sensitizers for the determination of Ceftriaxone. The quantum dot nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by Ultra Violet-Visible absorption Spectroscopy (UV-vis absorption spectroscopy), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirms that the Cys-CdS QDs have a spherical structure with good crystallinity. Therefore, a new simple and selective PL analysis system was developed for the determination of Ceftriaxone (CFX). Under the optimum conditions, The response of L-Cys capped CdS QDs as the probe was linearly proportional to the concentration of Ceftriaxone ions in the range of 1.6 × 10- 9-1.1 × 10- 3 M with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9902. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 1.3 nM. This method is simple, sensitive and low cost.

  13. Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K. ); Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y. ); Watanabe, M. )

    1988-05-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine, etc. increase in urine. It was reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

  14. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals.

  15. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals. PMID:27179243

  16. Determination of conditional stability constants of cadmium-humic acid complexes in freshwater by use of a competitive ligand equilibration-solvent extraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ginneken, L.; Blust, R.

    2000-02-01

    A technique for determining organic complexation of cadmium in freshwater using competitive ligand equilibration coupled with solvent extraction was evaluated. The method involves a competitive equilibration of the sample with potassium iodide and pyridine followed by extraction of the mixed cadmium-iodide-pyridine complex into a benzene phase. The final distribution of the metal is measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The method's suitability was verified by performing extractions on the model ligand 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (sulfoxine), which forms well-characterized complexes with cadmium. The speciation results so obtained were in excellent agreement with results calculated with a chemical speciation model. The method was applied to study complexation of cadmium with two commercially available humic acids in reconstituted freshwater at relatively high cadmium concentrations to mimic polluted freshwaters. The obtained titration data were fitted to a one-site Langmuir adsorption model, yielding values of 10{sup 6.59} and 10{sup 6.52} for the respective conditional stability constants, and 0.57 and 0.90 {micro}M for the respective ligand concentrations.

  17. A new, simple, green, and one-pot four-component synthesis of bare and poly(α,γ, L-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Savanović, Igor; Uskoković, Vuk; Škapin, Srečo D.; Bračko, Ines; Jovanović, Uroš; Uskoković, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    A simple and green chemical method has been developed to synthesize stable bare and capped silver nanoparticles based on the reduction of silver ions by glucose and capping by poly(α,γ,L-glutamic acid) (PGA). The use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. PGA has had a dual role in the synthesis and was used as a capping agent to make the silver nanoparticle more biocompatible and to protect the nanoparticles from agglomerating in the liquid medium. The synthesized PGA-capped silver nanoparticles in the size range 5–45 nm were stable over long periods of time, without signs of precipitation. Morphological examination has shown that the silver nanoparticles had a nearly spherical, multiply twinned structure. The effects of the reaction temperature and the reaction time during the synthesis were investigated too. The biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nano-particles is discussed in terms of in vitro toxicity with human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The samples were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurements. PMID:24062597

  18. Exogenous abscisic acid application decreases cadmium accumulation in Arabidopsis plants, which is associated with the inhibition of IRT1-mediated cadmium uptake

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shi Kai; Fang, Xian Zhi; Guan, Mei Yan; Ye, Yi Quan; Lin, Xian Yong; Du, Shao Ting; Jin, Chong Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of agricultural soils is an increasingly serious problem. Measures need to be developed to minimize Cd entering the human food chain from contaminated soils. We report here that, under Cd exposure condition, application with low doses of (0.1–0.5 μM) abscisic acid (ABA) clearly inhibited Cd uptake by roots and decreased Cd level in Arabidopsis wild-type plants (Col-0). Expression of IRT1 in roots was also strongly inhibited by ABA treatment. Decrease in Cd uptake and the inhibition of IRT1 expression were clearly lesser pronounced in an ABA-insensitive double mutant snrk2.2/2.3 than in the Col-0 in response to ABA application. The ABA-decreased Cd uptake was found to correlate with the ABA-inhibited IRT1 expression in the roots of Col-0 plants fed two different levels of iron. Furthermore, the Cd uptake of irt1 mutants was barely affected by ABA application. These results indicated that inhibition of IRT1 expression is involved in the decrease of Cd uptake in response to exogenous ABA application. Interestingly, ABA application increased the iron level in both Col-0 plants and irt1 mutants, suggesting that ABA-increased Fe acquisition does not depend on the IRT1 function, but on the contrary, the ABA-mediated inhibition of IRT1 expression may be due to the elevation of iron level in plants. From our results, we concluded that ABA application might increase iron acquisition, followed by the decrease in Cd uptake by inhibition of IRT1 activity. Thus, for crop production in Cd contaminated soils, developing techniques based on ABA application potentially is a promising approach for reducing Cd accumulation in edible organs in plants. PMID:25566293

  19. Effects of zinc, copper, and lead toxicity on. cap alpha. -aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of lead, zinc and copper in the human environment has been recognized as a major toxicological factor. Lead ions have been shown to inhibit the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD), which is involved in the biosynthesis of heme. Copper also has its inhibitory effect on delta-ALAD activity. A study has shown that the delta-ALAD was activated by zinc ions at physiological concentrations. In view of these reports, it was considered worthwhile to study the poisoning effects of lead, zinc and copper on delta-ALAD activity along with the concentrations of these metal ions in the blood. A possible role of Zn/sup + +/, Cu/sup + +/, and Pb/sup + +/ interaction and their influence on delta-ALAD has been explored in the present paper.

  20. The uptake and distribution of cadmium in tomato plants as affected by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Wolterbeek, H T; van der Meer, A; de Bruin, M

    1988-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, cv. Tiny Tim) were examined with and without the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) as metabolic inhibitor. Eight-week-old intact and derooted tomato seedlings were used in hydroculture experiments with cadmium applied as (115)Cd(NO(3))(2) in a range of concentrations. Measurements of the (115)Cd content of roots, stems and leaves were carried out by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The data showed that applications of both EDTA and DNP resulted in reduced total Cd accumulation in the plants, but relatively enhanced Cd transport into the above-ground plant parts. The Cd mobility in the transport channels in the shoots was increased by EDTA in both intact and derooted plants. Application of DNP leads to increased relative Cd import to leaves in derooted plants, but a reduced import into leaves of intact plants. These results suggest that Cd-complexes are formed in root cells before root-to-shoot transport. Furthermore, initial Cd uptake may be associated with adsorption on the negative charges of the cell walls of the root system. The high Cd mobility in shoots, in experiments with intact plants and Cd-EDTA application, indicates the possibility of simultaneous uptake of Cd and EDTA, possibly as a Cd-EDTA complex. PMID:15092498

  1. CdTe amplification nanoplatforms capped with thioglycolic acid for electrochemical aptasensing of ultra-traces of ATP.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh; Shanehsaz, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    A "signal off" voltammetric aptasensor was developed for the sensitive and selective detection of ultra-low levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For this purpose, a new strategy based on the principle of recognition-induced switching of aptamers from DNA/DNA duplex to DNA/target complex was designed using thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as the signal amplifying nano-platforms. Owing to the small size, high surface-to-volume ratio and good conductivity, quantum dots were immobilized on the electrode surface for signal amplification. In this work, methylene blue (MB) adsorbed to DNA was used as a sensitive redox reporter. The intensity of voltammetric signal of MB was found to decrease linearly upon ATP addition over a concentration range of 0.1nM to 1.6μM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9924. Under optimized conditions, the aptasensor was able to selectively detect ATP with a limit of detection of 45pM at 3σ. The results also demonstrated that the QDs-based amplification strategy could be feasible for ATP assay and presented a potential universal method for other small biomolecular aptasensors. PMID:27612836

  2. Multifunctional PLGA particles containing poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles and ascorbic acid with simultaneous antioxidative and prolonged antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Bračko, Ines; Milenković, Marina; Filipović, Nenad; Nunić, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2014-01-01

    A water-soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) was encapsulated together with poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNpPGA) within a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymeric matrix and their synergistic effects were studied. The PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles synthesized by a physicochemical method with solvent/non-solvent systems are spherical, have a mean diameter of 775 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.158. The encapsulation efficiency of AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid within PLGA was determined to be >90%. The entire amount of encapsulated ascorbic acid was released in 68 days, and the entire amount of AgNpPGAs was released in 87 days of degradation. The influence of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid on cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, as well as antimicrobial activity against seven different pathogens was investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated good biocompatibility of these PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles. We measured the kinetics of ROS formation in HepG2 cells by a DCFH-DA assay, and found that PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid caused a significant decrease in DCF fluorescence intensity, which was 2-fold lower than that in control cells after a 5h exposure. This indicates that the PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid microspheres either act as scavengers of intracellular ROS and/or reduce their formation. Also, the results of antimicrobial activity of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid obtained by the broth microdilution method showed superior and extended activity of these particles. The samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential and particle size analysis. This paper presents a new approach to the treatment of infection that at the same time offers a very pronounced antioxidant effect.

  3. Multifunctional PLGA particles containing poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles and ascorbic acid with simultaneous antioxidative and prolonged antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Bračko, Ines; Milenković, Marina; Filipović, Nenad; Nunić, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2014-01-01

    A water-soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) was encapsulated together with poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNpPGA) within a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymeric matrix and their synergistic effects were studied. The PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles synthesized by a physicochemical method with solvent/non-solvent systems are spherical, have a mean diameter of 775 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.158. The encapsulation efficiency of AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid within PLGA was determined to be >90%. The entire amount of encapsulated ascorbic acid was released in 68 days, and the entire amount of AgNpPGAs was released in 87 days of degradation. The influence of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid on cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, as well as antimicrobial activity against seven different pathogens was investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated good biocompatibility of these PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles. We measured the kinetics of ROS formation in HepG2 cells by a DCFH-DA assay, and found that PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid caused a significant decrease in DCF fluorescence intensity, which was 2-fold lower than that in control cells after a 5h exposure. This indicates that the PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid microspheres either act as scavengers of intracellular ROS and/or reduce their formation. Also, the results of antimicrobial activity of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid obtained by the broth microdilution method showed superior and extended activity of these particles. The samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential and particle size analysis. This paper presents a new approach to the treatment of infection that at the same time offers a very pronounced antioxidant effect. PMID:23988864

  4. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    PubMed

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  5. The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid-An antidote for subacute cadmium intoxication: a study using an ICR mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka G; Kamenova, Kalina; Arpadjan, Sonja; Mitewa, Mariana

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the ability of the chelating agent monensic acid (administered as the tetraethylammonium salt) to reduce the cadmium (Cd) concentration in the kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes of Cd-intoxicated mice was investigated. Chelation therapy with the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid led to a significant decrease of the Cd concentration in all of the organs of the Cd-treated mice. This effect varied from 50% in the kidneys to 90% in the hearts of the sacrificed animals (compared to the Cd-treated controls). No redistribution of the toxic metal ions to the brain of the animals as a result of the detoxification with the chelating agent was observed. The detoxification of the animals with the antibiotic salt did not perturb the endogenous levels of copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn). The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid significantly ameliorated the Cd-induced total iron (Fe) depletion in the liver and spleen of Cd-treated mice. It also restored to control levels the values of transferrin-bound Fe and the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) of the plasma. These results imply that the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid could be an efficient antidote in cases of Cd-intoxication. PMID:22677540

  6. Effects of cadmium amendments on low-molecular-weight organic acid exudates in rhizosphere soils of tobacco and sunflower.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ming Kuang; Chiu, Chih Yu; Chou, Shu-Yen

    2006-10-01

    To recognize physiological response of plants to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rhizosphere of plants, the pot experiments were employed to investigate how low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) were exudated from tobacco and sunflower roots of Cd-amended soils. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of LMWOAs on uptake of Cd by tobacco and sunflower under pot experiments, thus comparing the ability of tobacco and sunflower for phytoremediation. Surface soils (0-20 cm) were collected from Taichung Experiment Station (TC) (silty loam). Cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) was amended into TC soil, giving Cd concentrations of 1, 5, 10 mg kg(-1) soil. Soils with different concentrations of Cd were put into 12 cm (i.d.) pots for incubation, and then 2-week-old tobacco and sunflower seedlings were transplanted into the pots. Tobacco and sunflower were grown in greenhouse for 50 days, respectively. The rhizosphere and bulk soils, and fresh plant tissues were collected after harvest. The Cd concentrations in the plant and transfer factor values in the sunflower were higher than that in the tobacco. No LMWOAs were detected by gas chromatograph in bulk soils, and low amounts of LMWOAs were found in uncontaminated rhizosphere soils. Acetic, lactic, glycolic, malic, maleic, and succinic acids were found in the tobacco and sunflower rhizosphere soils. Concentrations of LMWOAs increased with increasing amendment of Cd concentrations in tobacco and sunflower rhizosphere soils. Correlation coefficient (r) of concentrations of Cd amendment versus LMWOAs exudates of tobacco and sunflower were 0.85 and 0.98, respectively. These results suggest that the different levels of LMWOAs present in the rhizosphere soil play an important role in the solubilization of Cd that bound with soil particle into soil solution and then uptake by plants.

  7. Internode length in Pisum. Gene na may block gibberellin synthesis between ent-7. cap alpha. -hydroxykaurenoic acid and biggerellin A/sub 12/-aldehyde. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, T.J.; Reid, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    The elongation response of the gibberellin (GA) deficient genotypes na, ls, and lh of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to a range of GA-precursors was examined. Plants possessing gene na did not respond to precursors in the GA biosynthetic pathway prior to GA/sub 12/-aldehyde. In contrast, plants possessing lh and ls responded as well as wild-type plants (dwarfed with AMO-1618) to these compounds. The results suggest that GA biosynthesis is blocked prior to ent-kaurene in the lh and ls mutants and between ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA/sub 12/-aldehyde in the na mutant. Feeds of ent(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid and (/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a range of genotypes supported the above conclusions. The na line WL1766 was shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to metabolize(/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a number of (/sup 2/H)C/sub 19/-GAs including GA/sub 1/. However, there was no indication in na genotypes for the metabolism of ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to these GAs. In contrast, the expanding shoot tissue of all Na genotypes examined metabolized ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to radioactive compounds that co-chromatographed with GA/sub 1/, GA/sub 8/, GA/sub 20/, and GA/sub 29/. However, insufficient material was present for unequivocal identification of the metabolites. The radioactive profiles from HPLC of extracts of the node treated with ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid were similar for both Na and na plants and contained ent-16..cap alpha..,17-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and ent-6..cap alpha..,7..cap alpha..,16..beta..,17-tetrahydroxykaurenoic acid (both characterized by GC-MS), suggesting that the metabolites arose from side branches of the main GA-biosynthetic pathway. Thus, both Na and na plants appear capable of ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  8. [Effects of organic acids on the toxicity of cadmium during ryegrass growth].

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Huang, Changyong

    2002-01-01

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids(oxalic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid) and higher molecular weight organic acid(humic acid) on the toxicity of Cd during ryegrass growth were studied. The results showed that Cd toxicity enhanced gradually with increasing the concentration of low molecular weight organic acids, and led to the decreasing of chlorophyll concentration in ryegrass plant and the biomass of ryegrass. The sequence of this influence was: oxalic acid < acetic acid < citric acid. On the contrary, Cd toxicity was reduced as a result of addition of humic acid, and the concentration of chlorophyll in ryegrass shoots and the biomass of ryegrass increased consequently. The concentration of Cd in roots and shoots of the ryegrass increased with increasing the concentration of low molecular weight organic acids, and the sequence of this influence was: citric acid > acetic acid > oxalic acids. The concentration of Cd decreased gradually as a result of increasing the concentration of humic acid, which means humic acid could reduce the toxicity of Cd on ryegrass. Furthermore, the concentration of Cd was higher in roots than in shoots, which indicated that the roots of ryegrass could prevent transport of Cd from roots to shoots and reduce Cd accumulation in the shoots.

  9. The addition of red lead to flat plate and tubular valve regulated miners cap lamp lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, E. E.; Loyson, P.; Poorun, A.

    The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either flat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick flat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide. The addition of red lead to the initial starting material improves the formation efficiency but is considerably more expensive thereby increasing the cost of manufacturing. The study showed that by carefully controlling the formation conditions in terms of the voltage and temperature of a battery, good capacity performance can be achieved for cells made with flat plate electrodes that contain up to 25% red lead. The small amount of red lead in the active cured material reduces the effect of electrode surface sulphate formation and allows the battery to achieve its rated capacity within the first few cycles. Batteries made with flat plate positive electrodes that contained more that 50% red lead showed good initial capacity but had poor structural active material bonding. The study showed that MCL batteries made with tubular positive electrodes that contained less than 75% red lead resulted in a poorly formed electrode with limited capacity utilization. Pickling and soaking times of the tubular electrodes should be kept at a minimum thereby allowing higher active material utilization during subsequent capacity cycling. The study further showed that it is beneficial to use higher formation rates in order to reduce manufacturing time and to improve the active material characteristics.

  10. Cradle cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... be prescribed. These may include medicated creams or shampoos. Most cases of cradle cap can be managed ... improve scalp circulation. Give your child daily, gentle shampoos with a mild shampoo as long as there ...

  11. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition of root and shoot lipids in Zea mays under copper and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chaffai, R; Seybou, T N; Marzouk, B; El Ferjani, E

    2009-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The Cu-treated roots showed a marked increase (about 2-fold) in the phospholipid (PL) content, while the Cd-treated roots showed a slight but insignificant increase. The steryl lipid SL/PL ratio was markedly decreased in response to Cu stress, and therefore, may indicate an activated phospholipid biosynthesis and turnover, in response to damage caused by Cu stress. The double bond indices of chloroplastic lipids: phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) revealed a similar but not identical pattern of change. The PG and MGDG contents in shoots were markedly decreased under Cu (by 53 and 48%) and Cd (by 78 and 65%) stress. The increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots induced by both metals indicates lipid peroxidation. Generally, in the presence of Cu fatty acid composition was markedly modulated but to lesser extent under Cd stress. These results suggest that changes in the fatty acid composition under Cu and Cd stress conditions are metal-specific and may therefore result in differential metal tolerance. PMID:19378928

  12. The short-term effect of cadmium on low molecular weight organic acid and amino acid exudation from mangrove (Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong) roots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangyu; Weiss, Dominik J; Weng, Bosen; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Yan, Chongling

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term concentration and time effects of cadmium on Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong root exudation, thereby evaluating and predicting the ecophysiological effects of mangrove to heavy metals at the root level. Mature K. obovata propagules were cultivated in a sandy medium for 3 months, and then six concentrations of Cd (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1)) were applied. After exposure time of 24 h and 7 days, respectively, the root exudates of K. obovata were collected and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and amino acids of which were analyzed. In addition, we measured glutathione, soluble protein content, and Cd concentration in the plant. We found 10 and 15 types of LMWOAs and amino acids in root exudates of K. obovata with total concentrations ranging from 29.54 to 43.08 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW) roots and from 737.35 to 1,452.46 ng g(-1) DW roots, respectively. Both of them varied in quality and quantity under different Cd treatment strengths and exposure times. Oxalic, acetic, L-malic, tartaric acid, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, and arginine were dominant. Both LMWOAs and amino acids excreted from K. obovata roots play a key role in Cd toxicity resistance. The responsiveness of amino acids was less than that of LMWOAs. We suggest that the ecological effect of root-excreted free amino acids in the rhizosphere is mainly based on the role of nutrients, supplemented with detoxification to heavy metals. PMID:22729874

  13. Monomeric mixed cadmium-2,2‧-dipyridylamine complex derived from ferrocenecarboxylic acid: Structural, electrochemical and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2015-09-01

    A mixed Cd(II) complex {[Cd(FcCOO)2(dpyam)(H2O)][Cd(dpyam)2 (H2O)2]·(ClO4)2·CH3OH} (1) (where FcCOO = ferrocenecarboxylic acid and dpyam = 2,2‧-dipyridylamine), has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H & 13C NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The molecular structure of compound 1 has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique, which consists of mixed two different cadmium(II) complexes and two uncoordinated perchlorate ions. The crystal packing shows that the compound 1 self-assembled by intermolecular hydrogen bonding via pyridyl N-H⋯O and coordinated water O⋯H-O-H⋯O, to afford the molecule 2D supramolecular network. Compound 1 exhibits high-energy intraligand (π-π∗) fluorescence emission. In electrochemical studies of compound 1 shows negative potential compared with ferrocenecarboxylic acid due to formation of coordination complex with Cd ions. The antibacterial study against the distinct bacterial strains show compound 1 has significant activity.

  14. Cadmium and manganese accumulation in Phytolacca americana L. and the roles of non-protein thiols and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Peng, Kejian; Xia, Yan; Wang, Guiping; Niu, Liyuan; Lian, Chunlan; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in its aerial tissues, especially cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn). It has great potential for use in phytoextraction of metals from multi-metal-contaminated soils. This study was conducted to further investigate the Cd- and Mn-tolerance strategies of this plant. Concentrations of non-protein thiols (NPTs) and phytochelatins (PCs) in leaves and roots increased significantly as the concentration of Cd in solution increased. The molar ratios of PCs:soluble Cd ranged from 1.8 to 3.6 in roots and 8.1 to 31.6 in leaves, suggesting that the cellular response involving PC synthesis was sufficient to complex Cd ions in the cytosol, especially that of leaves. In contrast, excess Mn treatments did not result in a significant increase in NPT or PC concentrations in leaves or roots. Oxalic acid concentrations in leaves of plants exposed to 2 or 20 mM Mn reached 69.4 to 89.3 mg (0.771 to 0.992 mmol) g(-1) dry weight, respectively, which was approximately 3.7- to 8.6-fold higher than the Mn level in the 0.6 M HCl extract. Thus, oxalic acid may play an important role in the detoxification of Mn.

  15. Applied indol-3yl-acetic acid on the cap and auxin movements in gravireacting maize roots.

    PubMed

    Pilet, P E

    1998-03-01

    The graviresponsiveness of intact and primary maize roots kept horizontally in darkness and humid air is analysed. A precise local application of IAA is possible when using resin beads (diameter: 0.45 +/- 0.05 mm) loaded with IAA. The beads are placed on the upper or lower sides of the caps. They significantly change the root gravireaction. The effect of IAA is discussed in terms of its possible level in the growing and gravibending zones and its transport (acropetal, lateral and basipetal) respectively in the stele, the cap and the cortex of the elongating root. PMID:11541232

  16. Endogenous salicylic acid is required for promoting cadmium tolerance of Arabidopsis by modulating glutathione metabolisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Chen; Li, Hua; Yi, Keke; Ding, Nengfei; Li, Ningyu; Lin, Yicheng; Fu, Qinglin

    2016-10-01

    A few studies with NahG transgenic lines of Arabidopsis show that depletion of SA enhances cadmium (Cd) tolerance. However, it remains some uncertainties that the defence signaling may be a result of catechol accumulation in NahG transgenic lines but not SA deficiency. Here, we conducted a set of hydroponic assays with another SA-deficient mutant sid2 to examine the endogenous roles of SA in Cd tolerance, especially focusing on the glutathione (GSH) cycling. Our results showed that reduced SA resulted in negative effects on Cd tolerance, including decreased Fe uptake and chlorophyll concentration, aggravation of oxidative damage and growth inhibition. Cd exposure significantly increased SA concentration in wild-type leaves, but did not affect it in sid2 mutants. Depletion of SA did not disturb the Cd uptake in either roots or shoots. The reduced Cd tolerance in sid2 mutants is due to the lowered GSH status, which is associated with the decreased expression of serine acetyltransferase along with a decline in contents of non-protein thiols, phytochelatins, and the lowered transcription and activities of glutathione reductase1 (GR1) which reduced GSH regeneration. Finally, the possible mode of SA signaling through the GR/GSH pathway during Cd exposure is discussed. PMID:27209521

  17. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  18. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  19. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin. cap alpha. /sub 1/ and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, P.H.; Naylor, C.W.; Badamchian, M.; Wada, S.; Goldstein, A.L.; Wang, S.S.; Sun, D.K.; Thornton, A.H.; Sarin, P.S.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ (which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus) effectively neutralized the AIDs virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells. Using HPLC and immunoblot analysis, they have identified from a clone B, type III human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-IIIB) extracts a protein with a molecular weight of 17,000 that is immunoreactive with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was found in retroviral extracts from a number of nonhuman species including feline, bovine, simian, gibbon, and murine retroviruses. Heterologous antiserum prepared against a 30-amino acid synthetic peptide analogue (HGP-30) does not cross-react with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ but does react specifically with the p17 protein of the AIDS virus in a manner identical to that seen with an HTLV-IIIB p17-specific monoclonal antibody. The demonstration that this synthetic analogue is immunogenic and that antibodies to HGP-30 cross-react not only with synthetic peptide but also with the HTLV-IIIB p17 viral protein provides an additional, and potentially more specific, candidate for development of a synthetic peptide vaccine for AIDS. In addition, the p17 synthetic peptide (HGP-3) may prove to be useful in a diagnostic assay for the detection of AIDS virus infection in seronegative individuals.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Backbone Length and Capping Agent on the Conformational Preferences of a Model Peptide: Conformation Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy of 2-AMINOISOBUTYRIC Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gord, Joseph R.; Hewett, Daniel M.; Kubasik, Matthew A.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2015-06-01

    2-Aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) is an achiral, α-amino acid having two equivalent methyl groups attached to C_α. Extended Aib oligomers are known to have a strong preference for the adoption of a 310-helical structure in the condensed phase. Here, we have taken a simplifying step and focused on the intrinsic folding propensities of Aib by looking at a series of capped Aib oligomers in the gas phase, free from the influence of solvent molecules and cooled in a supersonic expansion. Resonant two-photon ionization and IR-UV holeburning have been used to record single-conformation UV spectra using the Z-cap as the UV chromophore. Resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopy provides single-conformation IR spectra in the OH stretch and NH stretch regions. Data have been collected on a set of Z-(Aib)n-X oligomers with n = 1, 2, 4, 6 and X = -OH and -OMethyl. The impacts of these capping groups and differences in backbone length have been found to dramatically influence the conformational space accessed by the molecules studied here. Oligomers of n=4 have sufficient backbone length for a full turn of the 310-helix to be formed. Early interpretation of the data collected shows clear spectroscopic markers signaling the onset of 310-helix formation as well as evidence of structures incorporating C7 and C14 hydrogen bonded rings. Toniolo, C.; Bonora, G. M.; Barone, V.; Bavoso, A.; Benedetti, E.; Di Blasio, B.; Grimaldi, P.; Lelj, F.; Pavone, V.; Pedone, C., Conformation of Pleionomers of α-Aminoisobutyric Acid. Macromolecules 1985, 18, 895-902.

  2. Physico-chemical assessment of a fixated flue-gas desulfurization sludge cap emplaced along with other coal-combustion residues to abate acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Shawn; Branam, Tracy D; Olyphant, Greg A

    2012-05-01

    Long term monitoring of the physical and chemical effects of using coal-combustion residues (CCRs), in particular fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, as a major component in the reclamation of a pyritic refuse deposit was undertaken to determine the beneficial and detrimental consequences of placing these controversial materials in an unrestricted environment. Monitoring wells, neutron probe access tubes, and weirs were installed before and after reclamation to observe hydrologic conditions and determine how the use of FGD sludge as a recharge barrier was affecting hydrochemical response to ambient weather conditions. Data were collected for six months prior to reclamation and then for an additional 13 years (more intensively during the first 5 years). Statistical analyses of water levels in the pyritic refuse deposit indicate a shift from precipitation- to barometric-controlled fluctuations. These findings, along with minimal variability in soil moisture within the CCR cap and transient perching of groundwater above the cap, are evidence that recharge of the refuse aquifer has been minimized. Statistically significant improvements in the quality of groundwater on-site and surface water leaving the site include long-term declines in acidity, As, and Fe concentrations within the refuse aquifer, attributed to a decrease in recharge of oxygenated water as supported by an analysis of calculated mineral saturation indices. Long-term declines in acidity and associated trace metals discharging from the site are attributed to the post-reclamation loss of sulfate salts brought to the surface by capillary forces. The results of this study indicate that strategic usage of CCRs in reclamation programs can produce beneficial effects, including acid drainage reductions, that are beyond those achieved using traditional reclamation approaches such as the utilization of mine spoil as capping and fill material.

  3. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    PubMed

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  4. Determining soil enzyme activities for the assessment of fungi and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction under cadmium and lead contamination.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Tang, Dong; Feng, Haiwei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Lurong; Wang, Lumei

    2015-12-01

    Microorganism or chelate-assisted phytoextraction is an effective remediation tool for heavy metal polluted soil, but investigations into its impact on soil microbial activity are rarely reported. Consequently, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-resistant fungi and citric acid (CA) were introduced to enhance phytoextraction by Solanum nigrum L. under varied Cd and Pb pollution levels in a greenhouse pot experiment. We then determined accumulation of Cd and Pb in S. nigrum and the soil enzyme activities of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, sucrase, and amylase. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was applied to assess the interactions between remediation strategies and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated that the addition of fungi, CA, or their combination enhanced the root biomass of S. nigrum, especially at the high-pollution level. The combined treatment of CA and fungi enhanced accumulation of Cd about 22-47 % and of Pb about 13-105 % in S. nigrum compared with the phytoextraction alone. However, S. nigrum was not shown to be a hyperaccumulator for Pb. Most enzyme activities were enhanced after remediation. The DCCA ordination graph showed increasing enzyme activity improvement by remediation in the order of phosphatase, amylase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and urease. Responses of soil enzyme activities were similar for both the addition of fungi and that of CA. In summary, results suggest that fungi and CA-assisted phytoextraction is a promising approach to restoring heavy metal polluted soil. PMID:26286803

  5. Determining soil enzyme activities for the assessment of fungi and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction under cadmium and lead contamination.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Tang, Dong; Feng, Haiwei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Lurong; Wang, Lumei

    2015-12-01

    Microorganism or chelate-assisted phytoextraction is an effective remediation tool for heavy metal polluted soil, but investigations into its impact on soil microbial activity are rarely reported. Consequently, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-resistant fungi and citric acid (CA) were introduced to enhance phytoextraction by Solanum nigrum L. under varied Cd and Pb pollution levels in a greenhouse pot experiment. We then determined accumulation of Cd and Pb in S. nigrum and the soil enzyme activities of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, sucrase, and amylase. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was applied to assess the interactions between remediation strategies and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated that the addition of fungi, CA, or their combination enhanced the root biomass of S. nigrum, especially at the high-pollution level. The combined treatment of CA and fungi enhanced accumulation of Cd about 22-47 % and of Pb about 13-105 % in S. nigrum compared with the phytoextraction alone. However, S. nigrum was not shown to be a hyperaccumulator for Pb. Most enzyme activities were enhanced after remediation. The DCCA ordination graph showed increasing enzyme activity improvement by remediation in the order of phosphatase, amylase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and urease. Responses of soil enzyme activities were similar for both the addition of fungi and that of CA. In summary, results suggest that fungi and CA-assisted phytoextraction is a promising approach to restoring heavy metal polluted soil.

  6. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    PubMed

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants.

  7. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-11-15

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd2+, GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:23021314

  8. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-11-15

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd2+, GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  9. The role of citric acid in cadmium and nickel uptake and translocation, in Halimione portulacoides.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Bernardo; Delgado, Marta; Caçador, Isabel

    2007-10-01

    Some plants have high ability to absorb heavy metals in high concentrations. In this study, Halimione portulacoides was tested in conjunction with citric acid, in order to evaluate the possible use of this plant in phytoremediation processes in salt marshes. Two different concentrations of chelator were used combined with two heavy metal concentrations. When 25microM of citric acid was applied, Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced while for Ni these processes were almost inhibited. Increasing citric acid concentration to 50microM, Ni absorption decreased by the roots while for Cd there was still an increase in root uptake. Analysing translocation with this concentration of chelator, a decreased metal content in the upper organs for both metals was observed. While for Cd an optimal concentration of 25microM of citric acid was observed for phytoremediative processes, for nickel neither concentrations of chelator showed advantages for application in this remediative method. PMID:17585999

  10. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, Daniela

    2015-05-15

    Changes in the fatty acid (FAs) composition in response to the extent of Cd contamination of soils (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg Cd kg(-1)) differed between ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens originating from France - Ganges, Slovenia - Mežica and Austria - Redlschlag. Mežica ecotype accumulated more Cd in aboveground biomass compared to Ganges and Redlschlag ecotypes. Hyperaccumulators contained saturated fatty acids (SFAs) rarely occurring in plants, as are cerotic (26:0), montanic (28:0), melissic (30:0) acids, and unusual unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), as are 16:2, 16:3, 20:2 and 20:3. Typical USFAs occurring in the family Brassicaceae, such as erucic, oleic and arachidonic acids, were missing in tested plants. Our results clearly indicate a relationship between Cd accumulation and the FAs composition. The content of SFAs decreased and the content of USFAs increased in aboveground biomass of Ganges and Mežica ecotypes with increasing Cd concentration. Opposite trend of FAs content was determined in Redlschlag ecotype. Linoleic (18:2n-6), α-linolenic (18:3n-3) and palmitic (16:0) acids were found in all ecotypes. The results observed in N. caerulescens ecotypes, showed that mainly Mežica ecotype has an efficient defense strategies which can be related on changes in FAs composition, mainly in VLCFAs synthesis. The most significant effect of ecotype on FAs composition was confirmed using multivariate analysis of variance. PMID:25886397

  11. Relationship between cadmium, zinc, Cd-peptide, and organic acid in tobacco suspension cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krotz, R.M.; Evangelou, B.P.; Wagner, G.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells to Cd and Zn were studied in the presence and absence of ligand of Cd-peptide in order to understand the role of this peptide versus other mechanisms in Cd and Zn accumulation and accommodation in plants. With 45 micromolar Cd and 300 micromolar Zn (non-growth-inhibiting levels), metals appeared rapidly within cells, and intracellular Cd and Zn reached medium concentrations after 6 to 10 hours. Cd-peptide was observed in response to Cd after 2 hours, but this form only accounted for {approximately}30% of soluble Cd after 24 hours. Peptide was not observed in cells exposed to 300 micromolar Zn for up to 7 days. Organic acid-to-metal stoichiometry indicated that endogenous organic acid content of cells was more than sufficient to complex absorbed metals and no evidence was found for stimulation of organic acid biosynthesis by Cd or Zn. Metal-complexing potential of organic acids for Cd and Zn versus endogenous cations is discussed as is vacuolar-extravacuolar distribution of metals. The absence of Cd-peptide does not limit Cd-accumulation in the system studied. Results suggest that tobacco suspension cells accommodte the presence of non-growth-inhibiting and growth-inhibiting levels of Cd and Zn by sequestration in the vacuole as complexes with endogenous organic acids and that this may be a principal means for accommodation of Cd as well as Zn in the presence and absence of Cd-peptide.

  12. The preparation of CeF{sub 3} nanocluster capped with oleic acid by extraction method and application to lithium grease

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Libo; Zhang Ming; Wang Xiaobo; Liu Weimin

    2008-08-04

    CeF{sub 3} nanocluster surface-capped with oleic acid (coded as OA-CeF{sub 3}) were prepared using extraction method. The resulting OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster was characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of the OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster as an additive in synthetic lithium grease was investigated using a four-ball friction and wear tester. It was found that the as-prepared OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster had a broad size distribution, with the average diameter to be about 20 nm, which was confirmed by both the XRD and TEM analytical results. The oleic acid as the capping agent was chemically bonded to the CeF{sub 3} nanocores via strong chemical interaction. The OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster as the additive led to an obvious improvement in the antiwear and extreme pressure properties of the synthetic lithium grease. However, the OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster as the additive had little effect on the friction-reducing behavior of the lithium grease.

  13. Toxicity and subcellular distribution of cadmium in wheat as affected by dissolved organic acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Zhou, Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) and citric acid (CA) on the toxicity and subcellular distribution of Cd in wheat. Results show that the toxicity and uptake of Cd decreased with increasing HA. The EC50 values of Cd increased from 3.36 micromol/L to 4.96 and 7.33 micromol/L at 50 and 250 mg/L HA, respectively, but decreased to 1.39 micromol/L in the presence of CA based on free ion activity model (FIAM). HA decreased the relative subcellular distribution of Cd in the heat-denatured proteins (decreased from 54% to 33%) but increased Cd in the heat-stable proteins in root (from 25% to 50%) at 7.61 micromol/L {Cd2+} (free Cd activity), which resulted in decreasing Cd toxicity. However, CA increased Cd toxicity due to the increased internalization of Cd although the relative subcellular distributions of Cd exhibited a decrease in the heat-denatured proteins and increase in the granule fraction compared to the control at high-level Cd. The FIAM could not predict the toxicity of Cd in the presence of organic acids. Alternatively, the internal Cd accumulation and subcellular Cd concentration were better to describe the toxicity of Cd to wheat.

  14. Regulation of Cadmium-Induced Proteomic and Metabolic Changes by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Leaves of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Ali, Basharat; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Su; Gill, Muhammad B; Farooq, Muhammad A; Liu, Dan; Daud, Muhammad K; Ali, Shafaqat; Zhou, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    It is evident from previous reports that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), like other known plant growth regulators, is effective in countering the injurious effects of heavy metal-stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The present study was carried out to explore the capability of ALA to improve cadmium (Cd2+) tolerance in B. napus through physiological, molecular, and proteomic analytical approaches. Results showed that application of ALA helped the plants to adjust Cd2+-induced metabolic and photosynthetic fluorescence changes in the leaves of B. napus under Cd2+ stress. The data revealed that ALA treatment enhanced the gene expressions of antioxidant enzyme activities substantially and could increase the expression to a certain degree under Cd2+ stress conditions. In the present study, 34 protein spots were identified that differentially regulated due to Cd2+ and/or ALA treatments. Among them, 18 proteins were significantly regulated by ALA, including the proteins associated with stress related, carbohydrate metabolism, catalysis, dehydration of damaged protein, CO2 assimilation/photosynthesis and protein synthesis/regulation. From these 18 ALA-regulated proteins, 12 proteins were significantly down-regulated and 6 proteins were up-regulated. Interestingly, it was observed that ALA-induced the up-regulation of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, light harvesting complex photo-system II subunit 6 and 30S ribosomal proteins in the presence of Cd2+ stress. In addition, it was also observed that ALA-induced the down-regulation in thioredoxin-like protein, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate, proteasome and thiamine thiazole synthase proteins under Cd2+ stress. Taken together, the present study sheds light on molecular mechanisms involved in ALA-induced Cd2+ tolerance in B. napus leaves and suggests a more active involvement of ALA in plant physiological processes than previously proposed.

  15. Regulation of Cadmium-Induced Proteomic and Metabolic Changes by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Leaves of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Basharat; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Yang, Su; Gill, Muhammad B.; Farooq, Muhammad A.; Liu, Dan; Daud, Muhammad K.; Ali, Shafaqat; Zhou, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    It is evident from previous reports that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), like other known plant growth regulators, is effective in countering the injurious effects of heavy metal-stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The present study was carried out to explore the capability of ALA to improve cadmium (Cd2+) tolerance in B. napus through physiological, molecular, and proteomic analytical approaches. Results showed that application of ALA helped the plants to adjust Cd2+-induced metabolic and photosynthetic fluorescence changes in the leaves of B. napus under Cd2+ stress. The data revealed that ALA treatment enhanced the gene expressions of antioxidant enzyme activities substantially and could increase the expression to a certain degree under Cd2+ stress conditions. In the present study, 34 protein spots were identified that differentially regulated due to Cd2+ and/or ALA treatments. Among them, 18 proteins were significantly regulated by ALA, including the proteins associated with stress related, carbohydrate metabolism, catalysis, dehydration of damaged protein, CO2 assimilation/photosynthesis and protein synthesis/regulation. From these 18 ALA-regulated proteins, 12 proteins were significantly down-regulated and 6 proteins were up-regulated. Interestingly, it was observed that ALA-induced the up-regulation of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, light harvesting complex photo-system II subunit 6 and 30S ribosomal proteins in the presence of Cd2+ stress. In addition, it was also observed that ALA-induced the down-regulation in thioredoxin-like protein, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate, proteasome and thiamine thiazole synthase proteins under Cd2+ stress. Taken together, the present study sheds light on molecular mechanisms involved in ALA-induced Cd2+ tolerance in B. napus leaves and suggests a more active involvement of ALA in plant physiological processes than previously proposed. PMID:25909456

  16. Short chain fatty acids and cadmium cytotoxicity in ROS 17/2. 8 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.J.; Angle, C.R.; Swanson, S.A. )

    1991-03-11

    ROS 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma cells are extremely sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of Cd. In naive cells, sensitivity to Cd is associated with poor inducibility of metallothionein (MT). Treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with Na butyrate (NaB) results in increased resistance to Cd cytotoxicity and increased MT gene expression. The relation between the structure of short chain fatty acids and the alterations of Cd cytotoxicity in ROS 17/2.8 cells was investigated by culture of cells in the presence of 1 or 5 mM Na acetate, NaB, methyl butyrate, isobutyric acid, methyl isobutyrate and caproic acid. Among these compounds, only 5 mM NaB significantly increased the survival of ROS cells exposed to 0.1 to 10 {mu}M Cd and only NaB treatment was effective in increasing MT gene inducibility. The role of inhibition of DNA replication by NaB in cell resistance to Cd was examined. Among compounds tested, only 5 mM NaB significantly inhibited DNA synthesis. However, in cells in which DNA synthesis is inhibited by exposure to hydroxyurea, addition and removal of NaB from culture medium modulates cellular resistance to Cd. Hence, the effectiveness of NaB as a modifier of cell response to Cd is not due entirely to changes in cell proliferation. Additionally, rigid structural constraints for effectiveness dictate that only NaB is a potent modifier of resistance to Cd.

  17. α-Lipoic acid protects against the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by cadmium in HepG2 cells through regenerating glutathione regulated by glutamate-cysteine ligase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Xue; Shi, Chunli; Wang, Jiachun; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is an important antioxidant that is capable of regenerating other antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH). In the present study, we examined the protective effects of α-LA against the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by cadmium in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) and investigated if the process was mediated through regenerating GSH. Our results showed that after exposure to 25 μM cadmium for 16 h, there was a significant decrease in the cell viability and glutathione levels and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (p<0.01) compared with untreated cells. The presence of α-LA significantly attenuated cadmium-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, and reversed cellular GSH levels compared with cadmium-treated cells (p<0.05). Compared with the cells treated with cadmium, co-treatment with α-LA and cadmium significantly increased the activities of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (γ-GCL), the rate limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis and the mRNA and the protein levels of γ-GCL catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modifier subunit (GCLM). In conclusion, our results indicated that α-LA is an effective agent to reduce the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by cadmium by regenerating GSH levels through increasing the activities and the expressions of γ-GCL.

  18. An amperometric chloramphenicol immunosensor based on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles modified-dendrimer bonded conducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Rahman, Md Aminur; Do, Minh Hien; Ban, Changill; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2010-03-15

    An amperometric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (anti-CAT) antibody on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) modified-dendrimer that was bonded to the conducting polymer (poly 5, 2': 5', 2''-terthiophene-3'-carboxyl acid (poly-TTCA)) layer. The AuNPs, dendrimers, and CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the polymer layer in order to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor probes. The particle sizes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobilization of dendrimers, CdS, and anti-CAT were confirmed using energy disruptive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. The detection of CAP was based on the competitive immuno-interaction between the free- and labeled-CAP for active sites of the anti-CAT. Hydrazine was used as the label for CAP, and it electrochemically catalyzed the reduction of H(2)O(2) at -0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a linear range of CAP detection between 50 pg/mL and 950 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 45 pg/mL. The immunosensor was examined in real meat samples for the analysis of CAP.

  19. Analysis of vanillic acid in polar ice cores as a biomass burning proxy - preliminary results from the Akademii Nauk Ice Cap in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieman, M. M.; Jimenez, R.; McConnell, J. R.; Fritzsche, D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning influences global climate change and the composition of the atmosphere. The drivers, effects, and climate feedbacks related to fire are poorly understood. Many different proxies have been used to reconstruct past fire frequency from lake sediments and polar ice cores. Reconstruction of historical trends in biomass burning is challenging because of regional variability and the qualitative nature of various proxies. Vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) is a product of the combustion of conifer lignin that is known to occur in biomass burning aerosols. Biomass burning is likely the only significant source of vanillic acid in polar ice. In this study we describe an analytical method for quantifying vanillic acid in polar ice using HPLC with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometric detection. The method has a detection limit of 100 pM and a precision of × 10% at the 100 pM level for analysis of 100 μl of ice melt water. The method was used to analyze more than 1000 discrete samples from the Akademii Nauk ice cap on Severnaya Zemlya in the high Russia Arctic (79°30'N, 97°45'E) (Fritzsche et al., 2002; Fritzsche et al., 2005; Weiler et al., 2005). The samples range in age over the past 2,000 years. The results show a mean vanillic acid concentration of 440 × 710 pM (1σ), with elevated levels during the periods from 300-600 and 1450-1550 C.E.

  20. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  1. Effects of combinations of simulated acid rain and cadmium or zinc on microbial activity in soil.

    PubMed

    Bewley, R J; Stotzky, G

    1983-08-01

    There was little effect on the rate of CO2 evolution from glucose-supplemented soil, adjusted to pH 3.2 with a 2:1 combination of H2SO4 and fuming HNO3, and concomitant additions of 100 or 1000 ppm Cd or of 1000 or 10,000 ppm Zn (as sulfates) were no more inhibitory than in soil untreated with acid. In soil adjusted to pH 2.8, the lag in CO2 evolution was increased by 1 day, and was extended further by the concomitant addition of 10,000 but not 1000 ppm Zn or of 1000 but not 100 ppm Cd. The growth of Aspergillus niger in soil acidified to pH levels of 3.6 to 4.2 was further reduced by the addition of either 100 or 250 ppm Cd or of 1000 ppm Zn.

  2. Influence of cadmium on water relations, stomatal resistance, and abscisic acid content in expanding bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Poschenrieder, C.; Gunse, B.; Barcelo, J. )

    1989-08-01

    Ten day old bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Contender) were used to analyze the effects of 3 micromolar Cd on the time courses of expansion growth, dry weight, leaf water relations, stomatal resistance, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots and leaves. Control and Cd-treated plants were grown for 144 hours in nutrient solution. Samples were taken at 24 hour intervals. At the 96 and 144 hour harvests, additional measurements were made on excised leaves which were allowed to dry for 2 hours. From the 48 hour harvest, Cd-treated plants showed lower leaf relative water contents and higher stomatal resistances than controls. At the same time, root and leaf expansion growth, but not dry weight, was significantly reduced. The turgor potentials of leaves from Cd-treated plants were nonsignificantly higher than those of control leaves. A significant increase (almost 400%) of the leaf ABA concentration was detected after 120 hours exposure to Cd. But Cd was found to inhibit ABA accumulation during drying of excised leaves. It is concluded that Cd-induced decrease of expansion growth is not due to turgor decrease. The possible mechanisms of Cd-induced stomatal closure are discussed.

  3. Effect of aniline on cadmium adsorption by sulfanilic acid-grafted magnetic graphene oxide sheets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-jiang; Liu, Yun-guo; Zeng, Guang-ming; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xi; Chen, An-wei; Wang, Ya-qin; Guo, Yi-Mming; Li, Ting-ting; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Shao-heng; Zeng, Xiao-xia

    2014-07-15

    Cd(II) has posed severe health risks worldwide. To remove this contaminant from aqueous solution, the sulfanilic acid-grafted magnetic graphene oxide sheets (MGOs/SA) were prepared and characterized. The mutual effects of Cd(II) and aniline adsorption on MGOs/SA were studied. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, ionic strength, contact time and temperature on the Cd(II) enrichment, as well as the adsorption kinetics and isotherm were also investigated. The results demonstrated that MGOs/SA could effectively remove Cd(II) and aniline from the aqueous solution and the two adsorption processes were strongly dependent on solution pH. The Cd(II) adsorption was reduced by the presence of aniline at pH<5.4 but was improved at pH>5.4. The presence of Cd(II) diminished the adsorption capacity for aniline at pH<7.8 but enhanced the aniline adsorption at pH>7.8. The decontamination of Cd(II) by MGOs/SA was influenced by ionic strength. Besides, the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion study revealed that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-limiting step for the adsorption process. Moreover, the experimental data of isotherm followed the Freundlich isotherm model.

  4. The influence of capping thioalkyl acid on the growth and photoluminescence efficiency of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Aldeek, Fadi; Balan, Lavinia; Lambert, Jacques; Schneider, Raphaël

    2008-11-26

    The influence of thioalkyl acid ligand was evaluated during aqueous synthesis at 100 °C and under hydrothermal conditions (150 °C) of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Experiments performed with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) demonstrated that the use of MHA and MUA allowed for the preparation of very small nanoparticles (0.6-2.5 nm) in carrying out the reaction under atmospheric pressure or in an autoclave and that the photophysical properties of QDs were dependent on the ligand and on the synthesis conditions. The influence of various experimental conditions, including the Te-to-Cd ratio, temperature, and precursor concentration, on the growth rate of CdTe or CdSe QDs has been systematically investigated. The fluorescence intensities of CdTe QDs capped with MPA, MHA, or MUA versus pH were also found to be related to the surface coverage of the nanoparticles. PMID:21836270

  5. Mercaptopropionic acid-capped Mn(2+):ZnSe/ZnO quantum dots with both downconversion and upconversion emissions for bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingxia; Yao, Yulian; Yang, Kai; Rong, Pengfei; Huang, Peng; Sun, Kang; An, Xiao; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Wanwan

    2014-11-01

    Doped quantum dots (d-dots) can serve as fluorescent biosensors and biolabels for biological applications. Our study describes a synthesis of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped Mn(2+):ZnSe/ZnO d-dots through a facile, cost-efficient hydrothermal route. The as-prepared water-soluble d-dots exhibit strong emission at ca. 580 nm, with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) as high as 31%, which is the highest value reported to date for such particles prepared via an aqueous route. They also exhibit upconversion emission when excited at 800 nm. With an overall diameter of around 6.7 nm, the d-dots could gain access to the cell nucleus without any surface decoration, demonstrating their promising broad applications as fluorescent labels. PMID:25189675

  6. Hydrothermal syntheses, structures and characterizations of two luminescent cadmium(II) complexes with p-xylenediphosphonic acid and N-donor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yanqiong; Hu Jin; Zhang Hanhui; Chen Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Two novel cadmium diphosphonates [Cd(cis-H{sub 4}BDPP)(2,2 Prime -bipy){sub 2}]{center_dot}(trans-H{sub 2}BDPP)]{sub n} (1) and [Cd(trans-H{sub 2}BDPP)(phen)]{sub n} (2) (H{sub 4}BDPP=p-xylenediphosphonic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2 Prime -bipy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) were hydrothermally synthesized from p-xylenediphosphonic acid and CdSO{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O with phen or 2,2 Prime -bipy as second ligand components and characterized by means of elemental analyses, IR, TG analysis, luminescence spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of a novel one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal [Cd(cis-H{sub 4}BDPP)(2,2 Prime -bipy){sub 2}] chains and trans-H{sub 2}BDPP anions. Compound 2 possesses a three-dimensional architecture built from double zigzag -Cd-O-P-O-Cd- chains pillared by trans-p-xylylenediphosphonate ligands from four different directions. There are hexagonal channels running along the c-axis and the coordinated phen ligands suspend in the hexagonal channels. The results indicate that p-xylenediphosphonic acid can adopt varied coordination modes and conformations in the formation of the complexes and the influence of the N-donor ligands on the structure of the complexes is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Two new cadmium diphosphonates were obtained by using two different auxiliary ligands. The influence of the N-donor ligands on the structure of the complexes is discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of cadmium(II)-p-xylenediphosphonates templated by second ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of size of the auxiliary ligand on the structure of cadmium p-xylenediphosphonates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cis and trans configurations of p-xylenediphosphonates exist in the same crystal structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional 4-connected framework with PtS network topology.

  7. Liquid-gel extraction of toxic metal (cadmium) by TRI(n-octyl)amine with thiocyanate in sulfuric acid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hadj-Boussaad, D.E.; Hait-Ouakli, N.S.

    1994-12-31

    In order to extract toxic metals like cadmium (+II) from diluted aqueous solutions, lipophilic extracting gels have been prepared with swelling lipophilic polymers-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or cross-linked polybutadiene (noted BR) with extracting solvents. The cross-linked polybutadiene have been supplied under the form of 0.1 and 1 cm sheets.

  8. 5-Aminolevulinic acid ameliorates cadmium-induced morphological, biochemical, and ultrastructural changes in seedlings of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Ali, Basharat; Huang, C R; Qi, Z Y; Ali, Shafaqat; Daud, M K; Geng, X X; Liu, H B; Zhou, W J

    2013-10-01

    Due to its prolific growth, oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) can be grown successfully for phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Nowadays, use of plant growth regulators against heavy metals stress is one of the major objectives of researchers. The present study evaluates the ameliorate effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, 0, 0.4, 2, and 10 mg/l) on the growth of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. ZS 758) seedlings under Cd stress (0, 100, and 500 μM). Results have shown that Cd stress hampered the seedling growth by decreasing the radical and hypocotyls length, shoot and root biomass, chlorophyll content, and antioxidants enzymes. On the other hand, Cd stress increased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and production of H2O2 and accumulation of Cd in the shoots. The microscopic study of leaf mesophyll cells showed that toxicity of Cd totally destroyed the whole cell structure, and accumulation of Cd also appeared in micrographs. Application of ALA at lower dosage (2 mg/l) enhanced the seedling growth and biomass. The results showed that 2 mg/l ALA significantly improved chlorophyll content under Cd stress and decreased the level of Cd contents in shoots. Application of ALA reduced the MDA and H2O2 levels in the cotyledons. The antioxidants enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) enhanced their activities significantly with the application of 2 mg/l ALA under Cd stress. This study also indicated that higher dosage of ALA (10 mg/l) imposed the negative effect on the growth of oilseed rape. Microscopic study showed that application of ALA alleviated the toxic effects of Cd in the mesophyll cell and improved the cell structure. Use of 2 mg/l ALA under 500 μM Cd was found to be more effective, and under this dosage, cell structure was clear, with obvious cell wall and cell membrane as well as a big nucleus, which was found with well-developed two or more nucleoli. Chloroplast was almost round

  9. Structure-function relationships in the Na,K-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine-111 to arginine and asparagine-122 to aspartic acid generates a ouabain-resistant enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Price, E.M.; Lingrel, J.B.

    1988-11-01

    Na,K-ATPases from various species differ greatly in their sensitivity to cardiac glycosides such as ouabain. The sheep and human enzymes are a thousand times more sensitive than the corresponding ones from rat and mouse. To define the region of the ..cap alpha..1 subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity, chimeric cDNAs of sheep and rat were constructed and expressed in ouabain-sensitive HeLa cells. The construct containing the amino-terminal half of the rat ..cap alpha..1 subunit coding region and carboxyl-terminal half of the sheep conferred the ouabain-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells while the reverse construct did not. This indicates that the determinants involved in ouabain sensitivity are located in the amino-terminal half of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, the amino acid sequence of the first extracellular domain (H1-H2) of the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit was changed to that of the rat. When expressed in HeLa cells, this mutated sheep ..cap alpha..1 construct, like the rat/sheep chimera, was able to confer ouabain resistance to these cells. Furthermore, similar results were observed when HeLa cells were transfected with a sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNA containing only two amino acid substitutions. The resistant cells, whether transfected with the rat ..cap alpha..1 cDNA, the rat/sheep chimera, or the mutant sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNAs, exhibited identical biochemical characteristics including ouabain-inhibitable cell growth, /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake, and Na,K-ATPase activity. These results demonstrate that the presence of arginine and aspartic acid on the amino end and carboxyl end, respectively, of the H1-H2 extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit together is responsible for the ouabain-resistant character of the rat enzyme and the corresponding residues in the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit (glutamine and asparagine) are somehow involved in ouabain binding.

  10. Comparison of the clinical efficacy of two commercial fatty acid supplements (EfaVet and DVM Derm Caps), evening primrose oil, and cold water marine fish oil in the management of allergic pruritus in dogs: a double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H; Decker, G A; Wellington, J R

    1992-07-01

    Twenty dogs with atopy or idiopathic pruritus were treated in a double-blinded clinical trial with computer-randomized and computer-generated sequences of 4 fatty acid-containing products: evening primrose oil, cold water marine fish oil, DVM Derm Caps, and EfaVet. Each dog received each product for a 2-week period. Five of 20 dogs (25%) had a good-to-excellent reduction in their level of pruritus with at least 1 of the products: evening primrose oil (2 dogs), DVM Derm Caps (1), EfaVet (1), DVM Derm Caps and cold water marine fish oil (1). Only 1 dog experienced a side effect (loose stools). Clinical response to fatty acid supplements appeared to be quite individualized, and independent of age, breed, sex, weight, duration of disease, specific diagnosis, or number of positive intradermal test reactions.

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  12. Metallothionein-like cadmium binding protein in rat testes administered with cadmium and selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Seki, Y.; Imamiya, S.

    1988-08-01

    It is well known that the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium toxicity are protected by simultaneous selenium administration with cadmium, and that the cadmium concentration in the testis increases remarkably as compared with that of only cadmium administration. The increased cadmium in the testis was found in the high molecular weight fraction containing selenium, and it has been thought that the shift of cadmium from the low molecular weight fraction to the high molecular weight fraction containing selenium is an important protection mechanism. However, the cadmium concentration in this high molecular weight fraction decreased with time, then re-shifted to the fraction of metallothionein, a low molecular weight protein having a protective effect against cadmium toxicity. While recently studying the cadmium binding protein, like metallothionein, in testes, it has been reported that the amino acid composition of cadmium binding protein in testis is not similar to that of the hepatic metallothionein. The present study was undertaken to clarify the properties of the increased cadmium binding protein in the testis protected by simultaneous selenium administration with cadmium.

  13. Effect of liposome encapsulated meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on biochemical and trace metal alterations in cadmium exposed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Behari, J.R.; Srivastava, S.; Gupta, S.; Srivastava, R.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Cadmium a well known occupational and environmental contaminant, causes damage to body organs, particularly to kidneys. Considerable attention has been paid towards the development of safe and effective chelation therapy in the management of cadmium poisoning. The present communication deals with the use of liposome encapsulated DMSA, a known thiol chelator for the treatment of cadmium intoxicated rats which was found to be effective in restoring cadmium mediated biochemical and trace metal alterations.

  14. Glassy carbon electrodes sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers generation 4.5 for detecting uric acid in human serum without ascorbic acid interference.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Segovia, A S; Banda-Alemán, J A; Gutiérrez-Granados, S; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, F J; Godínez, Luis A; Bustos, E; Manríquez, J

    2014-02-17

    Glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNp@cysteamine) and PAMAM dendrimers generation 4.5 bearing 128-COOH peripheral groups (GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM), in order to explore their capabilities as electrochemical detectors of uric acid (UA) in human serum samples at pH 2. The results showed that concentrations of UA detected by cyclic voltammetry with GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM were comparable (deviation <±10%; limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.7×10(-4) and 5.8×10(-4) mg dL(-1), respectively) to those concentrations obtained using the uricase-based enzymatic-colorimetric method. It was also observed that the presence of dendrimers in the GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM system minimizes ascorbic acid (AA) interference during UA oxidation, thus improving the electrocatalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles. PMID:24491759

  15. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. )

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  16. Nanopatterned cadmium selenide Langmuir-Blodgett platform for leukemia detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditya; Pandey, Chandra M; Matharu, Zimple; Soni, Udit; Sapra, Sameer; Sumana, Gajjala; Pandey, Manoj K; Chatterjee, Tathagat; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2012-04-01

    We present results of the studies relating to preparation of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide-capped cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) onto indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The monolayer behavior has been studied at the air-water interface under various subphase conditions. This nanopatterned platform has been explored to fabricate an electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) by covalently immobilizing the thiol-terminated oligonucleotide probe sequence via a displacement reaction. The results of electrochemical response studies reveal that this biosensor can detect target DNA in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-14) M within 120 s, has a shelf life of 2 months, and can be used about 8 times. Further, this nucleic acid sensor has been found to distinguish the CML-positive and the control negative clinical patient samples.

  17. Crystal structure and temperature-dependent fluorescent property of a 2D cadmium (II) complex based on 3,6-dibromobenzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang-Liang; Guo, Yu; Wei, Yan-Hui; Guo, Jie; Wang, Xing-Po; Sun, Dao-Feng

    2013-04-01

    A new cadmium (II) organic coordination polymers [Cd(dbtec)0.5(H2O)3]·H2O (1), has been constructed based on 3,6-dibromobenzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (H4dbtec), and characterized by elemental analysis (EA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In 1, μ2-η1:η1 and μ4-η2:η2 dbtec ligands link four hepta-coordinated CdII ions to form a 2D 44 topological layer structure, which is further connected into an interesting 3D network by hydrogen bond and Br⋯O halogen bond. Moreover, the thermal stabilities, solid ultraviolet spectroscopy and temperature-dependent fluorescent properties of 1 were investigated.

  18. Synthesis, Surface Modification and Optical Properties of Thioglycolic Acid-Capped ZnS Quantum Dots for Starch Recognition at Ultralow Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mahnoush; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad; Ahmadieh, Mahnaz; Mogharei, Azadeh; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-11-01

    In this research, water-soluble thioglycolic acid-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The prepared QDs are characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results revealed that ZnS QDs have a 2.73 nm crystallite size, cubic zinc blende structure, and spherical morphology with a diameter less than 10 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is performed to determine the presence of low concentrations of starch. Four emission peaks are observed at 348 nm, 387 nm, 422 nm, and 486 nm and their intensities are quenched by increasing concentration of starch. PL intensity variations in the studied concentrations range (0-100 ppm) are best described by a Michaelis-Menten model. The Michaelis constant ( K m) for immobilized α-amylase in this system is about 101.07 ppm. This implies a great tendency for the enzyme to hydrolyze the starch as substrate. Finally, the limit of detection is found to be about 6.64 ppm.

  19. Thioglycolic Acid-Capped CdS Quantum Dots Conjugated to α-Amylase as a Fluorescence Probe for Determination of Starch at Low Concentration.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Mahnoush; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad; Mogharei, Azadeh; Ahmadieh, Mahnaz; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-09-01

    In the present research, water soluble thioglycolic acid-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. The characteristics of prepared quantum dots were determined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The obtained results revealed that CdS QDs have 5.60 nm crystallite size, hexagonal wurtzite structure and spherical morphology with less than 10 nm diameter. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was performed in order to study the effect of the presence of starch solutions. Blue emission peaks were positioned at 488 nm and its intensity quenched by increasing the concentration of starch solutions. The result of PL quenches in range of studied concentrations (0-100 ppm) was best described by Michaelis-Menten model. The amount of Michaelis constant (Km) for immobilized α-amylase in this system was about 68.08 ppm which showed a great tendency of enzyme to hydrolyze the starch as substrate. Finally, the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be about 2.24 ppm. PMID:27392974

  20. A novel multi-commutated method for the determination of hydroxytyrosol in enriched foods using mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Molina-García, L; Fernández-de Córdova, M L; Santos, J L M; Rodrigues, S S M; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HXT) has been reported to have beneficial effects for human health, such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and an important contribution to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hence, exhaustive research is currently being performed to prepare functional foods, such as tomato juice or milk, with HXT. This paper presents a multi-commutated flow method based on the quenching effect that HXT has on the fluorescence of water-soluble mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots. Under optimal conditions a linear working range was obtained for concentrations between 10 and 250 ng µl⁻¹. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of HXT, HXT-enriched samples were prepared. Using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure for extraction, HXT was determined in the prepared functional foods (milk, infant formula, tomato juice and tomato soup). Recoveries of 100% ± 8%, relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 5% and high sample throughput of 70 samples per h show the potential of the system for the analysis of HXT in food samples.

  1. Synthesis, Surface Modification and Optical Properties of Thioglycolic Acid-Capped ZnS Quantum Dots for Starch Recognition at Ultralow Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mahnoush; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad; Ahmadieh, Mahnaz; Mogharei, Azadeh; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-08-01

    In this research, water-soluble thioglycolic acid-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The prepared QDs are characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results revealed that ZnS QDs have a 2.73 nm crystallite size, cubic zinc blende structure, and spherical morphology with a diameter less than 10 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is performed to determine the presence of low concentrations of starch. Four emission peaks are observed at 348 nm, 387 nm, 422 nm, and 486 nm and their intensities are quenched by increasing concentration of starch. PL intensity variations in the studied concentrations range (0-100 ppm) are best described by a Michaelis-Menten model. The Michaelis constant (K m) for immobilized α-amylase in this system is about 101.07 ppm. This implies a great tendency for the enzyme to hydrolyze the starch as substrate. Finally, the limit of detection is found to be about 6.64 ppm.

  2. Avian serum. cap alpha. /sub 1/-glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and carbohydrate composition from mammalian (. beta. -glycoprotein) counter parts

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Trimble, R.B.; Falco, M.D.; Liem, H.H.; Metcalfe, S.A.; Wellner, D.; Muller-Eberhard, U.

    1986-10-21

    The physicochemical characteristics of chicken hemopexin, which can be isolated by heme-agarose affinity chromatography, is compared with representative mammalian hemopexins of rat, rabbit, and human. The avian polypeptide chain appears to be slightly longer (52 kDa) than the human, rat, or rabbit forms (49 kDa), and also the glycoprotein differs from the mammalian hemopexins in being an ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoprotein instead of a ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein. The distinct electrophoretic mobility probably arises from significant differences in the amino acid composition of the chicken form, which, although lower in serine and particularly in lysine, has a much higher glutamine/glutamate and agrinine content, and also a higher proline, glycine, and histidine content, than the mammalian hemopexins. Compositional analyses and /sup 125/I concanavalin A and /sup 125/I wheat germ agglutinin binding suggest that chicken hemopexin has a mixture of three fucose-free N-linked bi- and triantennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, human hemopexin has give N-linked oligosaccharides and an additional O-linked glycan blocking the N-terminal threonine residue, while the rabbit form has four N-linked oligosaccharides. In keeping with the finding of a simpler carbohydrate structure, the avian hemopexin shows only a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both nondenaturing and denaturing conditions, whereas the hemopexins of the three mammalian species tested show several bands. In contrast, the isoelectric focusing pattern of chicken hemopexin is very complex, revealing at least nine bands between pH 4.0 and pH band 5.0, while the other hemopexins show a broad smear of multiple ill-defined bands in the same region.Results indicate the hemopexin of avians differs substantially from the hemopexins of mammals, which show a notable similarity with regard to carbohydrate structure and amino acid composition.

  3. Macromolecular Systems with MSA-Capped CdTe and CdTe/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots as Superselective and Ultrasensitive Optical Sensors for Picric Acid Explosive.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Priyanka; Saikia, Dilip; Adhikary, Nirab Chandra; Sarma, Neelotpal Sen

    2015-11-11

    This work reports the development of highly fluorescent materials for the selective and efficient detection of picric acid explosive in the nanomolar range by fluorescence quenching phenomenon. Poly(vinyl alcohol) grafted polyaniline (PPA) and its nanocomposites with 2-mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (PPA-Q) and with MSA-capped CdTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (PPA-CSQ) are synthesized in a single step free radical polymerization reaction. The thermal stability and photo stability of the polymer increases in the order of PPA < PPA-Q < PPA-CSQ. The polymers show remarkably high selectivity and efficient sensitivity toward picric acid, and the quenching efficiency for PPA-CSQ reaches up to 99%. The detection limits of PPA, PPA-Q, and PPA-CSQ for picric acid are found to be 23, 1.6, and 0.65 nM, respectively, which are remarkably low. The mechanism operating in the quenching phenomenon is proposed to be a combination of a strong inner filter effect and ground state electrostatic interaction between the polymers and picric acid. A portable and cost-effective electronic device for the visual detection of picric acid by the sensory system is successfully fabricated. The device is further employed for quantitative detection of picric acid in real water samples. PMID:26484725

  4. Metal-organic frameworks in cadmium(II) complexes with 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid: structure, vibrational spectra and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzyk-Ociepa, Barbara; Szmigiel, Ksenia; Dysz, Karolina; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Michalska, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    Two new complexes of Cd(II) with an O-deprotonated anion of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (5-MeOI2CA), of the formulas [Cd(5-MeOI2CA)2(H2O)2]n (1) and [Cd3(5-MeOI2CA)6(H2O)4(DMSO)4]ṡ2DMSO (2) were synthesized. In the polymeric complex 1, the 5-MeOI2CA anion acts as a bidentate bridging ligand and the coordination environment around the Cd(II) ion can be described as a distorted octahedron. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 2 has revealed that this complex is a trimer and it crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21/c with a = 20.3403(4), b = 14.3079(2), c = 15.0603(3) Å, β = 92.4341(17)°, V = 4379.00(14) Å3 and Z = 2). In 2, the 5-MeOI2CA anions act as bidentate bridging and bidentate chelating ligands. The asymmetric unit of 2 contains two crystallographically independent Cd(II) cations. One of the cations is coordinated to six oxygen atoms and shows an octahedral geometry with a rhombic deformation. The other Cd(II) cation adopts a distorted seven-coordinate pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry involving seven oxygen atoms. In 2, the DMSO solvent molecules play a key role in the formation of metal-organic frameworks by filling voids, which are created by the bridging and chelating 5-MeOI2CA anions, the cadmium cations and the other DMSO molecules coordinated to cadmium. Comprehensive theoretical calculations (including the optimized structural parameters, harmonic frequencies and vibrational intensities) were performed for 2 using the B3LYP method with the 6-311++G(d,p)/LanL2DZ basis sets. The infrared and Ramana spectra were measured and a detailed assignment of the experimental spectra of 2 was performed. All cadmium-oxygen stretching vibrations occur in the range below 400 cm-1.

  5. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-04-11

    A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

  6. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  7. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  8. A turn-on highly selective and ultrasensitive determination of copper (II) in an aqueous medium using folic acid capped gold nanoparticles as the probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasimalai, N.; Prabhakarn, A.; John, S. Abraham

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a ‘turn-on’ fluorescent determination of Cu(II) in an aqueous medium using folic acid capped gold nanoparticles (FA-AuNPs) as the probe. The FA-AuNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical method and were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, HR-TEM, XRD, zeta potential, and DLS techniques. The FA-AuNPs show an absorption maximum at 510 nm and an emission maximum at 780 nm (λex: 510 nm). On adding 10 μM Cu(II), the wine-red color of FA-AuNPs changed to purple and the absorbance at 510 nm decreased. The observed changes were ascribed to the aggregation of AuNPs. This was confirmed by DLS and HR-TEM studies. Interestingly, the emission intensity of FA-AuNPs was enhanced even in the presence of a picomolar concentration of Cu(II). Based on the enhancement of the emission intensity, the concentration of Cu(II) was determined. The FA-AuNPs showed an extreme selectivity towards the determination of 10 nM Cu(II) in the presence of 10 000-fold higher concentration of interferences except EDTA and the carboxylate anion. A good linearity was observed from 10 × 10-9 to 1 × 10-12 M Cu(II), and the detection limit was found to be 50 fM l-1 (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine Cu(II) in real samples. The results obtained were validated with ICP-AES.

  9. Ascorbic acid induced enhancement of room temperature phosphorescence of sodium tripolyphosphate-capped Mn-Doped ZnS quantum dots: mechanism and bioprobe applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, He-Fang; Li, Yan; Wu, Ye-Yu; He, Yu; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2010-11-15

    Although quantum dot (QD)-based room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) probes are promising for practical applications in complex matrixes such as environmental, food and biological samples, current QD-based-RTP probes are not only quite limited but also exclusively based on the RTP quenching mechanism. Here we report an ascorbic acid (AA) induced phosphorescence enhancement of sodium tripolyphosphate-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs, and its application for turn-on RTP detection. The chelating ability allows AA to extract the Mn and Zn from the surface of the QDs and to generate more holes which are subsequently trapped by Mn(2+), while the reducing property permits AA to reduce Mn(3+) to Mn(2+) in the excited state, thereby enhancing the excitation and orange emission of the QDs. The enhanced RTP intensity of the QDs increases linearly with the concentration of AA in the range of 0.05-0.8 μM. Thus, a QD-based RTP probe for AA is developed. The proposed QD-based turn-on RTP probe avoids tedious sample pretreatment, and offers good sensitivity and selectivity for AA in the presence of the main relevant metal ions and other molecules in biological fluids. The limit of detection (3s) of the developed method is 9 nM AA, and the relative standard deviation is 4.8 % for 11 replicate detections of 0.1 μM AA. The developed method is successfully applied to the analysis of real samples of human urine and plasma for AA with quantitative recoveries from 96 to 105 %.

  10. Influence of humic acid on the toxicity of copper, cadmium and lead to the unicellular alga, Synechosystis aquatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmukhappa, H.; Neelakantan, K. )

    1990-06-01

    Humic acids are known to play a significant role in phytoplankton productivity by regulating the trace metals required for plant growth. Although few attempts have been made to evaluate the influence of humic acids on heavy metal toxicity to aquatic organisms, their interaction in natural waters is well documented. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of humic acids (HA) extracted from mangrove sediments on Cu, Cd and Pb toxicity to the unicellular alga, Synechosystis aquatilis.

  11. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  12. Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl2 exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+, and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis. PMID:22915740

  13. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920)

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez-Vottelerd, P.; Anton, Y.; Salazar-Lugo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd) effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV) and acid soluble thiols levels (AST) in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill) was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate) were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l-1). We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman’s method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions. PMID:26623384

  14. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920).

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Vottelerd, P; Anton, Y; Salazar-Lugo, R

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd) effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV) and acid soluble thiols levels (AST) in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill) was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate) were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l(-1)). We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman's method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions. PMID:26623384

  15. 5-Aminolevolinic acid mitigates the cadmium-induced changes in Brassica napus as revealed by the biochemical and ultra-structural evaluation of roots.

    PubMed

    Ali, Basharat; Tao, Qiaojing; Zhou, Yuanfei; Gill, Rafaqat A; Ali, Shafaqat; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Weijun

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, the ameliorating effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) under cadmium (Cd) stress conditions were studied with special emphasis on root morphology and ultra-structure in oilseed rape. For this purpose, plants were treated hydroponically at three different Cd levels (0, 100, 500μM) and foliar spray of ALA with three concentrations (0, 12.5, 25mg/l) simultaneously. The results showed that foliar application of ALA improved the plant growth, root morphology and reduced the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents in roots under Cd stress conditions. The higher concentration of Cd (500μM) decreased the activities of antioxidants enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) and also reduced the oxidized glutathione and total glutathione contents in roots. Application of ALA at 25mg/l dosage significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities e.g. APX, SOD, POD, and GSH contents under Cd stress. The microscopic micrographs showed that application of exogenous ALA improved the cell structure under Cd toxicity. A whole cell with developed nucleus, nuclear membrane, smooth cell wall, continuous endoplasmic reticulum, and well shaped mitochondria was observed under the combine application of ALA and Cd. These results suggest that, application of ALA helped the plants to improve root growth, root antioxidant enzymes, and ultra-structural changes in root tip cells under fifteen days Cd-induced stress. PMID:23490193

  16. Cadmium carcinogenesis in review.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P

    2000-04-01

    Cadmium is an inorganic toxicant of great environmental and occupational concern which was classified as a human carcinogen in 1993. Occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer in humans. Cadmium exposure has also, on occasion, been linked to human prostate cancer. The epidemiological data linking cadmium and pulmonary cancer are much stronger than for prostatic cancer. Other target sites for cadmium carcinogenesis in humans (liver, kidney, stomach) are considered equivocal. In rodents, cadmium causes tumors at several sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats results in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, supporting a role in human lung cancer. Prostate tumors and preneoplastic proliferative lesions can be induced in rats after cadmium ingestion or injection. Prostatic carcinogenesis in rats occurs only at cadmium doses below those that induce chronic degeneration and dysfunction of the testes, a well-known effect of cadmium, confirming the androgen dependency of prostate tumors. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the testes, adrenals, injection sites, and hematopoietic system. Various treatments can modify cadmium carcinogenesis including supplemental zinc, which prevents cadmium-induced injection site and testicular tumors while facilitating prostatic tumors. Cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect mechanisms, although the precise mechanisms remain unknown. PMID:10830873

  17. Cadmium carcinogenesis in review.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P

    2000-04-01

    Cadmium is an inorganic toxicant of great environmental and occupational concern which was classified as a human carcinogen in 1993. Occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer in humans. Cadmium exposure has also, on occasion, been linked to human prostate cancer. The epidemiological data linking cadmium and pulmonary cancer are much stronger than for prostatic cancer. Other target sites for cadmium carcinogenesis in humans (liver, kidney, stomach) are considered equivocal. In rodents, cadmium causes tumors at several sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats results in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, supporting a role in human lung cancer. Prostate tumors and preneoplastic proliferative lesions can be induced in rats after cadmium ingestion or injection. Prostatic carcinogenesis in rats occurs only at cadmium doses below those that induce chronic degeneration and dysfunction of the testes, a well-known effect of cadmium, confirming the androgen dependency of prostate tumors. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the testes, adrenals, injection sites, and hematopoietic system. Various treatments can modify cadmium carcinogenesis including supplemental zinc, which prevents cadmium-induced injection site and testicular tumors while facilitating prostatic tumors. Cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect mechanisms, although the precise mechanisms remain unknown.

  18. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. PMID:24632122

  19. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well.

  20. Enhanced efficiency of cadmium removal by Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. in the presence of exogenous citric and oxalic acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaying; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Chunlin; Hu, Xinjiang; Xu, Weihua

    2014-12-01

    Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. is a potential candidate for the remediation of Cd contaminated sites. The present investigation aims to explore Cd tolerance threshold and to quickly identify the role of exogenous organic acids in Cd uptake and abiotic metal stress damage. Elevated Cd levels (0-10mg/L) resulted in an obvious rise in Cd accumulation, ranging from 268.0 to 374.4 in root and 25.2 to 41.2mg/kg dry weight in shoot, respectively. Citric acid at 1.5 mmol/L significantly facilitated Cd uptake by 26.7% in root and by 1-fold in shoot, respectively. Cd translocation efficiency from root to shoot was improved by a maximum of 66.4% under 3 mmol/L of oxalic acid. Citric acid exhibited more prominent mitigating effect than oxalic acid due to its stronger ligand affinity for chelating with metal and avoiding the toxicity injury of free Cd ions more efficiently. The present work provides a potential strategy for efficient Cd remediation with B. nivea.

  1. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-01

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  2. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, Dean H.; Nelson, Art J.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  3. Acid phosphatase complex from the freshwater snail Viviparus viviparus L. under standard conditions and intoxication by cadmium ions.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, I L; Popov, A P; Konichev, A S

    2003-12-01

    Acid phosphatases differing in both subcellular localization and substrate specificity were isolated for the first time from the liver of the freshwater snail Viviparus viviparus L. by preparative isoelectrofocusing. One of five characterized phosphatases is highly specific to ADP and the others can hydrolyze (at variable rate) a series of natural substrates. A scheme is proposed for the involvement of the studied phosphatases in carbohydrate metabolism. We have also studied some peculiarities of the effect of Cd2+ in vitro and in vivo on the activities of individual components of the acid phosphatase complex and corresponding changes in metabolism of the freshwater snail as a new test-object allowing the estimation of toxicity in water.

  4. Nitrilotriacetate- and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj, Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Quartacci, M F; Baker, A J M; Navari-Izzo, F

    2005-06-01

    In a pot experiment the effects of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and citric acid applications on Cd extractibility from soil as well as on its uptake and accumulation by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were investigated. Plants were grown in a sandy soil with added CdS at four levels ranging from 50 to 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. After 30 days of growth, pots were amended with NTA or citric acid at 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1). Control pots were not treated with chelates. Harvest of plants was performed immediately before and one week after chelate addition. Soil water-, NH(4)NO(3)- and EDTA-extractable Cd fractions increased constantly with both increasing soil metal application and chelate concentration. Shoot dry weights did not suffer significant reductions with increasing Cd addition to the soil except for both NTA treatments in which at 200 mg Cd kg(-1) a 30% decrease in dry matter was observed. Generally, following NTA and citric acid amendments, Cd concentration in shoots increased with soil Cd level. However, due to Cd toxicity, at the highest metal application rate both NTA treatments lowered Cd concentration in the above-ground parts. Compared to the control, at 10 mmol kg(-1) citric acid did not change Cd concentration in shoots, whereas NTA-treated plants showed an about 2-fold increase. The addition of chelates at 20 mmol kg(-1) further enhanced Cd concentration in shoots up to 718 and 560 microg g(-1) dry weight in the NTA and citrate treatments, respectively.

  5. Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  6. Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium-induced inhibition of growth and photosynthesis through upregulating antioxidant defense system in two melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongping; Xu, Shuang; Yang, Shaojun; Chen, Youyuan

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread toxic heavy metal that usually causes deleterious effects on plant growth and development. Salicylic acid (SA), a naturally existing phenolic compound, is involved in specific responses to various environmental stresses. To explore the role of SA in the tolerance of melon (Cucumis melo L.) to Cd stress, the influence of SA application on the growth and physiological processes was compared in the two melon cultivars Hamilv (Cd-tolerant) and Xiulv (Cd-sensitive) under Cd stress. Under 400-μM Cd treatment, Hamilv showed a higher biomass accumulation, more chlorophyll (Chl), greater photosynthesis, and less oxidative damage compared to Xiulv. Foliar spraying of 0.1 mM SA dramatically alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition in the two melon genotypes. Simultaneously, SA pretreatment attenuated the decrease in Chl content, photosynthetic capacity, and PSII photochemistry efficiency in Cd-stressed plants. Furthermore, exogenous SA significantly reduced superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation, followed by increase in the activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and content of soluble protein and free proline in both the genotypes under Cd stress. The effect of SA was more conspicuous in Xiulv than Hamilv, reflected in the biomass, photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that exogenous spray of SA can alleviate the adverse effects of Cd on the growth and photosynthesis of both the melon cultivars, mostly through promoting antioxidant defense capacity. It also indicates that SA-included protection against Cd damage is to a greater extent more pronounced in Cd-sensitive genotype than Cd-tolerant genotype.

  7. Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Cadmium-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erboga, Mustafa; Kanter, Mehmet; Aktas, Cevat; Bozdemir Donmez, Yeliz; Fidanol Erboga, Zeynep; Aktas, Emel; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental and occupational contaminant and may represent a serious health hazard to humans and other animals. Cd is reported to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, and induces testicular damage in many species of animals. The goal of our study was to examine the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on Cd-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and testicular injury in rats. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, CAPE alone, Cd-treated, and Cd-treated with CAPE; each group consisted of 10 animals. To induce toxicity, Cd (1 mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in normal saline and subcutaneously injected into rats for 30 days. The rats in CAPE-treated group were given a daily dose of 10 μmol/kg body weight of CAPE by using intraperitoneal injection. This application was continued daily for a total of 30 days. To date, no examinations of the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties of CAPE on Cd-induced apoptosis, oxidative damage, and testicular injury in rat testes have been reported. CAPE-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance and serum testosterone levels in Cd-treated group. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in testis tissues of the Cd-treated group with CAPE treatment. Moreover, CAPE significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, compensated deficits in the anti-oxidant defenses in testes tissue resulted from Cd administration. These findings suggest that the protective potential of CAPE in Cd toxicity might be due to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:26424218

  8. Effects of cadmium alone and in combination with low molecular weight chitosan on metallothionein, glutathione-S-transferase, acid phosphatase, and ATPase of freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijin; Zhou, Yanying; Wang, Lan; Ren, Guorui; Zou, Enmin

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant showing a variety of deleterious effects, including the potential threat for the ecological environment and human health via food chains. Low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) has been demonstrated to be an effective antioxidant. Metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels and activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the gills of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense were analyzed in vivo in order to determine the injury of Cd exposure on the gill tissues as well as the protective effect of LMWC against this injury. The results showed that there was an apparent accumulation of Cd in the gills, which was lessened by the presence of LMWC. Moreover, Cd(2+) significantly increased the gill MT mRNA levels, ACP activity and MDA content while decreasing the activities of SOD, GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the crabs relative to the control. Cotreatment with LMWC reduced the levels of MT mRNA and ACP but raised the activities of GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in gill tissues compared with the crabs exposed to Cd(2+) alone. These results suggest that LMWC may exert its protective effect through chelating Cd(2+) to form LMWC-Cd(2+) complex, elevating the antioxidative activities of GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase as well as alleviating the stress pressure on MT and ACP, consequently protecting the cell from the adverse effects of Cd.

  9. Does simulated acid rain increase the leaching of cadmium from wood ash to toxic levels to coniferous forest humus microbes?

    PubMed

    Perkiömäki, Jonna; Fritze, Hannu

    2003-05-01

    Abstract Wood ash contains Cd in concentrations not permitted for fertilization use in agriculture (>3 mg kg(-1)). It has been shown that spiking ash with Cd to concentrations of 1000 mg kg(-1) induced no further changes in humus microbial activity and community structure as ash alone. To accelerate the weathering process and thus to liberate the spiked Cd from the ash, three treatments - wood ash (A), Cd spiked wood ash (ACd, 1000 mg Cd kg(-1) ash), both applied at a fertilization rate of 5000 kg ha(-1), together with a control (C) - were performed in microcosms and incubated in field condition under two types of irrigation - water and simulated acid rain. During the incubation period of one growing season the simulated acid rain plots received a sulfur load of 3.64 g S m(-2), which was 15 times more than the S deposition on the water irrigated plots. The treatments resulted in a mean Cd increase of the humus from 0.23 mg kg(-1) of the C treatment to 0.52 and 39.5 mg kg(-1) of the A and ACd treatments, respectively. The irrigation had no further effect on the result. The microbial activity, measured as soil basal respiration, and the microbial community structure, measured as humus phospholipid fatty acid and 16S and 18S polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns, changed only due to the ash (A and ACd treatments) fertilization irrespective of the irrigation. The bacterial biosensor, emitting light in the presence of bioavailable Cd, did not react to any of the treatments. This result shows that Cd in ash was not leached into the humus due to increased deposition of acidified rain.

  10. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  11. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  12. α-Lipoic acid protects against the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in HepG2 cells through regeneration of glutathione by glutathione reductase via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunli; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Jiayu; Wang, Jiachun; Xie, Hong; Wu, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) is a potent natural antioxidant, which is capable of regenerating glutathione (GSH). However, the mechanisms by which α-LA regenerates reduced glutathione (rGSH) via the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by glutathione reductase (GR) are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated if α-LA replenished rGSH by GR via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in cadmium-treated HepG2 cells. We found that α-LA antagonized the oxidative damage and alleviated the cytotoxicity in cadmium-induced HepG2 cells by regeneration of rGSH. α-LA regenerated rGSH by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway via promoting the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which upregulates the transcription of GR, and thus increased the activity of GR. Our results indicated that α-LA was an effective agent to antagonize the oxidative stress and alleviate the cytotoxicity in cadmium-treated HepG2 cells by regenerating rGSH through activating Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  13. α-Lipoic acid protects against the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in HepG2 cells through regeneration of glutathione by glutathione reductase via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunli; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Jiayu; Wang, Jiachun; Xie, Hong; Wu, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) is a potent natural antioxidant, which is capable of regenerating glutathione (GSH). However, the mechanisms by which α-LA regenerates reduced glutathione (rGSH) via the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by glutathione reductase (GR) are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated if α-LA replenished rGSH by GR via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in cadmium-treated HepG2 cells. We found that α-LA antagonized the oxidative damage and alleviated the cytotoxicity in cadmium-induced HepG2 cells by regeneration of rGSH. α-LA regenerated rGSH by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway via promoting the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which upregulates the transcription of GR, and thus increased the activity of GR. Our results indicated that α-LA was an effective agent to antagonize the oxidative stress and alleviate the cytotoxicity in cadmium-treated HepG2 cells by regenerating rGSH through activating Nrf2 signaling pathway. PMID:27343752

  14. Synthesis and Electrochemical and Photophysical Characterization of New 4,4′‐π‐Conjugated 2,2′‐Bipyridines that are End‐Capped with Cyanoacrylic Acid/Ester Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fingerhut, Anja; Wu, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new functionalized 4,4′‐disubstituted 2,2′‐bipyridines that were end‐capped with cyanoacrylic acid or cyanoacrylic acid ester anchoring groups, which might allow their efficient functionalization on TiO2 or other metal‐oxide semiconductor surfaces, have been synthesized and characterized by electrochemical, photophysical, and spectroscopic measurements. The electrochemical and photophysical properties of these 4,4′‐disubstituted 2,2′‐bipyridines with extended π systems, in particular their LUMO energies, make them promising candidates to build up inorganic–organic hybrid photosensitizers for the sensitization of metal‐oxide semiconductors (e.g., TiO2 nanoparticles and/or nanotubes). PMID:27101254

  15. CCiCap: Boeing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with The Boeing Company for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the initia...

  16. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  17. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  18. The isotopic composition of zinc, palladium, silver, cadmium, tin, and tellurium in acid-etched residues of the Allende meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, R.D.; Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.R. )

    1990-12-01

    The isotopic and elemental abundances of Zn, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, and Te have been measured in three acid-resistant residues extracted from the Allende meteorite. High-efficiency, low-contamination ion-exchange procedures were developed to separate and purify the nanogram amounts of these elements present. Elemental-abundance determinations performed by Mass Spectrometric Isotope Dilution agree with previously published work for similarly derived residues. No isotope anomalies similar to those found for Xe (Xe-HL) in these samples were detected for any of these elements, which is consistent with the residues not being derived directly from the Xe-HL carriers. The lack of major Te-isotope anomalies does not support earlier reports of {sup 126}Te and {sup 130}Te excesses which were measured by neutron activation in similar samples. Small excesses were detected in the minor isotopes of Sn and Te, but these may be due to measurement problems associated with the small ion currents obtained for these samples. Two of the residue solutions contain Cd with up to several percent excesses for {sup 106}Cd and {sup 108}Cd. Interpretations of these results are limited by the unknown nature of the carrier minerals in the residues but may indicate the presence of a p-process component in Allende residues.

  19. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  20. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of cadmium, cadium acetate, cadmium bromide, cadmium chloride. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    Cadmium is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B1 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is Limited. The potency factor (F) for cadmium is estimated to be 57.9/(mg/kg/day) (based on epidemiology data for cadmium workers), placing it in potency group 2 according to the CAG's methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens (U.S. EPA, 1986b). Cadmium weight of evidence and potency are based on epidemiology data for cadmium workers exposed to cadmium oxide and/or cadmium fume. Although human data for cadmium salts are lacking, due to the responsiveness of animals to soluble cadmium compounds, especially cadmium chloride, the weight of evidence and potency for cadmium acetate, cadmium bromide and cadmium chloride are considered to be the same as those cadmium compounds to which workers are exposed. Thus, cadmium acetate, cadmium bromide, and cadmium chloride are all classified as weight-of-evidence Group and the potency group, cadmium, cadmium acetate, cadmium bromide, and cadmium chloride are assigned MEDIUM hazard rankings for the purposes of RQ adjustment. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, carbon tetrachloride is assigned a MEDIUM hazard ranking for the purposes of RQ adjustment.

  1. Theoretical (in B3LYP/6-3111++G** level), spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and thermogravimetric studies of gentisic acid and sodium, copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates.

    PubMed

    Regulska, E; Kalinowska, M; Wojtulewski, S; Korczak, A; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J; Rzączyńska, Z; Swisłocka, R; Lewandowski, W

    2014-11-11

    The DFT calculations (B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) mixed with LanL2DZ for transition metals basis sets) for different conformers of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid), sodium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (gentisate) and copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates were done. The proposed hydrated structures of transition metal complexes were based on the results of experimental findings. The theoretical geometrical parameters and atomic charge distribution were discussed. Moreover Na, Cu(II) and Cd(II) gentisates were synthesized and the composition of obtained compounds was revealed by means of elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of gentisic acid and gentisates were registered and the effect of metals on the electronic charge distribution of ligand was discussed. PMID:24910979

  2. Improved performance of carbon nanotubes—manganese doped cadmium sulfide quantum dot nanocomposite based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajnish; Priya, Nidhi; Deep, Akash

    2016-01-01

    The nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes with quantum dots (MWCNT-QDS) display the capability of light induced charge dissociation and transport, which make them suitable for photovoltaic applications. The present work reports the coupling of multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) with L-cysteine (2-amino 3-mercaptopropionic acid) capped manganese doped cadmium sulfide QDs (CdS:Mn). The confirmation of the MWCNT-CdS:Mn nanocomposite formation is done with various instrumental techniques. Current-voltage studies of the MWCNT-CdS:Mn thin film indicate their semiconducting behavior. Further, cyclic voltammetry and frequency response analyses of the above MWCNT-CdS:Mn thin film have highlighted their potential application as a photoanode material in dye sanitized solar cells. It has been demonstrated that the use of MWCNT-CdS:Mn nanocomposite as a photoanode material offer better photocurrent characteristics as compared to QDS alone.

  3. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoczky, E.; Szabados, I.; Marth, P.

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Subunit structure of the dihydrolipoyl transacylase component of branched-chain. cap alpha. -keto acid dehydrogenase complex from bovine liver: mapping of the lipoyl-bearing domain by limited proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    To characterize the lipoyl-bearing domain of the dihydrolipoyl transacylase (E/sub 2/) component, purified branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase complex from bovine liver was reductively acylated with (U-/sup 14/C)..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate and N-ethylmaleimide. Digestion of the modified complex with increasing concentrations of trypsin sequentially cleaved the E/sub 2/ polypeptide chain (M/sub r/ = 52,000) into five radiolabeled lipoyl-containing fragments, L/sub 1/-L/sub 5/. In addition, a lipoate-free inner E/sub 2/ core consisting of fragment A and fragment B was produced. Fragment A contains the active site for transacylation reaction and fragment B is the subunit-binding domain. Fragment L/sub 5/ and fragment B were stable and resistant to further tryptic digestion. Mouse antiserium against E/sub 2/ reacted only with fragments L/sub 1/, L/sub 2/, and L/sub 3/, and did not bind fragments L/sub 4/, L/sub 5/, A, and B as judged by immunoblotting analysis. The anti-E/sub 2/ serum-strongly inhibited the overall reaction catalyzed by the complex, but was without effect on the transacylation activity of E/sub 2/. Measurement of incorporation of (1-/sup 14/C)isobutyryl groups into the E/sub 2/ subunit indicated the presence of 1 lipoyl residue/E/sub 2/ chain.

  5. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments.

  6. Augmentation of the Lipopolysaccharide-Neutralizing Activities of Human Cathelicidin CAP18/LL-37-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides by Replacement with Hydrophobic and Cationic Amino Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Isao; Hirota, Satoko; Niyonsaba, François; Hirata, Michimasa; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Heumann, Didier

    2002-01-01

    Mammalian myeloid and epithelial cells express various peptide antibiotics (such as defensins and cathelicidins) that contribute to the innate host defense against invading microorganisms. Among these peptides, human cathelicidin CAP18/LL-37 (L1 to S37) possesses not only potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria but also the ability to bind to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutralize its biological activities. In this study, to develop peptide derivatives with improved LPS-neutralizing activities, we utilized an 18-mer peptide (K15 to V32) of LL-37 as a template and evaluated the activities of modified peptides by using the CD14+ murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and the murine endotoxin shock model. By replacement of E16 and K25 with two L residues, the hydrophobicity of the peptide (18-mer LL) was increased, and by further replacement of Q22, D26, and N30 with three K residues, the cationicity of the peptide (18-mer LLKKK) was enhanced. Among peptide derivatives, 18-mer LLKKK displayed the most powerful LPS-neutralizing activity: it was most potent at binding to LPS, inhibiting the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein, and attaching to the CD14 molecule, thereby suppressing the binding of LPS to CD14+ cells and attenuating production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by these cells. Furthermore, in the murine endotoxin shock model, 18-mer LLKKK most effectively suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α production and protected mice from lethal endotoxin shock. Together, these observations indicate that the LPS-neutralizing activities of the amphipathic human CAP18/LL-37-derived 18-mer peptide can be augmented by modifying its hydrophobicity and cationicity, and that 18-mer LLKKK is the most potent of the peptide derivatives, with therapeutic potential for gram-negative bacterial endotoxin shock. PMID:12204946

  7. Do Porins Pass CAPs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, C. B.; Pink, D. A.; Gill, T. A.; Beveridge, T. J.; Quinn, B. E.; Durrant, J. J.; Jericho, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP) protamine is known to inhibit bacterial survival (Pink et al., Langmuir 19, 8852 (2003), and references therein), but the mechanism of attack is as yet undetermined. For Gram-negative bacteria, two pathways have been proposed: (a) self-promoted uptake, and (b) passage through porins. Here, we study the latter possibility, and model part of the outer membrane of a Gram-negative bacterium in an aqueous solution containing multivalent ions and CAPs. The intent is to determine whether CAPs could pass through porins and, if so, what aspects of external (e.g., ionic concentration) and internal (e.g., porin and O-sidechain characteristics) parameters affect their passage. This study is accomplished via Monte Carlo computer simulations of a ``minimal model'' of the outer membrane of a Gram-negative bacterium with an embedded porin.

  8. Magnetospheric polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.; Kan, J. R.

    Mount Denali (McKinley), the Alaska Range, and countless glaciers welcomed all 86 participants of the Chapman Conference on the Magnetospheric Polar Cap, which was held on the University of Alaska, Fairbanks campus (UAF), on August 6-9, 1984. The magnetospheric polar cap is the highest latitude region of the earth which is surrounded by the ring of auroras (the auroral oval). This particular region of the earth has become a focus of magnetospheric physicists during the last several years. This is because a number of upper atmospheric phenomena in the polar cap are found to be crucial in understanding the solar wind—magnetosphere interaction. The conference was opened by J. G. Roederer, who was followed by the UAF Chancellor, P. J. O'Rourke, who officially welcomed the participants.

  9. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  10. Cadmium - a metallohormone?

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th Century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers. PMID:19362102

  11. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  12. Cadmium - A metallohormone?

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers.

  13. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  14. Ice caps on venus?

    PubMed

    Libby, W F

    1968-03-01

    The data on Venus obtained by Mariner V and Venera 4 are interpreted as evidence of giant polar ice caps holding the water that must have come out of the volcanoes with the observed carbon dioxide, on the assumption that Earth and Venus are of similar composition and volcanic history. The measurements by Venera 4 of the equatorial surface temperature indicate that the microwave readings were high, so that the polar ice caps may be allowed to exist in the face of the 10-centimeter readings of polar temperature. Life seems to be distinctly possible at the edges of the ice sheets.

  15. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  16. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. PMID:22549871

  17. Cadmium toxicity and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernhoft, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established protocols.

  18. Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bernhoft, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established protocols. PMID:23844395

  19. Sensitive and selective determining ascorbic acid and activity of alkaline phosphatase based on electrochemiluminescence of dual-stabilizers-capped CdSe quantum dots in carbon nanotube-nafion composite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolong; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xinli; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Zou, Guizheng

    2016-07-01

    Sensitive and selective determining bio-related molecule and enzyme play an important role in designing novel procedure for biological sensing and clinical diagnosis. Herein, we found that dual-stabilizers-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in composite film of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Nafion, displaying eye-visible monochromatic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) with fwhm of 37nm, which offers promising ECL signal for detecting ascorbic acid (AA) as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in biological samples. It was also shown that the dual-stabilizers-capped CdSe QDs can preserve their highly passivated surface states with prolonged lifetime of excited states in Nafion mixtures, and facilitate electron-transfer ability of Nafion film along with CNTs. Compared with the QDs/GCE, the ECL intensity is enhanced 1.8 times and triggering potential shifted to lower energy by 0.12V on the CdSe-CNTs-Nafion/GCE. The ECL quenching degree increases with increasing concentration of AA in the range of 0.01-30nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5pM. The activity of ALP was determined indirectly according to the concentration of AA, generated in the hydrolysis reaction of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium (AA-P) in the presence of ALP as a catalyst, with an LOD of 1μU/L. The proposed strategy is favorable for developing simple ECL sensor or device with high sensitivity, spectral resolution and less electrochemical interference. PMID:27154663

  20. Cadmium transport and toxicity in isolated perfused renal proximal tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cadmium is a potent toxicant preferentially accumulated in the renal cortex of humans and other animals. To assess the renal toxicity of inorganic cadmium, isolated segments (S1, S2, and S3) of rabbit renal proximal tubules were perfused with various concentrations of unlabeled cadmium chloride (CdCl[sub 2]) and a vital dye (FD C green). The tubular epithelial cells were observed under the light microscope for cellular injury and necrosis. Cellular swelling, luminal membrane blebbing, and cellular vacuolization were indicators of cellular injury, and dye uptake was indicative of cellular necrosis. To determine lumen-to-bath transport rates for cadmium, the segments were perfused with a mixture of [sup 109]CdCl[sub 2] and [sup 3]H-L-glucose; unlabeled CdCl[sub 2] was added when necessary to vary the total cadmium concentration from 1.5 [mu]M to 2000 [mu]M. Immediately after perfusion the tubules were extracted with 3% trichoroacetic acid (TCA) or with a modified Ringer's buffer of reduced osmolality to determine the fate of the cadmium removed from the lumen. Based on the toxicant indicators, increased dye uptake, increased luminal membrane blebbing, and increased vacuole formation, as the cadmium concentration was increased, cadmium was found to show toxicity to renal tubular cells at concentrations greater than 500 [mu]M. In transport experiments, increasing the cadmium concentration causes an increase in the leak of L-glucose, also indicating toxicity. A clear imbalance exists between the rate of disappearance of cadmium from the lumen and the rate of appearance in the bath for all three tubular segments. Cadmium appears to bind cellular membrane proteins, but it is extractable with 3% TCA. Cadmium, like mercury, is taken up at the luminal membrane, but very little is transported through the basolateral membrane.

  1. 3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; ALSO SEEN ARE THE BRAKE WHEEL, WINDSHAFT AND TOP BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  2. Advising. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Book (Advising) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are representative…

  3. Guard For Fuse Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    L-shaped guard attached to fuse holder. Guard prevents casual tampering with fuses in electrical junction box or fuse block. Protects fuses from being damaged by handling or by rope or string used to secure them. With fuse-cap guard, only responsible people have access to fuses.

  4. Arranging. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Booklet (Arranging) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  5. Immunochemical and immunohistochemical studies of cadmium associated proteins in Rana tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Zettergren, L D; Conrad, C A; Petering, D H; Weber, D N; Goodrich, M S

    1991-12-01

    Previous observations suggested that Rana tadpoles treated with aqueous cadmium (Cd) accumulate Cd in their liver and mesonephros. In order to study the response to Cd in these tissues we (a) exposed tadpoles in mid-limb bud stages to sublethal quantities of Cd, (b) isolated Cd-associated protein (CAP) from a liver cytosol fraction, (c) prepared a heterologous rabbit antiserum against glutaraldehyde-treated CAP (G-CAP), (d) used the rabbit anti-G-CAP antiserum in order to assess the tissue distribution of CAP in Cd-treated and untreated tadpoles, and (e) assessed species cross-reactivities of our anti-G-CAP with CAPs and metallothioneins (MTs) isolated from Cd-treated vertebrate liver cytosol fractions. We found that (a) CAP was present in higher quantities in liver cytosol obtained from Cd-treated tadpoles compared to liver cytosol obtained from untreated control tadpoles, (b) indirect immunofluorescent analysis revealed that CAP was localized in liver hepatocytes and kidney tubule epithelial cells in Cd-treated tadpoles, and (c) the anti-G-CAP crossreacted with rodent and fish CAP. These observations suggest that the developing liver and mesonephros are involved in responses to toxic metals and that our anti G-CAP antiserum may be used to gauge exposure to environmental Cd.

  6. Cap protects aircraft nose cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. F., Jr.; Bryan, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Inexpensive, easily fabricated cap protects aircraft nose cone from erosion. Made of molded polycarbonate, cap has been flight tested at both subsonic and supesonic speeds. Its strength and erosion characteristics are superior to those of fiberglass cones.

  7. Identification of a CAP (adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein) homologous gene in Lentinus edodes and its functional complementation of yeast CAP mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Miyazaki, Y; Nakagawa, T; Tanaka, K; Shishido, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    1998-04-01

    The adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein, CAP, was originally identified in yeasts as a protein that functions in both signal transduction and cytoskeletal organization. This paper reports the identification of a cDNA and genomic DNA that encodes a CAP homologue from the mushroom Lentinus edodes. The L. edodes cap gene contains eight introns and an ORF encoding a 518 amino acid protein. The L. edodes CAP is 35.5% and 40.9% identical at the amino acid level with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAP and Schizosaccharomyces pombe CAP, respectively. The C-terminal domain shows greater homology (39-46% identity) with yeast CAPs than does the N-terminal domain (27-35% identity). Southern blotting and Northern blotting results suggest that L. edodes cap is a single-copy gene and uniformly expressed. Expression of the L. edodes CAP in both Schiz. pombe and Sacch. cerevisiae complemented defects associated with the loss of the C-terminal domain function of the endogenous CAP. By using a yeast two-hybrid assay, an interaction was demonstrated between the L. edodes CAP and Schiz. pombe actin. This result and the functional complementation test indicate that CAP from L. edodes has a conserved C-terminal domain function. PMID:9579081

  8. The relationship between photoluminescence (PL) decay and crystal growth kinetics in thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiangying; Xue, Xiaogang; Huang, Yang; Zhuang, Zanyong; Lin, Zhang

    2014-06-21

    The PL lifetime optimization of CdTe QDs capped with TGA has yet to be understood from a perspective of growth kinetics. In this work, the growth kinetics and PL properties of CdTe QDs growing in aqueous solutions of two TGA concentrations, 0 mM and 57 mM, were systematically investigated using UV, TEM, and PL methods. CdTe QDs in 0 mM TGA solution were found to follow the mixed OA (Oriented Attachment)-OR (Ostwald Ripening) growth kinetics. The PL peaks experienced a red-shift with almost unchanged intensity and the PL lifetimes increased gradually. In 57 mM TGA solution, the QDs followed the OA dominated growth mechanism. The PL peak broadened greatly with a red-shift and its intensity decreased significantly. The PL lifetime increased much higher than that in 0 mM TGA solution. Based on the different growth kinetic models of the two systems, we suggest that in the low (0 mM) TGA solution, the increased surface defects induced by TGA desorption and the existence of partial internal defects caused by OA growth were the main reasons for the gradual increase of PL lifetime, while in high (57 mM) TGA solution, the increase of PL lifetime was ascribed to the abundant internal defects produced by OA collision. Finally, kinetic data showed the effect of the TGA concentration on crystal growth and PL lifetime of CdTe QDs. The results might provide guidance for understanding the mechanism behind the phenomena of ligand-related PL properties.

  9. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  10. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  11. Syntheses of the Water-Dispersible Glycolic Acid Capped ZnS:Mn Nanocrystals at Different pH Conditions, and Their Aggregation and Luminescence Quenching Effects in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yu Jin; Hwang, Cheong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Water-dispersible ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were prepared by capping their surface with polar glycolic acid molecules at three different pH conditions. The produced ZnS:Mn-GA nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, ICP-AES, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The optical properties were also measured by UV-Visible and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In the PL spectra, theses ZnS:Mn-GA nanocrystals showed broad emission peaks around 595 nm, and the calculated relative quantum efficiencies against an organic dye standard were in the range from 2.16 to 5.52%. The measured particle size from the HR-TEM images was about 3.7 nm on average, which were also supported by the calculations with the Debye-Scherrer methods. In addition, the surface charges of the nanocrystals were determined by an electrophoretic method, which showed pH dependent charge values of the nanocrytals: +0.88 mV (pH 2), +0.82 mV (pH 7), and -0.59 mV (pH 12) respectively. In addition, the degrees of aggregation of the nanocrystals in aqueous solutions were determined by a hydrodynamic light scattering method. As a result, formations of micrometer size agglomerates for all the ZnS:Mn-GA nanocrystals in water was observed at room temperature. This was probably caused by intermolecular attraction between the capping molecules. In addition, the ZnS:Mn-GA with the negative surface charge was presumed to be suitable for further coordination to a transition metal ion on the surface of the nanocrystal. As a result, fast luminescence quenching was observed after addition of aqueous solution containing Cu2+ ions.

  12. Syntheses of the Water-Dispersible Glycolic Acid Capped ZnS:Mn Nanocrystals at Different pH Conditions, and Their Aggregation and Luminescence Quenching Effects in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yu Jin; Hwang, Cheong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Water-dispersible ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were prepared by capping their surface with polar glycolic acid molecules at three different pH conditions. The produced ZnS:Mn-GA nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, ICP-AES, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The optical properties were also measured by UV-Visible and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In the PL spectra, theses ZnS:Mn-GA nanocrystals showed broad emission peaks around 595 nm, and the calculated relative quantum efficiencies against an organic dye standard were in the range from 2.16 to 5.52%. The measured particle size from the HR-TEM images was about 3.7 nm on average, which were also supported by the calculations with the Debye-Scherrer methods. In addition, the surface charges of the nanocrystals were determined by an electrophoretic method, which showed pH dependent charge values of the nanocrytals: +0.88 mV (pH 2), +0.82 mV (pH 7), and -0.59 mV (pH 12) respectively. In addition, the degrees of aggregation of the nanocrystals in aqueous solutions were determined by a hydrodynamic light scattering method. As a result, formations of micrometer size agglomerates for all the ZnS:Mn-GA nanocrystals in water was observed at room temperature. This was probably caused by intermolecular attraction between the capping molecules. In addition, the ZnS:Mn-GA with the negative surface charge was presumed to be suitable for further coordination to a transition metal ion on the surface of the nanocrystal. As a result, fast luminescence quenching was observed after addition of aqueous solution containing Cu2+ ions. PMID:27427703

  13. Polyphosphoric acid capping radioactive/upconverting NaLuF4:Yb,Tm,153Sm nanoparticles for blood pool imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juanjuan; Sun, Yun; Zhao, Lingzhi; Wu, Yongquan; Feng, Wei; Gao, Yanhong; Li, Fuyou

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles that circulate in the bloodstream for a prolonged period of time have important biomedicine applications. However, no example of lanthanide-based nanoparticles having a long-term circulation bloodstream has been reported to date. Herein, we report on difunctional radioactive and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) coated with polyphosphoric acid ligand, that is ethylenediamine tetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP), for an application in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) blood pool imaging. The structure, size and zeta-potential of the EDTMP-coated nanoparticles (EDTMP-UCNP) are verified using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Injection of radioisotope samarium-153-labeled EDTMP-UCNP (EDTMP-UCNP:(153)Sm) into mice reveal superior circulation time compared to control nanoparticles coated with citric acid (cit-UCNP:(153)Sm) and (153)Sm complex of EDTMP (EDTMP-(153)Sm). The mechanism for the extended circulation time may be attributed to the adhesion of EDTMP-UCNP on the membrane of red blood cells (RBCs). In vivo toxicity results show no toxicity of EDTMP-UCNP at the dose of 100 mg/kg, validating its safety as an agent for blood pool imaging. Our results provide a new strategy of nanoprobe for a long-term circulation bloodstream by introducing polyphosphoric acid as surface ligand.

  14. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  16. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  17. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  18. Characterization of a rabbit cationic protein (CAP18) with lipopolysaccharide-inhibitory activity.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, M; Shimomura, Y; Yoshida, M; Morgan, J G; Palings, I; Wilson, D; Yen, M H; Wright, S C; Larrick, J W

    1994-01-01

    Cationic antibacterial proteins (CAP) were purified from rabbit granulocytes, and the effects of CAP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor generation by murine peritoneal macrophages and human blood monocytes were studied. CAP were purified from rabbit peritoneal leukocytes by using as an assay the agglutination of erythrocytes coated with Re-LPS. Two proteins with CAP activity, CAP18 (18 kDa) and CAP7 (7 kDa), were isolated by acid extraction, ethanol precipitation, affinity chromatography, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. On the basis of protein sequencing, CAP7 was identified as the C-terminal fragment of CAP18, designated CAP18(106-142). Various forms of LPS (S-LPS, Re-LPS, and lipid A) activate murine macrophages and human blood monocytes to generate tissue factor (tissue thromboplastin). Incubation of LPS for 18 h with partially purified CAP (heparin-Sepharose fraction) inhibited the capacity of LPS to induce tissue factor; however, purified CAP18 inhibited about 75% of the activity of S-LPS after 1 h of incubation. CAP more effectively inhibited S-LPS than Re-LPS or lipid A. Synthetic CAP18(106-142) inhibited LPS-induced tissue factor generation by murine macrophages. CAP18(106-142) has greater LPS-binding and LPS-neutralizing activities than CAP18. We hypothesize that CAP18 and the derivative peptide, CAP18(106-142), bind to LPS and alter the capacity of LPS to initiate disseminated intravascular coagulation. In this regard, CAP may have therapeutic potential for sepsis and endotoxin shock. Images PMID:8132348

  19. Behavioral consequences of chelator administration in acute cadmium toxicity (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, D.B.; Farmer, J.D.; MacPhail, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The conditioned flavor-aversion paradigm was used to assess the toxicity of acutely administered cadmium and the interaction of cadmium with the heavy-metal chelating agents dimercaprol (BAL) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Shortly after consuming saccharin, rats received cadmium either alone or in combination with BAL or DMSA. When compared to rats receiving either nothing or the vehicle, rats receiving cadmium displayed significant reductions in saccharin preference (i.e., conditioned flavor aversions). BAL and DMSA were also capable of producing conditioned flavor aversions when given alone. Rats receiving cadmium in combination with either BAL or DMSA displayed significant, but not complete, attenuations of conditioned flavor aversions when compared to rats receiving cadmium alone. Chelator-induced blockade of cadmium-induced flavor-aversion conditioning was not obtained when BAL or DMSA administration was delayed by 4 hrs.

  20. Effect of speciation on uptake and toxicity of cadmium to shrimp Crangon Crangon (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes Goncalves, M.L.S.; Vilhena, M.F.C.; Machado, L.M.V.F.; Pescada, C.M.R.; Legrand de Moura, M. )

    1989-08-01

    A study is presented on speciation of seawater with shrimps Crangon Crangon (L.) contaminated with cadmium in the presence and absence of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (a rough model of a chelate group of humic acids). Ultrafiltration and ion exchange Chelex columns were associated with atomic absorption (AA) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The uptake and toxicity of cadmium were studied and the organs where this heavy metal accumulated were examined. It was noticed that the cadmium complex with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic was not available to the shrimps and that during the 5 days of the experiment cadmium was preferentially accumulated in the hepatopancreas and carapace.

  1. CdSe quantum dot formation: alternative paths to relaxation of a strained CdSe layer and influence of the capping conditions.

    PubMed

    Robin, I C; Aichele, T; Bougerol, C; André, R; Tatarenko, S; Bellet-Amalric, E; Van Daele, B; Van Tendeloo, G

    2007-07-01

    CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot formation is investigated by studying different steps of the growth. To precisely control the critical thickness of CdSe grown on a ZnSe buffer layer, the CdSe self-regulated growth rate in atomic layer epitaxy growth mode is determined by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) measurements for a temperature range between 180 and 280 °C. Then, the two-dimensional-three-dimensional (2D-3D) transition of a strained CdSe layer on (001)-ZnSe induced by the use of amorphous selenium is studied. The formation of CdSe islands is found when 3 monolayers (ML) of CdSe are deposited. When only 2.5 ML of CdSe are deposited, another relaxation mechanism is observed, leading to the appearance of strong undulations on the surface. We also studied the evolution of the surface morphology when 2.7 ML are deposited, to study the boundary between those two phenomena. The influence of capping on quantum dot morphology is investigated. It is found that cadmium is redistributed within the layer during capping. Our results show that the cadmium distribution after capping depends on the capping temperature and on the strain of the CdSe layer. Cadmium incorporation after capping is also studied. It is found that the amount of incorporated cadmium depends on the strain of the CdSe layer before capping.

  2. An effective nanosensor for organic molecules based on water-soluble mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe nanocrystals with potential application in high-throughput screening and high-resolution optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Pick-Chung; Norwood, Robert A; Mansuripur, Masud; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2014-07-01

    Specially-treated glass substrates coated with a thin film of water soluble mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared and found to undergo photoluminescence changes by as much as 40% when micro-droplets of organic molecules were placed in the nanometer-range proximity of the NCs. This imaging technique involving close proximity between a nano-crystal and an organic molecule is found to provide a 2 × -3 × enhanced contrast ratio over the conventional method of fluorescence imaging. Photoluminescence of NCs is recoverable upon removal of the organic molecules, therefore validating these NCs as potential all-optical organic molecular nanosensors. Upon optimization and with proper instrumentation, these nano-crystals could eventually serve as point-detectors for purposes of super-resolution optical microscopy. No solvents are required for the proposed sensing mechanism since all solutions were dried under argon flow. Fluorophores and fluorescent proteins were investigated, including fluorescein, Rhodamine 6G, and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Furthermore, NC photoluminescence changes were systematically quantified as a function of the solution pH and of the organic molecule concentration. Long duration (> 40 minutes) continuous excitation studies were conducted in order to evaluate the reliability of the proposed sensing scheme.

  3. An effective nanosensor for organic molecules based on water-soluble mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe nanocrystals with potential application in high-throughput screening and high-resolution optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Pick-Chung; Norwood, Robert A.; Mansuripur, Masud; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Specially-treated glass substrates coated with a thin film of water soluble mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared and found to undergo photoluminescence changes by as much as 40% when micro-droplets of organic molecules were placed in the nanometer-range proximity of the NCs. This imaging technique involving close proximity between a nano-crystal and an organic molecule is found to provide a 2 × –3 × enhanced contrast ratio over the conventional method of fluorescence imaging. Photoluminescence of NCs is recoverable upon removal of the organic molecules, therefore validating these NCs as potential all-optical organic molecular nanosensors. Upon optimization and with proper instrumentation, these nano-crystals could eventually serve as point-detectors for purposes of super-resolution optical microscopy. No solvents are required for the proposed sensing mechanism since all solutions were dried under argon flow. Fluorophores and fluorescent proteins were investigated, including fluorescein, Rhodamine 6G, and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Furthermore, NC photoluminescence changes were systematically quantified as a function of the solution pH and of the organic molecule concentration. Long duration (> 40 minutes) continuous excitation studies were conducted in order to evaluate the reliability of the proposed sensing scheme. PMID:25071975

  4. Effects of cadmium on growth and respiration in suspension-cultured tobacco cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium uptake and its effects on growth and cellular respiration in tobacco cell suspension cultures were examined. The cells were grown in Gamborg's B5 medium for a 5 day period, and cadmium, at concentrations of 44.5, 89, and 178 ..mu..M, was added to the medium on day 0. Cadmium is accumulated in the tobacco cells at concentrations two or more times the levels in the surrounding media. The addition of 44.5 ..mu..M cadmium stimulated growth as measured by dry weight and packed cell volume measurements, whereas higher levels were inhibitory. At all concentrations tested, cadmium decreased mitotic indices and total DNA content of the tobacco cells. Light and transmission electron microscopic analyses demonstrated cadmium induced increased cell volume per mg dry weight and the formation of small vacuole-like bodies in the cytoplasm of the cultured tobacco cells. Oxygen uptake measurements on whole cells showed cadmium inhibits respiration in the tobacco cells at all levels examined. Measurements of malate, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and succinate oxidation in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that the inhibition of respiration resulted from decreased succinate utilization in the tobacco cells, when cadmium was applied in vivo. The implications of these findings and the potential for future research are discussed.

  5. Mineral commodity profiles: Cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Plachy, Jozef

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Cadmium is a soft, low-melting-point metal that has many uses. It is similar in abundance to antimony and bismuth and is the 63d element in order of crustal abundance. Cadmium is associated in nature with zinc (and, less closely, with lead and copper) and is extracted mainly as a byproduct of the mining and processing of zinc. In 2000, it was refined in 27 countries, of which the 8 largest accounted for two-thirds of world production. The United States was the third largest refiner after Japan and China. World production in 2000 was 19,700 metric tons (t) and U.S. production was 1,890 t. In the United States, one company in Illinois and another in Tennessee refined primary cadmium. A Pennsylvania company recovered cadmium from scrap, mainly spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The supply of cadmium in the world and in the United States appears to be adequate to meet future industrial needs; the United States has about 23 percent of the world reserve base.

  6. Preparation of mesoporous cadmium sulfide nanoparticles with moderate pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Han Zhaohui Zhu, Huaiyong; Shi, Jeffrey; Parkinson, Gordon; Lu, G.Q.

    2007-03-15

    The preparation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles that have a moderate pore size is reported. This preparation method involves a hydrothermal process that produces a precursor mixture and a following acid treatment of the precursor to get the porous material. The majority of the particles have a pore size close to 20nm, which complements and fills in the gap between the existing cadmium sulfide materials, which usually have a pore size either less than 10nm or are well above 100nm.

  7. Protective effects of ginger toward cadmium-induced testes and kidney lipid peroxidation and hematological impairment in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuka, Frank C; Erhabor, Osaro; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral dietary supplementation with ginger on cadmium-induced toxic effects on biochemical, hematological, and pathophysiological indices of albino rats. The effect of cadmium and cadmium/ginger treatment on lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testes and kidney; serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme were investigated alongside hematological indices. The results showed that cadmium induces a significant increase in both testicular and kidney MDA, whereas cadmium/ginger treatment produced a significant reversal of the effect of lipid peroxidation (P=.004). Cadmium treatment induced 75%, 78%, and 22% increases in activities of ACP, PAP, and ALP, respectively, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated group reversed these values for enzyme activities (P=.001). Results of organ weight and hematological indices analysis in the cadmium-treated rats showed a decrease in organ weight and distortion of the hemopoietic features, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated rats showed an improvement in organ weight and hematological indices (P=.04 and .001, respectively). The reversal of the toxic effects of cadmium in the cadmium/ginger-treated albino rats heralds the antioxidant potency of ginger toward cadmium toxicity-associated oxidative stress. PMID:21476888

  8. Cadmium transporters in the kidney and cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Shu, Yan

    2015-01-09

    Among the organs in which the environmental pollutant cadmium causes toxicity, the kidney has gained the most attention in recent years. Numerous studies have sought to unravel the exact pathways by which cadmium enters the renal epithelial cells and the mechanisms by which it causes toxicity in the kidney. The purpose of this review is to present the progress made on the mechanisms of cadmium transport in the kidney and the role of transporter proteins in cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Cadmium migration in aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of temperature, the nature of separator material, charge and discharge, carbonate contamination, and the mode of storage are studied with respect to the migration of active material from the negative toward the positive plate. A theoretical model is proposed which takes into account the solubility of cadmium in various concentrations of hydroxide and carbonate at different temperatures, the generation of the cadmiate ion, Cd(OH)3(-), during discharge, the migration of the cadmiate ion and particulate Cd(OH)2 due to electrophoretic effects and the movement of electrolyte in and out of the negative plate and, finally, the recrystallization of cadmiate ion in the separator as Cd(OH)2. Application of the theoretical model to observations of cadmium migration in cycled cells is also discussed.

  10. Biocompatible and high-performance amino acids-capped MnWO4 nanocasting as a novel non-lanthanide contrast agent for X-ray computed tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kai; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jianhua; Huang, Sa; Li, Zhenhua; Yuan, Qinghai; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    -weighted MR imaging capabilities. As an alternative to T2-weighted MRI and CT dual-modality contrast agents, the nanoprobes can provide a positive contrast signal, which prevents confusion with the dark signals from hemorrhage and blood clots. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that a non-lanthanide imaging nanoprobe is applied for CT and T1-weighted MRI simultaneously. Moreover, comparing with gadolinium-based T1-weighted MRI and CT dual-modality contrast agents that were associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), our contrast agents have superior biocompatibility, which is proved by a detailed study of the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and in vivo toxicology. Together with excellent dispersibility, high biocompatibility and superior contrast efficacy, these nanoprobes provide detailed and complementary information from dual-modality imaging over traditional single-mode imaging and bring more opportunities to the new generation of non-lanthanide nanoparticulate-based contrast agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of MnWO4 nanoparticles synthesized at pH = 7, 180 °C pH = 9, 180 °C pH = 6, 200 °C with various amino acid molecules as capped agents, survey XPS spectra, FTIR spectrum of glycine capped MnWO4 nanorods, photos of glycine capped MnWO4 nanorods in various solutions including PBS, DMEM cell medium, and FBS, in vivo coronal view CT images of a rat before and after intravenous injection of iobitridol at different timed intervals, in vivo CT imaging of the rat one month after intravenous injection of MnWO4 nanorods, CT values of the heart, liver, spleen and kidney of a rat before and after intravenous administration of MnWO4 nanorods and iobitridol at different time intervals, hematology analysis and blood biochemical assay. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05455a

  11. Biomolecularly capped uniformly sized nanocrystalline materials: glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Martínez, Claudia L.; Nguyen, Liem; Kho, Richard; Bae, Weon; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Klimov, Victor; Mehra, Rajesh K.

    1999-09-01

    Micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeasts form CdS to detoxify toxic cadmium ions. Frequently, CdS particles formed in yeasts and bacteria were found to be associated with specific biomolecules. It was later determined that these biomolecules were present at the surface of CdS. This coating caused a restriction in the growth of CdS particles and resulted in the formation of nanometre-sized semiconductors (NCs) that exhibited typical quantum confinement properties. Glutathione and related phytochelatin peptides were shown to be the biomolecules that capped CdS nanocrystallites synthesized by yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although early studies showed the existence of specific biochemical pathways for the synthesis of biomolecularly capped CdS NCs, these NCs could be formed in vitro under appropriate conditions. We have recently shown that cysteine and cysteine-containing peptides such as glutathione and phytochelatins can be used in vitro to dictate the formation of discrete sizes of CdS and ZnS nanocrystals. We have evolved protocols for the synthesis of ZnS or CdS nanocrystals within a narrow size distribution range. These procedures involve three steps: (1) formation of metallo-complexes of cysteine or cysteine-containing peptides, (2) introduction of stoichiometric amounts of inorganic sulfide into the metallo-complexes to initiate the formation of nanocrystallites and finally (3) size-selective precipitation of NCs with ethanol in the presence of Na+. The resulting NCs were characterized by optical spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. HRTEM showed that the diameter of the ZnS-glutathione nanocrystals was 3.45+/-0.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction analyses indicated ZnS-glutathione to be hexagonal. Photocatalytic studies suggest that glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals prepared by our procedure are highly efficient in degrading a test model

  12. Plausible Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  13. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  14. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. PVP capped CdS nanoparticles for UV-LED applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaram, H.; Selvakumar, D.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-24

    Polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the nanoparticles are crystallized in cubic phase. The optical properties are characterized by UV-Vis absorption. The morphology of CdS nanoparticles are studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The thermal behavior of the as prepared nanoparticles has been examined by Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical absorption study of pvp capped CdS reveal a red shift confirms the UV-LED applications.

  16. PVP capped CdS nanoparticles for UV-LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaram, H.; Selvakumar, D.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the nanoparticles are crystallized in cubic phase. The optical properties are characterized by UV-Vis absorption. The morphology of CdS nanoparticles are studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The thermal behavior of the as prepared nanoparticles has been examined by Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical absorption study of pvp capped CdS reveal a red shift confirms the UV-LED applications.

  17. Absorption of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, M. C. V.; Gomez, R.; Arriaga, R. M.

    2003-05-01

    (4) The cadmium is highly toxic and for all biota in very small concentrations, these study was to know the limit of phitotoxicity and nutrition of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa, and to measure absorption of cadmium in roots, stem, leaves and grain. The experiment was carried out in plots with bean of the black variety Jamapa, in greenhouse, 6 treatments in the water of irrigation with 0, 25, 50, 100 y 200 micromoles of cadmium, to quantification of cadmium in plant, is carried out with ICP previous acid digest(I) method D4638-86 of ASTM 1990. Was carried out analysis of variation and results indicate that, there were been significant for the variables : number of leaves, foliate area, dry weight from root, height of plant; the threshold of toxicity for the plant in the condition that it was carried out the experiment were 100 200micromoles of cadmium applied in water of irrigation weekly, the visual symptom were: yellow of leaves, morphologic changes in leaves showed leaves bi-foliate and tetra-foliate in treatments upper of 100micromoles of cadmium.

  18. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  19. Glycine reduces cadmium-induced teratogenic damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2007-01-01

    The effect of glycine in preventing cadmium (Cd) teratogenicity in mice was studied. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was administered subcutaneously at 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg doses on gestation days (GD) 7, 8 and 9. Glycine was given ad libitum (in the drinking water) from GD0 through GD18 (the day when animals were killed), as a 1% and 2% drinking water solution. Cd and nucleic acid concentrations in embryos were determined. The most common finding seen after CdCl2 4 mg/kg exposure was exencephaly. The incidence of this malformation was significantly reduced in mice receiving 2% glycine while fetal Cd significantly decreased as compared to cadmium-treated positive control animals. Increased nucleic acid levels were seen in the same embryos. In glycine non-supplemented mice given CdCl2 4 mg/kg, embryonic lipid peroxidation proved to be increased. In conclusion, lipid peroxidation was associated with cadmium-induced teratogenicity, and glycine inhibited the cadmium-induced effect by inhibiting placental transport of cadmium. However, further detailed studies are needed to establish the mechanism(s) of action.

  20. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected March 5, 2002 during the southern summer season. Layering in the South polar cap interior is readily visible and may indicate yearly ice/dust deposition.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.6, Longitude 156.8 East (203.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  1. Reduced hydrogen cadmium plating

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeller, T.; Ross, L. ); Varma, R. ); Agarwala, V.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the advantages of using a periodic reverse pulse plating method, incorporating a fast cathodic pulse which is separated from the subsequent anodic/cathodic pulses by a long rest period in producing silvery cadmium coatings on steel from aqueous fluoroborate electrolyte. Also, the deposition obtained by combination of pulse currents and turbulent electrolyte flow system (forced convection of electrolyte, Re {approximately} 20-25,000) result in a near hydrogen-free electrodeposition of fine- grained cadmium. This is confirmed by the determination of diffusible hydrogen by the electrochemical (Barnach Electrode) method.

  2. Cadmium inhibits neurite outgrowth in differentiating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pak, Eun Joo; Son, Gi Dong; Yoo, Byung Sun

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, a highly ubiquitous heavy metal, is well known to induce neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism of cadmium-mediated neurotoxicity remains unclear. We have studied cadmium inhibition of neurite outgrowth using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells induced to differentiate by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Cadmium, at a concentration of 3 μmol/L, had no significant effect on the viability of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. However, the neurite outgrowth of the differentiating SH-SY5Y cells 48 hours after cadmium treatment (1-3 μmol/L cadmium) was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of RA-stimulated differentiating SH-SY5Y cells with 1 to 3 μmol/L cadmium resulted in decreased level of cross-reactivities with 43-kDa growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in a dose-dependent manner. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, NAC (N-acetyl-l-cysteine), recovered the expression of GAP-43 in cadmium-treated cells. The results indicate that cadmium is able to inhibit neurite outgrowth of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells and that this effect might result from ROS generation by cadmium.

  3. [Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning].

    PubMed

    Andujar, P; Bensefa-Colas, L; Descatha, A

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium is a metallic impurity in various minerals. The two main cadmium exposure sources in general population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century. Cadmium is used in accumulators or alkaline batteries (80%) and in pigments for paints or plastics (10%), in electrolytic process by deposit or by cadmium plating on metals or to reduce melting points (welding rods...). Cadmium is a cumulative toxic substance whose half-time for elimination is about 20 to 40 years and it is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. Inhalation of cadmium oxide fumes may cause inhalation fevers or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most relevant biological index exposure is the urinary cadmium. According to literature, no chelating agent can be still used in human cadmium poisonings. In France, some diseases caused by occupational exposure to cadmium may be compensated.

  4. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-01

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments.

  5. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-28

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments.

  6. Identification and characterization of Csh3 as an SH3 protein that interacts with fission yeast Cap1.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takaharu; Kobayashi-Ooka, Yasuyo; Zhou, Guo-Lei; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cap1 has been identified as the (adenylyl) cyclase-associated protein. Cap1 was able to bind Cap1 itself and actin. Cap1 localized at the growing tip, and this localization was dependent on the Cap1 P2 region. In a two-hybrid screening using cap1 as bait, we isolated csh3, which encodes a protein of 296 amino acids with an SH3 domain and a proline/glutamine-rich region. The binding of Csh3 and Cap1 was confirmed by in vivo pull down assays. Cooperative functions of Csh3 and Cap1 were observed. Deletion of both csh3 and cap1 resulted in heightened sensitivity to CaCl2, while disruption of either gene alone did not have any effect in this regard. In addition, over-expression of csh3 or cap1 alone did not affect cell growth, while over-expression of both genes resulted in growth retardation. Finally, while Csh3-GFP localized to the cytoplasm in wild-type cells, its localization was altered in cap1Δ cells, suggesting that the interaction between Csh3 and Cap1 controls the cellular localization of Csh3. These results demonstrate that Cap1 in Schizo. pombe is a multifunctional protein that functions through interaction with Cap1 itself and other proteins including adenylyl cyclase, actin and Csh3.

  7. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  8. Cadmium-induced osteomalacia.

    PubMed Central

    Blainey, J D; Adams, R G; Brewer, D B; Harvey, T C

    1980-01-01

    The detailed study of a battery plate maker, who had worked with cadmium for 36 years, showed that proteinuria, typical of renal tubular dysfunction, had been observed for 25 years and during the last 12 years of his life the patient had suffered increasing disability from gross bone disease. Several bone biopsies and detailed metabolic studies showed typical severe osteomalacia, which responded well initially to calcium and vitamin D treatment. Examination of the liver both in life and after death showed a gross excess of cadmium. This was also found in the kidneys after death. Previously unreported changes were present in the bones, especially the lumbar vertebrae which were probably more the result of gross bone deformity than cadmium deposition. The mechanism of development of the severe acquired Fanconi syndrome was thought to be a combination of dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency and impaired calcium absorption from abnormal vitamin D synthesis, related to the cadmium deposition in the renal tubules, which also caused the defect in renal tubular reabsorption. Images PMID:7426480

  9. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  10. Chelation of cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, O

    1984-01-01

    The toxicity of cadmium is determined by chelation reactions: in vivo, Cd2+ exists exclusively in coordination complexes with biological ligands, or with administered chelating agents. The Cd2+ ion has some soft character, but it is not a typical soft ion. It has a high degree of polarizability, and its complexes with soft ligands have predominantly covalent bond characteristics. Cd2+ forms the most stable complexes with soft donor atoms (S much greater than N greater than 0). The coordination stereochemistry of Cd2+ is unusually varied, including coordination numbers from 2 to 8. Even though the Cd2+ ion is a d10 ion, disturbed coordination geometries are often seen. Generally, the stability of complexes increases with the number of coordination groups contributed by the ligand; consequently, complexes of Cd2+ with polydentate ligands containing SH groups are very stable. Cd2+ in metallothionein (MT) is coordinated with 4 thiolate groups, and the log stability constant is estimated to 25.5. Complexes between Cd2+ and low molecular weight monodentate or bidentate ligands, e.g., free amino acids (LMW-Cd), seem to exist very briefly, and Cd2+ is rapidly bound to high molecular weight proteins, mainly serum albumin. These complexes (HMW-Cd) are rapidly scavenged from blood, mainly by the liver, and Cd2+ is redistributed to MT. After about 1 day the Cd-MT complex (MT-Cd) almost exclusively accounts for the total retained dose of Cd2+, independent of the route of exposure. MT-Cd is slowly transferred to and accumulated in kidney cortex. The acute toxicity and interorgan distribution of parenterally administered Cd2+ are strongly influenced by preceding MT induction, or decreased capacity for MT synthesis; however, the gastrointestinal (GI) uptake of Cd2+ seems unaffected by preceding MT induction resulting in considerable capacity for Cd2+ chelation in intestinal mucosa, and this finding indicates that endogenous MT is not involved in Cd2+ absorption. The toxicity of

  11. Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Roberto A; Umeda, Masaaki; Yamamura, Saburo; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    An Arabidopsis cDNA (AtCAP1) that encodes a predicted protein of 476 amino acids highly homologous with the yeast cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was isolated. Expression of AtCAP1 in the budding yeast CAP mutant was able to rescue defects such as abnormal cell morphology and random budding pattern. The C-terminal domain, 158 amino acids of AtCAP1 possessing in vitro actin binding activity, was needed for the regulation of cytoskeleton-related defects of yeast. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtCAP1 under the regulation of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter showed different levels of AtCAP1 accumulation related to the extent of growth abnormalities, in particular size reduction of leaves as well as petioles. Morphological alterations in leaves were attributable to decreased cell size and cell number in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Tobacco suspension-cultured cells (Bright Yellow 2) overexpressing AtCAP1 exhibited defects in actin filaments and were unable to undergo mitosis. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment suggested that AtCAP1 interacted with actin in vivo. Therefore, AtCAP1 may play a functional role in actin cytoskeleton networking that is essential for proper cell elongation and division. PMID:11826305

  12. Genetics Home Reference: cap myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groote C, de Jonghe P, Marttila M, Laing NG, Pelin K, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Cap disease caused ... E, Wallefeld W, Memo M, Donner K, Laing NG, Marston S, Grönholm M, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Abnormal actin ...

  13. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  14. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures and luminescence properties of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination polymers based on bifunctional 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Na; Guo, Hui-Lin; Hu, Huai-Ming; Song, Juan; Xu, Bing; Yang, Meng-Lin; Dong, Fa-Xin; Xue, Gang-Lin

    2013-02-15

    Five new coordination polymers, [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy)(3-btc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(ctpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), [Cd{sub 4}(ctpy){sub 2}(2-btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}2nH{sub 2}O (5), (Hctpy=3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, H{sub 3}(3-btc)=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, H{sub 3}(2-btc)=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-2 are a one-dimensional chain with weak interactions to form 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 3 is a 4-nodal 3D topology framework comprised of binuclear zinc units and (ctpy){sup -} anions. Compound 4 shows two dimensional net. Compound 5 is a (4,5,6)-connected framework with {l_brace}4{sup 4}{center_dot}6{sup 2}{r_brace}{l_brace}4{sup 6}{center_dot}6{sup 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}4{sup 9}{center_dot}6{sup 6}{r_brace} topology. In addition, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of 1-5 were also studied in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: Five new Zn/Cd compounds with 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid were prepared. The photoluminescence and thermal stabilities properties of 1-5 were investigated in the solid state. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five new zinc/cadmium metal-organic frameworks have been hydrothermal synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural variation is attributed to the diverse metal ions and auxiliary ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-5 exhibit 1D ring chain, 2D layer and 3D open-framework, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds exhibit strong solid state luminescence emission at room temperature.

  15. Chelating agents and cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Shinobu, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A wide range of conventional chelating agents have been screened for (a) antidotal activity in acute cadmium poisoning and (b) ability to reduce aged liver and kidney deposits of cadmium. Chelating agents belonging to the dithiocarbamate class have been synthesized and tested in both the acute and chronic modes of cadmium intoxication. Several dithiocarbamates, not only provide antidotal rescue, but also substantially decrease the intracellular deposits of cadmium associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Fractionating the cytosol from the livers and kidneys of control and treated animals by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration clearly demonstrates that the dithiocarbamates are reducing the level of metallothionein-bound cadmium. However, the results of cell culture (Ehrlich ascites) studies designed to investigate the removal of cadmium from metallothionein and subsequent transport of the resultant cadmium complex across the cell membrane were inconclusive. In other in vitro investigations, the interaction between isolated native Cd, Zn-metallothionein and several chelating agents was explored. Ultracentrifugation, equilibrium dialysis, and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration studies have been carried out in an attempt to determine the rate of removal of cadmium from metallothionein by these small molecules. Chemical shifts for the relevant cadmium-dithiocarbamate complexes have been determined using natural abundance Cd-NMR.

  16. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  17. Biologically inspired stealth peptide-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Ann K; White, Andrew D; Keefe, Andrew J; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2014-02-25

    Introduction into the human body makes most nanoparticle systems susceptible to aggregation via nonspecific protein binding. Here, we developed a peptide-capped gold nanoparticle platform that withstands aggregation in undiluted human serum at 37 °C for 24 h. This biocompatible and natural system is based on mimicking human proteins which are enriched in negatively charged glutamic acid and positively charged lysine residues on their surface. The multifunctional EKEKEKE-PPPPC-Am peptide sequence consists of a stealth glutamic acid/lysine portion combined with a surface anchoring linker containing four prolines and a cysteine. Particle stability was measured via optical spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering in single protein, high salt, and undiluted human serum solutions. In vitro cell experiments demonstrate EKEKEKE-PPPPC-Am capped gold nanoparticles effectively minimize nonspecific cell uptake by nonphagocytic bovine aortic endothelial cells and phagocytic murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Cytotoxicity studies show that peptide-capped gold nanoparticles do not affect cell viability. Finally, the peptide EKEKEKE-PPPPC-Am was extended with cyclic RGD to demonstrate specific cell targeting and stealth without using poly(ethylene glycol). Adding the functional peptide via peptide sequence extension avoids complex conjugation chemistries that are used for connection to synthetic materials. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy results indicate high aortic bovine endothelial cell uptake of c[RGDfE(SGG-KEKEKE-PPPPC-Am)] capped gold nanoparticles and low uptake of the control scrambled sequence c[RDGfE(SGG-KEKEKE-PPPPC-Am)] capped gold nanoparticles.

  18. Morphology Control of Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystals: Insights into the Roles of Di-n-octylphosphine Oxide (DOPO) and Di-n-octylphosphinic Acid (DOPA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Di-n-octylphosphine oxide (DOPO) and di-n-octylphosphinic acid (DOPA), as two of impurities found in commercial tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), generate significant differences in the outcomes of CdSe-nanocrystal (NC) syntheses. Using n-tetradecylphosphonic acid (TDPA) as the primary acid additive, quantum dots (QDs) are grown with DOPO added, whereas quantum rods (QRs) are grown in the presence of DOPA. While using oleic acid (OA) as the primary acid additive, QDs are generated and the QDs produced with DOPA exhibit larger sizes and size distributions than those produced with DOPO. 31P NMR analyses of the reaction mixtures reveal that the majority of the DOPO has been converted into DOPA and di-n-octylphosphine (DOP) with DOP being removed via evacuation over the course of Cd-precursor preparation. The origin of the puzzling differences in the shape control of CdSe NCs in the presence of DOPO and DOPA is elucidated to be the small quantity of DOPO present, which liberates DOP during NC synthesis. In the presence of DOP, regardless of DOPA, the precursor-conversion kinetics and thus the nucleation kinetics are dramatically accelerated, generating a large number of nuclei by consuming a significant amount of CdSe nutrients, favoring QD growth. Similarly, QD growth is favored by the fast nucleation kinetics in the presence of OA, and the broader size distributions of QDs with DOPA are due to a second nucleation event initiated by the more stable Cd-di-n-octylphosphinate component. In contrast, a slow nucleation event results in the growth of QRs in the case of using DOPA and TDPA, where no DOPO or DOP is present. The results thus demonstrate the important role of precursor-conversion kinetics in the control of NC morphologies. PMID:22369500

  19. Syntheses, structures and fluorescence properties of cadmium coordination polymers with triangular 1,3-bis[2-(4‧-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene and linear dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rui; Yue, Fangfang; Wang, Yuting; Guo, Yongkang; Xuan, Xiaopeng

    2016-09-01

    Three new polymeric complexes [Cd3(1,3-BPEB)3(1,4-BDC)3·2H2O]n (1), [Cd2(1,3-BPEB)2(4,4‧-BPDC)2]n (2) and [Cd2(1,3-BPEB)2(4,4‧-STDC)2]n (3) (1,3-BPEB = 1,3-bis[2-(4‧-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene, 1,4-BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4‧-BPDC = 4,4‧-biphenyldicarboxylic acid and 4,4‧-STDC = 4,4‧-stilbenedicarboxylic acid) have been prepared by the solvothermal reaction of 1,3-BPEB, Cd(NO3)2·4H2O and dicarboxylic acids. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that these complexes have novel complicated structures. Complex 1 is a 3-D network structure by linking Cd atoms with 1,4-BDC and 1,3-BPEB ligands. Complex 2 shows a 3-D interpenetrating layered structure formed by three networks which derived from bridged Cd atoms with 4,4‧-BPDC and 1,3-BPEB ligands. Complex 3 has a fivefold interpenetrating 3-D coordination framework by linking Cd atoms with 4,4‧-STDC and 1,3-BPEB ligands. The dicarboxylic acids afford different coordination modes to bind Cd atoms in these three complexes. Additionally, these compounds were further characterized by PXRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Their fluorescence spectra were also determined and analyzed in the solid state at room temperature.

  20. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed Central

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-01-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem. PMID:488037

  1. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-02-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem.

  2. Cadmium biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B.; May, H.; Holan, Z.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Cadmium uptake by nonliving and resting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from aerobic or anaerobic cultures from pure cadmium-bearing solutions was examined. The highest cadmium uptake exceeding 70 mg Cd/g was observed with aerobic baker's yeast biomass from the exponential growth phase. Nearly linear sorption isotherms featured by higher sorbing resting cells together with metal deposits localized exclusively in vacuoles indicate the possibility of a different metal-sequestering mechanism when compared to dry nonliving yeasts which did not usually accumulate more than 20 mg Cd/g. The uptake of cadmium was relatively fast, 75% of the sorption completed in less than 5 min.

  3. Interactions between the histidine stimulation of cadmium and zinc influx into human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Horn, N M; Thomas, A L

    1996-01-01

    1. Histidine (2-40 mM) stimulated cadmium uptake into human erythrocytes incubated in the presence of 1% bovine serum albumin to ensure that the free, ionic cadmium concentration was low. 2. The histidine-stimulated cadmium uptake correlated with the calculated concentration of the cadmium-bis-histidine complex rather than the cadmium-mono-histidine complex or free ionic cadmium. 3. The histidine stimulation of cadmium uptake was saturable and stereospecific. D-Histidine (10 mM) had no effect. 4. Cadmium and zinc were both able to inhibit 65Zn2+ uptake into erythrocytes incubated in the presence of 40 mM L-histidine. The relationships between the percentage inhibition of 65Zn2+ uptake and the calculated concentrations of cadmium-bis-histidine and zinc-bis-histidine were very similar, which suggests that the metal histidine complexes compete for a common transport mechanism. 5. Pretreatment of the erythrocytes with N-ethylmaleimide using a protocol which is known to inhibit the system y+ amino acid transport mechanism had no effect on the histidine stimulation of metal transport. PMID:8930838

  4. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  5. Polar Cap Plasma and Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Heather A.; Craven, Paul D.; Comfort, Richard H.; Chandler, Michael O.; Moore, Thomas E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation will describe the character of the polar cap plasma in 10% AGU Spring 1998 particular the convection velocities at the perigee (about 1.8 Re) and apogee( about 8.9 Re) of Polar in relationship to Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and solar wind parameters. This plasma is thought to be due to several sources; the polar wind, cleft ion fountain, and auroral outflow. The plasma in the polar cap tends to be mostly field-aligned. At any given point in the polar cap, this plasma could be from a different regions since convection of magnetic field lines can transport this material. it is quite difficult to study such a phenomena with single point measurements. Current knowledge of the polar cap plasma obtained by in situ measurements will be presented along with recent results from the Polar mission. This study also examines the direct electrical coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere by comparing convection velocities measured by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) instruments in magnetosphere and measurements of the ionosphere by ground-based radars. At times such a comparison is difficult because the Polar satellite at apogee spends a large amount of time in the polar cap which is a region that is not coverage well by the current SuperDam coherent radars. This is impart due to the lack of irregularities that returns the radar signal.

  6. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  7. Observation of multiple, identical binding sites in the exchange of carboxylic acid ligands with CdS nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Nichols, Valerie M; Zhou, Dapeng; Lim, Cynthia; Pau, George Shu Heng; Bardeen, Christopher J; Tang, Ming L

    2014-06-11

    We study ligand exchange between the carboxylic acid group and 5.0 nm oleic-acid capped CdS nanocrystals (NCs) using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This is the first measurement of the initial binding events between cadmium chalcogenide NCs and carboxylic acid groups. The binding behavior can be described as an interaction between a ligand with single binding group and a substrate with multiple, identical binding sites. Assuming Poissonian binding statistics, our model fits both steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (SSPL and TRPL, respectively) data well. A modified Langmuir isotherm reveals that a CdS nanoparticle has an average of 3.0 new carboxylic acid ligands and binding constant, Ka, of 3.4 × 10(5) M(-1).

  8. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  9. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  10. The Enigmatic Martian Polar Caps

    SciTech Connect

    James, Philip

    2005-08-17

    The Martian polar caps have puzzled astronomers for over a century. Extensive study by many instruments on various spacecraft has resolved many questions but has at the same time created a new generation of puzzles. The polar caps are intimately coupled to the current Martian climate and volatile cycles. They also hold clues to climate variations on a variety of longer time scales. The results of recent missions will be reviewed, and the potential outlook for resolution of the outstanding questions will be examined.

  11. Ultrafast Charge- and Energy-Transfer Dynamics in Conjugated Polymer: Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystal Blends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocrystal–polymer systems are promising candidates for photovoltaic applications, but the processes controlling charge generation are poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the energy- and charge-transfer processes occurring in a model system based on blends of cadmium selenide nanocrystals (CdSe-NC) with poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) using a combination of time-resolved absorption and luminescence measurements. The use of different capping ligands (n-butylamine, oleic acid) as well as thermal annealing allows tuning of the polymer–nanocrystal interaction. We demonstrate that energy transfer from MDMO-PPV to CdSe-NCs is the dominant exciton quenching mechanism in nonannealed blends and occurs on ultrafast time scales (<1 ps). Upon thermal annealing electron transfer becomes competitive with energy transfer, with a transfer rate of 800 fs independent of the choice of the ligand. Interestingly, we find hole transfer to be much less efficient than electron transfer and to extend over several nanoseconds. Our results emphasize the importance of tuning the organic–nanocrystal interaction to achieve efficient charge separation and highlight the unfavorable hole-transfer dynamics in these blends. PMID:24490650

  12. Photoluminescence study of PVP capped CdS nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pattabi, Manjunatha . E-mail: manjupattabi@yahoo.com; Saraswathi Amma, B.; Manzoor, K.

    2007-05-03

    Photoluminescence properties of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol matrix (PVA) are reported. The PVP-CdS nanoparticles are prepared by non-aqueous method wherein cadmium nitrate is used as the cadmium source and hydrogen sulphide as the sulphur source. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and cast as self-standing flexible (PVP-CdS)-PVA films. The nanocomposites are characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. XRD and TEM studies show the formation of cubic CdS particles with average size {approx}3-5 nm. Thermal studies, carried out to observe the changes in PVA matrix due to the incorporation of PVP-CdS nanoparticles show strong interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the nanocomposites show two peaks, at 502 and 636 nm, which are attributed to the band edge and surface defects respectively, of CdS nanoparticles. Effective surface capping with optimum concentration of polyvinyl pyrrolidone leads to the quenching of surface defect-related emission.

  13. Indirect pulp capping: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the acceptance of the clinical practice of indirect pulp capping. State and regional dental boards and postgraduate dental education programs throughout the United States were surveyed. Results indicate that no clear consensus exists for the acceptance of this clinical procedure.

  14. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  15. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate and selected analogs on cadmium metabolism following chronic cadmium ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of ip treatment with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), 4- carboxamidopiperidine-N-dithiocarboxylate (CAP-N-DTC), and N-methyl-N- dithiocarboxyglucamine (MDCG) on cadmium (Cd) levels in selected mouse organs and tissues were assessed after mice were offered deionized water containing 0.05 mg/ml of CdCl/sub 2/ x 2.5 H/sub 2/O, 10 mg/ml of sucrose, and 0.125 microCi/ml of carrier-free /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ as the sole drinking fluid for 15 days. Only 0.31 +/- 0.01 % of the ingested Cd was absorbed. Data obtained following treatment were compared with those obtained earlier in similar studies following ip Cd injection. In contrast to its action when administered after ip Cd injection, DDTC enhanced hepatic Cd burdens in mice which received Cd po. DDTC did, however, reduce renal Cd levels markedly after Cd ingestion, while enhancing brain Cd levels. CAP- N-DTC and MDCG, which were shown earlier to have no effect on Cd levels in striated muscle following ip Cd administration, effected significant reduction of muscle Cd concentrations after Cd administration po, while also reducing hepatic and renal Cd levels significantly. It was concluded that certain dithiocarbamates effectively mobilize and promote excretion of Cd which has been absorbed from one of the natural portals of entry.

  16. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate and selected analogs on cadmium metabolism following chronic cadmium ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gale, G R; Atkins, L M; Smith, A B; Jones, M M

    1985-01-01

    Effects of ip treatment with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), 4-carboxamidopiperidine-N-dithiocarboxylate (CAP-N-DTC), and N-methyl-N-dithiocarboxyglucamine (MDCG) on cadmium (Cd) levels in selected mouse organs and tissues were assessed after mice were offered deionized water containing 0.05 mg/ml of CdCl2 X 2.5 H2O, 10 mg/ml of sucrose, and 0.125 microCi/ml of carrier-free 109-CdCl2 as the sole drinking fluid for 15 days. Only 0.31 +/- 0.01 % of the ingested Cd was absorbed. Data obtained following treatment were compared with those obtained earlier in similar studies following ip Cd injection. In contrast to its action when administered after ip Cd injection, DDTC enhanced hepatic Cd burdens in mice which received Cd po. DDTC did, however, reduce renal Cd levels markedly after Cd ingestion, while enhancing brain Cd levels. CAP-N-DTC and MDCG, which were shown earlier to have no effect on Cd levels in striated muscle following ip Cd administration, effected significant reduction of muscle Cd concentrations after Cd administration po, while also reducing hepatic and renal Cd levels significantly. It was concluded that certain dithiocarbamates effectively mobilize and promote excretion of Cd which has been absorbed from one of the natural portals of entry.

  17. Interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rabbit ileal cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Homeidan, F.R.; Wicks, J.; Cusolito, S.; El-Sabban, M.E.; Sharp, G.W.G.; Donowitz, M.

    1986-03-05

    An interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor on active electrolyte transport was demonstrated in rabbit ileum. Clonidine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist, stimulated NaCl absorption apparently by Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonism since it inhibited /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ uptake across the basolateral membrane and decreased total ileal calcium content. This stimulation was inhibited by the Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists dl- and l-verapamil and cadmium but not by nifedipine. The binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine, a specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic antagonist, was studied on purified ileal cell membranes using a rapid filtration technique. dl-Verapamil and Cd/sup + +/ inhibited the specific binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine over the same concentration range in which they affected transport. In contrast, nifedipine had no effect on binding, just as it had no effect on clonidine-stimulated NaCl absorption. These data demonstrate that there is an interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channels and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in ileal basolateral membranes. Some Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists alter ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic binding to the receptor and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist binding leads to changes in Ca/sup + +/ entry. A close spatial relationship between the Ca/sup + +/-channel and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor could explain the data.

  18. Molecular cloning of the. cap alpha. subunit of human and guinea pig leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein Mo1: Chromosomal localization and homology to the. cap alpha. subunits of integrins

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaout, M.A.; Remold-O'Donnell, E.; Pierce, M.W.; Harris, P.; Tenen, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    The cell surface-glycoprotein Mo1 is a member of the family of leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (Leu-CAMs) that includes lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and p150,95. Each Leu-CAM is a heterodimer with a distinct ..cap alpha.. subunit noncovalently associated with a common ..beta.. subunit. The authors describe the isolation and analysis of two partial cDNA clones encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of the Leu-CAM Mo1 in humans and guinea pigs. A monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the guinea pig ..cap alpha.. chain was used for immunoscreening a lambdagt11 expression library. The sequence of a 378-base-pair insert from one immunoreactive clone revealed a single continuous open reading frame encoding 126 amino acids including a 26-amino acid tryptic peptide isolated from the purified guinea pig ..cap alpha.. subunit. A cDNA clone of identical size was isolated from a human monocyte/lymphocyte cDNA library by using the guinea pig clone as a probe. The human clone also encoded a 126-amino acid peptide including the sequence of an additional tryptic peptide present in purified human Mo1..cap alpha.. chain. Southern analysis of DNA from hamster-human hybrids localized the human Mo1..cap alpha.. chain to chromosome 16, which has been shown to contain the gene for the ..cap alpha.. chain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha.. subunits of Leu-CAMs evolved by gene duplication from a common ancestral gene and strengthen the hypothesis that the ..cap alpha.. subunits of these heterodimeric cell adhesion molecules on myeloid and lymphoid cells, platelets, and fibroblasts are evolutionary related.

  19. Lead and cadmium in fruiting bodies of macrofungi in the vicinity of a lead smelter.

    PubMed

    Lepsová, A; Král, R

    1988-10-15

    The concentrations of lead and cadmium in the fruiting bodies of mycorrhizal and edible macrofungi (Basidiomycetes, Agaricales) were measured in the vicinity of a lead smelter. Very high concentrations of both metals were found 1 km from the stack, and elevated concentrations were observed up to a distance of 4.5 km. The dependence of the concentrations on the distance from the stack were approximated by an exponential function, the extrapolation of which showed that only at a distance of 6 km did the concentrations approach those reported from an area in the Krusné Hory Mountains with a medium level of air pollution. The concentrations of lead were slightly higher in the caps than in the stems of the fungal fruiting bodies from the sites close to the smelters; at a distance of 1.7 km they were the same, and at greater distances the lead concentrations in the caps were slightly lower than those in the stems. The cap/stem concentration ratio for cadmium does not exhibit any change with distance. The different behaviour of the two metals can be explained in terms of the lower mobility of Pb2+ ions. Because of their lead and cadmium contents, edible mycorrhizal fungi picked within a distance of 0.6 km of the stack can be toxic to man if eaten often in quantities that are usual in Czechoslovakia. PMID:3238420

  20. Cadmium and zinc chain and cluster-based layered coordination polymers prepared from flexible-arm aromatic ortho-dicarboxylic acids and 4-pyridylnicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Peter E.; Uebler, Jacob W.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrothermal reaction of a d10-metal nitrate salt, a flexible-arm aromatic ortho-dicarboxylic acid, and 4-pyridylnicotinamide (4-pna) afforded four new crystalline coordination polymers, which were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Cd(Hhmph)(nic)(H2O)2]n (1, hmph = homophthalate, nic = nicotinate) is a 1-D coordination polymer chain compound whose nic ligands were generated in situ via 4-pna hydrolysis. Addition of base and a shorter reaction duration afforded [Cd(hmph)(4-pna)]n (2), which has dinuclear [Cd2(hmph)2] dimers linked into a 1-D ladder polymer via 4-pna ligands. A similar chain structure, albeit with a different hmph binding mode, is seen in [Zn(hmph)(4-pna)]n (3). {[Zn2(phda)2(4-pna)2(H2O)]ṡH2O}n (4, phda = 1,2-phenylenediacetate) has both anti-syn bridged [Zn2(OCO)2] ring dimers and [Zn2(OCO)4] paddlewheel dimers, linked into a layered coordination polymer by dipodal 4-pna ligands. Luminescent properties of these new materials are also presented.

  1. Effects of subcytotoxic cadmium on morphology of glial fibrillary acidic protein network in astrocytes derived from murine neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hideki; Sasaki, Go; Nishikawa, Mayu; Hara, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    The susceptibility of mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) to heavy-metal cytotoxicity was assessed by measuring cell viability following exposure to heavy metal chlorides (ZnCl2, CdCl2, CuCl2, and HgCl2, respectively). We determined half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values, subcytotoxic doses, capacity for neural differentiation, and morphological features of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) network at the subcytotoxic doses of heavy metal ions. Experiments were performed using two protocols for the exposure at subcytotoxic doses of heavy metal ions; these protocols included simultaneous exposure with the induction of NSPC differentiation and sequential exposure after the induction for 1 week. Exposure to HgCl2 using both protocols reduced the ratio of neuronal NSPC differentiation. Although sequential exposure to CdCl2 reduced the size of GFAP network, simultaneous exposure did not induce any change. In conclusion, image analyses of the cytoskeletal morphology of NSPCs as a novel tool for assessing neurodevelopmental cytotoxicity enabled us to obtain new information about the localization of cytoskeletal proteins.

  2. The expression of CAP1 after traumatic brain injury and its role in astrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Yonghua; Li, Yao; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Dongjian; Shen, Jianhong; Yan, Yaohua; Yan, Song; Wu, Xinmin; Li, Aihong; Guo, Aisong; Cheng, Chun

    2014-12-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), a member of cyclase-associated proteins involved in the regulation of actin filaments, was recently reported to play a role in the pathology of sciatic nerves injury. However, the distribution and function of CAP1 in the central nervous system (CNS) remain unclear. To investigate whether CAP1 is involved in CNS injury and repair, we used an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in adult rats. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a significant upregulation of CAP1 in ipsilateral peritrauma cortex compared with the contralateral and sham-operated ones. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that CAP1 was co-expressed with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In addition, we detected that Ki-67 had colocalization with GFAP and CAP1 after TBI. In vitro, during the process of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced primary astrocyte proliferation, we observed enhanced expression of CAP1. Specially, CAP1-specific siRNA-transfected primary astrocytes show significantly decreased ability for proliferation. Together, all these data indicated that the change of CAP1 protein expression was associated with astrocyte proliferation after the trauma of the central nervous system (CNS).

  3. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  4. Solid phase extraction of lead (II), copper (II), cadmium (II) and nickel (II) using gallic acid-modified silica gel prior to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fazhi; Lin, Xucong; Wu, Xiaoping; Xie, Zenghong

    2008-01-15

    The immobilization of gallic acid on the surface of amino group-containing silica gel phases for the formation of a newly chelating matrix (GASG) is described. The newly synthesized extractant, characterized by the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformation spectroscopy and elemental analysis, was used to preconcentrate Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II). The pH ranges for quantitative sorption and the concentrations of HCl for eluting Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) were opimized, respectively. The sorption capacity of the matrix has been found to be 12.63, 6.09, 15.38, 4.62mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), respectively, with the preconcentration factor of approximately 200 ( approximately 100 for Cd(II)). The effects of flow rates, the eluants, the electrolytes and cations on the metal ions extraction, as well as the chelating matrix stability and reusability, were also studied. The extraction behavior of the matrix was conformed with Langmuir's equation. The present preconcentration and determination method was successfully applied to the analysis of synthetic metal mixture solution and river water samples. The 3sigma detection limit and 10sigma quantification limit for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) were found to be 0.58, 0.86, 0.65, 0.92microg/L and 1.08, 1.23, 0.87, 1.26microg/L, respectively. PMID:18371717

  5. The role of acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water metal concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Pesch, C.E.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S. . Environmental Research Lab.); Berry, W.J. ); Mahony, J.D. . Chemistry Dept.)

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes Arenaceodentata. Ten-d exposures were conducted with sediments, contaminated primarily with Cd and Ni, from Foundry Cove (Hudson River, NY), and with uncontaminated sediments spiked with Cd or Ni. Molar ratios of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS ranged from < 0.02 to 44 for Cd-spiked, 0.02 to 241 for Ni-spiked, and <0.06 to 125 for Foundry Cove sediments. In all experiments, significant mortality was not observed when SEM/AVS ratios were <1.0 and interstitial water toxic units (IWTU) were <1.0. In the Cd and Ni-spiked experiments, when SEM/AVS ratios or IWTUs were >1.0, sediments were either lethal or worms did not burrow. Mortality of worms in Foundry Cove sediments was [le] 20%, and worms burrowed in all these sediments. However, IW contained <1.0 TU (Ni + Cd) in all Foundry Cove sediments except one (IWTU = 1.69). Metal concentrations in worms generally increased with increases in sediment metal concentration, SEM/AVS molar ratio, and IW metal concentration. The presence of metal in worms from sediments from SEM/AVS ratios <1.0 may be evidence of release of Cd or Ni from oxidized metal sulfide (a result of burrowing), uptake of metal from ingested sediment, or adsorption to body surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that when the concentration of AVS in sediments exceeds that of divalent metals sediments will not be acutely toxic. However, a greater number of sediments was correctly predicted to be nontoxic when interstitial water metal concentration of <1.0 TU was used.

  6. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis transpeptidase enzyme CapD.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Richter, S.; Zhang, R.; Anderson, V. J.; Missiakas, D.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-09-04

    Bacillus anthracis elaborates a poly-{gamma}-d-glutamic acid capsule that protects bacilli from phagocytic killing during infection. The enzyme CapD generates amide bonds with peptidoglycan cross-bridges to anchor capsular material within the cell wall envelope of B. anthracis. The capsular biosynthetic pathway is essential for virulence during anthrax infections and can be targeted for anti-infective inhibition with small molecules. Here, we present the crystal structures of the {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase CapD with and without {alpha}-l-Glu-l-Glu dipeptide, a non-hydrolyzable analog of poly-{gamma}-d-glutamic acid, in the active site. Purified CapD displays transpeptidation activity in vitro, and its structure reveals an active site broadly accessible for poly-{gamma}-glutamate binding and processing. Using structural and biochemical information, we derive a mechanistic model for CapD catalysis whereby Pro{sup 427}, Gly{sup 428}, and Gly{sup 429} activate the catalytic residue of the enzyme, Thr{sup 352}, and stabilize an oxyanion hole via main chain amide hydrogen bonds.

  7. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per... into subsequent funding years for use in the schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance...

  8. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  9. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  12. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the... schools and libraries mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the annual cap... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In...

  13. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the... schools and libraries mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the annual cap... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  19. Mineral of the month: cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimasauskas, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium, which was once used almost exclusively for pigments, now has many diverse applications. Cadmium’s low melting point, excellent electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion make it valuable for many products including batteries, electroplated coatings, stabilizers for plastics, solar cells and nonferrous alloys. Today’s cadmium is primarily used in rechargeable batteries, accounting for about 78 percent of consumption in 2004. In 2000, an estimated 3.5 billion consumer batteries were sold in the United States, of which almost 10 percent were nickel-cadmium batteries.

  20. Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    He, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Jin; Ren, Gai-Di; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Qian, Meng; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2009-07-01

    Two cadmium (Cd)-resistant strains Pseudomonas sp. RJ10 and Bacillus sp. RJ16 were investigated for their effects on the soil Cd and lead (Pb) solubilization and promotion of plant growth and Cd and Pb uptakes of a Cd-hyperaccumulator tomato. In the heavy metal-contaminated inoculated soil, the CaCl(2)-extractable Cd and Pb were increased by 58-104% and 67-93%, respectively, compared to the uninoculation control. The bacteria produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Root elongation assay conducted on tomato under gnotobiotic conditions demonstrated increase in root elongation of inoculated tomato seedlings compared to the control plants. An increase in Cd and Pb contents of above-ground tissues varied from 92% to 113% and from 73% to 79% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil compared to the uninoculation control, respectively. These results show that the bacteria could be exploited for bacteria enhanced-phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils. PMID:19368973

  1. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    PubMed

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:23395783

  2. Helix Capping in RNA Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung C.; Gutell, Robin R.

    2014-01-01

    Helices are an essential element in defining the three-dimensional architecture of structured RNAs. While internal basepairs in a canonical helix stack on both sides, the ends of the helix stack on only one side and are exposed to the loop side, thus susceptible to fraying unless they are protected. While coaxial stacking has long been known to stabilize helix ends by directly stacking two canonical helices coaxially, based on analysis of helix-loop junctions in RNA crystal structures, herein we describe helix capping, topological stacking of a helix end with a basepair or an unpaired nucleotide from the loop side, which in turn protects helix ends. Beyond the topological protection of helix ends against fraying, helix capping should confer greater stability onto the resulting composite helices. Our analysis also reveals that this general motif is associated with the formation of tertiary structure interactions. Greater knowledge about the dynamics at the helix-junctions in the secondary structure should enhance the prediction of RNA secondary structure with a richer set of energetic rules and help better understand the folding of a secondary structure into its three-dimensional structure. These together suggest that helix capping likely play a fundamental role in driving RNA folding. PMID:24691270

  3. Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

  4. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. PMID:24388198

  5. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity.

  6. Influence of Chemically Enhanced Diffusion on Cap Dolostones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, T.

    2014-12-01

    Cap dolostones, a globally distributed layer of carbonate rock that sits directly on terminal glacial deposits of the severe Cryogenian ice-age, contain important records of the conditions during the early stage of climatic recovery. Negative carbon isotope signals preserved in the cap are central to discussions of the mechanisms, drivers and time-scale of this interval of extreme climate change. These signals have been attributed to the rapid rise in temperature and acidic ocean conditions predicted to result from huge amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere, which bumped the Earth out of the Snowball state. Questions remain however, because detailed investigations of cap dolostone isotopic variability within individual sedimentary basins show systematic variations that are difficult to explain by temperature effects alone. Furthermore, other influences on cap isotopes have been hypothesized including, the release of massive amounts of methane trapped by the ice and upwelling of deep ocean water with negative signals. This contribution will explore the potential impact of chemically enhanced diffusion (CED) on the carbon isotopic compositions of cap dolostones using a box model. CED is a process by which CO2 gas is transferred to solution via reaction with hydroxide anions. In the modern ocean, rates of CED are thought to be insignificant and CO2 gas transfer is accomplished primarily by diffusion and dissolution, with minimal isotopic fraction. However, in various highly productive lakes, the strong negative isotope fraction of -27 ‰ associated CED impacts the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon. Post-glacial oceans may have been chemically similar to highly productive lakes and initial modeling results indicate that CED could have influenced the carbon isotopic composition of seawater and thus the cap dolostone. Implications for post-glacial oceanic conditions will be discussed.

  7. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sneideris, Larissa C; Gavassi, Marina A; Campos, Marcelo L; D'Amico-Damião, Victor; Carvalho, Rogério F

    2015-09-01

    In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress. PMID:26221985

  8. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sneideris, Larissa C; Gavassi, Marina A; Campos, Marcelo L; D'Amico-Damião, Victor; Carvalho, Rogério F

    2015-09-01

    In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  9. Influence of surface capping on oxygen reduction catalysis: A case study of 1.7 nm Pt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Wang, Hailiang

    2016-06-01

    Organic and polymer capping agents are prevailingly used in the synthesis of metal nanocrystals to render size and shape controls for desirable catalytic properties. A general assumption in the electrocatalysis field is that the capping agents block active sites and hinder catalytic turnover. However there have been a number of experimental results suggesting otherwise. Investigation of the fundamental correlations between the surface capping and the catalytic kinetics of metal nanoparticles is of paramount importance yet still remains challenging in large part due to structural changes induced by capping agent removal or synthesis using different capping agents. Our approach involves a unique catalyst system comprising of 1.7 nm Pt nanoparticles with and without various surface capping. We find that surface capping affects both activity and selectivity of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction. The influences can be positive, neutral or negative. The five capping agents studied fall into three groups. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) cappings do not change the onset potential or product selectivity, but increase the catalytic current density. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) cappings do not change the onset potential or product selectivity, but slightly decrease the catalytic current density. Oleylamine (OA) capping significantly decreases the onset potential and the catalytic current density as well as change the product selectivity by favoring a high percentage of 2-electron reduction.

  10. Identification and characterization of a cDNA encoding mouse CAP: a homolog of the yeast adenylyl cyclase associated protein.

    PubMed

    Vojtek, A B; Cooper, J A

    1993-07-01

    CAP, an adenylyl cyclase associated protein, is present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In both organisms, CAP is bifunctional: the N-terminal domain binds to adenylyl cyclase, thereby enabling adenylyl cyclase to respond appropriately to upstream regulatory signals, such as RAS in S. cerevisiae; the C-terminal domain is required for cellular morphogenesis. Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding a CAP homolog from a higher eukaryote. The mouse CAP cDNA contains an open reading frame capable of encoding a 474 amino acid protein. The protein encoded by the mouse CAP cDNA shows extensive homology to the yeast CAP proteins, particularly in the central poly-proline rich region and in the C-terminal domain. By northern analysis, the CAP message appears to be ubiquitous, but not uniform. By indirect immunofluorescence, ectopically expressed mouse CAP protein is found in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts and, in migrating cells, at the leading edge. Expression of the mouse CAP cDNA in S. cerevisiae complements defects associated with loss of the yeast CAP carboxy-terminal domain. Hence, the function of the CAP carboxy-terminal domain has been conserved from yeast to mouse.

  11. The divergent eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis has an m7G cap methyltransferase capable of a single N2 methylation.

    PubMed

    Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Louly, Camila; Franco, Octávio L; Rubio, Mary A; Alfonzo, Juan D; Johnson, Patricia J

    2008-12-01

    Eukaryotic RNAs typically contain 5' cap structures that have been primarily studied in yeast and metazoa. The only known RNA cap structure in unicellular protists is the unusual Cap4 on Trypanosoma brucei mRNAs. We have found that T. vaginalis mRNAs are protected by a 5' cap structure, however, contrary to that typical for eukaryotes, T. vaginalis spliceosomal snRNAs lack a cap and may contain 5' monophophates. The distinctive 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap structure usually found on snRNAs and snoRNAs is produced by hypermethylation of an m(7)G cap catalyzed by the enzyme trimethylguanosine synthase (Tgs). Here, we biochemically characterize the single T. vaginalis Tgs (TvTgs) encoded in its genome and demonstrate that TvTgs exhibits substrate specificity and amino acid requirements typical of an RNA cap-specific, m(7)G-dependent N2 methyltransferase. However, recombinant TvTgs is capable of catalysing only a single round of N2 methylation forming a 2,7-dimethylguanosine cap (DMG) as observed previously for Giardia lamblia. In contrast, recombinant Entamoeba histolytica and Trypanosoma brucei Tgs are capable of catalysing the formation of a TMG cap. These data suggest the presence of RNAs with a distinctive 5' DMG cap in Trichomonas and Giardia lineages that are absent in other protist lineages.

  12. PCR-cloning of cadmium-inducible peptides in the barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Togi, Akiko; Kamino, Kei; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

    2002-04-01

    A 340 bp DNA fragment was amplified from barnacle (Megabalanus volcano) cDNA by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed based on the amino acid sequences of barnacle cadmium-inducible peptides CdlP1 and CdlP2. The whole sequence was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding 71 amino acid residues and the sequences for CdlP1 and CdlP2 were found to be located in the center of this coding region. Although CdlP1 and CdlP2 had been detected only in the cadmium-exposed barnacles, their mRNA was present both in cadmium-exposed barnacles and in unexposed barnacles. These results suggest that posttranslational proteolytic processing may be induced in the presence of cadmium.

  13. Characterization studies on cadmium-mycophosphatin from the mushroom Agaricus macrosporus

    SciTech Connect

    Meisch, H.U.; Schmitt, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    A low molecular weight Cd-binding phosphoglycoprotein, cadmium-mycophosphatin, has been isolated from the mushroom Agaricus macrosporus. This protein has a molecular weight of 12,000 dalton and contains no sulfur but a high amount of acid amino acids (Glu, Asp), and carbohydrates (glucose, galactose). Cadmium-mycophosphatin has an isoelectric point less than pH 2, binds cadmium with a dissociation constant of K/sub D/ = 1.59 x 10 M (pK/sub D/ = 6.8) and is saturated with 13.5 mole Cd/mole, all Cd-binding sites being equivalent. It is suggested that Cd is bound by phosphoserine groups, similar relations being known from calcium-binding proteins in animals. From A. macrosporus four other low-molecular weight glycoproteins have been isolated which contain sulfur and bind cadmium and copper. The biological significance of these Cd-binding proteins is discussed.

  14. Stimulation of Cadmium Uptake in Relation to the Cadmium Content of Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Charles M.; Ringoet, Arthur; Myttenaere, Constant

    1978-01-01

    The time course of cadmium uptake by the roots of intact tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was measured in a nutrient solution with a micromolar cadmium concentration until all cadmium in the medium was exhausted. Exhaustion taking a few hours, cadmium was repeatedly added to the nutrient solution. The initial rate of cadmium uptake was computed for each cadmium addition. This rate sharply increased and ultimately leveled off, the maximum value being about three times higher than the value measured after the first cadmium addition. The stimulating effect of cadmium was associated with an inhibitory effect at higher levels of cadmium concentrations. An increase in the net cadmium influx with time could not be explained by the binding of heavy metal to a fixed number of organic compounds. Conceivably, the production of binding sites could be increased and cadmium might play a part in controlling the rate of sites production. PMID:16660557

  15. Mercury Telluride and Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A semiconductor's usefulness is determined by how atoms are ordered within the crystal's underlying three-dimensional structure. While this mercury telluride and cadmium telluride alloy sample mixes completely in Earth -based laboratories, convective flows prevent them from mixing uniformly.

  16. A method for partitioning cadmium bioaccumulated in small aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardena, S.N.; Rana, K.J.; Baird, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to evaluate bioaccumulation and surface adsorption of aqueous cadmium (Cd) by sac-fry of the African tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the first experiment, the design consisted of two cadmium treatments: 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in dilution water and a Cd-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Cd-EDTA) complex at 15 {micro}m{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}, and a water-only control. There were five replicates per treatment and 40 fish per replicate. It was found that EDTA significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of cadmium by tilapia sac-fry by 34%. Based on the results, a second experiment was conducted to evaluate four procedures: a no-rinse control; rinsing in EDTA; rinsing in distilled water; and rinsing in 5% nitric acid, for removing surface-bound Cd from exposed sac-fry. In this experiment, 30 fish in each of five replicates were exposed to 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} for 72 h, processed through the rinse procedures, and analyzed for total Cd. The EDTA rinse treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) Cd concentrations of the exposed fish relative to those receiving no rinse. It was concluded that the EDTA rinse technique may be useful in studies evaluating the partitioning of surface-bound and accumulated cadmium in small aquatic organisms.

  17. Biosynthesis of cadmium sulphide quantum semiconductor crystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dameron, C. T.; Reese, R. N.; Mehra, R. K.; Kortan, A. R.; Carroll, P. J.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Brus, L. E.; Winge, D. R.

    1989-04-01

    NANOMETRE-SCALE semiconductor quantum crystallites exhibit size-dependent and discrete excited electronic states which occur at energies higher than the band gap of the corresponding bulk solid1-4. These crystallites are too small to have continuous energy bands, even though a bulk crystal structure is present. The onset of such quantum properties sets a fundamental limit to device miniaturization in microelectronics5. Structures with either one, two or all three dimensions on the nanometer scale are of particular interest in solid state physics6. We report here our discovery of the biosynthesis of quantum crystallites in yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cultured in the presence of cad-mium salts. Short chelating peptides of general structure (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly control the nucleation and growth of CdS crystallites to peptide-capped intracellular particles of diameter 20 Å. These quantum CdS crystallites are more monodisperse than CdS par-ticles synthesized chemically. X-ray data indicate that, at this small size, the CdS structure differs from that of bulk CdS and tends towards a six-coordinate rock-salt structure.

  18. Aversiveness of cadmium in solution.

    PubMed

    Cory-Slechta, D A; Weiss, B

    1981-12-01

    Weanling rats were given cadmium chloride solutions as drinking water (0, 25, 50 or 150 ppm Cd). Immediate decrements in fluid consumption and retarded weight gain were observed at the highest concentration. In addition, two of the 150 ppm rats died within four days. The rapid onset of these effects suggested taste aversion and sharply reduced water intake, not physiological impairment, as the cause. To test this possibility, rats were given a choice between two drinking water solutions. One contained distilled water, the other cadmium. Concentrations as low as 1 ppm were rejected by some rats. Additional studies showed that chronic cadmium exposure modified the intake pattern of saccharin solutions typical of rats, and that the addition of saccharin to the 150 ppm cadmium solution did not reduce its aversive properties. These data indicated that the taste of cadmium, at least in solution, is aversive to rats. Since taste aversion can reduce fluid and food consumption, and consequently body weight, properly designed experiments must include adequate control procedures such as pair-feeding and pair-watering to differentiate unique effects of cadmium from those produced by undernutrition.

  19. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1985-11-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, but absorption may increase in women who have iron deficiency. Earlier estimates of the critical concentration in renal cortex being about 200 mg/kg wet weight still seem to be valid. New information is available on present renal levels and their distribution in the general population. The present margin of safety with regard to risk for renal effects is small. To predict future health risks from increases in dietary cadmium due to environmental changes such as acid deposition, it is necessary that the models used are based on correct assumptions. Of interest are the distributions of dietary intake, gastrointestinal absorption, and renal cadmium concentrations. These distributions are normal or lognormal, and since standard deviations are used when estimating risks, it is of paramount importance that the standard deviations are estimated as accurately as possible. At present it is not possible to quantify the effects attributed to acid rain only; account must be also be taken of cadmium added to, e.g., soil by use of sewage sludge and other fertilizers. In addition to risks to human health, cadmium also poses a threat to horses, which generally have renal cadmium concentrations several times higher than adult humans. It is recommended that horses should be monitored in areas when acid deposition is high. Such monitoring might provide valuable information about impact of acid rain.

  20. Genetic basis of arsenite and cadmium tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, Michael; Perrone, Gabriel G; Kristiansson, Erik; Traini, Mathew; Ye, Tian; Dawes, Ian W; Nerman, Olle; Tamás, Markus J

    2009-01-01

    Background Arsenic and cadmium are widely distributed in nature and pose serious threats to the environment and human health. Exposure to these nonessential toxic metals may result in a variety of human diseases including cancer. However, arsenic and cadmium toxicity targets and the cellular systems contributing to tolerance acquisition are not fully known. Results To gain insight into metal action and cellular tolerance mechanisms, we carried out genome-wide screening of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid and homozygous diploid deletion mutant collections and scored for reduced growth in the presence of arsenite or cadmium. Processes found to be required for tolerance to both metals included sulphur and glutathione biosynthesis, environmental sensing, mRNA synthesis and transcription, and vacuolar/endosomal transport and sorting. We also identified metal-specific defence processes. Arsenite-specific defence functions were related to cell cycle regulation, lipid and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and the cytoskeleton whereas cadmium-specific defence functions were mainly related to sugar/carbohydrate metabolism, and metal-ion homeostasis and transport. Molecular evidence indicated that the cytoskeleton is targeted by arsenite and that phosphorylation of the Snf1p kinase is required for cadmium tolerance. Conclusion This study has pin-pointed core functions that protect cells from arsenite and cadmium toxicity. It also emphasizes the existence of both common and specific defence systems. Since many of the yeast genes that confer tolerance to these agents have homologues in humans, similar biological processes may act in yeast and humans to prevent metal toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:19284616

  1. Introduction of the human pro. cap alpha. 1(I) collagen gene into pro. cap alpha. 1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-02-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of pro..cap alpha..2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse pro..cap alpha..2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human ..cap alpha..1 chains and one mouse ..cap alpha..2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both ..cap alpha..1(I) and ..cap alpha..2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the ..cap alpha..(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse ..cap alpha..1 and ..cap alpha..2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human ..cap alpha.. chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected pro..cap alpha..1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I.

  2. [Tobacco cadmium health risk assessment and reduction techniques: A review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen-liang; Ma, Yi-bing; Li, Ju-mei; Wei, Dong-pu; Shi, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco is one of the cadmium accumulation and tolerance plants. Decreasing cadmium content of tobacco contributes to environmental safety and human health. Three aspects on tobacco cadmium research were reviewed in this paper, i.e. uptake and distribution of cadmium in tobacco, and health risk assessment of cadmium in tobacco and reduction measures. The current situations and existing challenges in the research field were discussed. The cadmium tolerance mechanisms of tobacco were reviewed, the factors on cadmium uptake were analyzed, and the general distribution of cadmium in tobacco was summarized. From the point of health risk assessment, the lack of cadmium limits in tobacco was identified, the recommended formula to calculate cadmium limits of tobacco based on atmosphere cadmium limits and digestion cadmium limits was provided and the cadmium limits of tobacco were estimated using each formula, and suggestions on cadmium limits in tobacco were presented. At last, we put forward several effective reduction measures to lower cadmium level in tobacco leaves.

  3. Regional modeling of cadmium leaching to groundwater in the Kempen region, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Grift, B.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; Griffioen, J.

    2003-04-01

    content. In this reconstruction, the historic changes in deposition rates of cadmium were linearly related to the zinc production of the smelters. The calculated depositions at the 13 locations were spatially interpolated to an area-covering map of atmospheric deposition rates with the distance from the smelters and the predominant wind direction as input variables. Leaching of cadmium from topsoil to groundwater is a function of soil type. Acid sandy soils of relatively low organic matter content demonstrate a low retardation capacity. The pH, organic matter, and clay content taken from the chemical characterization of soil types from the Dutch soil map were used to calculate Freundlich adsorption isotherms (K_F) for cadmium by using existing multiple linear regression models. Together with the groundwater level, this determines the breakthrough time of cadmium to the groundwater. Groundwater levels were derived from a regional groundwater model. The unsaturated zone model HYDRUS was used to model the breakthrough of cadmium for all unique combinations of soil type, groundwater level and cadmium input load. The individual maps were classified to get a unique combination of input parameters. The Van Genuchten parameters for modelling the unsaturated water flow were calculted with pedo-transfer functions soil parameters like texture, bulk-density and organic matter content. The results of the regional modeling shows that groundwater recharge exceeds the Dutch groundwater intervention limits in 43% of the modeled Kempen area in 2002. In 2050 this will be 64%.

  4. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states.

  5. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-14

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states. PMID:27421422

  6. Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis [Abstract 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  7. Effect of cadmium administration on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Fullmer, C.S.; Oku, T.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-08-01

    The effects of cadmium on intestinal calcium absorption and calcium-binding protein (CaBP) were investigated in chicks by means of the in situ ligated duodenal loop technique. Dietary cadmium, administered in the feed or by gastric intubation, resulted in significant declines in intestinal calcium absorption and mucosal calcium-binding protein concentrations. Cadmium chloride injected directly into the ligated loop of naive chicks also diminished calcium absorption and CaBP concentrations in an apparently dose-response related fashion. No adverse effects of cadmium administration on either the 25- or 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation reactions of vitamin D were observed. While the general effect of cadmium administration was a reduction in intestinal calcium absorption, plasma calcium levels were consistently elevated in Cd-treated chicks, with the exception of those also maintained on diets low in Ca. The results indicate that cadmium toxicity exerts at least two effects on Ca metabolism, one at the intestinal level and another at the level of the bone, kidney, or both.

  8. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  9. Double preconcentration of trace amounts of cadmium in nail samples and measurement by differential pulse voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Somayeh; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-04-01

    Cadion was coated on carbon powder and used as a solid phase for selective extraction and preconcentration of cadmium ions. Complexed cadmium ions were eluted from solid phase by 5 mL, nitric acid (2.0 M) with the flow rate of 2 mL min(-1).The resulted solution was used for accumulation of the cadmium metal at the surface of the carbon paste electrode at -1.3 V reduction potential. Finally, cadmium was reoxidized and the differential pulse voltammogram recorded at the potential range of -0.55 to -0.2 V. Calibration graph was plotted in the concentration range of 0.5-50 μg L(-1) of cadmium. Detection limit 0.06 μg L(-1) was calculated based on the 3 Sb/m. The RSD was 9.13 % (n = 4) for cadmium concentration of 10 μg L(-1) with preconcentration factor of 100. Method was successfully used for the determination of cadmium in finger nail samples and after spiking the samples, the recoveries were evaluated >96 %.

  10. Self-Immolative Linkers as Caps for the Design of Gated Silica Mesoporous Supports.

    PubMed

    Juárez, L Alberto; Añón, Elena; Giménez, Cristina; Sancenón, Félix; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Costero, Ana M; Gaviña, Pablo; Parra, Margarita; Bernardos, Andrea

    2016-09-26

    A new hybrid material based on sulforhodamine B dye-loaded silica mesoporous nanoparticles capped with a self-immolative gate has been synthesized and characterized. The gated material's controlled release behavior is monitored under different pH conditions. Under acidic and neutral conditions, a low level of dye release is detected. However, at slightly basic pH, significant dye release occurs owing to deprotonation of the phenol moiety in the capping molecule, which results in its disassembly. PMID:27304830

  11. Self-Immolative Linkers as Caps for the Design of Gated Silica Mesoporous Supports.

    PubMed

    Juárez, L Alberto; Añón, Elena; Giménez, Cristina; Sancenón, Félix; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Costero, Ana M; Gaviña, Pablo; Parra, Margarita; Bernardos, Andrea

    2016-09-26

    A new hybrid material based on sulforhodamine B dye-loaded silica mesoporous nanoparticles capped with a self-immolative gate has been synthesized and characterized. The gated material's controlled release behavior is monitored under different pH conditions. Under acidic and neutral conditions, a low level of dye release is detected. However, at slightly basic pH, significant dye release occurs owing to deprotonation of the phenol moiety in the capping molecule, which results in its disassembly.

  12. Identification and subcellular localization of a 21-kilodalton molecule using affinity-purified antibodies against. cap alpha. -transforming growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hazarika, P.; Pardue, R.L.; Earls, R.; Dedman, J.R.

    1987-04-07

    Monospecific antibodies were generated against each of six different peptide sequences derived from rat and human ..cap alpha..-transforming growth factor (..cap alpha..-TGF). The affinity-purified antibody to the 17 amino acid carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule proved most useful in detecting ..cap alpha..-TGF. When used in a peptide-based radioimmunoassay, it was possible to measure nanogram quantities of native ..cap alpha..-TGF in conditioned cell culture media. When used to analyze cell lysate, these antibodies specifically recognized a 21-kilodalton protein species. Indirect immunofluorescence localization procedures revealed a high concentration of ..cap alpha..-TCF in a perinuclear ring with a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. These results suggest that a precursor form of ..cap alpha..-TGF has a cellular role beyond that of an autocrine growth factor.

  13. 29 CFR 1928.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cadmium. 1928.1027 Section 1928.1027 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Occupational Health § 1928.1027 Cadmium. See § 1910.1027, Cadmium....

  14. 29 CFR 1928.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cadmium. 1928.1027 Section 1928.1027 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Occupational Health § 1928.1027 Cadmium. See § 1910.1027, Cadmium....

  15. 29 CFR 1928.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cadmium. 1928.1027 Section 1928.1027 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Occupational Health § 1928.1027 Cadmium. See § 1910.1027, Cadmium....

  16. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Pius

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

  17. Review of electrochemical impregnation for nickel cadmium cells. [aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A method of loading active material within the electrodes of nickel cadmium cells is examined. The basic process of electrochemical impregnation of these electrodes is detailed, citing the principle that when current is applied reactions occur which remove hydrogen ions from solution, making the interior of the plaque less acidic. Electrodes result which are superior in energy density, stability, and life. The technology is reviewed and illustrated with typical performance data. Recommendations are made for additional research and development.

  18. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -tubulin genes in Sea Urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandraki, D.; Ruderman, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    The authors analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The ..cap alpha.. cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of ..cap alpha.. tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The ..beta.. cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100 C-terminal amino acids of ..beta.. tubulin and 83 base pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of ..cap alpha..-tubulin genes with ..beta..-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.

  19. Purification and characterization of the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shreeve, S.M.; Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Mariani, A.P.; Venter, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor (..cap alpha../sub 2/-R) from human platelets has been purified to homogeneity using a four step process. An affinity column was prepared by coupling p-aminoclonidine to CH-Sepharose 4B via the p-NH/sub 2/ group. Digitonin solubilized ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R bound to the affinity matrix were eluted with 100 ..mu..M phentolamine and directly applied to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Bound receptors were eluted with a linear gradient of 0-500 mM NaCl, pooled and chromatographed on HPLC size exclusion columns. Three peaks of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding were eluted from HPLC columns (t = 33, 42, 47 min). Radioiodination of HPLC eluates and analysis by SDS-PAGE indicated that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding was associated with a 75-85 kDa protein. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R may exist in monomeric and oligomeric forms in the purified state and support previous target size data which indicate that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R exists as a dimer in the native membrane. The pure radioiodinated ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R (77-85 kDa) is a glycoprotein with terminal sialic acid or N-acetylglucosamine residues and has a pI of 4.1 on column isoelectric focusing. These data are consistent with those previously reported on the partially purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R. Electron micrographs confirm the oligomeric nature and size of the pure ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R.

  20. Cadmium-binding proteins of three marine molluscs and characterization of two cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Y; Kosaka, K; Ohba, K; Yoneyama, Y

    1986-03-01

    The cadmium-binding proteins were shown to exist in the hepatopancreas of three molluscs, a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum, a turbo, Batillus cornutus, and a squid, Todarodes pacificus. Cadmium was efficiently accumulated in nature to a mean concentration of 119, 33, and 50 micrograms/g wet tissue in the hepatopancreas of three species of molluscs, and 30%, 11%, and 43% of the element in each tissue of whelk, turbo, and squid was extracted to the soluble fraction, respectively. Separation of the soluble fraction by Sephadex G-75 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol revealed that cadmium was mainly bound to the protein fraction FII of molecular weight 10,000. Two cytoplasmic cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of Buccinum tenuissimum were purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and double DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatographies in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. These two cadmium-binding glycoproteins, termed FIIA and FIIB, had molecular weights of 8000 and 13,000 and consisted of 52 and 94 amino acid residues, respectively. Three and two cysteine residues in FIIA and FIIB, respectively, were found and two more half-cystine were also detected in FIIB. The sugar contents of FIIA and FIIB were about 20.5% and 8.7% by weight, respectively, consisting of galactose, mannose, fucose, and amino sugar. Both showed strong metal-binding ability, especially for cadmium, copper, and mercury.

  1. Cadmium-binding proteins of three marine molluscs and characterization of two cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum.

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Y; Kosaka, K; Ohba, K; Yoneyama, Y

    1986-01-01

    The cadmium-binding proteins were shown to exist in the hepatopancreas of three molluscs, a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum, a turbo, Batillus cornutus, and a squid, Todarodes pacificus. Cadmium was efficiently accumulated in nature to a mean concentration of 119, 33, and 50 micrograms/g wet tissue in the hepatopancreas of three species of molluscs, and 30%, 11%, and 43% of the element in each tissue of whelk, turbo, and squid was extracted to the soluble fraction, respectively. Separation of the soluble fraction by Sephadex G-75 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol revealed that cadmium was mainly bound to the protein fraction FII of molecular weight 10,000. Two cytoplasmic cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of Buccinum tenuissimum were purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and double DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatographies in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. These two cadmium-binding glycoproteins, termed FIIA and FIIB, had molecular weights of 8000 and 13,000 and consisted of 52 and 94 amino acid residues, respectively. Three and two cysteine residues in FIIA and FIIB, respectively, were found and two more half-cystine were also detected in FIIB. The sugar contents of FIIA and FIIB were about 20.5% and 8.7% by weight, respectively, consisting of galactose, mannose, fucose, and amino sugar. Both showed strong metal-binding ability, especially for cadmium, copper, and mercury. Images FIGURE 4. PMID:3709465

  2. Cadmium-binding proteins of three marine molluscs and characterization of two cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum

    SciTech Connect

    Dohi, Y.; Kosaka, K.; Ohba, K.; Yoneyama, Y.

    1986-03-01

    The cadmium-binding proteins were shown to exist in the hepatopancreas of three molluscs, a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum, a turbo, Batillus cornutus, and a squid, Todarodes pacificus. Cadmium was efficiently accumulated in nature to a mean concentration of 119, 33, and 50 ..mu..g/g wet tissue in the hepatopancreas of three species of molluscs. Separation of the soluble fraction by Sephadex G-75 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol revealed that cadmium was mainly bound to the protein fraction FII of molecular weight 10,000. Two cytoplasmic cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of Buccinum tenuissimum were purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and double DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatographies in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. These two cadmium-binding glycoproteins, termed FII/sub A/ and FII/sub B/, had molecular weights of 8000 and 13,000 and consisted of 52 and 94 amino acid residues, respectively. The sugar contents of FII/sub A/ and FII/sub B/ were about 20.5% and 8.7% by weight, respectively, consisting of galactose, mannose, fucose, and amino sugar. Both showed strong metal-binding ability, especially for cadmium, copper, and mercury.

  3. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) leaching behavior and surface chemistry in response to pH and O2.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Field, Jim A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) are increasingly being applied in photovoltaic solar cells and electronic components. A major concern is the public health and ecological risks associated with the potential release of toxic cadmium, tellurium, and/or selenium species. In this study, different tests were applied to investigate the leaching behavior of CdTe and CdSe in solutions simulating landfill leachate. CdTe showed a comparatively high leaching potential. In the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Waste Extraction Test (WET), the concentrations of cadmium released from CdTe were about 1500 and 260 times higher than the regulatory limit (1 mg/L). In contrast, CdSe was relatively stable and dissolved selenium in both leaching tests was below the regulatory limit (1 mg/L). Nonetheless, the regulatory limit for cadmium was exceeded by 5- to 6- fold in both tests. Experiments performed under different pH and redox conditions confirmed a marked enhancement in CdTe and CdSe dissolution both at acidic pH and under aerobic conditions. These findings are in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that recycling of decommissioned CdTe-containing devices is desirable to prevent the potential environmental release of toxic cadmium and tellurium in municipal landfills.

  4. Assessment of cadmium in aquatic sediment using dialysis samplers with ion-exchange-resin collection

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, B.; Allen, H.E.; Desnoyers, C.

    1998-05-01

    Simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) show the potential for toxicity on the basis of their ratio. Accordingly, the authors spiked cadmium in a range for which Cd/AVS ratios were from 0.2 to 10 in the sediment with its weight about 8 kg in each batch. Dialysis samplers with a cation ion-exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X4) collection were used in a laboratory for the determination of free cadmium concentrations in pore water of the collected sediment. When equilibrium was reached among cadmium in pore water, sediment, and ion-exchange resin, cadmium exchanged onto resin phase was regenerated with 1 N hydrochloric acid (OPTIMA grade) and determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Zeeman 5000) with a graphite furnace accessory. Cadmium determined using the dialysis sampler is considered as free cadmium which is related to the metal bioavailability toward aquatic biota. The developed methodology provides a new technique for assessment of free metal in aquatic sediment systems.

  5. Toxic metals and antioxidants: Part II. The role of antioxidants in arsenic and cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2003-05-01

    Exposure to toxic metals has become an increasingly recognized source of illness worldwide. Both cadmium and arsenic are ubiquitous in the environment, and exposure through food and water as well as occupational sources can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of disease. The symptom picture of arsenic toxicity is characterized by dermal lesions, anemia, and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and liver damage. Cadmium has a significant effect on renal function, and as a result alters bone metabolism, leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Cadmium-induced genotoxicity also increases risk for several cancers. The mechanisms of arsenic- and cadmium-induced damage include the production of free radicals that alter mitochondrial activity and genetic information. The metabolism and excretion of these heavy metals depend on the presence of antioxidants and thiols that aid arsenic methylation and both arsenic and cadmium metallothionein-binding. S-adenosylmethionine, lipoic acid, glutathione, selenium, zinc, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), methionine, cysteine, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid have specific roles in the mitigation of heavy metal toxicity. Several antioxidants including NAC, zinc, methionine, and cysteine, when used in conjunction with standard chelating agents, can improve the mobilization and excretion of arsenic and cadmium.

  6. Optical characterization of CdS semiconductor nanoparticles capped with starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, P.; de la Cruz, G. González; Tomas, S. A.; Zelaya-Angel, O.

    2010-11-01

    Starch capped cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were synthesized by aqueous solution precipitation. Starch added during the synthesis of nanoparticles resulted in cadmium-rich nanoparticles forming a stable complex with starch. The size of the CdS quantum dots was measured using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average diameter (d) of nanoparticles spanned the range 4.8 ± 0.4 to 5.7 ± 0.2 nm when the pH of the solution was varied within the range 10-14. The main Raman phonon of CdS, the longitudinal optical mode located around 300 cm-1, softens as diameter decreases, in accordance with theoretical predictions. In addition, the largest Raman response of starch, near 478 cm-1, related with the important skeletal vibration modes of the starch pyranose ring, dominates the spectra of the CdS capped nanoparticles and also softens as the size decreases. This fact indicates a strain variation on CdS as a function of d which increases as the pH increases.

  7. Effects of inorganic anions on cadmium sorption behaviours on titanate nanotube surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lilin; Du, Alan J; Sun, Darren D; Leckie, James O

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes the characterization of as-synthesized titanate nanotube (TNT) and its sorption behaviours on cadmium with the interactions of inorganic anions. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy found that the nanotube is in sodium titanate crystal phase (Na2Ti3O7) and the pores of TNT are bimodally distributed with nominal pore sizes of 3 and 15 nm. In the binary systems between TNT and anions, the binding affinity is fluoride > phosphate > sulphate with sulphate being the least preferred. The order is similar to that of their first acidity constants, pKa1. In the presence of cadmium ions, slight decreases in fluoride and sulphate uptakes were observed. Phosphate uptake was, however, synergistically improved when cadmium was introduced. In the same ternary systems, it was found that these anions decreased the cadmium uptakes by TNT with the effect of sulphate being the most prominent.

  8. Short term signaling responses in roots of young soybean seedlings exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chmielowska-Bąk, Jagna; Lefèvre, Isabelle; Lutts, Stanley; Deckert, Joanna

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, the expression of fourteen genes involved in various signal transduction pathways was examined in young soybean (Glycine max) seedlings exposed to cadmium at two concentrations (10 mg L(-1) and 25 mg L(-1)) for short time periods (3, 6 and 24 h). The results show that cadmium causes induction of genes encoding proteins involved in ethylene and polyamines metabolism, nitric oxide generation, MAPK cascades and regulation of other genes' expression. The bioinformatic analysis of promoter sequences of Cd-inducible genes revealed that their promoters possess several regulative motifs associated with the plant response to stress factors and abscisic acid and ethylene signaling. The involvement of ethylene in the response of soybean seedlings to cadmium stress was further confirmed by the real-time analysis of ethylene production during 24 h of CdCl2 treatment. The role of the described signaling elements in transduction of the cadmium signal in young soybean seedlings is discussed.

  9. Mammalian. cap alpha. -polymerase: cloning of partial complementary DNA and immunobinding of catalytic subunit in crude homogenate protein blots

    SciTech Connect

    SenGupta, D.N.; Kumar, P.; Zmudzka, B.Z.; Coughlin, S.; Vishwanatha, J.K.; Robey, F.A.; Parrott, C.; Wilson, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    A new polyclonal antibody against the ..cap alpha..-polymerase catalytic polypeptide was prepared by using homogeneous HeLa cell..cap alpha..-polymerase. The antibody neutralized ..cap alpha..-polymerase activity and was strong and specific for the ..cap alpha..-polymerase catalytic polypeptide (M/sub r/ 183,000) in Western blot analysis of crude extracts of HeLa cells. The antibody was used to screen a cDNA library of newborn rat brain poly(A+) RNA in lambdagt11. A positive phage was identified and plaque purified. This phage, designated lambdapol..cap alpha..1.2, also was found to be positive with an antibody against Drosophila ..cap alpha..-polymerase. The insert in lambdapol..cap alpha..1.2 (1183 base pairs) contained a poly(A) sequence at the 3' terminus and a short in-phase open reading frame at the 5' terminus. A synthetic oligopeptide (eight amino acids) corresponding to the open reading frame was used to raise antiserum in rabbits. Antibody affinity purified from this serum was found to be immunoreactive against purified ..cap alpha..-polymerase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was capable of immunoprecipitating ..cap alpha..-polymerase. This indicated the lambdapol..cap alpha..1.2 insert encoded an ..cap alpha..-polymerase epitope and suggested that the cDNA corresponded to an ..cap alpha..-polymerase mRNA. This was confirmed in hybrid selection experiments using pUC9 containing the cDNA insert and poly(A+) RNA from newborn rat brain; the insert hybridized to mRNA capable of encoding ..cap alpha..-polymerase catalytic polypeptides. Northern blot analysis of rat brain poly(A+) RNA revealed that this mRNA is approx.5.4 kilobases.

  10. Photodegradation of luminescence in organic-ligand-capped Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} nano-particles

    SciTech Connect

    King, Gavin G. G.; Taylor, Luke R.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Clarke, David J.; Quilty, J. W.

    2014-01-28

    The luminescence from europium doped lanthanum trifluoride (Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3}) nano-crystals can be greatly enhanced by capping with β-diketonate organic ligands. Here, we report on photo-stability measurements for the case of nano-crystals capped with thenoyltrifluroacetone (TTA) and compared with those capped with an inactive ligand, oleic acid. With exposure to UV pump light, we observed significant decrease in fluorescence and change in emission spectrum of the TTA-capped nano-particles whilst the fluorescence lifetime remained approximately constant. After a dose of order 70 kJ cm{sup −2}, the luminescence level was similar to that of oleic acid capped nano-crystals. We discuss possible mechanisms.

  11. Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-(. gamma. EC) sub n G peptide complexes from tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.N.; White, C.A.; Winge, D.R. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City )

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponically grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill cv Golden Boy) exposed to 100 micromolar cadmium sulfate produced metal-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes containing acid-labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble those of the cadmium-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes from Schizo-saccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata known to contain a cadmium sulfide crystallite core. The crystallite is stabilized by a sheath of peptides of general structure ({gamma}Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The cadmium-peptide complexes of tomato contained predominantly peptides of n{sub 3}, n{sub 4}, and n{sub 5}. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the tomato cadmium-sulfide-peptide complex contained CdS crystallite core particles smaller than 2.0 nanometers in diameter.

  12. A common response to common danger? Comparison of animal and plant signaling pathways involved in cadmium sensing.

    PubMed

    Chmielowska-Bąk, Jagna; Deckert, Joanna

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to cadmium results in disturbances in cell homeostasis in all living organisms. The first response to stress factors, including cadmium, is activation of signal transduction pathways that mobilize cell defense mechanisms. The aim of this review is a comparison between the signaling network triggered by Cd in plants and animals. Despite differences in the structure and physiology of plant and animal cells, their cadmium signal transduction pathways share many common elements. These elements include signaling molecules such as ROS, Ca(2+) and NO, the involvement of phospholipase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and activation of transcription factors. Undoubtedly, both animals and plants also possess specific signaling pathways. In case of animals, Wnt/β-catenin, sonic hedgehog and oestorgen signaling are engaged in the transduction of cadmium signal. Plant specific signal transduction pathways include signaling mediated by plant hormones. The role of ethylene and jasmonic, salicylic and abscisic acid in plant response to cadmium is also discussed.

  13. Hexamitiasis in cadmium-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Exon, J H; Patton, N M; Koller, L D

    1975-09-01

    Mortality was observed in 4- to 5-week-old Swiss Webster mice exposed to 300 or 3 ppm cadmium as cadmium chloride in the drinking water. Mice receiving 300 ppm cadium suffered 26% mortality as compared with 7% of those on the low cadmium dose. Death did not occur in control mice. Clinical signs and histopathology established Hexamita muris as the causative agent. Cadmium lesions were not observed. It is suggested that mortality due to hexamitiasis resulted from synergism between cadmium and H muris.

  14. The effect of cadmium on the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.F.; Volpe, R.

    1983-02-01

    Information on the effect of cadmium in the environment reported during the past several years has raised considerable questions about the validity of past conclusions. For example, it appears that the critical concentration of cadmium in the renal cortex may be significantly higher than previously thought, and also, there is growing evidence that cadmium was not responsible for Itai-Itai disease in Japan. These findings concerning cadmium are encouraging and indicate that while cadmium is certainly toxic, the new information should be considered by governmental authorities before steps are taken to enact overly stringent regulations based on assumptions and regulations that may no longer be correct.

  15. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  16. CAPS Capsule. Volume 5, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry, Ed.; And Others

    Published 3 times yearly by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, CAPS Capsule acquaints the reader with recent projects, meetings, publications and materials which are of interest to those in the helping professions. This issue introduces several new publications offered by CAPS under the name, "The Counselor's S x-Pack."…

  17. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  18. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  19. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  20. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  1. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  2. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone. PMID:2219140

  3. Determination of cadmium in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Katrin; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Drexler, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of cadmium concentrations in biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), but also electrochemical methods, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The predominant sample matrices include blood, plasma, serum, and urine, as well as hair, saliva, and tissue of kidney cortex, lung, and liver. While cadmium in blood reveals rather the recent exposure situation, cadmium in urine reflects the body burden and is an indicator for the cumulative long term exposure.After chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the human body and causes kidney diseases, especially lesions of proximal tubular cells. A tubular proteinuria causes an increase in urinary excretion of microproteins. Excretions of retinol binding protein (RBP), β2-microglobulin (β2-M), and α1-microglobulin are validated biomarkers for analyzing cadmium effects. For this purpose, immunological procedures such as ELISA, and radio- and latex-immunoassays are used.However, proteinuria is not specific to cadmium, but can also occur after exposure to other nephrotoxic agents or due to various kidney diseases. In summary, cadmium in urine and blood are the most specific biomarkers of cadmium exposure. A combination of parameters of exposure (cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine) and parameters of effect (e.g., β2-M, RBP) is required to reveal cadmium-induced nephrological effects. PMID:23430771

  4. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ragan, H A; Mast, T J

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.

  5. Determination of cadmium and lead in vegetables by stripping chronopotentiometry.

    PubMed

    Lo Coco, F; Monotti, P; Novelli, V; Ceccon, L; Adami, G; Micali, G

    2004-05-01

    A method for the determination of cadmium and lead in vegetables by stripping chronopotentiometric analysis, after digestion of the sample with concentrated sulphuric acid and dry-ashing, is described. Metal ions were concentrated as their amalgams on a glassy carbon-working electrode previously coated with a thin mercury film and then stripped by a suitable oxidant. Potential and time data were digitally derived and E was plotted versus dt/dE(-1), thus increasing both the sensitivity of the method and the resolution of the analysis. Quantitative analysis was carried out by the method of standard addition; good linearity was obtained in the range of examined concentrations, as was shown by the determination coefficients, which were 0.998 (n = 4) for cadmium and 0.993 (n = 4) for lead. Recoveries of 85-100% for cadmium and of 84-97% for lead were obtained from a sample spiked at different levels. Accuracy was demonstrated by analysis of a matching reference sample of cabbage. The detection limits were 1.8 ng g(-1) of wet mass for cadmium and 5.1 ng g(-1) of wet mass for lead. The relative standard deviations (mean of nine determinations), evaluated on a real sample, were 6.7 and 6.2%, respectively. Results obtained on 10 different commercial samples of pepper (Capsicum annuum), and egg plant (Solanum melongena) were not significantly different from those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average content was in the range 3.1-18.6 ng g(-1) for cadmium and 38.2-64.3 ng g(-1) for lead.

  6. Involvement of ethylene and lipid signalling in cadmium-induced programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Yakimova, E T; Kapchina-Toteva, V M; Laarhoven, L-J; Harren, F M; Woltering, E J

    2006-10-01

    Cadmium-induced cell death was studied in suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cells (line MsK8) treated with CdSO(4). Within 24 h, cadmium treatment induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell cultures showed recovery after 2-3 days which indicates the existence of an adaptation mechanism. Cadmium-induced cell death was alleviated by the addition of sub muM concentrations of peptide inhibitors specific to human caspases indicating that cell death proceeds through a mechanism with similarities to animal programmed cell death (PCD, apoptosis). Cadmium-induced cell death was accompanied by an increased production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and simultaneous addition of antioxidants greatly reduced cell death. Inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD) signalling pathway intermediates reduced cadmium-induced cell death. Treatment with the G-protein activator mastoparan and a cell permeable analogue of the lipid signal second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) induced cell death. Ethylene, while not inducing cell death when applied alone, stimulated cadmium-induced cell death. Application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG) reduced cadmium-induced cell death, and this effect was alleviated by simultaneous treatment with ethylene. Together the results show that cadmium induces PCD exhibiting apoptotic-like features. The cell death process requires increased H(2)O(2) production and activation of PLC, PLD and ethylene signalling pathways.

  7. [The effect of cadmium on the protozoan population and rumen fermentation of feed in an artificial rumen].

    PubMed

    Jalc, D; Kisidayová, S; Siroka, P; Sviatko, P

    1994-01-01

    In our experiment, the effects of 5, 10 and 20 mg cadmium per kg dry matter (DM) on protozoan population and rumen fermentation of feed ration consisting of 11.7 g DM of hay and 2.8 g DM of barley (80: 20%) were followed in artificial rumen (Rusitec). The results of the experiment showed that the addition of 5 and 10 mg cadmium per kg DM less significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the digestibility of DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre and significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the digestibility of cellulose of feed ration. It is interesting that the addition of 20 mg cadmium per kg DM did not influence these parameters. Although the total gas production showed a tendency of decrease due to the influence of the addition of 5, 10 and 20 mg cadmium/kg DM, methane and CO2 production was not altered. However, cadmium significantly influenced the production of individual volatile fatty acids-VFA's (mmol/day). The addition of 5, 10 and 20 mg cadmium per kg DM significantly increased acetic acid production (by 10-20%) and decreased propionic acid production (by 18-30%). Therefore, the acetate: propionate ratio was significantly increased (from 1.57 to 2.45-2.60) by the addition of cadmium. The production of n-valeric and iso-valeric acids was also significantly decreased in comparison with the control. The decrease of individual VFA's was more significant at the higher amount of cadmium added into the fermentation system. The proportions of individual VFA's in total VFA production expressed in molar % showed a similar character. The changes in the production of individual VFA's due to the influence of the addition of 5, 10 and 20 mg cadmium per kg DM caused a decrease in energetic efficiency of VFA's (P < 0.001) in comparison with the control. The other parameters of rumen fermentation - utilization of glucose, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, fermented hexose, fermented amino acids and fermented organic matter (OMF) were not influenced by the cadmium addition

  8. Cytocompatibility of direct water synthesized cadmium selenide quantum dots in colo-205 cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Torres, Marcos R.; Velez, Christian; Zayas, Beatriz; Rivera, Osvaldo; Arslan, Zikri; Gonzalez-Vega, Maxine N.; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Morell, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs), inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals, are alluring increased attraction due to their highly refined chemistry, availability, and super tunable optical properties suitable for many applications in different research areas, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting devices, environmental sciences, and nanomedicine. Specifically, they are being widely used in bio-imaging in contrast to organic dyes due to their high brightness and improved photo-stability, and their ability to tune their absorption and emission spectra upon changing the crystal size. The production of CdSe QDs is mostly assisted by trioctylphosphine oxide compound, which acts as solvent or solubilizing agent and renders the QDs soluble in organic compounds (such as toluene, chloroform, and hexane) that are highly toxic. To circumvent the toxicity-related factor in CdSe QDs, we report the synthesis of CdSe QDs capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA) in an aqueous medium, and their biocompatibility in colo-205 cancer cells. In this study, the [Cd2+]/[TGA] ratio was adjusted to 11:1 and the Se concentration (10 and 15 mM) was monitored in order to evaluate its influence on the optical properties and cytocompatibility. QDs resulted to be quite stable in water (after purification) and RPMI cell medium and no precipitation was observed for long contact times, making them appealing for in vitro experiments. The spectroscopy analysis, advanced electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry studies indicate that the final products were successfully formed exhibiting an improved optical response. Colo-205 cells being exposed to different concentrations of TGA-capped CdSe QDs for 12, 24, and 48 h with doses ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mM show high tolerance reaching cell viabilities as high as 93 %. No evidence of cellular apoptotic pathways was observed as pointed out by our Annexin V assays at higher concentrations. Moreover, confocal microscopy analysis conducted to evaluate the

  9. Cadmium in Jamaican Bush Teas

    PubMed Central

    Hoo Fung, LA; Rattray, VR; Lalor, GC

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 μg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04–1.18 μg of Cd and would contribute 0.1 – 0.3 μg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 μg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  10. Mercury Telluride and Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A semiconductor's usefulness is determined by how atoms are ordered within the crystal's underlying three-dimensional structure. While this mercury telluride and cadmium telluride alloy sample mixes completely in Earth -based laboratories, convective flows prevent them from mixing uniformly. In space, the ingredients mix more homogenously, resulting in a superior product.

  11. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast. PMID:26753521

  12. Distribution of cadmium in the pearl oyster following exposure to cadmium in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Francesconi, K.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Laboratory studies on the uptake of cadmium from seawater have shown that bivalve molluscs readily accumulated cadmium from this medium and that the relative concentrations of cadmium between viscera and muscle were always the same as those found in natural populations. These results suggested that in the natural environment seawater was a major source of cadmium for bivalve molluscs. Results of a recent study have indicated that seawater is not always the major contributor of cadmium to bivalve molluscs. These authors reported high levels of cadmium in the pearl oyster Pinctada albina albina, collected from Shark Bay in Western Australia, and noted that there was no correlation between cadmium concentrations in the oysters and cadmium concentrations in the surrounding seawater. Australia is one of several countries which have a maximum permissible level of cadmium in molluscs. The possibility that the pearl oyster, and perhaps other molluscs as well, may accumulate cadmium preferentially in different tissues depending upon the source of cadmium has important implications in the area of contaminants in marine foodstuffs. The present study reports the uptake and distribution of cadmium within P. albina albina when subjected to cadmium in seawater alone.

  13. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast.

  14. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Affinity chromatography of alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors (. cap alpha. /sub 2/AR) from pig cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Repaske, M.G.; Limbird, L.E.

    1986-03-01

    A high capacity, ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR-selective affinity resin (YOH. ag) has been prepared by coupling yohimbinic acid to diaminodipropylamine agarose with 1,3 dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Unreacted amino groups on the agarose matrix are blocked subsequently by acetylation. One volume of YOH. ag adsorbs 75% of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR from 50 volumes of digitonin-solubilized preparation containing 0.2 pmol ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR/mg protein. Digitonin-solubilized preparations are derived from cholate extracts of porcine cerebral cortex containing approx. 0.075 pmol ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR/mg protein. Adsorption of ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR to YOH. ag is selective and thus is blocked by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Adsorbed ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR are eluted with 10 ..mu..M phentolamine (20% yield) after removal of non-related proteins with NaCl gradients. Following hydroxylapatite chromatography to concentrate ..cap alpha..''AR and to remove phentolamine, the ..cap alpha..AR is present at 200-400 pmol/mg protein, assayed using sub-saturating concentrations of (/sup 3/H)-yohimbine. (It is estimated that the specific activity of a homogeneous ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR preparation would be 12,000-16,000 pmol/mg protein.) The availability of large quantities of cortical ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR and a resin easily prepared from commercially-supplied reagents suggests that purification of quantities of ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR sufficient for subsequent biochemical studies is feasible.

  16. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  17. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  18. Determination of cadmium in water samples by fast pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingya; Fang, Jinliang; Duan, Xuchuan

    2016-08-01

    A pyrolysis-vapor generation procedure to determine cadmium by atomic fluorescence spectrometry has been established. Under fast pyrolysis, cadmium ion can be reduced to volatile cadmium species by sodium formate. The presence of thiourea enhanced the efficiency of cadmium vapor generation and eliminated the interference of copper. The possible mechanism of vapor generation of cadmium was discussed. The optimization of the parameters for pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation, including pyrolysis temperature, amount of sodium formate, concentration of hydrochloric acid, and carrier argon flow rate were carried out. Under the optimized conditions, the absolute and concentration detection limits were 0.38 ng and 2.2 ng ml- 1, respectively, assuming that 0.17 ml of sample was injected. The generation efficiency of was 28-37%. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amounts of cadmium in two certified reference materials of Environmental Water (GSB07-1185-2000 and GSBZ 50009-88). The results were in good agreement with the certified reference values.

  19. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals.

  20. Fractionation and solubility of cadmium in paddy soils amended with porous hydrated calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Masaihiko, Saigusa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that porous hydrated calcium silicate (PS) is very effective in decreasing cadmium (Cd) content in brown rice. However, it is unclear whether the PS influences cadmium transformation in soil. The present study examined the effect of PS on pH, cadmium transformation and cadmium solubility in Andosol and Alluvial soil, and also compared its effects with CaCO3, acidic porous hydrated calcium silicate (APS) and silica gel. Soil cadmium was operationally fractionationed into exchangeable (Exch), bound to carbonates (Carb), bound to iron and manganese oxides (FeMnO(x)), bound to organic matters (OM) and residual (Res) fraction. Application of PS and CaCO3 at hig rates enhanced soil pH, while APS and silica gel did not obviously change soil pH. PS and CaCO3 also increased the FeMnO(x)-Cd in Andosol and Carb-Cd in Alluvial soil, thus reducing the Exch-Cd in the tested soils. However, PS was less effective than CaCO3 at the same application rate. Cadmium fractions in the two soils were not changed by the treatments of APS and silica gel. There were no obvious differences in the solubility of cadmium in soils treated with PS, APS, silica gel and CaCO3 except Andosol treated 2.0% CaCO3 at the same pH of soil-CaCl2 suspensions. These findings suggested that the decrease of cadmium availability in soil was mainly attributed to the increase of soil pH caused by PS. PMID:17918598

  1. Exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium results in biochemical, histological and transcriptional alterations.

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Niknejad, Mahtab; Shabani, Ali; Safari, Roghieh

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon is one of the endangered families of fish in the Caspian Sea region, where there is up to 80% of their global caching. Unfortunately, in recent years, increase of pollutants has been resulted in their total population reduction. Due to their benthic nature, sturgeons are at great risk of exposing to contaminants such as cadmium. Despite their endangered status in the Caspian Sea, there are only a few studies on characterizing the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to cadmium. Adverse effects associated with pollution on angiogenesis are mediated by hypoxia inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this investigation, gene expression of two distinct HIFs-1, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and VEGF was investigated at the mRNA transcript levels after exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium. VEGF, HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions in treated Persian sturgeon were greater than controls. Significant increases (P<0.05) were also observed in cortisol and glucose levels compared to the control group especially in the fish exposed to higher cadmium concentration (800 μg/L). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were increased in the cadmium-exposed fish, although the observed increases were not significant between the control and 200 μg/L cadmium treatment at some sampling time points. Gill tissues also showed histopathological changes in the cadmium treatments. Overall, results indicated that cadmium resulted in some alterations in biochemical parameters, mRNA transcript level expression of two important angiogenesis related genes as well as histological alterations in Persian sturgeon.

  2. Sea ducks and aquaculture: the cadmium connection.

    PubMed

    Bendell, L I

    2011-03-01

    Elevated concentrations of cadmium have been reported in the kidneys of sea ducks that forage along the Pacific Northwest, and cadmium has been postulated as a possible cause of population declines. The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) which occurs in dense numbers on aquaculture structures and are a primary prey item for sea ducks also contain elevated cadmium concentrations. To determine if foraging on mussels associated with aquaculture structures could pose a toxicological risk to sea ducks, amounts of cadmium ingested per body weight per day by a representative sea duck species, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), were estimated and compared to the reported avian cadmium NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level) and LOAEL (lowest observable adverse effect level). Results indicate that in some locations within the Pacific Northwest, sea ducks could be exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium associated with mussels foraged from aquaculture structures. This raises the possibility that such exposure could be contributing to observed population declines in these species.

  3. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl/sub 2/. Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl/sub 2/. This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Photocatalytic Formic Acid Conversion on CdS Nanocrystals with Controllable Selectivity for H2 or CO**

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnel, Moritz F; Wakerley, David W; Orchard, Katherine L; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid is considered a promising energy carrier and hydrogen storage material for a carbon-neutral economy. We present an inexpensive system for the selective room-temperature photocatalytic conversion of formic acid into either hydrogen or carbon monoxide. Under visible-light irradiation (λ>420 nm, 1 sun), suspensions of ligand-capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in formic acid/sodium formate release up to 116±14 mmol H2 gcat−1 h−1 with >99 % selectivity when combined with a cobalt co-catalyst; the quantum yield at λ=460 nm was 21.2±2.7 %. In the absence of capping ligands, suspensions of the same photocatalyst in aqueous sodium formate generate up to 102±13 mmol CO gcat−1 h−1 with >95 % selectivity and 19.7±2.7 % quantum yield. H2 and CO production was sustained for more than one week with turnover numbers greater than 6×105 and 3×106, respectively. PMID:26201752

  5. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  6. The ATLAS TRT end-cap detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dobos, D.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

    2008-10-01

    The ATLAS TRT end-cap is a tracking drift chamber using 245,760 individual tubular drift tubes. It is a part of the TRT tracker which consist of the barrel and two end-caps. The TRT end-caps cover the forward and backward pseudo-rapidity region 1.0 < |η| < 2.0, while the TRT barrel central η region |η| < 1.0. The TRT system provides a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. Along with other two sub-system, namely the Pixel detector and Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), the TRT constitutes the ATLAS Inner Detector. This paper describes the recently completed and installed TRT end-cap detectors, their design, assembly, integration and the acceptance tests applied during the construction.

  7. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  8. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  9. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  10. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  11. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  12. CCiCap: Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the...

  13. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  14. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  15. Cadmium in smoke particulates of regular and filter cigarettes containing low and high cadmium concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Reid, C.M.; Hoffman, D.; Adams, J.D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-03-01

    In the work reported, filter and nonfilter cigarettes were prepared from high-cadmium tobacco grown on a municipal sludge-amended soil or a low-cadmium tobacco grown on untreated soil alone. These were smoked by machine to determine the effectiveness of the cigarette filters in possibly reducing the quantities of cadmium in the mainstream smoke particulates.

  16. Identification of a human cDNA encoding a protein that is structurally and functionally related to the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Matviw, Yu, G.; Young, D. )

    1992-11-01

    The adenylyl cyclases of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are associated with related proteins named CAP. In S. cerevisiae, CAP is required for cellular responses mediated by the RAS/cyclic AMP pathway. Both yeast CAPs appear to be bifunctional proteins: The N-terminal domains are required for the proper function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains results in morphological and nutritional defects that appear to be unrelated to the cAMP pathways. Expression of either yeast CAP in the heterologous yeast suppresses phenotypes associated with loss of the C-terminal domain of the endogenous CAP but does not suppress loss of the N-terminal domain. On the basis of the homology between the two yeast CAP proteins, we have designed degenerate oligonucleotides that we used to detect, by the polymerase chain reaction method, a human cDNA fragment encoding a CAP-related peptide. Using the polymerase chain reaction fragment as a probe, we isolated a human cDNA clone encoding a 475-amino-acid protein that is homologous to the yeast CAP proteins. Expressions of the human CAP protein in S. cerevisiae suppresses the phenotypes associated with loss of the C-terminal domain of CAP but does not suppress phenotypes associated with loss of the N-terminal domain. Thus, CAP proteins have been structurally and, to some extent, functionally conserved in evolution between yeasts and mammals. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Cadmium content of umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.; Finch, H.

    1984-06-01

    Cadmium was measured in the umbilical cord blood at birth from 94 healthy babies. Samples were dried and ashed at low temperatures with an oxygen plasma prior to atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.003 to 0.210 ..mu..g/dl, with a mean of 0.045 +/- 0.063 (SD). Blood lead, maternal smoking, and proximity of residence to automobile traffic were not statistically related to cadmium levels.

  18. Plasma cadmium and zinc in human hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thind, G S; Fischer, G M

    1976-11-01

    1. Plasma cadmium and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in inferior venal caval or peripheral venous blood in thrity hypertensive patients and fifteen normal subjects. 2. The mean plasma cadium in hypertensive patients was significantly higher than in normal control subjects. 3. The plasma cadmium/zinc ratio was significantly greater in hypertensive patients. 4. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma cadmium/zinc ratio and the mean arterial blood pressure.

  19. Secondary capping beams for offshore drilling platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E. K.

    1985-08-13

    A pair of I-shaped elongated girders secured to, and extending outwardly from, the capping beams of a four pile platform, to form cantilever secondary capping beams which support modified self-contained drilling rigs of a size and weight normally installed on eight pile platforms. Rig modifications comprise separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe rack extension, and a novel skidding system.

  20. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  1. Changes in ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the agarophyte Gracilaria domingensis (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) treated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2013-02-01

    The agarophyte macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie is widely distributed along the Brazilian coast. While this species produces agarana, it is more important in the human diet. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of cadmium on its morphology and cellular organization. To accomplish this, the effects of cadmium in apical segments of G. domingensis were examined in vitro. Over a period of 16 days, the segments were cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), with cadmium treatments in doses of 100, 200 and 300 μM. The samples were processed for light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Histochemical analyses included Toluidine Blue for acidic polysaccharides, Coomassie Brilliant Blue for total protein, and Periodic Acidic Schiff for neutral polysaccharides. In all cadmium treatments, cytochemical analysis showed 1) metachromatic granulation in vacuole and lenticular thickness of the cell wall, 2) a higher concentration of cytoplasmic organelles, and 3) an increase in the number of floridean starch grains. Cadmium also caused changes in the ultrastructure of cortical and subcortical cells, including increased cell wall thickness and vacuole volume, as well as the destruction of chloroplast internal organization and increased number of plastoglobuli. In addition, treated plants showed a gradual increase in surface roughness, apparently the result of cadmium absorption. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that cadmium negatively affects the agarophyte G. domingensis, posing a threat to the vitality of this plant species as a supplement in the human diet.

  2. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  3. Microbial Responses to Environmentally Toxic Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Roane; Pepper

    1999-11-01

    We analyzed the soil microbial communities from one uncontaminated and two metal-impacted soils and found that while cadmium adversely affected the numbers of culturable bacteria in all soils, cadmium-resistant isolates were found from each of the soils. With exposure to 24 and 48 µg ml(-1) soluble cadmium, the metal-contaminated soil communities were more resistant than the uncontaminated soil community. In addition, in one metal-stressed soil, the resistant population became more resistant with increased cadmium levels. Ribosomal 16S DNA sequencing identified the isolates as Arthrobacter, Bacillus, or Pseudomonas spp. Further characterization demonstrated that two of the isolates were highly resistant to soluble cadmium with maximum resistance at 275 µg ml(-1) cadmium. These isolates were also resistant to a variety of antibiotics, namely ampicillin, gentamicin, penicillin, and streptomycin, but no overall correlation was found between enhanced antibiotic resistance and cadmium resistance. One Pseudomonas isolate H1 did become more resistant with increasing cadmium levels, suggesting a different resistance mechanism at high cadmium concentrations. PMID:10758182

  4. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  5. Effects of dietary cadmium on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Moore, J.

    1983-01-01

    Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were fed cadmium in the diet at 0, 5, 10, or 20 ppm from 1 day of age until 12 weeks of age. At 4-week intervals six males and six females from each dietary group were randomly selected, bled by jugular venipuncture, and necropsied. Significant decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and a significant increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were found at 8 weeks of age in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium. Mild to severe kidney lesions were evident in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium for 12 weeks. No other blood chemistry measurement, hematological parameter, or tissue histopathological measurement indicated a reaction to cadmium ingestion. Body weight, liver weight, and the ratio of the femur weight to length were not affected by dietary cadmium. Femur cadmium concentration In all ducklings 12 weeks of age declined from the values detected at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Liver cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in relation to the increased dietary levels and in relation to the length of time the ducklings were fed the cadmium diets. At 12 weeks of age the cadmium concentration in liver tissue was twice that in the diet.

  6. Cadmium, metallothionein and renal tubular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, M; Jin, T; Nordberg, G F

    1992-01-01

    Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity develops at cadmium concentrations in the renal cortex of 10-300 micrograms/g wet weight. The actual concentration at which it develops depends on a number of factors, e.g., exposure route, chemical species of cadmium administered, rate of administration and simultaneous exposure to other metals. The role of these factors can be explained by a mechanism of cadmium nephrotoxicity in which both extracellular and intracellular metallothionein binding play an essential role. In reindeer used for human food, cadmium was shown to be bound to metallothionein-like proteins. If cadmium bound to such proteins enters the blood plasma via the gastrointestinal tract, this is of special toxicological significance. Metallothionein-bound cadmium in the plasma of experimental animals is efficiently transported to the kidney. Tubular dysfunction in the kidney following a normally tubulotoxic dose of cadmium bound to metallothionein was prevented by preinduction of metallothionein synthesis by small non-toxic doses of cadmium. PMID:1303954

  7. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  8. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  9. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-08-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  10. Proteomic evaluation of cadmium toxicity on the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Yoo, Dong-hun; Son, Jino; Cho, Kijong

    2006-02-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of aquatic ecosystems is a widespread phenomenon after industrial consumption. Whether aquatic organisms are adapted to the heavy-metal pollutants or not, such environmental stress causes changes in physiological responses. In this study, the aquatic midge, Chironomus riparius Meigen, was used to find changes of expression of proteins in relation to cadmium exposure. Dose-response relationships between cadmium concentrations and mortality of 3rd instar midge larvae were observed and the protein levels were compared using PD-Quest after 2-DE. Comparing the intensity of protein spots, 21 proteins decreased and 18 proteins increased in response to cadmium treatment. With increased proteins, three enzymes such as S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, O-methyltransferase, and aspartokinase were involved in the glutathione biosynthesis and a key enzyme regulating fatty acid biosynthesis, oleyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase was also identified. According to the functional classification of decreased levels of proteins, they were involved in energy production, protein fate, nucleotide biosynthesis, cell division, transport and binding, signal transduction, and fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism in the cell. In addition, phenol hydroxylase, thioesterase, zinc metalloprotease, and aspartate kinase were newly expressed after cadmium exposure at the concentration of the LC(10 )value. Therefore, these proteins seem to be potential biomarkers for cadmium exposure in the aquatic ecosystems. PMID:16372273

  11. Cap1p attenuates the apoptosis of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bao-Di; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Lan-Xue; Li, De-Dong; Li, Ming-Bang; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2013-06-01

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen and its apoptosis is inducible by environmental stress. Based on our previous finding that transcription factor Cap1p was involved in baicalein-induced apoptosis, the present study aimed to further clarify the role of Cap1p in apoptosis by observing the impact of CAP1 deletion on cell fate. It was found that apoptotic stimulation with amphotericin B, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide increased the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells, caspase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, whereas it decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP level in the cap1Δ/Δ mutant. The cell fate was, at least partly, caused by glutathione depletion and attenuation of the expression of the glutathione reductase gene in the cap1Δ/Δ mutant. Collectively, our data suggest that Cap1p participated in the apoptosis of C. albicans by regulating the expression of the glutathione reductase gene and glutathione content. PMID:23517286

  12. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5′-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5′-triphosphorylated but not 5′-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5′-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5′-terminal cap structure G(5′)ppp(5′)A. The 5′-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents. PMID:27213429

  13. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5'-triphosphorylated but not 5'-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5'-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5'-terminal cap structure G(5')ppp(5')A. The 5'-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  14. Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Contents of Some Medicinal Agents.

    PubMed

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, S A; Abu Shawish, K Y I

    2016-01-01

    Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum) that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g) of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead. PMID:27168689

  15. Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Contents of Some Medicinal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, S. A.; Abu Shawish, K.Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum) that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g) of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead. PMID:27168689

  16. Chemical Synthesis and Optical Properties of CdS Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanocomposites and Their Transparent Fluorescent Films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Cheng, Yu-Peng; Xie, He-Yi; Chen, Li; Hu, Michael Z.; Chen, Su

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) polymer nanocomposites by covalently grafting poly(lactic acid) (PLA) onto the surfaces of CdS nanocrystals (NCs). Synthesis of the nanocomposites involved two steps. Lactic acid (LA) capped CdS NCs were first prepared by reacting cadmium chloride (CdCl2) with sodium sulfide (Na2S) using LA as the organic ligand in H2O/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Next CdS PLA nanocomposites were formed by in situ ring-opening polymerization of lactide on the surface of modified CdS NCs. Transparent fluorescent films were then successfully prepared by blending as-prepared CdS PLA nanocomposites with high-molecular-weight PLA. The as-prepared CdS NCs and their nanocomposites were studied by transmission electron microscopic imaging, thermogravimetric analyses, and spectroscopic measurements (ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence). The spectroscopic studies revealed that the CdS polymer nanocomposites exhibited good optical properties in terms of their photoluminescence and transparency.

  17. Photocatalytic oxidation of cadmium-EDTA with titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.P.; Green, D.L.

    1999-02-15

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms stable complexes with toxic metals such as cadmium. Metal-EDTA chelates are chemically stable and occur in a number of waste situations. The viability of using photocatalytic oxidation with titanium dioxide to degrade Cd-EDTA was examined at concentrations from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}3} M at pH from 3 to 8. Initially a portion of the complex was adsorbed onto the TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst at low pH. However, independent of the degree of initial adsorption, Cd-EDTA was rapidly destroyed with little dependence on pH. Concurrently, in most cases cadmium was liberated as Cd{sup 2+} with no affiliation with organic reaction products; its fate depended on suspension pH. At low pH, Cd{sub aq}{sup 2+} was released into solution. Also, organic carbon was released into solution as oxidation of adsorbed EDTA occurred. At higher pH the Cd was adsorbed onto the TiO{sub 2} at adsorption equilibrium levels. Major products detected include formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid. Nitrate and glyoxylic, malonic, and oxalic acids were detected, but concentrations were low. The incomplete carbon balance and the lack of nitrate production suggest the production of organic amines from the degradation of Cd-EDTA. Release of the Cd as Cd{sup 2+} occurs after mineralization of only about half of the organic carbon.

  18. Human lymphocyte surface immunoglobulin capping. Normal characteristics and anomalous behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemic lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, H J

    1975-01-01

    The phenomenon of redistribution of surface membrane immunoglobulin (Ig) components (capping) has been well described in mouse lymphoid cells. The characteristics of this process in human lymphocytes are less clear. This study characterizes the phenomenon of surface membrane Ig redistribution of normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lymphocytes with the use of fluoroscein-labeled anti-Ig sera. Normal lymphocytes underwent rapid cap formation after incubation with anti-Ig serum in the cold and subsequent rewarming. The morphology was characteristic with aggregation over the pole of the cell opposite the nucleus and over the uropod when present. The process was energy dependent but independent of protein synthesis, and could be inhibited by vincristine, vinblastine, and colchicine but not by cytochalasin B. CLL cells, on the other hand, though showing fluorescent complex aggregation on the surface, rarely demonstrated unidirectional movement of these aggregates to form a cap. Cap formation in these cells could not be stimulated by supplementing the energy source or protein concentration of the medium nor by adding glutamic acid which could partially reverse the vincristine and vinblastine inhibition of normal capping. The failure of agents which inhibit motility to inhibit capping of the normal lymphocytes suggests that active locomotion is not a direct prerequisite for capping. The results also suggest the involvement of microtubules in normal capping and the possibility that abnormal membrane structure or microtubular function could explain the failure of CLL cells to behave normally in this regard. The role of this cellular defect in the immune deficiencies exhibited by many patients with CLL, however, is not established. Images PMID:1088910

  19. Staphylococcus aureus cap5P Encodes a UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine 2-Epimerase with Functional Redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Kiser, Kevin B.; Bhasin, Navneet; Deng, Lingyi; Lee, Jean C.

    1999-01-01

    The serotype 5 capsule gene cluster of Staphylococcus aureus comprises 16 genes (cap5A through cap5P), but little is known about how the putative gene products function in capsule biosynthesis. We propose that the N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid (ManNAcA) component of the S. aureus serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide (CP5) is synthesized from a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) precursor that is epimerized to UDP-N-acetylmannosamine (UDP-ManNAc) and then oxidized to UDP-ManNAcA. We report the purification and biochemical characterization of a recombinant UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase encoded by S. aureus cap5P. Purified Cap5P converted ∼10% of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-ManNAc as detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-ManNAc occurred over a wide pH range and was unaffected by divalent cations. Surprisingly, CP5 expression in S. aureus was unaffected by insertional inactivation of cap5P. Sequence homology searches of the public S. aureus genomic databases revealed the presence of another putative UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase on the S. aureus chromosome that showed 61% identity to Cap5P. Redundancy of UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase function in S. aureus was demonstrated by cloning the cap5P homologue from strain Newman and complementing an Escherichia coli rffE mutant defective in UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity. Our results confirm the putative function of the S. aureus cap5P gene product and demonstrate the presence of a second gene on the staphylococcal chromosome with a similar function. PMID:10438750

  20. Purification and Biophysical Characterization of the CapA Membrane Protein FTT0807 from Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The capA gene (FTT0807) from Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis SCHU S4 encodes a 44.4 kDa integral membrane protein composed of 403 amino acid residues that is part of an apparent operon that encodes at least two other membrane proteins, CapB, and CapC, which together play a critical role in the virulence and pathogenesis of this bacterium. The capA gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal His6-tagged fusion with a folding reporter green fluorescent protein (frGFP). Purification procedures using several detergents were developed for the fluorescing and membrane-bound product, yielding approximately 30 mg of pure protein per liter of bacterial culture. Dynamic light scattering indicated that CapA-frGFP was highly monodisperse, with a size that was dependent upon both the concentration and choice of detergent. Circular dichroism showed that CapA-frGFP was stable over the range of 3–9 for the pH, with approximately half of the protein having well-defined α-helical and β-sheet secondary structure. The addition of either sodium chloride or calcium chloride at concentrations producing ionic strengths above 0.1 M resulted in a small increase of the α-helical content and a corresponding decrease in the random-coil content. Secondary-structure predictions on the basis of the analysis of the sequence indicate that the CapA membrane protein has two transmembrane helices with a substantial hydrophilic domain. The hydrophilic domain is predicted to contain a long disordered region of 50–60 residues, suggesting that the increase of α-helical content at high ionic strength could arise because of electrostatic interactions involving the disordered region. CapA is shown to be an inner-membrane protein and is predicted to play a key cellular role in the assembly of polysaccharides. PMID:24593131

  1. Nephropathy in cadmium workers: assessment of risk from airborne occupational exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Thun, M J; Osorio, A M; Schober, S; Hannon, W H; Lewis, B; Halperin, W

    1989-01-01

    To assess the quantitative relation between exposure to airborne cadmium and various markers of renal tubular and glomerular function, 45 male workers employed at a plant that recovers cadmium from industrial waste and 32 male hospital workers of similar age and geographical location were examined. Cumulative external exposure to airborne cadmium (dose) was estimated from historical air sampling data, adjusted for respirator use. Increasing cadmium dose was associated with multiple renal tubular functional abnormalities, including reduced reabsorption of beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2), retinol binding protein (RBP), calcium, and phosphate. Serum creatinine concentration also increased with cadmium dose, suggesting impaired glomerular function. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in the cadmium workers than in the unexposed (134 v 120 mm Hg and 80 v 73 mm Hg respectively), but only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cadmium dose in multivariate analyses. Cadmium dose remained the most important predictor of serum creatinine concentration after controlling for age, blood pressure, body size, and other extraneous factors. Logistic regression to model the probability (prevalence) of various renal abnormalities with increasing dose of cadmium was used. The probability of multiple tubular abnormalities and raised serum creatinine concentration increased sharply at cumulative cadmium exposures exceeding 300 mg/m3 days, corresponding to working for 4.3 years at the current permissible United States exposure limit for cadmium dust. PMID:2818957

  2. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L. PMID:26336850

  3. Hydrogen sulfide modulates cadmium-induced physiological and biochemical responses to alleviate cadmium toxicity in rice.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Rahman, Anisur; Ansary, Md Mesbah Uddin; Watanabe, Ayaka; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-09-11

    We investigated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which H2S mitigates the cadmium stress in rice. Results revealed that cadmium exposure resulted in growth inhibition and biomass reduction, which is correlated with the increased uptake of cadmium and depletion of the photosynthetic pigments, leaf water contents, essential minerals, water-soluble proteins, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Excessive cadmium also potentiated its toxicity by inducing oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased levels of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde. However, elevating endogenous H2S level improved physiological and biochemical attributes, which was clearly observed in the growth and phenotypes of H2S-treated rice plants under cadmium stress. H2S reduced cadmium-induced oxidative stress, particularly by enhancing redox status and the activities of reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal detoxifying enzymes. Notably, H2S maintained cadmium and mineral homeostases in roots and leaves of cadmium-stressed plants. By contrast, adding H2S-scavenger hypotaurine abolished the beneficial effect of H2S, further strengthening the clear role of H2S in alleviating cadmium toxicity in rice. Collectively, our findings provide an insight into H2S-induced protective mechanisms of rice exposed to cadmium stress, thus proposing H2S as a potential candidate for managing toxicity of cadmium, and perhaps other heavy metals, in rice and other crops.

  4. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide modulates cadmium-induced physiological and biochemical responses to alleviate cadmium toxicity in rice

    PubMed Central

    Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Rahman, Anisur; Ansary, Md. Mesbah Uddin; Watanabe, Ayaka; Fujita, Masayuki; Phan Tran, Lam-Son

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which H2S mitigates the cadmium stress in rice. Results revealed that cadmium exposure resulted in growth inhibition and biomass reduction, which is correlated with the increased uptake of cadmium and depletion of the photosynthetic pigments, leaf water contents, essential minerals, water-soluble proteins, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Excessive cadmium also potentiated its toxicity by inducing oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased levels of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde. However, elevating endogenous H2S level improved physiological and biochemical attributes, which was clearly observed in the growth and phenotypes of H2S-treated rice plants under cadmium stress. H2S reduced cadmium-induced oxidative stress, particularly by enhancing redox status and the activities of reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal detoxifying enzymes. Notably, H2S maintained cadmium and mineral homeostases in roots and leaves of cadmium-stressed plants. By contrast, adding H2S-scavenger hypotaurine abolished the beneficial effect of H2S, further strengthening the clear role of H2S in alleviating cadmium toxicity in rice. Collectively, our findings provide an insight into H2S-induced protective mechanisms of rice exposed to cadmium stress, thus proposing H2S as a potential candidate for managing toxicity of cadmium, and perhaps other heavy metals, in rice and other crops. PMID:26361343

  6. Structural and functional characterization of K339T substitution identified in the PB2 subunit cap-binding pocket of influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Qin, Kun; Meng, Geng; Zhang, Jinfang; Zhou, Jianfang; Zhao, Guangyu; Luo, Ming; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2013-04-19

    Influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is a heterotrimer composed of PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is required for both transcription and replication of influenza viral RNA taking place in the nucleus of infected cells. A "cap-snatching" mechanism is used to generate a 5'-capped primer for transcription in which the cap-binding domain of PB2 (PB2cap) captures the 5' cap of the host pre-mRNA. Our statistical analysis of PB2 sequences showed that residue Lys(339) located in the cap-binding pocket of H5N1 PB2cap was gradually replaced by Thr(339) over the past decade. To understand the role of this amino acid polymorphism, we solved the crystal structures of PB2cap with or without a pre-mRNA cap analog, m(7)GTP, in the presence of Lys(339) or Thr(339). The structures showed that Lys(339) contributes to binding the γ-phosphate group of m(7)GTP, and the replacement of Lys(339) by Thr eliminates this interaction. Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis showed that Thr(339) attenuated the PB2cap cap binding activity in vitro compared with Lys(339). Further functional studies confirmed that Thr(339)-PB2-containing ribonucleoprotein complex has a reduced influenza polymerase activity and RNA synthesis activity, and a reconstituted H5N1 virus containing the Thr(339) substitution exhibited a lower virulence to mice but more active replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The K339T substitution in the cap-binding pocket of PB2 modulates the polymerase activity and virulence by regulating the cap binding activity. It is informative to track variations in the cap-binding pocket of PB2 in surveillance of the evolution and spread of influenza virus.

  7. Efficient end-capping synthesis of neutral donor-acceptor [2]rotaxanes under additive-free and mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Domoto, Yuya; Sase, Shohei; Goto, Kei

    2014-11-24

    Efficient end-capping synthesis of neutral donor-acceptor (D-A) [2]rotaxanes without loading any catalysts or activating agents was achieved by utilizing high reactivity of a pentacoordinated hydrosilane toward salicylic acid derivatives. As components of [2]rotaxanes, an electron-deficient naphthalenediimide-containing axle with a salicylic acid terminus and several electron-rich bis(naphthocrown) ether macrocycles were employed. End-capping reactions with the pentacoordinated hydrosilane underwent smoothly even at low temperature to afford the corresponding [2]rotaxanes in good yields. A [2]rotaxane containing bis-1,5-(dinaphtho)-38-crown-10 ether as a wheel molecule was synthesized and isolated in 84% yield by the end-capping at -10 °C, presenting the highest yield ever reported for the end-capping synthesis of a neutral D-A [2]rotaxane. It was found that the yields of the [2]rotaxanes in the end-capping reactions were almost parallel to the formation ratios of the corresponding pseudo[2]rotaxanes estimated by utilizing model systems. These results indicate that the end-capping reaction using the pentacoordinated hydrosilane proceeded without perturbing the threading process, and most of the pseudo[2]rotaxanes underwent efficient end-capping reaction even at low temperature. PMID:25284148

  8. The relationship of root-cap slimes to proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kenneth; Northcote, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    1. The patterns of incorporation of radioactivity from d-[U-14C]glucose into the pectic components of sections of sycamore roots changed so that sections nearer the tip incorporated relatively more label into arabinose and galactose compared with uronic acid. 2. Radioactive maize root-cap slime was prepared and found to contain three water-soluble component polymers which were electrophoretically (i) neutral, (ii) weakly acidic and (iii) strongly acidic at pH6.5. The neutral component was a glucan. The other components, which could be degraded by trans-elimination, consisted of an acidic backbone chain composed of galacturonic acid and glucose, attached to which were different proportions of neutral sugars. Arabinose, galactose and fucose, the main neutral sugars of the weakly and strongly acidic materials, were absent from the neutral fraction. 3. Fucose was a major sugar in maize-root slime and in a slime of similar composition synthesized by a maize callus of shoot origin. Only trace amounts were found in sycamore, pea and wheat root tips, and in pectin prepared from maize roots and coleoptiles. A high proportion of fucose is therefore a chemical characteristic of maize slime, and slime synthesis indicated a state of differentiation of the tissue. 4. The similarity between the slime and pectin is discussed; slime is a form of pectin modified in such a way as to provide a hydrated protective coating around the root tip. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4855044

  9. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  10. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as... Adjustment Assistance on June 24, 2010, applicable to workers of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot..., Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition,...

  11. Actin capping proteins, CapZ (β-actinin) and tropomodulin in amphioxus striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yulong; Kake, Takei; Hanashima, Akira; Nomiya, Yui; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Sumiko

    2012-11-15

    CapZ (β-actinin) and tropomodulin (Tmod) are capping proteins involved in the maintenance of thin filaments in vertebrate skeletal muscles. In this study, we focused on amphioxus, the most primitive chordate. We searched for CapZ and Tmod genes in the amphioxus genome and determined their primary structures. Amphioxus possess one CapZα gene (CAPZA) and one CapZβ gene (CAPZB), and the transcripts of these genes were found to be 67%-85% identical to those of human CapZ genes. On the other hand, amphioxus contain one Tmod gene (TMOD), and the product of this gene has an identity of approximately 50% with human Tmod genes 1-4. However, helix 2 of amphioxus Tmod, which is involved in protein-binding to tropomyosin, was highly conserved with approximately 74% identity to human Tmod genes. Western blotting indicated the presence of CapZ and Tmod in the striated muscle of amphioxus. These results suggest that unlike most of vertebrates, such as fish, amphibian, bird, and mammal, CapZ from amphioxus striated muscle is derived from two genes CAPZA and CAPZB, and Tmod is derived from one TMOD gene.

  12. CAP - JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CONTAMINATION ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Contamination Analysis Program (CAP) is a generalized transient executive analysis computer code which solves realistic mass transport problems in the free molecular flow environment. These transport problems involve mass flux from surface source emission and re-emission, venting, and engine emission. CAP solution capability allows for one-bounce mass reflections if required. CAP was developed to solve thin-film contamination problems in the free molecular flow environment, the intent being to provide a powerful analytic tool for evaluating spacecraft contamination problems. The solution procedure uses an enclosure method based on a lumped-parameter multinodal approach with mass exchange between nodes. Transient solutions are computed by the finite difference Euler method. First-order rate theory is used to represent surface emission and reemission (user care must be taken to insure the problem is appropriate for such behavior), and all surface emission and reflections are assumed diffuse. CAP does not include the effects of post-deposition chemistry or interaction with the ambient atmosphere. CAP reads in a model represented by a multiple-block data stream. CAP allows the user to edit the input data stream and stack sequential editing operations (or cases) in order to make complex changes in behavior (surface temperatures, engine start-up and shut-down, etc.) in a single run if desired. The eight data blocks which make up the input data stream consist of problem control parameters, nodal data (area, temperature, mass, etc.), engine or vent distribution factors (based upon plume definitions), geometric configuration factors (diffuse surface emission), surface capture coefficient tables, source emission rate constant tables, reemission rate constant tables, and partial node to body collapse capability (for deposition rates only). The user must generate this data stream, since neither the problem-specific geometric relationships, the

  13. Distinct Features of Cap Binding by eIF4E1b Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kubacka, Dorota; Miguel, Ricardo Núñez; Minshall, Nicola; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Standart, Nancy; Zuberek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    eIF4E1b, closely related to the canonical translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E1a), cap-binding protein is highly expressed in mouse, Xenopus and zebrafish oocytes. We have previously characterized eIF4E1b as a component of the CPEB mRNP translation repressor complex along with the eIF4E-binding protein 4E-Transporter, the Xp54/DDX6 RNA helicase and additional RNA-binding proteins. eIF4E1b exhibited only very weak interactions with m7GTP-Sepharose and, rather than binding eIF4G, interacted with 4E-T. Here we undertook a detailed examination of both Xenopus and human eIF4E1b interactions with cap analogues using fluorescence titration and homology modeling. The predicted structure of eIF4E1b maintains the α + β fold characteristic of eIF4E proteins and its cap-binding pocket is similarly arranged by critical amino acids: Trp56, Trp102, Glu103, Trp166, Arg112, Arg157 and Lys162 and residues of the C-terminal loop. However, we demonstrate that eIF4E1b is 3-fold less well able to bind the cap than eIF4E1a, both proteins being highly stimulated by methylation at N7 of guanine. Moreover, eIF4E1b proteins are distinguishable from eIF4E1a by a set of conserved amino acid substitutions, several of which are located near to cap-binding residues. Indeed, eIF4E1b possesses several distinct features, namely, enhancement of cap binding by a benzyl group at N7 position of guanine, a reduced response to increasing length of the phosphate chain and increased binding to a cap separated by a linker from Sepharose, suggesting differences in the arrangement of the protein's core. In agreement, mutagenesis of the amino acids differentiating eIF4E1b from eIF4E1a reduces cap binding by eIF4E1a 2-fold, demonstrating their role in modulating cap binding. PMID:25463438

  14. Electroneutral intrinsic point defects in cadmium chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Kharif, Ya.L.; Kudryashov, N.I.; Strunilina, T.A.

    1987-12-01

    Low-mobility electrically neutral intrinsic point defects were observed in cadmium chalcogenides. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is proportional to the cadmium vapor pressure to the 1/3 power at a constant temperature, and a mechanism for the formation of these defects were proposed.

  15. 29 CFR 1928.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cadmium. 1928.1027 Section 1928.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Occupational Health § 1928.1027 Cadmium. See §...

  16. 29 CFR 1928.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cadmium. 1928.1027 Section 1928.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Occupational Health § 1928.1027 Cadmium. See §...

  17. Effects of dietary cadmium on Mallard ducklings

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, B.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Moore, J.

    1983-12-01

    Mallard (Anan platyrhynchos) ducklings were fed cadmium in the diet at 0, 5, 10, or 20 ppm from 1 day of age until 12 weeks of age. At 4-week intervals six males and six females from each dietary group were randomly selected, bled by jugular venipuncture, and necropsied. Significant decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and a significant increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were found at 8 weeks of age in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium for 12 weeks. No other blood chemistry measurement, hematological parameter, or tissue histopathological measurement indicated a reaction to cadmium ingestion. Body weight, liver weight, and the ratio of the femur weight to length were not affected by dietary cadmium. Femur cadmium concentration in all ducklings 12 weeks of age declined from the values detected at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Liver cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in relation to the increased dietary levels and in relation to the length of time the ducklings were fed the cadmium diets. At 12 weeks of age the cadmium concentration in liver tissue was twice that in the diet. 38 references.

  18. Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

    1983-02-01

    The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

  19. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Charles J. Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-02-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine.

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cadmium. 1915.1027 Section 1915.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Cadmium. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cadmium. 1915.1027 Section 1915.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Cadmium. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cadmium. 1915.1027 Section 1915.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Cadmium. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cadmium. 1915.1027 Section 1915.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Cadmium. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1027 - Cadmium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cadmium. 1915.1027 Section 1915.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Cadmium. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic Co nanoparticles: A comparison study of three different capping surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yu; Lu Xianmao; Mayers, Brian T.; Herricks, Thurston; Xia Younan

    2008-07-15

    This paper compares the performance of three long-chain acids-oleic and elaidic (both olefinic) and stearic (aliphatic)-as a capping agent in the synthesis of magnetic Co nanoparticles. The particles were formed through thermal decomposition of dicobalt octacarbonyl in toluene in the presence of the long-chain acid, and characterized by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and SQUID measurements. Infrared spectra revealed that some of the added olefinic acid was transformed from cis- to trans-configuration (for oleic acid) or from trans- to cis- (for elaidic acid) to facilitate the formation of a densely packed monolayer on the surface of Co nanoparticles. As compared to aliphatic acids, olefinic acids are advantageous for dense packing on small particles with high surface curvatures due to a bent shape of the cis-isomer. The presence of an olefinic acid is able to control particle growth, stabilize the colloidal suspension, and prevent the final product from oxidation by air. Our results indicate that oleic acid, elaidic acid, and a mixture of oleic/stearic acids or elaidic/stearic acids have roughly the same performance in serving as a capping agent for the synthesis of Co nanoparticles with a spherical shape and narrow size distribution. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic Co nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of different capping agents and the effect of their molecular structures on the morphology of Co nanoparticles was analyzed. The transformation between cis- and trans-isomers of olefinic acids was critical to the formation of a densely packed monolayer on the surface of small nanoparticles characterized by high curvatures.

  6. Transmission Through Carbon Nanotubes with Polyhedral Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study electron transport between capped carbon nanotubes and a substrate, and relate this transport to the local density of states in the cap. Our results show that that the transmission probability mimics the behavior of the density of states at all energies except those that correspond to localized states. For a capped carbon nanotube that is not connected to a substrate, the localized states do not couple to the coexisting continuum states. However, close proximity of a substrate causes hybridization between these states. As a result, new transmission paths open from substrate states to nanotube continuum states via the localized states in the cap. We show that the interference between various paths gives rise to transmission antiresonances with the minimum equal to zero at the energy of the localized state. The presence of defects in the tube places close to the cap transforms antiresonances into resonances. Depending on the spatial position of defects, these resonant states are capable of carrying a large current. The results of this paper are of relevance to carbon nanotube based studies on molecular electronics and probe tip applications.

  7. Eddy intrustion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Gorney, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Under the simple postulate that multiple large scale detachable magnetospheric convection eddies can exist in the vicinity of the convection reversal boundary and in the polar cap, by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or otherwise, it is shown that a number of seemingly disconnected plasma and electric field observations in the polar cap can be organized into a theory of magnetosheath and plasmasheet plasma intrusion into the polar cap. Current theory of inverted V structures then predicts existence of similar, but weaker, structures at the eddy convection reversal boundaries in the polar cap. A possible consequence is that the polar cap auroras are natural offshoots from discrete oval arcs and evidently are formed by similar processes. The two arc systems can occassionally produce an optical image in the form of the theta aurora.

  8. Multicopy suppressors of temperature-sensitive mutations of yeast mRNA capping enzyme.

    PubMed

    Schwer, B; Shuman, S

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated three Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes-CES1, CES2, and CES3-- that, when present in high copy, suppress the ts growth defect caused by mutations in the CEG1 gene encoding mRNA guanylyltransferase (capping enzyme). Molecular characterization of the capping enzyme suppressor genes reveals the following. CES2 is identical to ESP1, a gene required for proper nuclear division. We show by deletion analysis that the 1573-amino acid ESP1 polypeptide is composed of distinct functional domains. The C-terminal portion of ESP1 is essential for cell growth, but dispensable for CES2 activity. The N-terminal half of ESP1, which is sufficient for CES2 function, displays local sequence similarity to the small subunit of the vaccinia virus RNA capping enzyme. This suggests a basis for suppression by physical or functional interaction between the CES2 domain of ESP1 and the yeast guanylyltransferase. CES1 encodes a novel hydrophilic 915-amino acid protein. The amino acid sequence of CES1 is uninformative, except for its extensive similarity to another yeast gene product of unknown function. The CES1 homologue (designated CES4) is also a multicopy suppressor of capping enzyme ts mutations. Neither CES1 nor CES4 is essential for cell growth, and a double deletion mutant is viable. CES3 corresponds to BUD5, which encodes a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor. We hypothesize that CES1, CES4, and BUD5 may impact on RNA transactions downstream of cap synthesis that are cap dependent in vivo. PMID:8836740

  9. Antioxidants in Erica andevalensis: a comparative study between wild plants and cadmium-exposed plants under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Márquez-García, Belén; Horemans, Nele; Cuypers, Ann; Guisez, Yves; Córdoba, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Erica andevalensis is an endemic species from SW Iberian Peninsula, always growing in metal-enriched and acid soils. In the present study, a comparison was made between wild E. andevalensis plants collected from the field and cultivated ones exposed to different cadmium levels (0, 0.5, 5 and 50 μM). Wild plants contain higher levels of ascorbic acid (around 8000 nmol g(-1) FW) than lab-cultivated control plants (around 3000 nmol g(-1) FW). Glutathione levels follow an opposite trend being smaller in wild plants than lab-cultivated ones. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants is 90 times higher than in cultivated plants non-exposed to cadmium. Cadmium treatment of lab-cultivated plants did not affect the growth of E. andevalensis or the glutathione levels. However, the total antioxidative capacity increased in plants exposed to 50 μM of cadmium. Cadmium was added to the soil and it was transported into leaves reaching levels of 3.299 ± 0.781 μg Cd/g DW in plants exposed to 50 μM. These results underline a possible importance of antioxidants in the metal tolerance show by the high antioxidant capacity detected in both wild and lab-cultivated plants exposed to high cadmium levels.

  10. Cadmium stannate selective optical films for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haacke, G.

    1975-01-01

    Efforts concentrated on reducing the electrical sheet resistance of sputtered cadmium stannate films, installing and testing equipment for spray coating experiments, and sputter deposition of thin cadmium sulfide layers onto cadmium stannate electrodes. In addition, single crystal silicon wafers were coated with cadmium stannate. Work also continued on the development of the backwall CdS solar cell.

  11. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  12. Improvement of cadmium uptake and accumulation in Sedum alfredii by endophytic bacteria Sphingomonas SaMR12: effects on plant growth and root exudates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao; Zhang, Yibin; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Inoculating endophytic bacteria was proven as a promising way to enhance phytoremediation. By a hydroponic experiment, the role of this study was to clarify the effects of inoculating endophytic bacterium Sphingomonas SaMR12 on phytoremediation, with special emphasis on changes of cadmium uptake, plant growth, root morphology, and organic acids secretion at different cadmium treated levels (0, 5, 50, and 100 μM). The results showed that SaMR12 inoculation improved the accumulation of cadmium as well as plant biomass, length of roots, number of root tips, and root surface area. Root secretion of oxalic, citric, and succinic acids was also increased after inoculated, which may alleviate the cadmium toxicity to plant or inhibit the rising trend of oxidative stress of plant. The major finding of this work suggested that in the root, SaMR12 improves cadmium bioavailability and absorption facility by increasing root-soil contact area and root organic acid secretion; and in the shoot, SaMR12 increases cadmium tolerance by alleviating oxidative stress of plant, so as to enhance the capability of cadmium extraction by plant.

  13. Ternary cadmium zinc sulphide films with high charge mobilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampong, Francis K.; Awudza, Johannes A. M.; Nkum, R. K.; Boakye, F.; Thomas, P. John; O'Brien, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium zinc sulphide thin films with high charge mobilities are obtained from acidic chemical baths employing the corresponding metal chlorides, urea and thioacetamide. The films are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, absorption spectroscopy and charge transport measurements. The compositional control afforded by the technique and the resultant changes in the structural, optical and electronic properties of the films are critically examined. We find good correlation between structure and properties at extremes of the composition range.

  14. Tumor-Triggered Controlled Drug Release from Electrospun Fibers Using Inorganic Caps for Inhibiting Cancer Relapse.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Yuan, Ziming; Yildirimer, Lara; Zhao, Jingwen; Lin, Zhi Yuan William; Cao, Zhi; Pan, Guoqing; Cui, Wenguo

    2015-09-01

    A smart, tumor-trigged, controlled drug release using inorganic "caps" with CO3 (2-) functional groups in electrospun fibers is presented for inhibiting cancer relapse. When the drug-loaded intelligent electrospun fibers encounter pathological acidic environments, the inorganic gates react with the acids and produce CO2 gas, which enables water penetration into the core of the fibers to induce rapid drug release.

  15. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants that affect various tissues and organs including testis. Harmful effect of cadmium on testis is known to be germ cell degeneration and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. In the present study, the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a sulfur-containing volatile compound present in garlic, and zinc (Zn) was investigated on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Male adult Wistar rats treated with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg body wt, five times a week for 4 weeks) showed decreased body weight, paired testicular weight, relative testicular weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein levels. Testicular steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and marker enzymes, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), showed a significant decrease in activities whereas that of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly increased after cadmium exposure. The results have revealed that concurrent treatment with DAS or zinc restored key steroidogenic enzymes, SDH, LDH, and G6PD and increased testicular weight significantly. DAS restored the TAC level and increased testosterone level and relative testicular weight significantly. Zinc restored testicular protein level and body weight. It can be concluded that cadmium causes testicular toxicity and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins and that concurrent administration of DAS or zinc provides protection against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:18972399

  16. Dépollution par méthode électrocinétique d'un matériau argileux dopé au cadmium. essai pilote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marceau, Pascal; Broquet, Paul; Baticle, Pascal

    1999-01-01

    Electrokinetic treatment is a remediation technique for fine-grained soils. The feasibility and efficiency of transporting cadmium with this treatment are investigated at pilot scale in a 3.25 t clayey medium specimen spiked with cadmium nitrate solution and at an electrode spacing of 100 cm. Sulfuric acid is added to catholyte to neutralize the hydroxides generated at the cathode. A constant current density of 0.3 mA-cm -2 is applied. The test is conducted with cadmium at a concentration of 882 mg·kg -1 of dried matter. Cadmium was transported toward the catholyte and plated on the cathode. After 3 259 h of processing and an energy expenditure of 159 kWh·m -3, 98.5 % of the cadmium was removed.

  17. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-10-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is "are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?" To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls = 120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for regions closer to the pole, and later for regions close to the periphery of the cap. The observations and calculations presented herein estimate that on average a water ice layer ∼70 microns thick is deposited during the Ls = 135-164 period. This is far larger than the results of deposition on the south pole during summer, where an average layer 0.6-6 microns deep has been estimated by Brown et al. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 406, 102-109.

  18. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  19. Landfill capping: The Croton Point Landfill experience

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasaraghaven, R.; Gavin, J.M.; Landi, A.M.; Ritchie, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Croton Point Landfill Capping involved the installation of an impermeable, geosynthetic cap and the attendant geotechnical cover soils over a 113 acre hazardous waste landfill in Croton-On-Hudson, New York. The remediation process - Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Remedial Design and Remedial Construction lasted six years. This paper sets forth some of the insights and experiences gained during that process and provides some practical recommendations. In particular, the paper evaluates the Croton Landfill experience in regard to Health and Safety; Stormwater Control; erosion and sediment control; QA/QC; leachate treatment and disposal; and wildlife control.

  20. Valve Cap For An Electric Storage Cell

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof; Genton, Alain

    2000-04-18

    The valve cap for an electric storage cell includes a central annular valve seat (23) and a membrane (5) fixed by its peripheral edge and urged against the seat by a piston (10) bearing thereagainst by means of a spring (12), the rear end of said spring (12) bearing on the endwall (8) of a chamber (20) formed in the cap and containing the piston (10) and the spring. A vent (19) puts the chamber (20) into communication with the atmosphere. A central orifice (26, 28) through the piston (10) and the membrane (5), enables gas from within the cell to escape via the top vent (19) when the valve opens.