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Sample records for acid citrate dextrose

  1. Acid-citrate-dextrose compared with heparin in the preparation of in vivo/in vitro technetium-99m red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, W.C.; Dees, S.M.; Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.

    1983-05-01

    Red blood cells labeled in vivo/in vitro with Tc-99m (Tc-99m RBC) were prepared in a series of 21 patients and two normal volunteers. In each subject both heparin and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solutions were used to label tandem blood samples. The immediate preinjection binding efficiency (BE) was then determined. In each of the 23 studies, the ACD preparation yielded superior BE. The average BE was 93.47% (+/- 3.78) with ACD and 87.23% (+/- 4.29) with heparin. With the ACD method the effect of carrier Tc-99 may be as great as a 24% reduction in BE observed when initial eluates from long-ingrowth-time generators were used. Improved image quality with minimal renal and urinary-bladder activity results with ACD labeling. It is concluded that the use of ACD results in superior RBC labeling with less nontarget activity relative to heparin and is preferred over heparin for preparing in vivo/in vitro Tc-99m RBC.

  2. The constituents of fresh frozen plasma stored with citrate phosphate dextrose and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Hauben, D J; Yanai, E; Mahler, D; Neumann, L; Kaplan, H

    1982-02-01

    The authors have investigated the constituents of fresh frozen plasma stored in citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD) at -20 degrees C. The results indicate abnormal characteristics of several of the constituents, whereas some others remain within normal values. This is attributed to preparation procedures with the addition of a CPD solution. Fresh frozen plasma being hyperosmolal, hypernatremic, hyperglycemic, hyperphosphatemic, normokalemic and containing normal values of protein, calcium, magnesium, and water carries a clinical implication for the physician as a guide for the treatment of the critically ill patient when large amounts of plasma are needed. PMID:7064431

  3. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  4. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  5. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes. PMID:23500418

  6. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Countervailing Duty Order, 74 FR 25705 (May 29, 2009), remains dispositive. A full description of the scope of... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's...

  7. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  8. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and amino acid (AA) composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg) fed N-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01) but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028) IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake) in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:25083106

  9. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ..., 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). This review covers the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'')....

  10. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Republic of China: Final Results of the First Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's...

  11. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Cash Deposit Requirements The following deposit... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results...

  12. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Part, and Final Determination to Not Revoke Order in Part: Canned Pineapple Fruit from Thailand, 68 FR... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Also on June 30, 2010... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada, 74 FR 16843 (April 13, 2009) (Citric Acid LTFV)....

  13. Leachability of retorted oil shale by strong complexometric agents. [Sodium citrates, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, E.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of solid waste materials with complexometric agents may offer a quick and effective method for assessing the potential long-term release of hazardous chemical constituents. Complexometric agent extraction may establish the maximum amount of elements of environmental concern that can be released to the environment and the capability of waste materials to release them. In this study, four samples of directly (DH) and indirectly (IH) retorted oil shales were extracted with deionized-distilled water and strong complexometric agents. The complexometric agent solutions were composed of 0.5M sodium citrate (citrate), 0.05M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 0.05M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The water extracts were very alkaline with pH values ranging from 11.0 to 11.8 for IH extracts and 12.2 to 12.8 for DH extracts. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were the predominant dissolved species in the IH water extracts. The DH water extracts contained mainly sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. Water-extractable minor and trace elements were aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, silicon, and strontium. Complexometric extraction released detectable amounts of arsenic, antimony, selenium, lead, vanadium, and zinc. Other elements of environmental concern, including silver, cobalt, chromium, and nickel, were not detected in excess of the limits of quantitation in complexometric extracts. Based upon the analytical results, it was found that the retorted oil shale mineralogy influenced the extracting solution composition, i.e., when comparing the leachates from the IH and DH samples. Also, the complexometric agents hastened the release of certain constituents into solution compared to water extracts. 17 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. 77 FR 33399 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 1455 (January 10, 2012). \\10\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the... Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703... Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011) (``Initiation''). \\3\\ See Letter...

  15. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  16. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  17. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  18. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.111 Dextrose monohydrate. (a) Dextrose monohydrate is purified and crystallized...

  19. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.111 Dextrose monohydrate. (a) Dextrose monohydrate is purified and crystallized...

  20. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.111 Dextrose monohydrate. (a) Dextrose monohydrate is purified and crystallized...

  1. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  2. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  3. The transport of citrate and other tricarboxylic acids in two species of Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Lawford, H. G.; Williams, G. R.

    1971-01-01

    When cells of Pseudomonas are grown on citrate as the sole carbon source they oxidize citrate and isocitrate rapidly. Fluorocitrate inhibits the oxidation of citrate. Fluorocitrate-treated cells accumulate [6-14C]citrate, as shown by a rapid Millipore-filtration technique. In the absence of fluorocitrate most of the [6-14C]-citrate is lost in the form of 14CO2. The isolation of a pseudomonad characterized by its ability to grow on tricarballylate as a sole carbon source has facilitated the study of the tricarboxylate-carrier specificity. Cells grown on citrate will exchange radioactive citrate for unlabelled citrate or isocitrate but not for cis-aconitate, trans-aconitate or tricarballylate. Cells grown on tricarballylate will exchange radioactive citrate for unlabelled citrate, cis-aconitate or tricarballylate, but not for isocitrate or trans-aconitate. The properties of the exchange system involved are compared with those of the related system in mitochondria. PMID:5126909

  4. Chemical characterization of fatty acids, alkanes, n-diols and alkyl esters produced by a mixed culture of Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum grown aerobically on undecanoic acid, potatoe dextrose and their mixture.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Carlos M; Chahal, Amarpreet; Schnitzer, Morris; Rowland, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the mixed fungal synthesis of high-value aliphatics derived from the metabolism of simple and complex carbon substrates. Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum were fed with undecanoic acid (UDA), potatoe dextrose broth (PDB), and their mixture. Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) together with (1)H and (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) characterized CHCl3 soluble aliphatics in the fungal cell culture. Data from NMR and Py-FIMS analysis were complementary to each other. On average, the mixed fungal species produced mostly fatty acids (28% of total ion intensity, TII) > alkanes (2% of TII) > n-diols (2% of TII) > and alkyl esters (0.8% of TII) when fed with UDA, PDB or UDA+PDB. The cell culture accumulated aliphatics extracellularly, although most of the identified compounds accumulated intracellularly. The mixed fungal culture produced high-value chemicals from the metabolic conversion of simple and complex carbon substrates. PMID:26852878

  5. Arabidopsis peroxisomal citrate synthase is required for fatty acid respiration and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Pracharoenwattana, Itsara; Cornah, Johanna E; Smith, Steven M

    2005-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that peroxisomal citrate synthase (CSY) is required for carbon transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria during respiration of triacylglycerol in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Two genes encoding peroxisomal CSY are expressed in Arabidopsis seedlings, and seeds from plants with both CSY genes disrupted were dormant and did not metabolize triacylglycerol. Germination was achieved by removing the seed coat and supplying sucrose, but the seedlings still did not use triacylglycerol. The mutant seedlings were resistant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid, indicating a block in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, and were unable to develop further after transfer to soil. The mutant phenotype was complemented with a cDNA encoding CSY with either its native peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS2) or a heterologous PTS1 sequence from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) malate synthase. These results suggest that peroxisomal CSY in Arabidopsis is not only a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle but also catalyzes an essential step in the respiration of fatty acids. We conclude that citrate is exported from the peroxisome during fatty acid respiration, whereas in yeast, acetylcarnitine is exported. PMID:15923350

  6. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production. PMID:27596402

  7. An oral sodium citrate-citric acid non-particulate buffer in humans.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, J J; Payne, K A

    1996-11-01

    We have investigated the effect on the pH of the gastric fluid of a single dose of sodium citrate 0.3 mol litre-1 (antacid) and a solution containing sodium citrate dehydrate (100 mg ml-1) with citric acid monohydrate (66 mg ml-1) (buffer). The dose for both solutions was 0.4 ml kg-1 via a nasogastric tube. Each group comprised 10 patients undergoing neurosurgical operations of 5-7 h duration. A control group of 10 patients received no gastric solution. The pH of the gastric aspirate was measured hourly using a Metrohm 632 digital pH meter (Synectics Medical, Sweden). Mean baseline gastric pH was 2.64 (SD 1.71). In the control group, pH increased to 4.4 (1.51) at 5 h, returning to baseline at 7 h. In the antacid group, pH increased to 6.11 (0.47) at 15 min and decreased to 3.70 (1.94) at 7 h (P < 0.01). In the buffer group, pH was stable at 3.80-3.95 (0.22) over 7 h (P > 0.01). Total mean gastric aspirate was 0.5 ml kg-1. PMID:8957982

  8. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    PubMed Central

    CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; LEITE, Fábio Renato Manzolli; ZANDIM, Daniela Leal; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; RACHED, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; SAMPAIO, José Eduardo Cezar

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. Material and Methods A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group). After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. Results Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning. PMID:22858707

  9. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010. On June 5, 2012, we published the preliminary results of this review.\\1\\......

  10. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 24460 (May 2, 2011). On May 31... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). Rescission... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of...

  11. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Deferral of Administrative Review, 75 FR 37759... of the Antidumping Duty Order; and Partial Rescission of Administrative Review, 76 FR 34048 (June 10... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of...

  12. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). On January 25, 2011, the Department published the extension... Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 4288... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's...

  13. Low-temperature Storage of Cucumbers Induces Changes in the Organic Acid Content and in Citrate Synthase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To elucidate the cause of reported pyruvate accumulation in chilled stored cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. ‘Toppugurin’, we have examined differences in the extent of incorporation of acetate-1,2-14C into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the specific activity of the enzyme citrate synthase ...

  14. Ferrous iron oxidation by molecular oxygen under acidic conditions: The effect of citrate, EDTA and fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Griffin, Philippa J.; Waite, T. David

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the rates of Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen in the presence of citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were determined over the pH range 4.0-5.5 and, for all of the ligands investigated, found to be substantially faster than oxidation rates in the absence of any ligand. EDTA was found to be particularly effective in enhancing the rate of Fe(II) oxidation when sufficient EDTA was available to complex all Fe(II) present in solution, with a kinetic model of the process found to adequately describe all results obtained. When Fe(II) was only partially complexed by EDTA, reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heterogeneous Fe(II) oxidation were found to contribute significantly to the removal rate of iron from solution at different stages of oxidation. This was possible due to the rapid rate at which EDTA enhanced Fe(II) oxidation and formed ROS and Fe(III). The rapid rate of Fe(III) generation facilitated the formation of free ferric ion activities in excess of those required for ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation following Fe(III)-EDTA dissociation. In comparison, the rate of Fe(II) oxidation was slower in the presence of citrate, and therefore the concentrations of free Fe(III) able to form in the initial stages of Fe(II) oxidation were much lower than those formed in the presence of EDTA, despite the resultant Fe(III)-citrate complex being less stable than that of Fe(III)-EDTA. The slower rate of citrate enhanced oxidation also resulted in slower rates of ROS generation, and, as such, oxidation of the remaining inorganic Fe(II) species by ROS was negligible. Overall, this study demonstrates that organic ligands may substantially enhance the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Even under circumstances where the ligand is not present at sufficient concentrations to complex all of the Fe(II) in solution, ensuing oxidative processes may sustain an enhanced rate of Fe(II) oxidation relative to that of

  15. Mechanisms of drug release in citrate buffered HPMC matrices.

    PubMed

    Pygall, Samuel R; Kujawinski, Sarah; Timmins, Peter; Melia, Colin D

    2009-03-31

    Few studies report the effects of alkalizing buffers in HPMC matrices. These agents are incorporated to provide micro-environmental buffering, protection of acid-labile ingredients, or pH-independent release of weak acid drugs. In this study, the influence of sodium citrate on the release kinetics, gel layer formation, internal gel pH and drug release mechanism was investigated in HPMC 2910 and 2208 (Methocel E4M and K4M) matrices containing 10% felbinac 39% HPMC, dextrose and sodium citrate. Matrix dissolution at pH 1.2 and pH 7.5 resulted in complex release profiles. HPMC 2910 matrices exhibited biphasic release, with citrate increasing the immediate release phase (<60min) and reducing the extended release. HPMC 2208 matrices were accelerated, but without the loss of extended release characteristics. Studies of early gel layer formation suggested gel barrier disruption and enhanced liquid penetration. pH modification of the gel layer was transitory (<2h) and corresponded temporally with the immediate release phase. Results suggest that in HPMC 2910 matrices, high initial citrate concentrations within the gel layer suppress particle swelling, interfere with diffusion barrier integrity, but are lost rapidly whereupon drug solubility reduces and the diffusion barrier recovers. These Hofmeister or osmotic-mediated effects are better resisted by the less methoxylated HPMC 2208. PMID:19100822

  16. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Giudetti, Anna M; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  17. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  18. Assessment the levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) on mice fed with eggshell calcium citrate malate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiding; Zhang, Mingdi; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Liyan; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory; Huang, Hsiang-Chi

    2013-07-01

    Optimized conditions were obtained by one-factor-at-a-time test (OFAT) and ternary quadratic regression orthogonal composite design (TQROCD) respectively. By pulse electric fields (PEF) technology, the process of eggshell calcium citrate malate (ESCCM), eggshell calcium citrate (ESCC) and eggshells calcium malate (ESCM) were comprehensive compared. The levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the bioavailability on mice fed with eggshell calcium citrate malate (ESCCM) treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) were evaluated. Results showed that the rates of calcium dissolution of the different acids studied can be arranged as ESCCM (7.90 mg/mL)>ESCC (7.12 mg/mL)>ESCM (7.08 mg/mL) from highest to lowest rate of dissolution. At the same dose 133.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1), the levels of TRAP in the ESCCM treatment groups were significantly lower than those in ESCM and ESCC (P<0.05). Bone calcium content in the mice fed with ESCCM was generally higher than fed with ESCM and ESCC. PMID:23603074

  19. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Yorita, K; Chung, S P; Tran, D H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-10-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for cancer growth and metastasis. Steps of angiogenesis are energy consuming, while vascular endothelial cells are highly glycolytic. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor and this enhances its aggressiveness. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates. Oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy was recently reported (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther, 19, 1-18, 2012). OSED combines DAO-induced oxidative stress with energy depletion caused by glycolytic inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor that depleted ATP in cancer cells and induced production of hydrogen peroxide. 3BP disturbs the Warburg effect and antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate (El Sayed et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr, 44, 61-79, 2012). Citrate is a natural organic acid capable of inhibiting glycolysis by targeting phosphofructokinase. Here, we report that DAO, 3BP and citrate significantly inhibited angiogenesis, decreased the number of vascular branching points and shortened the length of vascular tubules. OSED delayed the growth of C6/DAO glioma cells. 3BP combined with citrate delayed the growth of C6 glioma cells and decreased significantly the number and size of C6 glioma colonies in soft agar. Human GBM cells (U373MG) were resistant to chemotherapy e.g. cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside, while 3BP was effective in decreasing the viability and disturbing the morphology of U373MG cells. PMID:22802136

  20. Enhancement of L-lactic acid production in Lactobacillus casei from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by kinetic optimization and citrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiang-Yang; Qian, He; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2010-01-01

    Efficient L-lactic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Lactobacillus casei G-02 using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in fed-batch culture is demonstrated. The kinetic analysis in the SSF signified that the inulinase activity was subjected to product inhibition, while the fermentation activity of G-02 was subjected to substrate inhibition. It was also found that the intracellularly NOX activity was enhanced by the citrate metabolism, which increased the carbon flux of Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway dramatically, and resulted more ATP production. As a result, when the SSF was carried out at 40 degrees after the initial hydrolysis of 1 h with supplemented sodium citrate of 10g/L, L-lactic acid concentration of 141.5 g/L was obtained in 30 h with a volumetric productivity of 4.7 g/L/h. The conversion efficiency and product yield were 93.6% of the theoretical lactic acid yield and 52.4 g lactic acid/100 g Jerusalem artichoke flour, respectively. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from Jerusalem artichoke has not been reported previously, and hence G-02 could be a potential candidate for economical production of L-lactic acid from Jerusalem artichoke at a commercial scale. PMID:20134240

  1. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  2. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 5782... Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). This clarification will apply to entries of... Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009). These deposit requirements...

  3. Induced Nanocrystallization of Dextrose Monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Irudayaraj; Raj, B. Kanickai; Sivagami, V.; Selvi, Naga Pondy

    2013-06-01

    Modern ultrasound induction is very much useful in crystallization process. It uses piezoelectric transducers or quartz crystals to convert mechanical waves to electrical signals and vice versa. Growth of a crystal is environment dependent. The characteristics of grown crystals depend on impurities, temperature, preparation of the solution and mechanical agitation. The properties and size of a crystal can be tailored by controlling any one or all the above factors. The most interesting fact is that the ultrasound influences the properties and size of a crystal. It is found that the characteristics are improved and tailored for a specific need of the industry when a crystal is grown by radiating ultrasonic wave. In some cases, it produces nanocrystals. We used a device which generates the Ultrasonic wave of 15 MHz, which is applied to the crystal right from the time before nucleation till the crystal formation. The Dextrose monohydrate crystals are grown by conventional slow cool batch method. In the same slow cool batch method, Ultrasonic waves of 15 MHz are allowed to pass, influence the nucleation, crystal formation and growing process. The crystal formation process under the exposure of Ultrasound is allowed to continue for a sufficiently long time to yield the desired nanocrystals. The FTIR, UV, microhardness and SEM analysis are taken for the crystals with and without ultrasound.

  4. Inhibition of citric acid accumulation by manganese ions in Aspergillus niger mutants with reduced citrate control of phosphofructokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Schreferl, G.; Kubicek, C.P.; Roehr, M.

    1986-03-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with reduced citrate control of carbohydrate catabolism (cic mutants) grow faster than the parent strain on media containing 5% (wt/vol) citrate. The mutants tolerated a higher intracellular citrate concentration than the parent strain. One mutant (cic-7/3) contained phosphofructokinase activity significantly less sensitive towards citrate than the enzyme from the parent strain. When this mutant was grown under citrate accumulating conditions, acidogenesis was far less sensitive to inhibition by Mn/sup 2 +/ than in the parent strain. Some of the cic mutants also showed altered citrate inhibition of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

  5. Regulation of Expression of Citrate Synthase by the Retinoic Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor α (RORα)

    PubMed Central

    Crumbley, Christine; Wang, Yongjun; Banerjee, Subhashis; Burris, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors that plays an important role in regulation of the circadian rhythm and metabolism. Mice lacking a functional RORα display a range of metabolic abnormalities including decreased serum cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. Citrate synthase (CS) is a key enzyme of the citric acid cycle that provides energy for cellular function. Additionally, CS plays a critical role in providing citrate derived acetyl-CoA for lipogenesis and cholesterologenesis. Here, we identified a functional RORα response element (RORE) in the promoter of the CS gene. ChIP analysis demonstrates RORα occupancy of the CS promoter and a putative RORE binds to RORα effectively in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and confers RORα responsiveness to a reporter gene in a cotransfection assay. We also observed a decrease in CS gene expression and CS enzymatic activity in the staggerer mouse, which has a mutation of in the Rora gene resulting in nonfunctional RORα protein. Furthermore, we found that SR1001 a RORα inverse agonist eliminated the circadian pattern of expression of CS mRNA in mice. These data suggest that CS is a direct RORα target gene and one mechanism by which RORα regulates lipid metabolism is via regulation of CS expression. PMID:22485150

  6. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not...

  7. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not...

  8. Application of citrate as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate, prevents diabetic-induced heart damages in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qianqian; Wang, Baoyu; Pang, Lingxia; Wang, Youpei; Zheng, Meiqin; Wang, Qing; Yan, Jingbin; Xu, Jinzhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Higher cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels is important in reducing cellular energy charge (EC) by increasing the levels of key metabolic protein, and nitrosative modifications, and have been shown to damage the cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. However, the relation between energy production and heart function is unclear. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ, 150 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally once to mice that had been fasted overnight for induction of diabetes. After diabetic induction, mice received citrate (5 µg/kg) through intraperitoneal injection every other day for 5 weeks. The caspase-3, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), protein kinase B (PKB), commonly known as AKT and phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) proteins were examined to elucidate inflammation and apoptosis in the heart. For histological analysis, heart samples were fixed with 10% formalin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Sirius red to assess pathological changes and fibrosis. The expression levels[AGA1] of marker proteins, tyrosine nitration, activity of ATP synthase and succinyl-CoA3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase-1 (SCOT), and EC were measured. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of citrate significantly reduced caspase-3 and PAI-1 protein levels and increased p-AKT level on the 5th week; EC in the heart was found to be increased as well. Further, the expression level, activity, and tyrosine nitration of ATP synthase and SCOT were not affected after induction of diabetes. Conclusion: Results indicate that application of citrate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate, might alleviate cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiac inflammation, apoptosis, and increasing cardiac EC. PMID:27096063

  9. Phenotypes of gene disruptants in relation to a putative mitochondrial malate-citrate shuttle protein in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Ueda, Yuka; Hattori, Takasumi

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP) functions as a malate-citrate shuttle catalyzing the exchange of citrate plus a proton for malate between mitochondria and cytosol across the inner mitochondrial membrane in higher eukaryotic organisms. In this study, for functional analysis, we cloned the gene encoding putative CTP (ctpA) of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L. The gene ctpA encodes a polypeptide consisting 296 amino acids conserved active residues required for citrate transport function. Only in early-log phase, the ctpA disruptant DCTPA-1 showed growth delay, and the amount of citric acid produced by strain DCTPA-1 was smaller than that by parental strain WU-2223L. These results indicate that the CTPA affects growth and thereby citric acid metabolism of A. niger changes, especially in early-log phase, but not citric acid-producing period. This is the first report showing that disruption of ctpA causes changes of phenotypes in relation to citric acid production in A. niger. PMID:27088852

  10. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  15. Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-08-17

    Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of sildenafil citrate in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation using some chromotropic acid azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Y. M.; El-Hawary, W. F.; Youssef, A. F. A.; Senosy, A. R.

    2010-04-01

    Two simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the quantitative determination of the drug sildenafil citrate (SC), Viagra, in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations, through ion-associate formation reactions (method A) with mono-chromotropic acid azo dyes, chromotrope 2B (I) and chromotrope 2R (II) and ion-pair reactions (method B) with bi-chromotropic acid azo dyes, 3-phenylazo-6-o-carboxyphenylazo-chromotropic acid (III), bis-3,6-(o-hydroxyphenylazo)-chromotropic acid (IV), bis-3,6-(p-N,N-dimethylphenylazo)-chromotropic acid (V) and 3-phenylazo-6-o-hydroxyphenylazo-chromotorpic acid (VI). The reaction products, extractable in methylene chloride, were quantitatively measured at 540, 520, 540, 570, 600 and 575 nm using reagents, I-VI, respectively. The reaction conditions were studied and optimized. Beer's plots were linear in the concentration ranges 3.3-87.0, 3.3-96.0, 5.0-115.0, 2.5-125.0, 8.3-166.7 and 0.8-15.0 μg mL -1 with corresponding molar absorptivities 1.02 × 10 4, 8.34 × 10 3, 6.86 × 10 3, 5.42 × 10 3, 3.35 × 10 3 and 2.32 × 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1 using reagents I-VI, respectively. The limits of detection and Sandell's sensitivities were calculated. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets (Vigoran) and the recovery study reveals that there is no interference from the common excipients that are present in tablets. Statistical comparison of the results was performed with regard to accuracy and precision using Student's t- and F-tests at 95% confidence level. There is no significant difference between the reported and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision.

  17. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Period of Review...-others rate made effective by the LTFV investigation. See Citric Acid Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703. These... Salts from Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011- 2012, 78...

  18. Fabrication and characterization of poly(lactic acid)/acetyl tributyl citrate/carbon black as conductive polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiugao; Wang, Ning; Ma, Xiaofei

    2008-03-01

    By using acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) as the plasticizer of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and carbon black (CB) as conductive filler, electrically conductive polymer composites (CPC) with different CB and ATBC contents were prepared. FTIR revealed that the interaction existed between PLA/ATBC matrix and CB filler and ATBC could improve this interaction. The rheology showed that ATBC could obviously decrease the shear viscosity and improve the fluidity of the composites but just the reverse for CB. With the increasing of CB contents, the enforcement effect, storage modulus, and glass-transition temperature increased but the elongation at break decreased. PLA/ATBC/CB composites exhibited the low electrical percolation thresholds of 0.516, 1.20, 2.46, and 2.74 vol % CB at 30, 20, 10, and 0 wt % ATBC. The conductivity of the composite containing 3.98 vol % CB and 30 wt % ATBC reached 1.60 S/cm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the addition of ATBC facilitated the dispersion of the CB in the PLA matrix. Water vapor permeability (WVP) showed that, at the same CB contents, the more ATBC contents there were, the less the values of WVP were. PMID:18290627

  19. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June... Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). \\2\\ Archer Daniels Midland Company... Rescind in Part, 70 FR 39735, 39737 (July 11, 2005), unchanged in Notice of Final Results and...

  20. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

  1. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  2. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  3. Acute Hypotension After 50% Dextrose Injections.

    PubMed

    Saites, Victoria; Laudanski, Krzysztof

    2016-05-15

    The hemodynamic effects of small-volume boluses of hyperosmotic solutions are often deemed negligible in the clinical setting. However, animal studies have reported decreases in systemic arterial blood pressure and bradycardia with the administration of hyperosmotic solutions. This is a report of a 60-year-old woman, intubated and sedated, who developed acute decreases in systemic arterial blood pressure with the administration of ≤50 mL of 50% dextrose. Animal studies suggest that hyperosmolar-induced hypotension may be avoided by administering the hyperosmotic solution slowly. This allows for admixture and therefore a decreased osmotic load at the proposed osmoreceptor involved in the neural reflex. PMID:26934608

  4. Treatment of norovirus particles with citrate.

    PubMed

    Koromyslova, Anna D; White, Peter A; Hansman, Grant S

    2015-11-01

    Human norovirus is a dominant cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. Several norovirus disinfectants label citric acid as an active ingredient. In this study, we showed that norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) treated with citrate buffer caused the particles to alter their morphology, including increased diameters associated with a new ring-like structure. We also found that epitopes on the protruding (P) domain on these particles were more readily accessible to antibodies after the citrate treatment. These results suggested that citrate had a direct effect on the norovirus particles. Using X-ray crystallography, we showed that the P domain bound citrate from lemon juice and a disinfectant containing citric acid. Importantly, citrate binds at the histo-blood group antigen binding pocket, which are attachment factors for norovirus infections. Taken together, these new findings suggested that it might be possible to treat/reduce norovirus infections with citrate, although further studies are needed. PMID:26295280

  5. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... and Certain Citrate Salts, 74 FR 25705 (May 29, 2009). On May 2, 2011, the Department published a... Administrative Review, 76 FR 24460 (May 2, 2011). In accordance with 19 CFR 351.221(c)(1)(i), we published a... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The preliminary...

  6. Retention mechanisms of citric acid in ternary kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate acid systems using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-23

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L-3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/ormore » coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤ 0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. In conclusion, these findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.« less

  7. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha(-1) grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha(-1) independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries. PMID:26681519

  8. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V.; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries. PMID:26681519

  9. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  10. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  11. A novel leady oxide combined with porous carbon skeleton synthesized from lead citrate precursor recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yanlin; Wang, Junxiong; Yuan, Xiqing; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Wu, Xu

    2016-02-01

    A novel nanostructured leady oxides comprising porous carbon skeleton has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor, recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste. The influences of O2 percentage in the calcination atmosphere (O2/N2 mixture) and the temperature on leady oxide product characteristics are studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major crystalline phases of the products are identified as lead oxides, metallic Pb, and carbon. Porous carbon is observed as skeletons within the leady oxide (PbO containing some Pb metal) particles. Mass percentage of Pb metal in the leady oxide increases with increasing the proportion of oxygen in the calcination atmosphere. However, the amount of carbon decreases from approximately 8.0 to 0.3 wt%, and the porous carbon skeleton structure is gradually damaged with oxygen concentration increasing. A model about the thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor is firstly proposed to elucidate these observations. The nanostructured leady oxides combined with porous carbon can be directly used as precursor of active materials in a new lead acid battery.

  12. Elevated citrate levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the potential of citrate to promote radical production.

    PubMed

    van de Wier, Bregje; Balk, Jiska M; Haenen, Guido R M M; Giamouridis, Dimosthenis; Bakker, Jaap A; Bast, Bertine C; den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Koek, Ger H; Bast, Aalt

    2013-08-01

    Plasma citrate levels were found to be elevated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Cellular experiments indicated that increased citrate levels might originate from an excess of fatty acids. The impact of elevated citrate levels on oxidative stress was examined. It was found that citrate stimulated hydrogen peroxide induced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. This was related to the promotion of iron mediated hydroxyl radical formation from hydrogen peroxide by citrate. The stimulating effect of citrate on the reactivity of iron promotes oxidative stress, a crucial process in the progression of NAFLD. PMID:23792160

  13. Low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid, sodium picosulfate-magnesium citrate, and clear liquid diet alone prior to small bowel capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rayner-Hartley, Erin; Alsahafi, Majid; Cramer, Paula; Chatur, Nazira; Donnellan, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid, sodium picosulfate-magnesium citrate and clear liquid diet alone as bowel preparation prior to small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE). METHODS: We retrospectively collected all CE studies done from December 2011 to July 2013 at a single institution. CE studies were reviewed only if low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid, sodium picosulfate-magnesium citrate or clear liquid diet alone used as the bowel preparation. The studies were then reviewed by the CE readers who were blinded to the preparation type. Cleanliness and bubble burden were graded independently within the proximal, middle and distal small bowel using a four-point scale according to the percentage of small bowel mucosa free of debris/bubbles: grade 1 = over 90%, grade 2 = between 90%-75%, grade 3 = between 50%-75%, grade 4 = less than 50%. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. ANOVA and Fishers exact test were used where appropriate. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A of total of 123 CE studies were reviewed. Twenty-six studies were excluded from analysis because of incomplete small bowel examination. In the remaining studies, 39 patients took low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid, 31 took sodium picosulfate-magnesium citrate and 27 took a clear liquid diet alone after lunch on the day before CE, followed by overnight fasting in all groups. There was no significant difference in small bowel cleanliness (1.98 ± 0.09 vs 1.84 ± 0.08 vs 1.76 ± 0.08) or small bowel transit time (213 ± 13 vs 248 ± 14 ± 225 ± 19 min) for clear liquid diet alone, MoviPrep and Pico-Salax respectively. The bubble burden in the mid small bowel was significantly higher in the MoviPrep group (1.6 ± 0.1 vs 1.9 ± 0.1 vs 1.6 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). However this did not result in a significant difference in diagnosis of pathology. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in small bowel cleanliness or

  14. Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (p<0.05) differential negative effects on the A549 cell line in comparison to its unexposed control as well as to their effects on the MRC-5 cell line, presenting a potential promise for their use as cancer biotherapeutics. PMID:23686189

  15. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Dietary long-chain unsaturated fatty acids acutely and differently reduce the activities of lipogenic enzymes and of citrate carrier in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Gnoni, Antonio; Giudetti, Anna M

    2016-09-01

    The activities of lipogenic enzymes appear to fluctuate with changes in the level and type of dietary fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to induce on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) the highest inhibitory effect, which occurs through a long-term adaptation. Data on the acute effects of dietary fatty acids on DNL are lacking. In this study with rats, the acute 1-day effect of high-fat (15 % w/w) diets (HFDs) enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), i.e., monounsaturated (MUFA) and PUFA, of the ω-6 and ω-3 series on DNL and plasma lipid level was investigated; a comparison with a longer time feeding (21 days) was routinely carried out. After 1-day HFD administration UFA, when compared to SFA, reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level and the activities of the lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), a decreased activity of the citrate carrier (CIC), a mitochondrial protein linked to lipogenesis, was also detected. In this respect, ω-3 PUFA was the most effective. On the other hand, PUFA maintained the effects at longer times, and the acute inhibition induced by MUFA feeding on DNL enzyme and CIC activities was almost nullified at 21 days. Mitochondrial fatty acid composition was slightly but significantly changed both at short- and long-term treatment, whereas the early changes in mitochondrial phospholipid composition vanished in long-term experiments. Our results suggest that in the early phase of administration, UFA coordinately reduced both the activities of de novo lipogenic enzymes and of CIC. ω-3 PUFA showed the greatest effect. PMID:27312217

  17. Mechanisms of biodegradation of metal-citrate complexes by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Tope, G; Francis, A J

    1995-01-01

    Biodegradation of metal-citrate complexes by Pseudomonas fluorescens depends on the nature of the complex formed between the metal and citric acid. Bidentate Fe(III)-, Ni-, and Zn-citrate complexes were readily biodegraded, but the tridentate Cd- and Cu-citrate, and U-citrate complexes were not. The biodegradation of Ni- and Zn-citrate commenced after an initial lag period; the former showed only partial (70%) degradation, whereas the latter was completely degraded. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled citric acid and metal-citrate complexes showed that cells grown in medium containing citric acid transported free citric acid at the rate of 28 nmol min-1 and Fe(III)-citrate at the rate of 12.6 nmol min-1 but not Cd-, Cu-, Ni-, U-, and Zn-citrate complexes. However, cells grown in medium containing Ni- or Zn-citrate transported both Ni- and Zn-citrate, suggesting the involvement of a common, inducible transport factor. Cell extracts degraded Fe(III)-, Ni-, U-, and Zn-citrate complexes in the following order: The cell extract did not degrade Cd- or Cu-citrate complexes. These results show that the biodegradation of the U-citrate complex was limited by the lack of transport inside the cell and that the tridentate Cd- and Cu-citrate complexes were neither transported inside the cell nor metabolized by the bacterium. PMID:7721690

  18. Acid-base Balance in Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Northfield, T. C.; Kirby, B. J.; Tattersfield, Anne E.

    1971-01-01

    Acid-base balance has been studied in 21 patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A low plasma bicarbonate concentration was found in nine patients, accompanied in each case by a base deficit of more than 3 mEq/litre, indicating a metabolic acidosis. Three patients had a low blood pH. Hyperlactataemia appeared to be a major cause of the acidosis. This was not accompanied by a raised blood pyruvate concentration. The hyperlactataemia could not be accounted for on the basis of hyperventilation, intravenous infusion of dextrose, or arterial hypoxaemia. Before blood transfusion it was most pronounced in patients who were clinically shocked, suggesting that it may have resulted from poor tissue perfusion and anaerobic glycolysis. Blood transfusion resulted in a rise in lactate concentration in seven patients who were not clinically shocked, and failed to reverse a severe uncompensated acidosis in a patient who was clinically shocked. These effects of blood transfusion are probably due to the fact that red blood cells in stored bank blood, with added acid-citrate-dextrose solution, metabolize the dextrose anaerobically to lactic acid. Monitoring of acid-base balance is recommended in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who are clinically shocked. A metabolic acidosis can then be corrected with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. PMID:5313902

  19. Analysis of ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica points out the importance of mannitol metabolism in fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Thierry; Lazar, Zbigniew; Dulermo, Rémi; Rakicka, Magdalena; Haddouche, Ramedane; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    The role of the two key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis, ATP-citrate lyase (Acl) and malic enzyme (Mae), was analyzed in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. In most oleaginous yeasts, Acl and Mae are proposed to provide, respectively, acetyl-CoA and NADPH for FA synthesis. Acl was mainly studied at the biochemical level but no strain depleted for this enzyme was analyzed in oleaginous microorganisms. On the other hand the role of Mae in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica remains unclear since it was proposed to be a mitochondrial NAD(H)-dependent enzyme and not a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent enzyme. In this study, we analyzed for the first time strains inactivated for corresponding genes. Inactivation of ACL1 decreases FA synthesis by 60 to 80%, confirming its essential role in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. Conversely, inactivation of MAE1 has no effects on FA synthesis, except in a FA overaccumulating strain where it improves FA synthesis by 35%. This result definitively excludes Mae as a major key enzyme for FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. During the analysis of both mutants, we observed a negative correlation between FA and mannitol level. As mannitol and FA pathways may compete for carbon storage, we inactivated YlSDR, encoding a mannitol dehydrogenase converting fructose and NADPH into mannitol and NADP+. The FA content of the resulting mutant was improved by 60% during growth on fructose, demonstrating that mannitol metabolism may modulate FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. PMID:25959598

  20. 75 FR 71078 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 23236-37 (May 3, 2010). On June 1, 2010, in accordance with 19 CFR... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). On...., Ltd. Juxian Hongde Citric Acid Co., Ltd. Kelong International Co., Ltd. Laiwu Taihe Biochemistry...

  1. 76 FR 34048 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 4288 (January 25, 2011). \\6\\ See Citric Acid and... Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009). \\2\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759...

  2. Mean platelet volume measurement, EDTA or citrate?

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Mansour Siavash; Emami, Tajolmolouk; Najafian, Alireza; Amini, Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Most laboratories use EDTA for anticoagulation of whole blood prior to automated cell counting but due to platelet swelling, mean platelet volume (MPV) values may increase with its use. MPV changes may be less with acid citrate based anticoagulation. As MPV is a marker of platelet function and its precise measurement is important in a number of clinical situations, this study was performed to assess if EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples can be used interchangeably for MPV measurement. In this cross sectional descriptive study, EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples of the same patients were assessed by auto-analyzer within 1 h of sampling. In the 61 evaluated patients, there was a close correlation between MPV as measured by EDTA and citrate, but mean MPV measured from EDTA samples was 0.66 fL (9%) more than citrate. There was also a significant negative correlation between platelets count and MPV by both methods. The results of our study reveal that MPV can be measured accurately by both methods of anticoagulation; EDTA and citrate if analysis be performed within 1 h of sampling. PMID:17607580

  3. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  4. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  5. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  6. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  7. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  8. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  9. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. DATA SYNTHESIS Fourteen RCTs, 1 case–control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood–Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive

  10. Compatibility of esmolol hydrochloride with morphine sulfate and fentanyl citrate during simulated Y-site administration.

    PubMed

    Karnatz, N N; Wong, J; Kesler, H; Baaske, D M; Speicher, E R

    1988-02-01

    The compatibility and stability of esmolol hydrochloride in admixtures during simulated Y-site injection of morphine sulfate or fentanyl citrate was studied. One milliliter of either morphine sulfate (15 mg/mL) or fentanyl citrate (0.05 mg/mL) was injected into a running infusion of esmolol hydrochloride (10 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and the solution was visually observed for changes. To determine the stability of the drugs during Y-site injection, esmolol hydrochloride 4 mL (1000 mg) in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was combined with 100 mL of either morphine sulfate 15 mg/mL or fentanyl citrate 0.05 mg/mL to simulate concentrations of the drugs that might be expected during Y-site injection. The admixtures were stored at ambient room temperature under normal light, and drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography at time zero and at two, four, and eight hours. Admixtures were also tested for pH and observed for visual changes. No immediate changes were observed in any of the admixtures, and the concentrations of the drugs varied by less than 4% throughout the study period. No precipitate or color changes were noted during Y-site injection of either drug into the running esmolol infusion. Under all of the conditions studied, esmolol hydrochloride in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection is compatible with morphine sulfate or fentanyl citrate. PMID:2896460

  11. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... management of renal tubular acidosis with calcium stones, hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis of any etiology, and uric acid lithiasis with or without calcium stones. Potassium Citrate, 10...

  12. Modulation of Citrate Metabolism Alters Aluminum Tolerance in Yeast and Transgenic Canola Overexpressing a Mitochondrial Citrate Synthase1

    PubMed Central

    Anoop, Valar M.; Basu, Urmila; McCammon, Mark T.; McAlister-Henn, Lee; Taylor, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint for crop production in acid soils, although crop cultivars vary in their tolerance to Al. We have investigated the potential role of citrate in mediating Al tolerance in Al-sensitive yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; MMYO11) and canola (Brassica napus cv Westar). Yeast disruption mutants defective in genes encoding tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, both upstream (citrate synthase [CS]) and downstream (aconitase [ACO] and isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH]) of citrate, showed altered levels of Al tolerance. A triple mutant of CS (Δcit123) showed lower levels of citrate accumulation and reduced Al tolerance, whereas Δaco1- and Δidh12-deficient mutants showed higher accumulation of citrate and increased levels of Al tolerance. Overexpression of a mitochondrial CS (CIT1) in MMYO11 resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in citrate levels, and the transformants showed enhanced Al tolerance. A gene for Arabidopsis mitochondrial CS was overexpressed in canola using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated system. Increased levels of CS gene expression and enhanced CS activity were observed in transgenic lines compared with the wild type. Root growth experiments revealed that transgenic lines have enhanced levels of Al tolerance. The transgenic lines showed enhanced levels of cellular shoot citrate and a 2-fold increase in citrate exudation when exposed to 150 μm Al. Our work with yeast and transgenic canola clearly suggest that modulation of different enzymes involved in citrate synthesis and turnover (malate dehydrogenase, CS, ACO, and IDH) could be considered as potential targets of gene manipulation to understand the role of citrate metabolism in mediating Al tolerance. PMID:12913175

  13. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment. PMID:25016342

  14. Iron(III) citrate speciation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andre M N; Kong, XiaoLe; Parkin, Mark C; Cammack, Richard; Hider, Robert C

    2009-10-28

    Citrate is an iron chelator and it has been shown to be the major iron ligand in the xylem sap of plants. Furthermore, citrate has been demonstrated to be an important ligand for the non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) pool occurring in the plasma of individuals suffering from iron-overload. However, ferric citrate chemistry is complicated and a definitive description of its aqueous speciation at neutral pH remains elusive. X-Ray crystallography data indicates that the alcohol function of citrate (Cit4-) is involved in Fe(III) coordination and that deprotonation of this functional group occurs upon complex formation. The inability to include this deprotonation in the affinity constant calculations has been a major source of divergence between various reports of iron(III)-citrate affinity constants. However the recent determination of the alcoholic pKa of citric acid (H4Cit) renders the reassessment of the ferric citrate system possible. The aqueous speciation of ferric citrate has been investigated by mass spectrometry and EPR spectroscopy. It was observed that the most relevant species are a monoiron dicitrate species and dinuclear and trinuclear oligomeric complexes, the relative concentration of which depends on the solution pH value and the iron : citric acid molar ratio. Spectrophotometric titration was utilized for affinity constant determination and the formation constant for the biologically relevant [Fe(Cit)2]5- is reported for the first time. PMID:19809738

  15. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  16. The effect of the concentration of citric acid and pH values on the preparation of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ultrafine powder by citrate sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haijun; Jia Xiaolin; Yan Yongjie; Liu Zhanjie; Yang Daoyuan; Li Zhenzhen

    2004-05-05

    Ultrafine MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by citrate sol-gel process. A model was presented to evaluate the concentration of species in a citric solution for preparing MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ultrafine powder. The evaluated concentration of species can provide valuable information and help in selecting the optimal condition for preparation of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder by citrate sol-gel process. The influence of molar ratio of cations, citric acid and pH on the formation of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied. The spinel precursor gel and the ultrafine MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric (TG-DTA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase begins to form at 600 deg. C, and most of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals are spherical with a crystal size about 30-50 nm.

  17. Effects of cadmium, copper, magnesium, and zinc on the decomposition of citrate by a Klebsiella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Brynhildsen, L; Rosswall, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of Cd2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ on the decomposition of citric acid by a Klebsiella sp. were studied by monitoring the degradation of [14C]citrate. The carbon concentration used was 10 micrograms of C liter-1, and the media were designed to provide at least 95% of the citrate complexed to the metal studied. After 72 h of incubation, 80% of the uncomplexed citric acid and 76% of the magnesium citrate had been decomposed. A marked inhibition was observed when Cd2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+ was bound to the organic anion; only 23% of the cadmium citrate, 14% of the zinc citrate, and 5% of the cuprous citrate had been decomposed. The effects were not the result of toxicity, since experiments run with [14C]glucose (nonchelating compound) instead of citrate resulted in similar decomposition rates regardless of the presence of the metal. To examine whether the binding of a metal to citrate enhanced its uptake by the Klebsiella sp., we studied the relative uptake of 65Zn in citrate- and in glucose-containing media. No such effect could be observed, with the uptake of Zn2+ being higher in the glucose-containing media. The study shows that metals may render low-molecular-weight organic acids, such as citric acid, resistant to bacterial degradation. This stresses the importance of metals in influencing microbial decomposition of organic compounds, not only as a result of toxicity. PMID:2764560

  18. Partitioning of amino acids in the aqueous biphasic system containing the water-miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and the water-structuring salt potassium citrate.

    PubMed

    Zafarani-Moattar, Mohammed Taghi; Hamzehzadeh, Sholeh

    2011-07-01

    In biotechnology, extraction by means of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) is known as a promising tool for the recovery and purification of bio-molecules. Over the past decade, the increasing emphasis on cleaner and environmentally benign extraction procedures has led to enhanced interest in the ABS containing ionic liquids (ILs)-a new class of non-volatile alternative solvents. ABS composed of the hydrophilic IL {1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4 mim]Br)} and potassium citrate-which is easily degraded-represents a clean media to green separation of bio-molecules. In this regard, here, the extraction capability of this ABS was evaluated through its application to the extraction of some amino acids. To gain an insight into the driving forces of amino acid partitioning in the studied IL-based ABS, the distribution of five model amino acids (L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, L-leucine, and L-valine) at different aqueous medium pH values and different phase compositions was investigated. The studies indicated that hydrophobic interactions were the main driving force, although electrostatic interactions and salting-out effects were also important for the transfer of the amino acids. Moreover, based on the statistical analysis of the driving forces of amino acid partitioning in the studied IL-based ABS, a model was established to describe the partition coefficient of three model amino acids, L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-valine, and employed to predict the partition coefficient of two other model amino acids, L-tyrosine and L-leucine. PMID:21509956

  19. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Arhan, Mehmet; Köklü, Seyfettin; Köksal, Aydln S; Yolcu, Ömer F; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2004-01-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment. Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:15259090

  20. Hypertonic Dextrose Injection for The Treatment of a Baker’s Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kibar, Sibel; Balaban, Birol

    2016-01-01

    We present extremely rare and interesting case of a Baker’s cyst treated with hypertonic dextrose injection. A 54-year-old female patient had a Baker’s cyst which was diagnosed by an ultrasonography. After the failure of the two-weekly conservative treatment, we injected hypertonic dextrose (25%) into her right knee joint for the treatment of a Baker’s cyst. Two weeks after the injection, the patient reported improvement in posterior knee pain, and an US showed a resolution of the posterior knee cyst. Certainly hypertonic dextrose injection for the treatment of a Baker’s cyst appears to be a reasonable treatment option. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the efficacy of hypertonic dextrose injection in the treatment of Baker’s cysts. PMID:27042572

  1. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  2. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  3. PREPARATION OF SORBITOL CITRATE POLYESTERS BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION AND APPLICATION AS INHIBITIORS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol citrates were prepared using a vented ZSK-30-twin-screw extruder as part of a program to develop bio-based, water soluble polycarboxylates. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used and included the variables sorbitol, citric acid, sodium citrate, temperature and feed rate. Extent of est...

  4. Phospho-oligosaccharide dependent phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Puerta, J; Mato, J M; Alemany, S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of insulin on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation has been shown to be mimicked by a phospho-oligosaccharide in intact adipocytes. We demonstrate that the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to intact adipocytes enhances the phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase in the same tryptic peptide as insulin does. The addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to an adipocyte extract also results in an increase in ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation but in a different site than that observed in intact cells. The phospho-oligosaccharide-dependent incorporation of phosphate into ATP citrate lyase in intact cells is resistant to isopropanol and acetic acid, but the phosphoenzyme phosphorylated in cell extracts is acid labile. In cell extracts, the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide markedly inhibits ATP hydrolysis, which may explain the effect of this molecule on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation in broken cells. These results support the hypothesis that this phospho-oligosaccharide mediates some of the effects of insulin on protein phosphorylation. They also indicate that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results obtained by adding phospho-oligosaccharide to broken cell preparations. PMID:2119547

  5. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  6. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  7. Simplified citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Apsner, R; Buchmayer, H; Lang, T; Unver, B; Speiser, W; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Hörl, W H

    2001-11-01

    In a randomized crossover trial, we compared a simple citrate anticoagulation protocol for high-flux hemodialysis with standard anticoagulation by low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin). Primary end points were urea reduction rate (URR), Kt/V, and control of electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Secondary end points were bleeding time at vascular puncture sites and markers of activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Solute removal during citrate dialysis was excellent (URR, 0.71 +/- 0.06; Kt/V, 1.55 +/- 0.3) and similar to results of conventional bicarbonate hemodialysis anticoagulation with dalteparin (URR, 0.72 +/- 0.04; Kt/V, 1.56 +/- 0.2). Electrolyte control was effective with both anticoagulation regimens, and total and ionized calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphate concentrations at the end of dialysis did not differ. Alkalemia was less frequent after citrate than conventional dialysis (pH 7.5 in 25% versus 62% of patients; mean pH at end of dialysis, 7.46 +/- 0.06 versus 7.51 +/- 0.07; P < 0.01). Bleeding time at puncture sites was shorter by 30% after citrate compared with dalteparin anticoagulation (5.43 +/- 2.80 versus 7.86 +/- 2.93 minutes; P < 0.001). Activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis was modest for both treatments and occurred mainly within the dialyzer during dalteparin treatment and in the vascular-access region during citrate anticoagulation. Citrate-related adverse events were not observed. We conclude that citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis is feasible and safe using a simple infusion protocol. PMID:11684550

  8. Simplified Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT Without Calcium Replacement.

    PubMed

    Broman, Marcus; Klarin, Bengt; Sandin, Karin; Carlsson, Ola; Wieslander, Anders; Sternby, Jan; Godaly, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Since 2012, citrate anticoagulation is the recommended anticoagulation strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The main drawback using citrate as anticoagulant compared with heparin is the need for calcium replacement and the rigorous control of calcium levels. This study investigated the possibility to achieve anticoagulation while eliminating the need for calcium replacement. This was successfully achieved by including citrate and calcium in all CRRT solutions. Thereby the total calcium concentration was kept constant throughout the extracorporeal circuit, whereas the ionized calcium was kept at low levels enough to avoid clotting. Being a completely new concept, only five patients with acute renal failure were included in a short, prospective, intensely supervised nonrandomized pilot study. Systemic electrolyte levels and acid-base parameters were stable and remained within physiologic levels. Ionized calcium levels declined slightly initially but stabilized at 1.1 mmol/L. Plasma citrate concentrations stabilized at approximately 0.6 mmol/L. All postfilter ionized calcium levels were <0.5 mmol/L, that is, an anticoagulation effect was reached. All filter pressures were normal indicating no clotting problems, and no visible clotting was observed. No calcium replacement was needed. This pilot study suggests that it is possible to perform regional citrate anticoagulation without the need for separate calcium infusion during CRRT. PMID:25851312

  9. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate. PMID:17559405

  12. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  14. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate). The Cit-GNRs are indefinitely stable at low ionic strength, and are conducive to further ligand exchange without loss of dispersion stability. The reliability of the surface exchange process supports the systematic analysis of ligand structure on the hydrodynamic size of GNRs, as described in a companion paper. PMID:25254292

  15. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  16. Citrate-Induced Nanocubes: A Re-Examination of the Role of Citrate as a Shape-Directing Capping Agent for Ag-Based Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hajfathalian, Maryam; Gilroy, Kyle D; Hughes, Robert A; Neretina, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Seed-mediated syntheses utilizing facet-selective surface passivation provide the necessary chemical controls to direct noble metal nanostructure formation to a predetermined geometry. The foremost protocol for the synthesis of (111)-faceted Ag octahedra involves the reduction of metal ions onto pre-existing seeds in the presence of citrate and ascorbic acid. It is generally accepted that the capping of (111) facets with citrate dictates the shape while ascorbic acid acts solely as the reducing agent. Herein, a citrate-based synthesis is demonstrated in which the presence or absence of ascorbic acid is the shape-determining factor. Reactions are carried out in which Ag(+) ions are reduced onto substrate-immobilized Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt seeds. Syntheses lacking ascorbic acid, in which citrate acts as both the capping and the reducing agent, result in a robust nanocube growth mode able to withstand wide variations in the concentration of reactants, reaction rates, seed material, seed orientation and faceting, pH, and substrate material. If, however, ascorbic acid is included in these syntheses, then the growth mode reverts to one that advances the octahedral geometry. The implication of these results is that citrate, or one of its oxidation products, selectively caps (100) facets, but where this capability is compromised by ascorbic acid. PMID:27174815

  17. Gypsum crystals formed on decomposing calcium citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söhnel, O.; Křivánková, I.; Krčmář, S.; Jurčová, M.

    1991-06-01

    Particle size and the specific surface area of gypsum crystals formed on decomposing an aqueous suspension of solid calcium citrate tetrahydrate by diluted 50% sulphuric acid at 25, 40, 60, 80 and 100°C was studied. The size of the gypsum crystals increases with increasing temperature of decomposition. At a constant temperature within the range of 25 to 100°C the median of gypsum crystal size distribution (PSD) increases for approximately 4 h after commencing decomposition and then reaches a virtually constant value. The specific surface area of gypsum crystals decreases after commencement of the reaction for approximately 6 h before reaching a constant value. Gypsum crystal growth by solute deposition from the liquid is responsible for PSD changes for approximately one hour at the commencement of reaction. Then the growth of larger crystals at the expense of smaller crystals, i.e. ripening, is apparently responsible for further changes in the PSD.

  18. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red) Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Broncová, Gabriela; Shishkanova, Tatiana V.; Krondak, Martin; Volf, Radko; Král, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements with citrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red) electrodes. The optimal background electrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodes described here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with a low detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid and acetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification of citrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red) electrodes are presented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillary electrophoresis.

  19. Reductive glutamine metabolism is a function of the α-ketoglutarate to citrate ratio in cells

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Bell, Eric L.; Keibler, Mark A.; Olenchock, Benjamin A.; Mayers, Jared R.; Wasylenko, Thomas M.; Vokes, Natalie I.; Guarente, Leonard; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Reductively metabolized glutamine is a major cellular carbon source for fatty acid synthesis during hypoxia or when mitochondrial respiration is impaired. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of what determines reductive metabolism is missing. Here we identify several cellular conditions where the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio is changed due to altered acetyl-CoA to citrate conversion, and demonstrate that reductive glutamine metabolism is initiated in response to perturbations that results in an increase in the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio. Thus, targeting reductive glutamine conversion for a therapeutic benefit might require distinct modulations of metabolite concentrations rather than targeting the upstream signaling, which only indirectly affects the process. PMID:23900562

  20. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  9. Multiple chromatographic forms of ATP citrate lyase from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, A P; Rider, C C

    1983-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase is shown to exist as multiple forms in extracts of rat liver. DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography of liver supernatants reveals two peaks of activity. A minor, basic, component, comprising 14% of the recovered activity, is eluted without retention, whereas the major, acidic, form is eluted by a KCl gradient. Gel filtration of similar extracts shows the presence of a high-Mr form of ATP citrate lyase (Mr around 10(7) in addition to the tetrameric enzyme (Mr 4.1 X 10(5). This associated state, which represents 10% of the total activity, is unstable, breaking down to the tetramer, and appears to be disrupted by Mg2+. The basic form changes in the partially purified state to give the acidic form. Most of the high-Mr enzyme is acidic in nature. No evidence could be found for an association of the enzyme with mitochondrial or microsomal membranes. ATP citrate lyase from rat brain also shows two peaks of activity on DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography, but the activity is distributed between the peaks in almost equal proportions. However, only the tetrameric enzyme was observed on gel filtration. PMID:6615476

  10. Iron bioavailability in 8-24-month-old Thai children from a micronutrient-fortified quick-cooking rice containing ferric ammonium citrate or a mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Chavasit, Visith; Porasuphatana, Suparat; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Zeder, Christroph; Hurrell, Richard

    2015-12-01

    A quick-cooking rice, produced from broken rice, is a convenient ingredient for complementary foods in Thailand. The rice is fortified with micronutrients including iron during the processing procedure, which can cause unacceptable sensory changes. A quick-cooking rice fortified with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) or a mixture of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4 ) and ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA), with a 2:1 molar ratio of iron from FeSO4  : iron from NaFeEDTA (FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA), gave a product that was organoleptically acceptable. The study compared iron absorption by infants and young children fed with micronutrient-fortified quick-cooking rice containing the test iron compounds or FeSO4 . Micronutrient-fortified quick-cooking rice prepared as a traditional Thai dessert was fed to two groups of 15 8-24-month healthy Thai children. The iron fortificants were isotopically labelled with (57) Fe for the reference FeSO4 or (58) Fe for the tested fortificants, and iron absorption was quantified based on erythrocyte incorporation of the iron isotopes 14 days after feeding. The relative bioavailability of FAC and of the FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was obtained by comparing their iron absorption with that of FeSO4 . Mean fractional iron absorption was 5.8% [±standard error (SE) 1.9] from FAC and 10.3% (±SE 1.9) from FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA. The relative bioavailability of FAC was 83% (P = 0.02). The relative bioavailability of FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was 145% (P = 0.001). Iron absorption from the rice containing FAC or FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was sufficiently high to be used in its formulation, although iron absorption from FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was significantly higher (P < 0.00001). PMID:25721887

  11. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment. PMID:25120169

  12. The Effects of Prolotherapy With Hypertonic Dextrose Versus Prolozone (Intraarticular Ozone) in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Masoud; Jalili, Parviz; Mennati, Shirin; Koosha, Alireza; Rohanifar, Ramin; Madadi, Firouz; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Taheri, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disabling disease. Limited studies have demonstrated that prolotherapy with dextrose or with prolozone can be helpful in the treatment of patients with KOA. Objectives: In the current study, we compared the results between these two treatment methods. Patients and Methods: In the current randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with mild to moderate KOA were randomly assigned equally into two groups (ozone group and dextrose group). In each group, injections were repeated three times with 10-day intervals. Before the treatment and 3 months after the injections, the pain intensity was measured by using a visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster university arthritis index scores. Finally, the results were compared between the two groups. Results: In the two groups, the pain intensity and WOMAC scores significantly decreased and increased, respectively (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Prolotherapy with dextrose and with prolozone result in the same pain relief or functional improvement in patients with mild to moderate KOA. PMID:26587401

  13. Citrate influences microbial Fe hydroxide reduction via a dissolution-disaggregation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Klier, Christine; Schröder, Christian; Händel, Matthias; Bosch, Julian; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-08-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is partly dependent on Fe hydroxide particle size: nanosized Fe hydroxides greatly exceed the bioavailability of their counterparts larger than 1 μm. Citrate as a low molecular weight organic acid can likewise stabilize colloidal suspensions against aggregation by electrostatic repulsion but also increase Fe bioavailability by enhancing Fe hydroxide solubility. The aim of this study was to see whether adsorption of citrate onto surfaces of large ferrihydrite aggregates results in the formation of a stable colloidal suspension by electrostatic repulsion and how this effect influences microbial Fe reduction. Furthermore, we wanted to discriminate between citrate-mediated colloid stabilization out of larger aggregates and ferrihydrite dissolution and their influence on microbial Fe hydroxide reduction. Dissolution kinetics of ferrihydrite aggregates induced by different concentrations of citrate and humic acids were compared to microbial reduction kinetics with Geobacter sulfurreducens. Dynamic light scattering results showed the formation of a stable colloidal suspension and colloids with hydrodynamic diameters of 69 (±37) to 165 (± 65) nm for molar citrate:Fe ratios of 0.1 to 0.5 and partial dissolution of ferrihydrite at citrate:Fe ratios ⩾ 0.1. No dissolution or colloid stabilization was detected in the presence of humic acids. Adsorption of citrate, necessary for dissolution, reversed the surface charge and led to electrostatic repulsion between sub-aggregates of ferrihydrite and colloid stabilization when the citrate:Fe ratio was above a critical value (⩽ 0.1). Lower ratios resulted in stronger ferrihydrite aggregation instead of formation of a stable colloidal suspension, owing to neutralization of the positive surface charge. At the same time, microbial ferrihydrite reduction increased from 0.029 to 0.184 mM h-1 indicating that colloids stabilized by citrate addition enhanced microbial Fe reduction. Modelling of

  14. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a)...

  16. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials. PMID:25707204

  17. Films based on neutralized chitosan citrate as innovative composition for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Libio, Illen C; Demori, Renan; Ferrão, Marco F; Lionzo, Maria I Z; da Silveira, Nádya P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, citrate and acetate buffers, were investigated as neutralizers to chitosan salts in order to provide biocompatible and stable films. To choose the appropriate film composition for this study, neutralized chitosan citrate and acetate films, with and without the plasticizer glycerol, were prepared and characterized by thickness, moisture content, degree of swelling, total soluble matter in acid medium, simultaneous thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Chitosan films neutralized in citrate buffer showed greater physical integrity resulted from greater thicknesses, lower moisture absorbance, lower tendency to solubility in the acid medium, and better swelling capacities. According to thermal analyses, these films had higher interaction with water which is considered an important feature for cosmetic application. Since the composition prepared in citrate buffer without glycerol was considered to present better physical integrity, it was applied to investigate hyaluronic acid release in a skin model. Skins treated with those films, with or without hyaluronic acid, show stratum corneum desquamation and hydration within 10min. The results suggest that the neutralized chitosan citrate film prepared without glycerol promotes a cosmetic effect for skin exfoliation in the presence or absence of hyaluronic acid. PMID:27287105

  18. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  19. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lee-Chun; Xie, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yi; Nguyen, Kytai Truong; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate) showed ~70–80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20 and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that the citrate-based polymers are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired. PMID:25023605

  20. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  1. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  2. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence. PMID:25402589

  3. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5–6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5–6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development. PMID:26338058

  4. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  5. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  6. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  7. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  8. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  9. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  10. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  11. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  12. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), pp. 49 and 50, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  14. Inhibition of β-amyloid1-40 Peptide Aggregation and Neurotoxicity by Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Hoon; Kim, Young-Jin; Son, Il Hong

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, these aggregates have neurotoxic effects on cells, and thus, molecules that inhibit Aβ aggregate formation could be valuable therapeutics for AD. It is well known that aggregation of Aβ depends on its hydrophobicity, and thus, in order to increase the hydrophilicity of Aβ, we considered using citrate, an anionic surfactant with three carboxylic acid groups. We hypothesized that citrate could reduce hydrophobicity and increase hydrophilicity of Aβ1-40 molecules via hydrophilic/electrostatic interactions. We found that citrate significantly inhibited Aβ1-40 aggregation and significantly protected SH-SY5Y cell line against Aβ1-40 aggregates-induced neurotoxicity. In details, we examined the effects of citrate on Aβ1-40 aggregation and on Aβ1-40 aggregates-induced cytotoxicity, cell viability, and apoptosis. Th-T assays showed that citrate significantly inhibited Aβ1-40 aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner (Th-T intensity: from 91.3% in 0.01 mM citrate to 82.1% in 1.0 mM citrate vs. 100.0% in Aβ1-40 alone). In cytotoxicity and viability assays, citrate reduced the toxicity of Aβ1-40 in a concentration-dependent manner, in which the cytotoxicity decreased from 107.5 to 102.3% as compared with Aβ1-40 aggregates alone treated cells (127.3%) and the cell viability increased from 84.6 to 93.8% as compared with the Aβ1-40 aggregates alone treated cells (65.3%). Furthermore, Hoechst 33342 staining showed that citrate (1.0 mM) suppressed Aβ1-40 aggregates-induced apoptosis in the cells. This study suggests that citrate can inhibit Aβ1-40 aggregation and protect neurons from the apoptotic effects of Aβ1-40 aggregates. Accordingly, our findings suggest that citrate administration should be viewed as a novel neuroprotective strategy for AD. PMID:19885010

  15. Redox properties and activity of iron-citrate complexes: evidence for redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Adam, Fatima I; Bounds, Patricia L; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-04-20

    Iron in iron overload disease is present as non-transferrin-bound iron, consisting of iron, citrate, and albumin. We investigated the redox properties of iron citrate by electrochemistry, by the kinetics of its reaction with ascorbate, by ESR, and by analyzing the products of reactions of ascorbate with iron citrate complexes in the presence of H2O2 with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as a reporter molecule for hydroxylation. We report -0.03 V < E°' > +0.01 V for the (Fe(3+)-cit/Fe(2+)-cit) couple. The first step in the reaction of iron citrate with ascorbate is the rapid formation of mixed complexes of iron with citrate and ascorbate, followed by slow reduction to Fe(2+)-citrate with k = ca. 3 M(-1) s(-1). The ascorbyl radical is formed by iron citrate oxidation of Hasc(-) with k = ca. 0.02 M(-1) s(-1); the majority of the ascorbyl radical formed is sequestered by complexation with iron and remains EPR silent. The hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid driven by the Fenton reduction of iron citrate by ascorbate in the presence of H2O2 proceeds in three phases: the first phase, which is independent of the presence of O2, is revealed as a nonzero intercept that reflects the rapid reaction of accumulated Fe(2+) with H2O2; the intermediate oxygen-dependent phase fits a first-order accumulation of product with k = 5 M(-1) s(-1) under aerobic and k = 13 M(-1) s(-1) under anaerobic conditions; the slope of the final linear phase is ca. k = 5 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Product yields under aerobic conditions are greater than predicted from the initial concentration of iron, but they are less than predicted for continuous redox cycling in the presence of excess ascorbate. The ongoing formation of hydroxylated product supports slow redox cycling by iron citrate. Thus, when H2O2 is available, iron-citrate complexes may contribute to pathophysiological manifestations of iron overload diseases. PMID:25654270

  16. Dissolution kinetics and biodurability of tremolite particles in mimicked lung fluids: Effect of citrate and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozalen, Marisa; Ramos, M. Elena; Huertas, F. Javier; Fiore, Saverio; Gervilla, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    The effect of citrate and oxalate on tremolite dissolution rate was measured at 37 °C in non-stirred flow-through reactors, using modified Gamble's solutions at pH 4 (macrophages), 7.4 (interstitial fluids) and 5.5 (intermediate check point) containing 0, 0.15, 1.5 and 15 mmol L-1 of citrate or oxalate. The dissolution rates calculated from Si concentration in the output solutions without organic ligands depend on pH, decreasing when the pH increases from -13.00 (pH 4) to -13.35 (pH 7.4) mol g-1 s-1 and following a proton-promoted mechanism. The presence of both ligands enhances dissolution rates at every pH, increasing this effect when the ligand concentration increases. Citrate produces a stronger effect as a catalyst than oxalate, mainly at more acidic pHs and enhances dissolution rates until 20 times for solutions with 15 mmol L-1 citrate. However, at pH 7.4 the effect is lighter and oxalate solutions (15 mmol L-1) only enhances dissolution rates eight times respect to free organic ligand solutions. Dissolution is promoted by the attack to protons and organic ligands to the tremolite surface. Magnesium speciation in oxalate and citrate solutions shows that Mg citrate complexes are more effective than oxalate ones during the alteration of tremolite in magrophages, but this tendency is the opposite for interstitial fluids, being oxalate magnesium complexes stronger. The biodurability estimations show that the destruction of the fibers is faster in acidic conditions (macrophages) than in the neutral solutions (interstitial fluid). At pH 4, both ligands oxalate and citrate reduce the residence time of the fibers with respect to that calculated in absence of ligands. Nevertheless, at pH 7.4 the presence of ligands does not reduce significantly the lifetime of the fibers.

  17. Effect of Eu-citrate complex composition on its cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.M.; Kornilov, A.S.; Yadovin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    The dependence of Eu cementation by sodium amalgam in a semicountercurrent regime from citrate solutions on the Eu complex composition is studied. The purity of the {sup 153}Gd product from radioactive Eu can be increased during cementation by introducing correcting solutions of citric acid and stable Eu. The selected conditions are verified by processing irradiated targets. The content of radioactive Eu in the {sup 153}Gd product is reduced from 0.01 to 0.0005% with respect to {gamma}-activity.

  18. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  19. Structure, function, and expression pattern of a novel sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT) cloned from mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Katsuhisa; Zhuang, Lina; Maddox, Dennis M; Smith, Sylvia B; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2002-10-18

    Citrate plays a pivotal role not only in the generation of metabolic energy but also in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoprenoids, and cholesterol in mammalian cells. Plasma levels of citrate are the highest ( approximately 135 microm) among the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we report on the cloning and functional characterization of a plasma membrane transporter (NaCT for Na+ -coupled citrate transporter) from rat brain that mediates uphill cellular uptake of citrate coupled to an electrochemical Na+ gradient. NaCT consists of 572 amino acids and exhibits structural similarity to the members of the Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter/Na+ -sulfate cotransporter (NaDC/NaSi) gene family including the recently identified Drosophila Indy. In rat, the expression of NaCT is restricted to liver, testis, and brain. When expressed heterologously in mammalian cells, rat NaCT mediates the transport of citrate with high affinity (Michaelis-Menten constant, approximately 20 microm) and with a Na+:citrate stoichiometry of 4:1. The transporter does interact with other dicarboxylates and tricarboxylates but with considerably lower affinity. In mouse brain, the expression of NaCT mRNA is evident in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. NaCT represents the first transporter to be identified in mammalian cells that shows preference for citrate over dicarboxylates. This transporter is likely to play an important role in the cellular utilization of citrate in blood for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol (liver) and for the generation of energy (liver and brain). NaCT thus constitutes a potential therapeutic target for the control of body weight, cholesterol levels, and energy homeostasis. PMID:12177002

  20. Identification and Characterization of Re-Citrate Synthase in Syntrophus aciditrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Marie; Le, Huynh; McInerney, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate is usually synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via citrate, isocitrate, and 2-oxoglutarate. Genome analysis revealed that in Syntrophus aciditrophicus, the gene for Si-citrate synthase is lacking. An alternative pathway starting from the catabolic intermediate glutaconyl-CoA via 2-hydroxyglutarate could be excluded by genomic analysis. On the other hand, a putative gene (SYN_02536; NCBI gene accession no. CP000252.1) annotated as coding for isopropylmalate/citramalate/homocitrate synthase has been shown to share 49% deduced amino acid sequence identity with the gene encoding Re-citrate synthase of Clostridium kluyveri. We cloned and overexpressed this gene in Escherichia coli together with the genes encoding the chaperone GroEL. The recombinant homotetrameric enzyme with a C-terminal Strep-tag (4 × 72,892 Da) was separated from GroEL on a Strep-Tactin column by incubation with ATP, K+, and Mg2+. The pure Re-citrate synthase used only acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate as the substrates. As isolated, the enzyme contained stoichiometric amounts of Ca2+ (0.9 Ca/73 kDa) but achieved higher specific activities in the presence of Mn2+ (1.2 U/mg) or Co2+ (2.0 U/mg). To determine the stereospecificity of the enzyme, [14C]citrate was enzymatically synthesized from oxaloacetate and [1-14C]acetyl-CoA; the subsequent cleavage by Si-citrate lyase yielded unlabeled acetate and labeled oxaloacetate, demonstrating that the enzyme is a Re-citrate synthase. The production of Re-citrate synthase by S. aciditrophicus grown axenically on crotonate was revealed by synthesis of [14C]citrate in a cell extract followed by stereochemical analysis. This result was supported by detection of transcripts of the Re-citrate synthase gene in axenic as well as in syntrophic cultures using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). PMID:23378508

  1. Identification and characterization of re-citrate synthase in Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Marie; Le, Huynh; McInerney, Michael J; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Glutamate is usually synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via citrate, isocitrate, and 2-oxoglutarate. Genome analysis revealed that in Syntrophus aciditrophicus, the gene for Si-citrate synthase is lacking. An alternative pathway starting from the catabolic intermediate glutaconyl-CoA via 2-hydroxyglutarate could be excluded by genomic analysis. On the other hand, a putative gene (SYN_02536; NCBI gene accession no. CP000252.1) annotated as coding for isopropylmalate/citramalate/homocitrate synthase has been shown to share 49% deduced amino acid sequence identity with the gene encoding Re-citrate synthase of Clostridium kluyveri. We cloned and overexpressed this gene in Escherichia coli together with the genes encoding the chaperone GroEL. The recombinant homotetrameric enzyme with a C-terminal Strep-tag (4 × 72,892 Da) was separated from GroEL on a Strep-Tactin column by incubation with ATP, K(+), and Mg(2+). The pure Re-citrate synthase used only acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate as the substrates. As isolated, the enzyme contained stoichiometric amounts of Ca(2+) (0.9 Ca/73 kDa) but achieved higher specific activities in the presence of Mn(2+) (1.2 U/mg) or Co(2+) (2.0 U/mg). To determine the stereospecificity of the enzyme, [(14)C]citrate was enzymatically synthesized from oxaloacetate and [1-(14)C]acetyl-CoA; the subsequent cleavage by Si-citrate lyase yielded unlabeled acetate and labeled oxaloacetate, demonstrating that the enzyme is a Re-citrate synthase. The production of Re-citrate synthase by S. aciditrophicus grown axenically on crotonate was revealed by synthesis of [(14)C]citrate in a cell extract followed by stereochemical analysis. This result was supported by detection of transcripts of the Re-citrate synthase gene in axenic as well as in syntrophic cultures using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). PMID:23378508

  2. Citrate, a specific substrate for the isolation of Clostridium sphenoides.

    PubMed Central

    Walther, R; Hippe, H; Gottschalk, G

    1977-01-01

    With a medium containing citrate as the carbon and energy source, 10 clostridial strains were isolated from various mud samples. Characterization of these strains revealed that they all belonged to the same species, Clostridium sphenoides. Strains of this organism obtained from culture collections were also able to grow citrate, whereas 15 other clostridial species tested were not. Citrate was fermented by C. sphenoides to acetate, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Experiments with stereospecifically 14C-labeled citrate indicated that citrate lyase was involved in citrate degradation. Images PMID:869540

  3. Recalcitrant hypoglycemia resolved with 2.5% dextrose containing replacement fluid during hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Tibor; Iboaya, Benahili U; Avusula, Ramachandram; Csongrádi, Eva; Juncos, Luis A

    2013-08-01

    A 52-year-old African American male was admitted with acute kidney injury (AKI) four days after renal cryotherapy. He was started on continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) immediately but his subsequent course was complicated by recurrent hypoglycemia, poorly responding to conventional therapy. To address the recalcitrant hypoglycemia, we changed the replacement fluid to 5% dextrose in water with 150 mEq/L of sodium bicarbonate, Y-connected with 0.9% sodium chloride at a global rate of 2000 mL/hr, with resolution of refractory hypoglycemia. A modified CVVHDF employing hyperglycemic solution can be a valuable addition in treatment of AKI complicated by severe refractory hypoglycemia. PMID:23829694

  4. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  5. Hypertonic Dextrose and Morrhuate Sodium Injections (Prolotherapy) for Lateral Epicondylosis (Tennis Elbow)

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David; Lee, Ken S.; Ryan, Michael; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Sesto, Mary E.; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Kijowski, Rick; Grettie, Jessica; Wilson, John; Miller, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic lateral epicondylosis (CLE) is common, debilitating and often refractory. Prolotherapy (PrT) is an injection therapy for tendinopathy. The efficacy of two PrT solutions for CLE was evaluated. Design 3-arm randomized controlled trial. 26 adults (32 elbows) with ≥3 months of CLE were randomized to ultrasound-guided PrT with dextrose (PrT-D), PrT with dextrose-morrhuate (PrT-DM) or watchful waiting (Wait-and-see). The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE; 100-points) at 4, 8 and 16 weeks, (all groups) and 32 weeks (PrT groups). Secondary outcomes included pain-free grip strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score. Results PrT-D and PrT-DM participants reported improved PRTEE composite and subscale scores at 4, 8 and/or 16 weeks compared to Wait-and-see (p<0.05). At 16 weeks, compared to baseline, PrT-D and PrT-DM groups improved composite PRTEE scores by 18.7±9.6 (41.1%) and 17.5±11.6 (53.5%) points, respectively. Grip strength of PrT-D participants exceeded that of PrT-DM and Wait-and-see at 8 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). There were no differences in MRI scores. Satisfaction was high; there were no adverse events. Conclusions Prolotherapy resulted in safe, significant improvement of elbow pain and function compared to baseline status and wait-and-see control. This pilot study suggests the need for a definitive trial. PMID:23291605

  6. Secondary transporters for citrate and the Mg(2+)-citrate complex in Bacillus subtilis are homologous proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Boorsma, A; van der Rest, M E; Lolkema, J S; Konings, W N

    1996-01-01

    Citrate uptake in Bacillus subtilis is mediated by a secondary transporter that transports the complex of citrate and divalent metal ions. The gene coding for the transporter termed CitM was cloned, sequenced, and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Translation of the base sequence to the primary sequence revealed a transporter that is not homologous to any known secondary transporter. However, CitM shares 60% sequence identity with the gene product of open reading frame N15CR that is on the genome of B. subtilis and for which no function is known. The hydropathy profiles of the primary sequences of CitM and the unknown gene product are very similar, and secondary structure prediction algorithms predict 12 transmembrane-spanning segments for both proteins. Open reading frame N15CR was cloned and expressed in E. coli and was shown to be a citrate transporter as well. The transporter is termed CitH. A remarkable difference between the two transporters is that citrate uptake by CitM is stimulated by the presence of Mg2+ ions, while citrate uptake by CitH is inhibited by Mg2+. It is concluded that the substrate of CitM is the Mg(2+)-citrate complex and that CitH transports the free citrate anion. Uptake experiments in right-side-out membrane vesicles derived from E. coli cells expressing either CitM or CitH showed that both transporters catalyze electrogenic proton/substrate symport. PMID:8892821

  7. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  8. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  9. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    PubMed

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability. PMID:27268014

  10. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  11. [Fenibut and its citrate prevent psychoneurological disorders caused by chronic stress (paradoxical sleep deprivation)].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Borodkina, L E; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2012-01-01

    The antistress protective action of two structural analogs of GABA, fenibut and its salt with citric acid (fenibut citrate, citrocard, RGPU-147), has been studied using a model of chronic stress caused by seven-fold 24-h deprivation of paradoxical sleep phase at an interval of 24 h between the deprivations. It is established that fenibut and fenibut citrate produce a protective action by (i) reducing the intensity of emotional disorders in the open-field test and elevated plus maze test, (ii) decreasing cognitive disorders in the tests for conditioned avoidance response and extrapolatory deliverance; and (iii) limiting stress reaction due to a decrease in the intensity of adrenal hypertrophy, thymus involution, and stomach mucous membrane ulceration. Fenibut citrate surpasses fenibut in the intensity of antistress protective action. PMID:22891435

  12. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ammonium citrate, CAS Reg. No. 1332-98-5) is a complex salt of undetermined structure composed of 16.5 to... (iron (III) ammonium citrate, CAS Reg. No. 1333-00-2) is a complex salt of undetermined...

  13. Evidence that Osteoblasts are Specialized Citrate-producing Cells that Provide the Citrate for Incorporation into the Structure of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Chellaiah, Meena; Zou, Jing; Reynolds, Mark A.; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a major component of bone in all vertebrates, but its implications in bone have remained largely unknown. Recent studies identified that citrate is incorporated into the structure of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystal/collagen complex; and is essential for the important biomechanical properties of bone. This raises the important question, “What is the source of citrate for incorporation into bone?”; A question that heretofore had remained unresolved. Studies in this report were designed to determine the plausibility of our concept that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells, which provide the citrate that is incorporated into the structure of bone; and that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchyme cells leads to the development of the citrate-producing osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts exhibit the capability of citrate-production. Undifferentiated mesenchyme cells do not exhibit the capability of citrate production; and osteogenic differentiation results in citrate-producing osteoblasts. The up-regulation of zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 is essential for the manifestation of the citrate-producing capability of the osteoblasts. We determined that osteoblast transport of citrate from plasma is not a likely source of citrate in bone. Thus, this study establishes for the first time that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells that provide the citrate for incorporation into the structure of bone; and that mesenchyme cell osteogenesis leads to differentiated citrate-producing osteoblasts. This is a new understanding; which must include the osteogenic development of citrate-producing osteoblasts, and the process of “citration” in concert with mineralization during bone formation. It also provides a new understanding of the role of bone in the homeostatic maintenance of plasma citrate concentration. PMID:25745519

  14. Fast degradable citrate-based bone scaffold promotes spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiajun; Guo, Jinshan; Li, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; Xie, Denghui; Chen, Jian; Li, Shengfa; Li, Shaolin; Kim, Gloria B.; Bai, Xiaochun; Zhang, Zhongmin; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that high rates of fusion failure and pseudoarthrosis development (5~35%) are concomitant in spinal fusion surgery, which was ascribed to the shortage of suitable materials for bone regeneration. Citrate was recently recognized to play an indispensable role in enhancing osteconductivity and osteoinductivity, and promoting bone formation. To address the material challenges in spinal fusion surgery, we have synthesized mechanically robust and fast degrading citrate-based polymers by incorporating N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) into clickable poly(1, 8-octanediol citrates) (POC-click), referred to as POC-M-click. The obtained POC-M-click were fabricated into POC-M-click-HA matchstick scaffolds by compositing with hydroxyapatite (HA) for interbody spinal fusion in a rabbit model. Spinal fusion was analyzed by radiography, manual palpation, biomechanical testing, and histological evaluation. At 4 and 8 weeks post surgery, POC-M-click-HA scaffolds presented optimal degradation rates that facilitated faster new bone formation and higher spinal fusion rates (11.2±3.7, 80±4.5 at week 4 and 8, respectively) than the poly(L-lactic acid)-HA (PLLA-HA) control group (9.3±2.4 and 71.1±4.4) (p<0.05). The POC-M-click-HA scaffold-fused vertebrates possessed a maximum load and stiffness of 880.8±14.5 N and 843.2±22.4 N/mm, respectively, which were also much higher than those of the PLLA-HA group (maximum: 712.0±37.5 N, stiffness: 622.5±28.4 N/mm, p<0.05). Overall, the results suggest that POC-M-click-HA scaffolds could potentially serve as promising bone grafts for spinal fusion applications. PMID:26213625

  15. Inactivation of citrate lyase from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa by a specific deacetylase and inhibition of this inactivation by L-(+1-glutamate.

    PubMed Central

    Giffhorn, F; Gottschalk, G

    1975-01-01

    A previously unrecognized enzyme, citrate lyase deacetylase, has been purified about 140-fold from cell extracts of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa. It catalyzed the conversion of enzymatically active acetyl-S-citrate lyase into the inactive HS-form and acetate. The enzyme exhibited an optimal rate of inactivation at pH 8.1. Because of the instability of acetyl-S-citrate lyase at acidic and alkaline pH values, all assays were carried out at pH 7.2, where the spontaneous hydrolysis of the acetyl-S-citrate lyase was negligible and deacetylase showed 70% of the activity at pH 8.1. The apparent Km value for citrate lyase was 10(-7) M at pH 7.2 and 30 C. The activity of the deacetylase was restricted to the citrate lyase from R. gelatinosa. The corresponding lyases from Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Klebsiella aerogenes) and Streptococcus diacetilactis were not deacetylated; likewise, thioesters such as acetyl-S coenzyme A, acetoacetyl-S coenzyme A, and N-acetyl-S-acetyl-cysteamine were also not hydrolyzed. Citrate lyase deacetylase was present in very small amounts in cells of R. gelatinosa grown with acetate or succinate; it was induced by citrate along with the citrate lyase. L-(+)-Glutamate strongly inhibited the deacetylase. Fifty percent inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 1.4 X 10(-4) L-(+)-glutamate. D-(-)-Glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, L-alpha-hydroxyglutarate, L-(-)-proline, and other metabolites were less effective. PMID:356

  16. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. Aluminum citrate inhibits cytotoxicity and aggregation of oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chungang; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2007-02-12

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), which represents a major component of kidney stones, is an end metabolite of ethylene glycol. COM accumulation has been linked with acute renal toxicity in ethylene glycol poisoning. COM injures the kidney either by directly producing cytotoxicity to the kidney cells or by aggregating in the kidney lumen leading to the blockage of urine flow. The present studies were designed to examine whether aluminum citrate could reduce the toxicity of COM. Toxicity was determined in human proximal tubule cells by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase or uptake of ethidium homodimer and in erythrocytes by degree of hemolysis. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from human proximal tubule cells and protected against cell death from COM. The inhibitory effect of aluminum citrate was greater than that of other citrate or aluminum salts such as sodium citrate, aluminum chloride, calcium citrate, ammonium citrate or potassium citrate. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the aggregation of COM crystals in vitro and decreased red cell membrane damage from COM. Aluminum citrate appeared to directly interact with COM, but not with the cell membrane. As such, aluminum citrate reduced the cytotoxicity by a physico-chemical interaction with the COM surface, and not by dissolving the COM crystals. These studies suggest that aluminum citrate may protect against tissue damage that occurs with high levels of oxalate accumulation, especially in ethylene glycol poisoning and possibly in hyperoxaluric states. PMID:17161516

  2. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  5. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  6. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting... source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  7. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  8. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  9. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  10. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  11. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  12. Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaonan; Chen, Yong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Zongping; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Yuegang

    2014-02-15

    The photodegradation of four parabens including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complexes under simulated sunlight was investigated. The degradation of parabens increased with decreasing pH within the range of 5.0-8.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:150 (μM). The addition of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids showed different effects on the photodegradation of methylparaben. The low-photoreactive carboxylic acids inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben in the order of formic acid>succinic acid>acetic acid>malonic acid. In contrast, oxalic acid enhanced the photodegradation and exhibited appreciable synergistic effect with Fe(III)-citrate at concentration higher than 500 μM. Up to 99.0% of substrate was degraded after 30 min at pH6.0 in the Fe(III)-citrate-oxalate system. The various fractions of fulvic acid inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben. The inhibition increased with increasing nominal molecular weight of fractionated fulvic acid. Moreover, the photodegradation of methylparaben was inhibited in natural waters in the order of Liangzi Lake

  13. Reaction of aqueous Cu-Citrate with MnO2 birnessite: characterization of Mn dissolution, oxidation products and surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, William A; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Citric acid, a widespread soil rhizosphere plant/microbe carboxylic acid exudate can easily form chelates with heavy metals, increasing their availability in the environment. When Cu(II) from algal control in water bodies or reservoirs and fungicides, such as the Bordeaux mixture, and citrate interact, solubilization through chelation is a possible outcome. Manganese (hydr)oxides represent a significant portion of the subsurface environment and can affect the fate and transport of chemical species through adsorption and oxidation. This study explores the possible interaction between MnO2 and Cu-Citrate under ambient oxic conditions. The calculated Mn(II) dissolution rates during the initial 1h of reaction followed the series Cu(II)>Cu-Citrate 1:0.5>Cu-Citrate 1:1(oxic)>Citrate>Cu-Citrate 1:1(Anoxic), reinforcing the central role of (complexed or un-complexed) Cu(II) during the initial surface-coordination instead of following the s-shaped auto-catalytic curves of Mn(II) dissolution in citrate solution. The use of capillary electrophoresis allowed the detection of an intermediate Cu(II)Acetonedicarboxylate complex and the oxidation products acetonedicarboxylate, acetoacetate, acetone and acetic acid. The mass balance analysis of Cu-Citrate 1:1 suggests the partial adsorption of Cu-Citrate(ads) and catalytic degradation of acetonedicarboxylate through a MnO2-Cu surface sorbed complex. Lastly, XPS analysis confirmed the MnO2 surface Cu(II) reduction along with an outer-hydration layer at the MnO2 interface, where electron transfer and aquo ligand exchange may lead to the oxidation of Cu-Citrate. PMID:25460741

  14. Involvement of CitCHX and CitDIC in Developmental-Related and Postharvest-Hot-Air Driven Citrate Degradation in Citrus Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Li, Shaojia; Dong, Wencheng; Feng, Chao; Yin, Xueren; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is the predominant organic acid associated with taste in citrus fruit. Although citrate metabolism has been widely studied in recent years, the potential contributions of transport proteins to citrate content remain unclear. In the present study, high-acid citrus fruit Gaocheng (‘GC’, Citrus sp.) and low-acid citrus fruit Satsuma mandarin (‘SM’, Citrus unshiu Marc.) were selected for study, and the degradation of citrate was deduced to be the main cause of the difference in acidity in fully mature fruits. RNA-seq analysis was carried out on ‘GC’ and ‘SM’ fruit samples over the same time course, and the results indicated that citrate degradation occurred mainly through the glutamine pathway, catalyzed by CitAco3-CitGS2-CitGDU1, and also two transport-related genes, CitCHX and CitDIC, were shown to be associated with citrate degradation. These results were confirmed by real-time PCR. In postharvest ‘GC’ fruit, the expressions of these two transport-related genes were induced by 2-fold under hot air treatment, accompanied by a reduction of 7%-9% in total acid degradation. Transient expression of CitCHX and CitDIC in tobacco leaves was performed, and the citrate content was reduced by 62%, 75% and 78% following CitCHX, CitDIC and CitCHX plus CitDIC treatments, respectively, as compared with expression of an empty vector. Overall, these data indicated that two transport proteins, CitCHX and CitDIC, are not only involved in citrate degradation during fruit development, but also involved in postharvest hot air triggered citrate reduction. PMID:25738939

  15. Citrate anticoagulation for CRRT in children: comparison with heparin.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sara Nicole; Santiago, Maria José; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Miriam; Del Castillo, Jimena; Alcaraz, Andrés José; Bellón, Jose María

    2014-01-01

    Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P = 0.028). 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I) of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin. PMID:25157369

  16. Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT in Children: Comparison with Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Sara Nicole; Santiago, Maria José; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Miriam; Del Castillo, Jimena; Alcaraz, Andrés José; Bellón, Jose María

    2014-01-01

    Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P = 0.028). 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I) of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin. PMID:25157369

  17. Fungistatic activity of flaxseed in potato dextrose agar and a fresh noodle system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Hall, Clifford; Wolf-Hall, Charlene; Manthey, Frank

    2008-02-10

    Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and brown) and source (four seed companies located in Minnesota and North Dakota) on flaxseed fungistatic activity. Fungal radial growth was used to assess the fungistatic activity of FF in both potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from molded noodles were used as the test microorganisms. Results showed that growth of F. graminearum was completely inhibited at all FF concentrations in PDA, and the inhibition of the other three test microorganisms increased with increasing FF concentrations. In the model noodle system, FF concentration at 9% or higher significantly reduced the mold count of fresh noodle during storage. In the inoculated noodle system, 6% FF addition was sufficient to significantly inhibit the growth of F. graminearum and A. flavus, whereas 9% FF concentrations showed fungistatic activity against P. chrysogenum and the Penicillium sp. isolate. Differences in the degree of mold inhibition were found among FFs obtained from different sources and cultivars. Results suggested that flaxseed possesses fungistatic activity and could be used as a multifunctional food ingredient. PMID:18077042

  18. Substrate Specificity of the Citrate Transporter CitP of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.

    2012-01-01

    The citrate transporter CitP of lactic acid bacteria catalyzes electrogenic precursor-product exchange of citrate versus l-lactate during citrate-glucose cometabolism. In the absence of sugar, l-lactate is replaced by the metabolic intermediates/end products pyruvate, α-acetolactate, and acetate. In this study, the binding and translocation properties of CitP were analyzed systematically for a wide variety of mono- and dicarboxylates of the form X-CR2-COO−, where X represents OH (2-hydroxy acid), O (2-keto acid), or H (acid) and R groups differ in size, hydrophobicity, and composition. It follows that CitP is a very promiscuous carboxylate transporter. A carboxylate group is both essential and sufficient for recognition by the transporter. A C-2 atom is not essential, formate is a substrate, and C-2 may be part of a ring structure, as in benzoate. The R group may be as bulky as an indole ring structure. For all monocarboxylates of the form X-CHR-COO−, the hydroxy (X = OH) analogs were the preferred substrates. The preference for keto (X = O) or acid (X = H) analogs was dependent on the bulkiness of the R group, such that the acid was preferred for small R groups and the 2-ketoacid was preferred for more bulky R groups. The C4 to C6 dicarboxylates succinate, glutarate, and adipate were also substrates of CitP. The broad substrate specificity is discussed in the context of a model of the binding site of CitP. Many of the substrates of CitP are intermediates or products of amino acid metabolism, suggesting that CitP may have a broader physiological function than its role in citrate fermentation alone. PMID:22563050

  19. The routine measurement of platelet size using sodium citrate alone as the anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Bath, P M

    1993-10-18

    Mean platelet volume (MPV), a measure of platelet size, is becoming recognised as an important marker of platelet function. However, platelets swell in edetic acid (EDTA), the standard haematology anticoagulant, in a time-dependent manner making such measurements potentially unreliable. The effect of incubation time on MPV, and platelet distribution width (PDW), as measured in EDTA, low (1:9 volume/volume with blood) or high (1:4 v/v with blood) concentration sodium citrate was studied. MPV measured in high concentration sodium citrate did not change with time in contrast to MPV measured in either low concentration sodium citrate or EDTA which both increased in an inverse exponential fashion. MPV and PDW, measured in high concentration sodium citrate, had similar within-assay and between-assay coefficients of variation as other platelet, red cell and white cell haematology variables measured in EDTA: MPV 1.4%, 2.1%; PDW 1.4%, 1.5%; MCV 0.4%, 0.7%; PC 3.1%, 6.1%; WCC 1.5%, 7.3%; Hb 2.1%, 2.4% respectively. MPV measured in EDTA and corrected for incubation time approximated to, but was higher than, the MPV measured in high concentration sodium citrate. PDW correlated inversely with platelet count (r = -0.415, 2p < 0.001). MPV may be measured in sodium citrate (at 1:4 v/v with blood) alone with a better accuracy and reproducibility than similar measurements made in EDTA. Furthermore, such measurements are not influenced by incubation time, unlike for EDTA. PMID:8115997

  20. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  1. Citrate Accumulation-Related Gene Expression and/or Enzyme Activity Analysis Combined With Metabolomics Provide a Novel Insight for an Orange Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Xia; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Ning, Dong-Yuan; Jing, Long-Fei; Yang, Huan; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    'Hong Anliu' (HAL, Citrus sinensis cv. Hong Anliu) is a bud mutant of 'Anliu' (AL), characterized by a comprehensive metabolite alteration, such as lower accumulation of citrate, high accumulation of lycopene and soluble sugars in fruit juice sacs. Due to carboxylic acid metabolism connects other metabolite biosynthesis and/or catabolism networks, we therefore focused analyzing citrate accumulation-related gene expression profiles and/or enzyme activities, along with metabolic fingerprinting between 'HAL' and 'AL'. Compared with 'AL', the transcript levels of citrate biosynthesis- and utilization-related genes and/or the activities of their respective enzymes such as citrate synthase, cytosol aconitase and ATP-citrate lyase were significantly higher in 'HAL'. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial aconitase activity, the gene transcript levels of proton pumps, including vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, vacuolar H(+)-PPase, and the juice sac-predominant p-type proton pump gene (CsPH8) were significantly lower in 'HAL'. These results implied that 'HAL' has higher abilities for citrate biosynthesis and utilization, but lower ability for the citrate uptake into vacuole compared with 'AL'. Combined with the metabolites-analyzing results, a model was then established and suggested that the reduction in proton pump activity is the key factor for the low citrate accumulation and the comprehensive metabolite alterations as well in 'HAL'. PMID:27385485

  2. Citrate Accumulation-Related Gene Expression and/or Enzyme Activity Analysis Combined With Metabolomics Provide a Novel Insight for an Orange Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling-Xia; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Ning, Dong-Yuan; Jing, Long-Fei; Yang, Huan; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    ‘Hong Anliu’ (HAL, Citrus sinensis cv. Hong Anliu) is a bud mutant of ‘Anliu’ (AL), characterized by a comprehensive metabolite alteration, such as lower accumulation of citrate, high accumulation of lycopene and soluble sugars in fruit juice sacs. Due to carboxylic acid metabolism connects other metabolite biosynthesis and/or catabolism networks, we therefore focused analyzing citrate accumulation-related gene expression profiles and/or enzyme activities, along with metabolic fingerprinting between ‘HAL’ and ‘AL’. Compared with ‘AL’, the transcript levels of citrate biosynthesis- and utilization-related genes and/or the activities of their respective enzymes such as citrate synthase, cytosol aconitase and ATP-citrate lyase were significantly higher in ‘HAL’. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial aconitase activity, the gene transcript levels of proton pumps, including vacuolar H+-ATPase, vacuolar H+-PPase, and the juice sac-predominant p-type proton pump gene (CsPH8) were significantly lower in ‘HAL’. These results implied that ‘HAL’ has higher abilities for citrate biosynthesis and utilization, but lower ability for the citrate uptake into vacuole compared with ‘AL’. Combined with the metabolites-analyzing results, a model was then established and suggested that the reduction in proton pump activity is the key factor for the low citrate accumulation and the comprehensive metabolite alterations as well in ‘HAL’. PMID:27385485

  3. Dextrose containing intravenous fluid impairs outcome and increases death after eight minutes of cardiac arrest and resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    D'Alecy, L G; Lundy, E F; Barton, K J; Zelenock, G B

    1986-09-01

    Use of dextrose in intravenous resuscitation fluids is common practice; however, this study indicates that 5% dextrose solutions, even if administered in physiologic quantities, greatly worsens the outcome of survivable cardiac arrest. Twelve adult male mongrel dogs were premedicated with morphine, anesthetized with halothane, instrumented, intubated, and ventilated. Each dog was first given 500 ml of either lactated Ringer's (LR) (n = 6) or 5% dextrose in LR (D5LR) (n = 6). Halothane was stopped and fibrillation was induced (60 Hz). Blood glucose just before cardiac arrest was 129 mg/dl in the LR dogs and was increased to 335 mg/dl in the D5LR dogs. After eight minutes of arrest, resuscitation, including internal cardiac massage and standard advanced cardiac life support drug protocols (modified for dogs), was begun. When stable cardiac rhythm was obtained, the chest was closed, and LR or D5LR continued until a total of 1L was given. A neurologic score (0 = normal to 100 = dead) was assigned at 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The LR group did not differ statistically from the D5LR group in operative time, number of defibrillatory shocks, time to spontaneous ventilation, time to extubation, or drugs required. Resuscitation was successful in all six LR and five of six D5LR group; however, by 2 hours after resuscitation and thereafter, D5LR group had a significantly greater neurologic deficit (p less than 0.05) than did the LR group. By 9 hours, four of six D5LR dogs displayed convulsive activity and died. At 24 hours the D5LR group had a greater (p less than 0.008) neurologic deficit (82 +/- 11) than did the LR group (21 +/- 7), which walked and ate. We conclude that the addition of 5% dextrose to standard intravenous fluids greatly increases the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac resuscitation. PMID:3738770

  4. Statins Prevent Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Endothelial and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojanian, Hagop; Szafran-Swietlik, Anna; Onstead-Haas, Luisa M; Haas, Michael J; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2014-05-01

    Statins have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. However, antioxidant vitamins, unlike statins, are not as cardioprotective, and this paradox has been explained by failure of vitamin antioxidants to ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To determine whether statins prevent dextrose-induced ER stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HepG2 hepatocytes were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose in the presence of simvastatin (lipophilic statin that is a prodrug) and pravastatin (water-soluble active drug), and oxidative stress, ER stress, and cell death were measured. Superoxide generation was measured using 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot of glucose-regulated protein 75, c-jun-N-terminal kinase, phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α and phospho-eIF2α, and X-box binding protein 1 mRNA splicing. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining. Superoxide anion production, ER stress, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of simvastatin and pravastatin. The salutary effects of statins on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress observed with pravastatin and the prodrug simvastatin suggest that the effects may be independent of cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:24800792

  5. Effect of citrate on the local Fe coordination in ferrihydrite, arsenate binding, and ternary arsenate complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Christian; Frommer, Jakob; Voegelin, Andreas; Kaegi, Ralf; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-10-01

    In oxic environments contaminated with arsenate (As(V)), small polyhydroxycarboxylates such as citrate may impact the structure of precipitating ferrihydrite (Fh) and thus the surface speciation of As(V). In this study, '2-line' Fh was precipitated from ferric nitrate solutions that were neutralized to pH 6.5 in the presence of increasing citrate concentrations and in the absence or presence of As(V). The initial citrate/Fe and As/Fe ratios were 0-50 mol% and 5 mol%, respectively. The reaction products, enriched with up to 0.32 mol citrate per mole Fe, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe and As K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Citrate decreased the particle size of Fh by impairing the polymerization of Fe(O,OH) 6 octahedra via edge and corner linkages. In the presence of citrate and As(V), coordination numbers of Fe decreased by up to 28% relative to pure Fh. Citrate significantly reduced the static disorder of Fe-O bonds, implying a decreased octahedral distortion in Fh. Mean bond distances in Fh were not affected by citrate and remained constant within error at 1.98 Å for Fe-O, 3.03 Å for Fe-Fe1, and 3.45 Å for Fe-Fe2. Likewise, citrate had no effect on the As-Fe (3.31 Å) bond distance in As(V) coprecipitated with Fh. The As K-edge EXAFS data comply with the formation of (i) only monodentate binuclear ( 2C) As(V) surface complexes and (ii) combinations of 2C, monodentate mononuclear ( 1V), and outersphere As(V) surface complexes. Our results suggest that increasing citrate concentrations led to a decreasing 1V/ 2C ratio and/or that citrate increasingly impaired the formation of outersphere As(V) complexes. Moreover, citrate stabilized colloidal suspensions of Fh (pH 4.3-6.6, I ˜0.45 M) and reduced Fh formation at the expense of soluble Fe(III)-citrate complexes. At initial citrate/Fe ratios ⩾25 mol%, between 8% and 41% of total Fe was bound in Fe(III)-citrate complexes after Fh formation. Polynuclear Fe(III)-citrate

  6. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schendel, F.J.; August, P.R.; Anderson, C.R.; Flickinger, M.C. ); Hanson, R.S. )

    1992-01-01

    Acetate salts are emerging as potentially attractive bulk chemicals for a variety of environmental applications, for example, as catalysts to facilitate combustion of high-sulfur coal by electrical utilities and as the biodegradable noncorrosive highway deicing salt calcium magnesium acetate. The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (M{sub r}, 84,500) with a sub unit with an M{sub r} of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes.

  7. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  8. Malate and malate-channel antibodies inhibit electrogenic and ATP-dependent citrate transport across the tonoplast of citrus juice cells.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Rafael; Lüttge, Ulrich; Gonzalez, Pedro; Etxeberria, Ed

    2003-11-01

    Citrus juice cells accumulate high levels of citric acid in their vacuoles when compared to other organic ions including malate. Uptake of citrate into tonoplast vesicles from Citrus juice cells was investigated in the presence of malate, and after incubation with antibodies raised against the vacuolar malate-specific channel of Kalanchoë diagremontiana leaves. Antibodies against the vacuolar malate channel immunoreacted with a protein of similar size in tonoplast extracts from three Citrus varieties differing in citric acid content. Malate channel antibodies inhibited both delta MicroH(+)-dependent and delta MicroH(+)-independent ATP-dependent citrate transport, indicating common domains in both transport systems and to the malate-specific channel of Kalanchoë diagremontiana leaves. Malate strongly inhibited electrogenic citrate transport, whereas ATP-dependent citrate uptake was less affected. Kinetic analysis of citrate transport in the presence of malate confirmed the existence of two citrate transport mechanisms and indicated that both citrate and malate share a common transport channel across the tonoplast of Citrus juice cells. PMID:14658383

  9. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24850836

  10. Citrate metabolism in blood transfusions and its relationship due to metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Xu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alkalosis commonly results from excessive hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium (K+) and water (H2O) loss from the stomach or through the urine. The plasma anion gap increases in non-hypoproteinemic metabolic alkalosis due to an increased negative charge equivalent on albumin and the free ionized calcium (Ca++) content of plasma decreases. The mean citrate load in all patients was 8740±7027 mg from 6937±6603 mL of transfused blood products. The citrate load was significantly higher in patients with alkalosis (9164±4870 vs. 7809±3967, P < 0.05). The estimated mean total citrate administered via blood and blood products was calculated as 43.2±34.19 mg/kilogram/day. In non-massive and frequent blood transfusions, the elevated carbon dioxide output has been shown to occur. Due to citrate metabolism causes intracellular acidosis. As a result of intracellular acidosis compensation, decompensated metabolic alkalosis + respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop, blood transfusions may result in certain complications. PMID:26131288

  11. Synthesis and spectroscopic and structural studies of a new cadmium(II)-citrate aqueous complex. Potential relevance to cadmium(II)-citrate speciation and links to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dakanali, M; Kefalas, E T; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Mavromoustakos, T; Salifoglou, A

    2003-04-21

    The presence of cadmium in the environment undoubtedly contributes to an increased risk of exposure and ultimate toxic influence on humans. In an effort to comprehend the chemical and biological interactions of Cd(II) with physiological ligands, like citric acid, we explored the requisite aqueous chemistry, which afforded the first aqueous Cd(II)-citrate complex [Cd(C(6)H(6)O(7))(H(2)O)](n)() (1). Compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, and spectroscopically by FT-IR and (113)Cd MAS NMR. Compound 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 6.166(2) A, b = 10.508(3) A, c = 13.599(5) A, V = 881.2(5) A(3), and Z = 4. The X-ray structure of 1 reveals the presence of octahedral Cd(II) ions bound to citrate ligands in a molecular crystal lattice. Citrate acts as a tridentate binder promoting coordination to one Cd(II) through the central alcoholic moiety, one terminal carboxylate group, and the central carboxylate group. In addition, the central carboxylate binds to three Cd(II) ions. Specifically, one of the oxygens of the central carboxylate serves as a bridge to two neighboring Cd(II) ions, while the other oxygen binds to a third Cd(II). A bound water molecule completes the coordination requirements of Cd(II). (113)Cd MAS NMR studies project the spectroscopic signature of the nature of the coordination environment around Cd(II) in 1, thus corroborating the X-ray findings. Collectively, the data at hand are in line with past solution studies. The latter predict that other similar low molecular mass Cd(II)-citrate complexes may exist in the acidic pH region, thus influencing the uptake of cadmium by living (micro)organisms, their ability to metabolize organic substrates, and possibly Cd(II) toxicity. PMID:12691558

  12. Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Mele, Elena; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 μmol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 μmol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM. PMID:23673944

  13. Preparation Of Gold Nanoparticle-Quercetin Complexes By Citrate Reduction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rajat; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2010-10-01

    Quercetin is an important flavonoid and possesses strong antioxidant property. The aim of the present study is to formulate and characterize quercetin coated gold nanoparticles. Quercetin was conjugated with gold nanoparticle during synthesis of the particle by citrate reduction of chloroauric acid. The conjugates were characterized by different techniques like Atomic Force Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Absorption Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. All these studies suggest formation of stable quercetin-gold nanoparticle complex.

  14. Plant uptake of depleted uranium from manure-amended and citrate treated soil.

    PubMed

    Sevostianova, Elena; Lindemann, William C; Ulery, April L; Remmenga, Marta D

    2010-08-01

    Six plant species were tested for their ability to accumulate depleted uranium in their above-ground biomass from deployed munitions contaminated soil in New Mexico. In greenhouse experiments, Kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.) and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L) were grown with steer manure added at rates of 22.4, 44.8, and 89.6 Mg ha(-1). Citric acid and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) applied at the end of the growing season increased DU concentrations from 2.5 to 17 times. Leaf and stem DU concentrations in kochia increased from 17.0 to 41.9 mg kg(-1) and from 3.5 to 18.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. In pigweed, leaf and stem DU concentrations increased from 1.0 to 17.3 and from 1.0 to 4.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. Manure generally decreased or had no effect on DU uptake. The effect of citric acid and ammonium citrate on DU uptake by kochia, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), and sweet corn (Zea mays L) was also studied. Ammonium citrate was just as effective in enhancing DU uptake as citric acid. This implies that the citrate ion is more important in DU uptake and translocation than the solubilization of DU through acidification. In both experiments, leaves had higher DU concentrations than stems. PMID:21166280

  15. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  16. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia. PMID:27215244

  17. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  18. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  19. Aluminum citrate prevents renal injury from calcium oxalate crystal deposition.

    PubMed

    Besenhofer, Lauren M; Cain, Marie C; Dunning, Cody; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2012-12-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol-treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate's interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  20. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferric ammonium...

  1. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.300 Carfentanil citrate injection....

  2. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  3. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  4. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  5. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b) (c)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  7. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....622b, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams...

  8. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b) (c)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  9. 21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.622c, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520... Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 30, 45, 60, 120,...

  10. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... veterinarian. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 520.622a, see the List of CFR Sections... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a... Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. (a) Sponsors. (1) (2) See 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of...

  11. 21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.622c, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520... Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 30, 45, 60, 120,...

  12. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a... Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. (a) Sponsors. (1) (2) See 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 100, 200, and 300 milligram tablets for prevention of heartworm disease in dogs and as an aid in...

  13. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each...

  14. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each...

  15. Textural and cargo release attributes of trisodium citrate cross-linked starch hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Abhari, Negar; Madadlou, Ashkan; Dini, Ali; Hosseini Naveh, Ozra

    2017-01-01

    An alkaline starch suspension was charged with citric acid and incubated for different durations (0, 8.5 or 17h). The suspension was then supplemented with caffeine and gelatinized to fabricate hydrogels which were subsequently stored for varying periods (0, 24 or 48h). Charging of the well-dissolved alkaline starch suspension with citric acid decreased at first both the flow index and consistency coefficient (K); however, starch cross-linking over time by the generated trisodium citrate increased the K value. The latter also inhibited gel syneresis and increased its water-holding capacity. Trisodium citrate did not nonetheless influence the gel hardness except for the sample incubated for maximum duration and stored for the longest period. The amount of the caffeine released from hydrogel decreased by citrate cross-linking and was higher at neutral pH than pH 2.0. Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy suggested that caffeine was enclosed within the gel network via non-covalent interactions. PMID:27507442

  16. Binding constant determination of uranyl-citrate complex by ACE using a multi-injection method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiding; Li, Linnan; Huang, Hexiang; Xu, Linnan; Li, Ze; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-04-01

    The binding constant determination of uranyl with small-molecule ligands such as citric acid could provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of the study of uranyl complexation, which is of considerable importance for multiple purposes. In this work, the binding constant of uranyl-citrate complex was determined by ACE. Besides the common single-injection method, a multi-injection method to measure the electrophoretic mobility was also applied. The BGEs used contained HClO4 and NaClO4 , with a pH of 1.98 ± 0.02 and ionic strength of 0.050 mol/L, then citric acid was added to reach different concentrations. The electrophoretic mobilities of the uranyl-citrate complex measured by both of the two methods were consistent, and then the binding constant was calculated by nonlinear fitting assuming that the reaction had a 1:1 stoichiometry and the complex was [(UO2 )(Cit)](-) . The binding constant obtained by the multi-injection method was log K = 9.68 ± 0.07, and that obtained by the single-injection method was log K = 9.73 ± 0.02. The results provided additional knowledge of the uranyl-citrate system, and they demonstrated that compared with other methods, ACE using the multi-injection method could be an efficient, fast, and simple way to determine electrophoretic mobilities and to calculate binding constants. PMID:25598434

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  18. Synthesis and characterization of biomimetic citrate-based biodegradable composites.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester and poly (octanediol citrate), which can be composited with up to 65 wt % hydroxyapatite. CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100-230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix gene and alkaline phosphatase gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6 weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic Citrate-Based Biodegradable Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L.; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) and poly (octanediol citrate) (POC), which can be composited with up to 65 wt.-% hydroxyapatite (HA). CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100 – 230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix (OSX) gene and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6-weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  20. Preparation of xylan citrate--a potential adsorbent for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuaiyang, Wang; Huiling, Li; Junli, Ren; Chuanfu, Liu; Feng, Peng; Runcang, Sun

    2013-02-15

    The novel and degradable xylan citrate was prepared by the environmental-friendly semi-dry oven method. Xylan reacted with citric acid (CA) to yield xylan citrate at high temperature. The influence of the different weight ratios of CA and xylan on the product yield, the carboxyl group content and degree of esterification were comparatively discussed. The results showed that there were higher carboxyl group content and degree of esterification in modified xylan than native xylan. The product yield of 128.2%, the carboxyl group content of 1174.3 meq/100 g and degree of esterification of 33.1% were achieved at the CA/xylan weight ratio of 2.4 in the absence of catalyst. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of xylan after modification was improved greatly. These materials with better properties can enhance their water affinity, and improve their adsorption of copper ions and methyl orange in aqueous solution due to carboxyl groups. PMID:23399244

  1. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the β-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species. PMID:24944109

  2. Electrodeposition of Sn-Zn and Sn-Zn-Mo layers from citrate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimierczak, Honorata; Ozga, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of separate reduction and co-reduction of Zn(II), Sn(II) and Mo(VI) from citrate baths were studied. Cyclic voltammetry experiments and galvanostatic deposition in coulostatic conditions were carried out to determine the optimal conditions for electrodeposition of Sn-Zn-Mo layers. The electrodeposits were characterised by chemical analysis (EDS and WDXRF) and profile chemical analysis (GDOES). The optimal conditions for electrodeposition from the citrate baths studied are in the slightly acid range (about pH 5). It was found that the high concentration of sodium molybdate and the addition of sodium sulphite to the electrolyte are essential to electrodeposit zinc-tin alloy with the addition of molybdenum. The results of voltammetric studies and chemical profile analysis indicate some connections between electrodeposition of Zn and Mo.

  3. Implication of citrate, malate and histidine in the accumulation and transport of nickel in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Amari, Taoufik; Lutts, Stanley; Taamali, Manel; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    Citrate, malate and histidine have been involved in many processes including metal tolerance and accumulation in plants. These molecules have been frequently reported to be the potential nickel chelators, which most likely facilitate metal transport through xylem. In this context, we assess here, the relationship between organics acids and histidine content and nickel accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic media added with 25, 50 and 100 µM NiCl2. Results showed that M. crystallinum is relatively more tolerant to Ni toxicity than B. juncea. For both species, xylem transport rate of Ni increased with increasing Ni supply. A positive correlation was established between nickel and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap. In the shoot of B. juncea, citric and malic acids concentrations were significantly higher than in the shoot of M. crystallinum. Also, the shoots and roots of B. juncea accumulated much more histidine. In contrast, a higher root citrate concentration was observed in M. crystallinum. These findings suggest a specific involvement of malic and citric acid in Ni translocation and accumulation in M. crystallinum and B. juncea. The high citrate and histidine accumulation especially at 100µM NiCl2, in the roots of M. crystallinum might be among the important factors associated with the tolerance of this halophyte to toxic Ni levels. PMID:26745003

  4. Is dextrose prolotherapy superior to placebo for the treatment of temporomandibular joint hypermobility? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cömert Kiliç, S; Güngörmüş, M

    2016-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial involving adult patients with bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypermobility referred for treatment was implemented. The sample comprised 30 consecutive patients, who were divided randomly into two groups. The TMJ hypermobility was treated with either saline (placebo group) or dextrose injections (study group). The solution was injected into five different TMJ areas in three sessions at monthly intervals. The predictor variable was the treatment technique. The outcome variables were visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluations and maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO). Outcome variables were recorded preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and significance was set at a P-value of <0.05. The follow-up sample comprised 26 subjects: 12 in the placebo group and 14 in the study group. Masticatory efficiency increased and general pain complaints and joint sounds decreased significantly in both groups. MIO decreased significantly only in the study group. Insignificant changes in the other parameters were found for both groups. After estimating differences between follow-up and baseline outcomes, the mean change in primary outcome variables showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. These findings suggest that dextrose prolotherapy is no more effective than placebo treatment for any of the outcome variables of TMJ hypermobility assessed. PMID:26846795

  5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  6. Physiologo-biochemical characteristics of citrate-producing yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown on glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V

    2015-08-01

    In this study, physiologo-biochemical characteristics of citrate-producing yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown on glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry were studied by an investigation of growth dynamics, the consumption of glycerol, and the fatty acid fractions from waste as well as by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in the metabolism of waste. It was shown that Y. lipolytica realizes concurrent uptake of glycerol and the fatty acid fractions during conversion of glycerol-containing waste, although glycerol was utilized at a higher rate than fatty acids. Under optimal feeding of glycerol-containing waste by portions of 20 g l(-1), the citric acid production and the ratio between citric acid and isocitric acid depended on the strain used. It was revealed that wild strain Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 produced citrate and isocitrate with a ratio of 1.7:1, while the mutant strain Y. lipolytica NG40/UV7 synthesized presumably citric acid (122.2 g l(-1)) with a citrate-to-isocitrate ratio of 53:1 and the yield of 0.95 g g(-1). PMID:25846335

  7. Citrate substitutes for homocitrate in nitrogenase of a nifV mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jihong; Madden, M.; Shah, V.K.; Burris, R.H. )

    1990-09-18

    An organic acid extracted from purified dinitrogenase isolated from a nifV mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been identified as citric acid. H{sub 2} evolution by the citrate-containing dinitrogenase is partially inhibited by CO, and by some substrates for nitrogenase. The response of maximum velocities to changes in pH for both the wild-type and the NifV{sup {minus}} dinitrogenase was compared. No substantial differences between the enzymes were observed, but there are minor differences. Both enzymes are stable in the pH range 4.8-10, but the enzyme activities dropped dramatically below pH 6.2.

  8. Self-healable and reversible liposome leakage by citrate-capped gold nanoparticles: probing the initial adsorption/desorption induced lipid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

    2015-09-01

    We herein report that the adsorption/desorption of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) transiently causes leakage in fluid phase DOPC liposomes, while the liposomes do not leak with AuNPs capped with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). Leakage also fails to occur for gel phase DPPC liposomes. Citrate-capped (but not MPA-capped) AuNPs raise the phase transition temperature of DPPC. We conclude that citrate-capped AuNPs interact with the PC liposomes very strongly, inducing a local fluid-to-gel lipid phase transition for DOPC. Leakage takes place during this transition, and the membrane integrity is resumed after the transition. Citrate-capped AuNPs allow stronger van der Waals forces than MPA-capped AuNPs with PC liposomes, since the latter are separated from the liposome surface by the ~0.3 nm MPA layer.We herein report that the adsorption/desorption of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) transiently causes leakage in fluid phase DOPC liposomes, while the liposomes do not leak with AuNPs capped with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). Leakage also fails to occur for gel phase DPPC liposomes. Citrate-capped (but not MPA-capped) AuNPs raise the phase transition temperature of DPPC. We conclude that citrate-capped AuNPs interact with the PC liposomes very strongly, inducing a local fluid-to-gel lipid phase transition for DOPC. Leakage takes place during this transition, and the membrane integrity is resumed after the transition. Citrate-capped AuNPs allow stronger van der Waals forces than MPA-capped AuNPs with PC liposomes, since the latter are separated from the liposome surface by the ~0.3 nm MPA layer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Methods, TEM, UV-vis and DLS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04805b

  9. Development of a novel combination tablet containing trimebutine maleate and mosapride citrate for the treatment of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwan Hyung; Choi, Young Keun; Kang, Jun Heok; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Park, Young-Joon

    2010-11-15

    To develop a novel combination tablet which contained 100 mg trimebutine maleate and 5 mg mosapride citrate (TMCT) for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, the wet granulation method was used to prepare TMCTs with various amounts of diluents and stabilizers. The levels of impurities, the stability and the dissolution of the TMCTs were investigated. The oral bioavailability of drugs in the TMCTs was then evaluated and compared to the simultaneous oral administration of trimebutine maleate-loaded and mosapride citrate-loaded commercial products in the beagle dog. Among the diluents tested, D-mannitol was selected, since the microcrystalline cellulose and lactose did not inhibit the production of drug impurities due to their hygroscopic properties and chemical interactions, respectively. Furthermore, succinic acid was selected as the stabilizer because it gave the lowest level of total drug impurities of the organic acids tested. The combination tablet of trimebutine maleate and mosapride citrate prepared with D-mannitol and succinic acid gave a total drug content higher than 95% and total impurities lower than 0.5% at 25°C/60% RH and 40°C/75% RH during a 6-month period, indicating that the tablets were stable for at least 6 months. Furthermore, this combination tablet showed a similar dissolution to the trimebutine maleate-loaded and mosapride citrate-loaded commercial products and gave insignificantly different absorption compared to these commercial products in beagle dogs. Thus, the combination tablet of trimebutine maleate and mosapride citrate prepared with D-mannitol and succinic acid would be a stable and effective oral pharmaceutical product for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. PMID:20826201

  10. Expanding the analytical toolbox for identity testing of pharmaceutical ingredients: Spectroscopic screening of dextrose using portable Raman and near infrared spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-03-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used as an active ingredient in parenteral solutions and as an inactive ingredient (excipient) in tablets and capsules. In order to address the need for more sophisticated analytical techniques, we report our efforts to develop enhanced identification methods to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution using field-deployable spectroscopic screening. In this paper, we report our results for a study designed to evaluate the performance of field-deployable Raman and near infrared (NIR) methods to identify dextrose samples. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods against current compendial identification tests that rely largely on a colorimetric assay. Our findings indicate that NIR and Raman spectroscopy are both able to distinguish dextrose by hydration state and from other sugar substitutes with 100% accuracy for all methods tested including spectral correlation based library methods, principal component analysis and classification methods. PMID:26965331

  11. Role of Ga-67 citrate imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Kakuma, K.; Ichiyanagi, K.

    1988-11-01

    Two patients with pancreatitis in whom an area of predominant uptake of Ga-67 citrate was demonstrated involving the entire pancreas are presented. Ultrasound and x-ray CT did not reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas, whereas Ga-67 citrate imaging indicated the presence of active inflammatory change. Ga-67 citrate imaging may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis based on clinical and laboratory data, especially when ultrasound and/or x-ray CT cannot reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas.

  12. Low Temperature Induced Changes in Citrate Metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) Fruit during Maturation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Qian, Jing; Zhao, Chenning; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Wang, Zhidong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-01-01

    Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruit, and its concentration in fruit cells is regulated mainly by the balance between synthesis and degradation. Ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Ponkan) is one of the major citrus cultivars grew in China, and the fruit are picked before fully mature to avoid bad weather. Greenhouse production is widely used to prolong the maturation period and improve the quality of Ponkan fruit by maintaining adequate temperature and providing protection from adverse weather. In this research, Ponkan fruit cultivated in either a greenhouse or open field were used to investigate differences in the expression of genes related to citrate metabolism during maturation in the two environments. The citrate contents were higher in open field fruit, and were mainly correlated with expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4, which were significantly increased. In addition, the impacts of low temperature (LT) and water stress (WS) on citrate metabolism in Ponkan were investigated during fruit maturation. The citrate contents in LT fruit were significantly increased, by between 1.4-1.9 fold, compared to the control; it showed no significant difference in fruit with water stress treatment compared to the control fruit. Furthermore, the expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4 were significantly increased in response to LT treatment, but showed no significant difference in WS compared to the control fruit. Thus, it can be concluded that low temperature may be the main factor influencing citrate metabolism during maturation in Ponkan fruit. PMID:27249065

  13. Low Temperature Induced Changes in Citrate Metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) Fruit during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Qian, Jing; Zhao, Chenning; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Wang, Zhidong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-01-01

    Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruit, and its concentration in fruit cells is regulated mainly by the balance between synthesis and degradation. Ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Ponkan) is one of the major citrus cultivars grew in China, and the fruit are picked before fully mature to avoid bad weather. Greenhouse production is widely used to prolong the maturation period and improve the quality of Ponkan fruit by maintaining adequate temperature and providing protection from adverse weather. In this research, Ponkan fruit cultivated in either a greenhouse or open field were used to investigate differences in the expression of genes related to citrate metabolism during maturation in the two environments. The citrate contents were higher in open field fruit, and were mainly correlated with expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4, which were significantly increased. In addition, the impacts of low temperature (LT) and water stress (WS) on citrate metabolism in Ponkan were investigated during fruit maturation. The citrate contents in LT fruit were significantly increased, by between 1.4–1.9 fold, compared to the control; it showed no significant difference in fruit with water stress treatment compared to the control fruit. Furthermore, the expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4 were significantly increased in response to LT treatment, but showed no significant difference in WS compared to the control fruit. Thus, it can be concluded that low temperature may be the main factor influencing citrate metabolism during maturation in Ponkan fruit. PMID:27249065

  14. Dietary fat and hepatic lipogenesis: mitochondrial citrate carrier as a sensor of metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrate carrier (CIC) is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that has a fundamental role in hepatic intermediary metabolism. Its primary function is to catalyze the transport of citrate from mitochondria, where this molecule is formed, to cytosol, where this molecule is used for fatty acid (FA) and cholesterol synthesis. Therefore, mitochondrial CIC acts upstream of cytosolic lipogenic reactions, and its regulation is particularly important in view of the modulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Although a great deal of data are currently available on the dietary modulation of cytosolic lipogenic enzymes, little is known about the nutritional regulation of CIC transport activity. In this review, we describe the differential effects of distinct FAs present in the diet on the activity of mitochondrial CIC. In particular, polyunsaturated FAs were powerful modulators of the activity of mitochondrial CIC by influencing its expression through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. On the contrary, saturated and monounsaturated FAs did not influence mitochondrial CIC activity. Moreover, variations in CIC activity were connected to similar alterations in the metabolic pathways to which the transported citrate is channeled. Therefore, CIC may be considered as a sensor for changes occurring inside the hepatocyte and may represent an important target for the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. The crucial role of this protein is reinforced by the recent discovery of its involvement in other cellular processes, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inflammation, tumorigenesis, genome stability, and sperm metabolism. PMID:24829468

  15. The impact of particle size on the adsorption of citrate to hematite.

    PubMed

    Noerpel, Matthew R; Lenhart, John J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the adsorption of citric acid on the surface of two different sized hematite nanoparticles using batch adsorption experiments, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface complexation modeling and computational molecular modeling. Citrate adsorption reached a maximum between pH approximately 2.5 and 5.5 and declined as the pH was increased or decreased from that range. At high surface loading conditions, the dominant adsorbed citrate structure was outer-sphere in nature with a protonation state that varied with pH. At low pH, there was also evidence of an inner-sphere complex consistent with a binuclear, bidentate structure where the hydroxyl group was deprotonated and played an active role in the adsorption. An inner-sphere complex was also detected at low citrate surface loading conditions. Surface-area normalized surface coverages were similar for both sizes of hematite, however, the inner sphere complex appeared to be slightly more prevalent on the smaller hematite. Based on these structures, a triple layer surface complexation model comprised of two outer-sphere complexes and one inner-sphere complex was used to describe the adsorption data for both hematite sizes across a range of solution conditions with a single set of surface area dependent equilibrium constants. PMID:26313711

  16. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar

    2004-07-01

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  17. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  18. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering. PMID:27004046

  19. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ester of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with ethyl alcohol and occurs as an...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave....

  4. Conductance Studies on Aqueous Citric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Barthel, Josef

    1991-02-01

    Conductance measurements of citric acid and neutral citrates (tri-lithium citrate, tri-sodium citrate and tri-potassium citrate) were performed in water at 278.15 to 308.15 K. The equilibrium constants for the primary and secondary steps of dissociation, Kx and K2, and the limiting conductances, λ0(H2Cit-), λ°(1/2 HCit2-), and λ0(1/3 Cit3-) are reported as a function of temperature. They are obtained by application of the Quint and Viallard conductance equation. The enthalpies of dissociation are estimated.

  5. Mitochondrial citrate synthase crystals: novel finding in Sengers syndrome caused by acylglycerol kinase (AGK) mutations.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, Komudi; Mackay, Nevena; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian; Kantor, Paul F; Ackerley, Cameron; Robinson, Brian H; Schulze, Andreas; Cameron, Jessie M

    2013-01-01

    We report on two families with Sengers syndrome and mutations in the acylglycerol kinase gene (AGK). In the first family, two brothers presented with vascular strokes, lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy and cataracts, abnormal muscle cell histopathology and mitochondrial function. One proband had very abnormal mitochondria with citrate synthase crystals visible in electron micrographs, associated with markedly high citrate synthase activity. Exome sequencing was used to identify mutations in the AGK gene in the index patient. Targeted sequencing confirmed the same homozygous mutation (c.3G>A, p.M1I) in the brother. The second family had four affected members, of which we examined two. They also presented with similar clinical symptoms, but no strokes. Postmortem heart and skeletal muscle tissues showed low complex I, III and IV activities in the heart, but normal in the muscle. Skin fibroblasts showed elevated lactate/pyruvate ratios and low complex I+III activity. Targeted sequencing led to identification of a homozygous c.979A>T, p.K327* mutation. AGK is located in the mitochondria and phosphorylates monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid. Disruption of these signaling molecules affects the mitochondria's response to superoxide radicals, resulting in oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, lipids and proteins, and stimulation of cellular detoxification pathways. High levels of manganese superoxide dismutase protein were detected in all four affected individuals, consistent with increased free radical damage. Phosphatidic acid is also involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and its loss will result in changes to the lipid composition of the inner mitochondrial membrane. These effects manifest as cataract formation in the eye, respiratory chain dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in heart tissue. These two pedigrees confirm that mutation of AGK is responsible for the severe neonatal presentation of Sengers syndrome. The

  6. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  7. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  8. Affinity of 167Tm-citrate for tumor and liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Sakamoto, K; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K; Takeshita, M

    1983-01-01

    Strong affinity of 167Tm-citrate for tumor tissue was reconfirmed by using Ehrlich tumor. Excellent tumor imaging was obtained with 167Tm-citrate because of its strong tumor affinity and because of the suitable physical characteristics of 167Tm. A large number of 167Tm had accumulated in the connective tissue which contained inflammatory tissue, quite large amounts were found in areas containing viable and necrotic tumor tissue, and small amounts were present in viable tumor tissue. 167Tm was not seen in necrotic tumor tissue. It was concluded that lysosomes did not play a major role in the tumor concentration of 167Tm, but played an important role in the liver concentration of this nuclide. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, it was presumed that lysosomes played a considerably important role in the tumor concentration of 167Tm, hepatoma AH109A possessing some residual features of the liver. 167Tm was bound to acid mucopolysaccharides and transposed by the acid mucopolysaccharides in the tumor tissues and liver. The acid mucopolysaccharides to which 167Tm were bound in tumor and liver, were heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate (or keratosulfate) and heparin (or keratosulfate). PMID:6228426

  9. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application. PMID:26022498

  10. The pH-dependent binding of zinc citrate to bipy/phen (bipy = 2,2-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dagui; Wang, Yongjing; Lin, Zhang; Huang, Feng

    2010-03-01

    The crystallizations of citrate-metal complexes with diverse structures are greatly affected by the deprotonated states of the citrate ion, counter cations and chemical nature of the metal ions. Herein we studied the ternary system Zn-cit- L 2 (cit = citrate acid, L 2 = 2,2-bipyridine (bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)) and obtained four novel compounds Zn 2(H 2cit) 2(bipy) 2·H 2O ( 1), Zn 2(H 2cit) 2(phen) 2·1.5H 2O ( 2), Zn 2(Hcit)(bipy)Cl ( 3), and Zn 2(Hcit)(phen)Cl·H 2O ( 4). All the four compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Complexes 1 and 2 with the citrate ion doubly deprotonated are dinuclear species isolated in the Zn-cit system. Complexes 3 and 4 exhibit 1D chains in which the metal ions are connected by the triply deprotonated citrate. It shows that the final solid-state species is much dependent on the pH value of the solution. That is the dinuclear compounds of 1 and 2 are precipitated at pH 3-4 whereas the 1D chain of 3 and 4 at a lower acidity of pH 5-6.

  11. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  12. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid... percent-17 percent. (b) It is used, or intended for use, in antioxidant formulations for addition to...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 77-93-0) is the triethyl ester of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 77-93-0) is the triethyl ester of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 77-93-0) is the triethyl ester of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the...

  16. Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

  17. Colloid mobilization in the field using citrate to remediate chromium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Hellerich, L A; Nikolaidis, N P; Gschwend, P M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of cleaning aquifer sediments, long contaminated with chromium (Cr) from a metal plating facility, by detaching colloid-sized sorbents from the immobile aquifer solids and then pumping those colloids to the surface for treatment. In laboratory experiments using aquifer solids from the site, several solutions (water at various pHs, phosphate, oxalate, ascorbate, citrate) were examined for their ability to disperse colloids and Cr. Based on these tests, a 5 mM citrate solution at pH 7 was selected. Subsequently, such a citrate solution was used in the field in two single-well injection-withdrawal experiments. Large quantities of colloids were released immediately after injection. The colloidal particles mobilized by citrate in the field had more than 20 times higher Cr concentrations than did the average aquifer sediments, implying success in mobilizing Cr-associated phases. Further, laboratory and field tests showed that anion exchange of citrate for chromate caused some additional release of Cr from these aquifer solids. PMID:11708455

  18. ATP-Citrate Lyase Is Required for Production of Cytosolic Acetyl Coenzyme A and Development in Aspergillus nidulans▿

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. A source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetyl-CoA is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-CoA is derived from citrate via ATP-citrate lyase. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, tandem divergently transcribed genes (aclA and aclB) encode the subunits of ATP-citrate lyase, and we have deleted these genes. Growth is greatly diminished on carbon sources that do not result in cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as glucose and proline, while growth is not affected on carbon sources that result in the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as acetate and ethanol. Addition of acetate restores growth on glucose or proline, and this is dependent on facA, which encodes cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, but not on the regulatory gene facB. Transcription of aclA and aclB is repressed by growth on acetate or ethanol. Loss of ATP-citrate lyase results in severe developmental effects, with the production of asexual spores (conidia) being greatly reduced and a complete absence of sexual development. This is in contrast to Sordaria macrospora, in which fruiting body formation is initiated but maturation is defective in an ATP-citrate lyase mutant. Addition of acetate does not repair these defects, indicating a specific requirement for high levels of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA during differentiation. Complementation in heterokaryons between aclA and aclB deletions for all phenotypes indicates that the tandem gene arrangement is not essential. PMID:20495057

  19. ATP-citrate lyase is required for production of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A and development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Michael J; Murray, Sandra L

    2010-07-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. A source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetyl-CoA is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-CoA is derived from citrate via ATP-citrate lyase. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, tandem divergently transcribed genes (aclA and aclB) encode the subunits of ATP-citrate lyase, and we have deleted these genes. Growth is greatly diminished on carbon sources that do not result in cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as glucose and proline, while growth is not affected on carbon sources that result in the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as acetate and ethanol. Addition of acetate restores growth on glucose or proline, and this is dependent on facA, which encodes cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, but not on the regulatory gene facB. Transcription of aclA and aclB is repressed by growth on acetate or ethanol. Loss of ATP-citrate lyase results in severe developmental effects, with the production of asexual spores (conidia) being greatly reduced and a complete absence of sexual development. This is in contrast to Sordaria macrospora, in which fruiting body formation is initiated but maturation is defective in an ATP-citrate lyase mutant. Addition of acetate does not repair these defects, indicating a specific requirement for high levels of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA during differentiation. Complementation in heterokaryons between aclA and aclB deletions for all phenotypes indicates that the tandem gene arrangement is not essential. PMID:20495057

  20. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  1. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience.

    PubMed

    Trumper, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team. PMID:27615524

  2. Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III)-citrate fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i) under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source; ii) under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I)-citrate or Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III)-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III)-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains. PMID:23176641

  3. Development and validation of an UPLC method for rapid determination of ibuprofen and diphenhydramine citrate in the presence of impurities in combined dosage form.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dantu Durga; Sait, Shakil S; Mukkanti, K

    2011-04-01

    A novel, stability-indicating gradient reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen and diphenhydramine citrate in the presence of degradation products and process related impurities in combined dosage form. The method was developed using C18 column with mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A and B. The eluted compounds were monitored at 220 nm. Ibuprofen and diphenhydramine citrate were subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal, and photolytic degradation. Major unknown impurity formed under oxidative degradation was identified using LC-MS-MS study. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and robustness. The described method was linear over the range of 0.20-6.00 μg/mL (r>0.998) for Ibuprofen and 0.084-1.14 μg/mL for diphenhydramine citrate (r>0.998). The limit of detection results were ranged from 0.200-0.320 μg/mL for ibuprofen impurities and 0.084-0.099 μg/mL for diphenhydramine citrate impurities. The limit of quantitation results were ranged from 0.440 to 0.880 μg/mL for ibuprofen impurities and 0.258 to 0.372 μg/mL for diphenhydramine citrate impurities. The recovery of ibuprofen impurities were ranged from 98.1% to 100.5% and the recovery of diphenhydramine citrate impurities were ranged from 97.5% to 102.1%. This method is also suitable for the simultaneous assay determination of ibuprofen and diphenhydramine citrate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:21439118

  4. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sit, Regina Ws; Chung, Vincent Ch; Reeves, Kenneth D; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith Kw; Chan, Dicken Cc; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin St; Wong, Samuel Ys

    2016-01-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi-randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy. PMID:27146849

  5. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  6. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  7. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Regina WS; Chung, Vincent CH; Reeves, Kenneth D.; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith KW; Chan, Dicken CC; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin ST; Wong, Samuel YS

    2016-01-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi–randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy. PMID:27146849

  8. Efficacy of preventing hemodialysis catheter infections with citrate lock.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge; Antunes, Jorge; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Prevalent use of tunneled dialysis catheters can reach 30%. Infection remains the most serious catheter-related problem. Catheter locks are increasingly used for prevention, but are not yet recommended either by the Food and Drug Association or European Medicines Agency, on the basis of increasing bacterial resistance or lock toxicity. The aim was to test safety and effectiveness of citrate. A prospective, interventional study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a 30% citrate lock in preventing catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). A total of 157 prevalent tunneled catheters were locked with citrate and prospectively followed during a 1-year period. The primary endpoint was first CRB diagnosed according to two of the diagnostic criteria for Catheter Infection of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely definite and probable infection. The CDC criterion of possible but not proved infection was not considered. This citrate lock cohort (n = 157) had 10 episodes of CRB. We observed 0.49 CRB episodes/1000 patient-days and the mean infection-free catheter day was 130.6 ± 100.9. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. No proved tunnel or exit site infection was observed and no patients died because of CRB. Catheter obstruction episodes were reported on 69 occasions out of 14 catheters. These results were compared with an historical cohort from a previous study of catheter locking with low-dose gentamicin and did not show significant difference in efficacy. Citrate lock is effective in preventing CRB. No toxicity was observed. The use of citrate lock may have advantages over antibiotic locks: no reported bacterial resistance, lower industrial cost, and less manipulation. PMID:22515732

  9. Formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles: Capping action of citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Henglein, A.; Giersig, M.

    1999-11-04

    Colloidal silver sols of long-time stability are formed in the {gamma}-irradiation of 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}4} M AgClO{sub 4} solutions, which also contain 0.3 M 2-propanol, 2.5 x 10{sup {minus}2} M N{sub 2}O, and sodium citrate in various concentrations. The reduction of Ag{sup +} in these solutions is brought about by the 1-hydroxyalkyl radical generated in the radiolysis of 2-propanol; citrate does not act as a reductant but solely as a stabilizer of the colloidal particles formed. Its concentration is varied in the range from 5.0 x 10{sup {minus}5} to 1.5 x 10{sup {minus}3} M, and the size and size distribution of the silver particles are studied by electron microscopy. At low citrate concentration, partly agglomerated large particles are formed that have many imperfections. In an intermediate range (a few 10{sup {minus}4} M), well-separated particles with a rather narrow size distribution and little imperfections are formed, the size slightly decreasing with increasing citrate concentration. At high citrate concentrations, large lumps of coalesced silver particles are present, due to destabilization by the high ionic strength of the solution. These findings are explained by two growth mechanisms: condensation of small silver clusters (type-1 growth), and reduction of Ag{sup +} on silver particles via radical-to-particle electron transfer (type-2 growth). The particles formed in the intermediate range of citrate concentration were studied by high-resolution electron microscopy and computer simulations. They constitute icosahedra and cuboctahedra.

  10. Gastric fluid pH in patients receiving sodium citrate.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O J; Ravindran, R S; Shumacker, C A

    1981-07-01

    Gastric fluid pH was measured following induction of anesthesia and placement of an endotracheal tube in 30 surgical patients undergoing elective operations. None of the patients received an anticholinergic drug before surgery. Fifteen patients who had been given 15 ml of sodium citrate 15 to 20 minutes before induction of anesthesia had a mean pH of 6.2 +/- 0.8. The control group, which also consisted of 15 patients, had a mean pH of 2.1 +/- 1.4. The increase in gastric pH noted following sodium citrate would result in reduced pulmonary reaction should aspiration occur. PMID:7195668

  11. Citrate-release-mediated aluminum resistance is coupled to the inducible expression of mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Paraserianthes falcataria.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroki; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) resistance in some leguminous plants is achieved by enhanced citrate release from roots. Enhancement requires several hours for complete activation and is postulated to involve Al-responsive genes or components. We examined the mechanism of Al-induced citrate release by studying the relationship between citrate release and expression of the mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) gene in three leguminous trees. Root elongation in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was arrested within 24 h by 30 microM Al, whereas root elongation in Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Neilson and Acacia mangium Willd. was inhibited < 50% by a 48-h treatment with 100 microM Al in calcium chloride solution. Roots of P. falcataria and A. mangium maintained enhanced release and accumulation of citrate for at least 28 days in response to Al treatment. Aluminum increased the accumulation of mCS transcripts in P. falcataria roots, but not in L. leucocephala roots, and thus up-regulation decreased following removal of Al. Lanthanum did not alter the expression level of mCS. Aluminum increased mCS activity concomitantly with enhanced mCS gene expression in P. falcataria, whereas it did not affect mCS activity in L. leucocephala. Aluminum content in root apices of P. falcataria was increased by cycloheximide, supporting the idea that de novo synthesis of proteins is a prerequisite for Al resistance. Our findings suggest that Al-inducible expression of mCS coupled with enhanced citrate release mediates Al resistance in P. falcataria. PMID:16452070

  12. An evaluation of the New Roche Diagnostics Kit for the rapid identification of clinically important non-dextrose, non-fastidious gram-negative rods.

    PubMed

    Elegbe, I A

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the new Roche Diagnostics Commercial kit (Roche Diagnostics, 1975) for the identification of non-dextrose fermenting, non-fastidious gram-negative rods has been compared with conventional methods in the recognition and identification of these non-dextrose, non-fastidious gram-negative bacteria. This new kit has definite advantages over and above the conventional methods in a number of ways. It is cheaper to run, and above all it is less cumbersome, less time consuming and it is accurate. Apart from all these, the new method makes use of the odour test (Roche Diagnostics, 1975) and other additional conventional tests recommended by the Oxi/ferm manufacturer. PMID:6283862

  13. Effect of a high-dextrose diet on sucrase and lactase activity in jejunum of obese mice (C57BL/6J obob).

    PubMed

    Flores, C A; Bezerra, J; Goda, T; Bustamante, S; MacDonald, M P; Kaplan, M; Koldovský, O

    1986-01-01

    The activities of intestinal disaccharidases are known to be responsive to changes in the dietary intake of carbohydrates in the adult rat. Little is known, however, regarding the activities of these enzymes in obese subjects and how they are affected by differing carbohydrate intakes. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate intake on the activity of intestinal disaccharidases in obesity, we used the genetically obese mouse C57BL/6J obob as an experimental model. Representing an example of early-onset obesity and mature-onset diabetes, this animal is characteristically hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic. Groups of obese mice and lean littermates were fed for 7 weeks equal amounts of either high-dextrose or low-dextrose isoenergetic diets. Sucrase, maltase, and lactase activities were measured on intestinal homogenates from the proximal and middle portions of the jejunoileum (upper and lower jejunum). Results were expressed as activity per tissue protein as well as total activity. Obese mice were found to have consistently greater total activity of both sucrase and maltase than their lean littermates, mostly as a result of increased intestinal size. Total lactase activity, however, was similar in the upper jejunum in both obese and lean mice, largely related to a decreased specific activity in obese mice. All mice fed the high-dextrose diet had significantly increased total activity of all disaccharidases studied when compared to the low-dextrose-fed animals, except for the lactase activity in the lower jejunum, where no differences were found in either group. Increases in activity related to high carbohydrate intake were a result of increases in specific activity. PMID:3097106

  14. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with... addition to oils and fats whereby the additive does not exceed 200 parts per million of the combined...

  15. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with... addition to oils and fats whereby the additive does not exceed 200 parts per million of the combined...

  16. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with... addition to oils and fats whereby the additive does not exceed 200 parts per million of the combined...

  17. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.832... manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid under controlled conditions may be safely... use, in antioxidant formulations for addition to oils and fats whereby the additive does not...

  18. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O)1.5

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2 +·C6H6O7 2−·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven) share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carb­oxy­lic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O⋯O distances of 2.46 Å. PMID:27555936

  19. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O)1.5.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Sarjeant, Amy A; Kaduk, James A

    2016-07-01

    The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2 (+)·C6H6O7 (2-)·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven) share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carb-oxy-lic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O⋯O distances of 2.46 Å. PMID:27555936

  20. Comparison of the peroxidase-like activity of unmodified, amino-modified, and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Ai-Lin; Hong, Lei; Deng, Hao-Hua; Lin, Xin-Hua

    2012-04-10

    The origin of the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles and the impact of surface modification are studied. Furthermore, some influencing factors, such as fabrication process, redox property of the modifier, and charge property of the substrate, are investigated. Compared to amino-modified or citrate-capped gold nanoparticles, unmodified gold nanoparticles show significantly higher catalytic activity toward peroxidase substrates, that is, the superficial gold atoms are a contributing factor to the observed peroxidase-like activity. The different catalytic activities of amino-modified and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) show that the charge characteristics of the nanoparticles and the substrate also play an important role in the catalytic reactions. PMID:22383315

  1. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  2. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  3. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a Section 520.622a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-endemic areas, administration of the drug should start at the beginning of mosquito activity and...

  4. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a Section 520.622a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-endemic areas, administration of the drug should start at the beginning of mosquito activity and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  15. Development of Injectable Citrate-Based Bioadhesive Bone Implants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Denghui; Guo, Jinshan; Mehdizadeh, Mohammadreza; Tran, Richard T.; Chen, Ruisong; Sun, Dawei; Qian, Guoying; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Injectable bone implants have been widely used in bone tissue repairs including the treatment of comminuted bone fractures (CBF). However, most injectable bone implants are not suitable for the treatment of CBF due to their weak tissue adhesion strengths and minimal osteoinduction. Citrate has been recently reported to promote bone formation through enhanced bioceramic integration and osteoinductivity. Herein, a novel injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesive hydroxyapatite (iCMBA/HA) bone substitute was developed for CBF treatment. iCMBA/HA can be set within 2–4 minutes and the as-prepared (wet) iCMBA/HA possess low swelling ratios, compressive mechanical strengths of up to 3.2±0.27 MPa, complete degradation in 30 days, suitable biocompatibility, and osteoinductivity. This is also the first time to demonstrate that citrate supplementation in osteogenic medium and citrate released from iCMBA/HA degradation can promote the mineralization of osteoblastic committed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vivo evaluation of iCMBA/HA in a rabbit comminuted radial fracture model showed significantly increased bone formation with markedly enhanced three-point bending strength compared to the negative control. Neovascularization and bone ingrowth as well as highly organized bone formation were also observed showing the potential of iCMBA/HA in treating CBF. PMID:25580247

  16. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The... green forms, are deliquescent in air, and are reducible by light. (b) Specifications. Ferric ammonium... from certification. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The... green forms, are deliquescent in air, and are reducible by light. (b) Specifications. Ferric ammonium... from certification. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The... green forms, are deliquescent in air, and are reducible by light. (b) Specifications. Ferric ammonium... from certification. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  8. Parathyroid adenoma imaged by gallium-67 citrate. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Kawano, R.; Okamura, Y.; Miyake, K.; Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, R.

    1987-10-01

    A parathyroid adenoma imaged by Ga-67 citrate in a 17-year-old man with primary hyperparathyroidism and a palpable solid tumor in the neck is presented. Although preoperative examination and intraoperative findings suggested a parathyroid carcinoma, histologic studies showed a parathyroid adenoma with predominant chief cell type.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  10. MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMOSOME-ENCODED CITRATE SYNTHASE GENE FROM SINORHIZOBIUM FREDII USDA257

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrate synthase, a key metabolic enzyme that condenses acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to citrate, plays an important role in nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have isolated a citrate synthase gene by screening a Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 cosmid library with a heterologous probe from S. meliloti....

  11. Bismuth citrate in the quantification of inorganic phosphate and its utility in the determination of membrane-bound phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Cariani, L; Thomas, L; Brito, J; del Castillo, J R

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and sensitive method to determine inorganic phosphate, even in the presence of labile organic phosphate compounds and large quantities of proteins. The method eliminates the use of sodium arsenite, a highly toxic compound, substituting bismuth citrate for it to stabilize the phosphomolybdic acid complex formed during the interaction of inorganic phosphate and molybdate reduced by ascorbic acid. This method has also been adapted to microplates and has been used to determine the activities of Na/K ATPase and alkaline phosphatase of intestinal basolateral and luminal plasma membranes. PMID:14654048

  12. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ude, Sabina N; Rawn, Claudia J; Meisner, Roberta A; Kirkham, Melanie J; Jones, Gregory L.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  13. The Metabolic Reprogramming Evoked by Nitrosative Stress Triggers the Anaerobic Utilization of Citrate in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Christopher; Lemire, Joseph; Cecchini, Dominic; Bignucolo, Adam; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrosative stress is an ongoing challenge that most organisms have to contend with. When nitric oxide (NO) that may be generated either exogenously or endogenously encounters reactive oxygen species (ROS), it produces a set of toxic moieties referred to as reactive nitrogen species (RNS). As these RNS can severely damage essential biomolecules, numerous organisms have evolved elaborate detoxification strategies to nullify RNS. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism in fending off nitrosative stress is poorly understood. Using a variety of functional proteomic and metabolomic analyses, we have identified how the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens reprogrammed its metabolic networks to survive in an environment enriched by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a generator of nitrosative stress. To combat the RNS-induced ineffective aconitase (ACN) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the microbe invoked the participation of citrate lyase (CL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) to convert citrate, the sole source of carbon into pyruvate and ATP. These enzymes were not evident in the control conditions. This metabolic shift was coupled to the concomitant increase in the activities of such classical RNS detoxifiers as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NIR) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). Hence, metabolism may hold the clues to the survival of organisms subjected to nitrosative stress and may provide therapeutic cues against RNS-resistant microbes. PMID:22145048

  14. Short-term effects of CO(2) and O(2) on citrate metabolism in illuminated leaves.

    PubMed

    Tcherkez, Guillaume; Mahé, Aline; Guérard, Florence; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard R A; Gout, Elisabeth; Lamothe, Marlène; Barbour, Margaret M; Bligny, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Although there is now a considerable literature on the inhibition of leaf respiration (CO(2) evolution) by light, little is known about the effect of other environmental conditions on day respiratory metabolism. In particular, CO(2) and O(2) mole fractions are assumed to cause changes in the tricarboxylic acid pathway (TCAP) but the amplitude and even the direction of such changes are still a matter of debate. Here, we took advantage of isotopic techniques, new simple equations and instant freeze sampling to follow respiratory metabolism in illuminated cocklebur leaves (Xanthium strumarium L.) under different CO(2) /O(2) conditions. Gas exchange coupled to online isotopic analysis showed that CO(2) evolved by leaves in the light came from 'old' carbon skeletons and there was a slight decrease in (13) C natural abundance when [CO(2) ] increased. This suggested the involvement of enzymatic steps fractionating more strongly against (13) C and thus increasingly limiting for the metabolic respiratory flux as [CO(2) ] increased. Isotopic labelling with (13) C(2) -2,4-citrate lead to (13) C-enriched Glu and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG), clearly demonstrating poor metabolism of citrate by the TCAP. There was a clear relationship between the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenation-to-carboxylation ratio (v(o) /v(c) ) and the (13) C commitment to 2OG, demonstrating that 2OG and Glu synthesis via the TCAP is positively influenced by photorespiration. PMID:22646810

  15. The role of lysosomal enzyme activity in the localization of 67 gallium citrate.

    PubMed

    Hammersley, P A; Taylor, D M

    1979-08-01

    The distribution of 67Ga citrate at 24 h post injection has been studied in the normal tissues of the mouse, rat and dog; 13 transplantable mouse tumours and 7 rat tumours have also been examined. The total activities of four lysosomal enzymes, aryl sulphatase, beta-glucuronidase, acid phosphatase and cathepsin-D were measured as well as the incorporation of thymidine-3H and leucine-14C ad indicators of DNA and protein synthesis. The results show a close correlation between 67Ga uptake and lysosomal enzyme activity in the tumours studied, which is an extension of the same relationship for normal tissues. It is suggested that the reported correlation between the uptake of 67Ga and the rate of cellular proliferation is secondary to the primary function of the lysosome in the localisation of the nuclide, lysosomal enzyme activity also being enhanced in situations of increased metabolic activity. A similar relationship appears to occur following administration of 111IN-Bleomycin and 99mTc-Citrate. PMID:499245

  16. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  17. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%. PMID:26141285

  18. Novel chitosan-spotted alginate fibers from wet-spinning of alginate solutions containing emulsified chitosan-citrate complex and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Supaphol, Pitt; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tokura, Seiichi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2009-02-01

    The major problem associated with the production of alginate/chitosan hybridized fibers by wet spinning is the formation of gels due to ionic interactions of the oppositely charged molecules of alginate and chitosan when these two polymers are directly mixed. Here, we proposed a novel method of using chitosan in the form of an emulsion. The emulsion was prepared by adding a primary emulsion of olive oil in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solution into a chitosan-citrate complex. The complexation of chitosan with citric acid is the key of this method. The citrate ions neutralize the positive charges of chitosan, rendering the chitosan-citrate complex to readily penetrate into the core of the SDS/olive oil micelles. The obtained emulsified chitosan-citrate complex (hereafter, the chitosan-citrate emulsion) of varying amount was then added into an alginate aqueous solution to prepare the alginate/chitosan spinning dope suspensions. The alginate/chitosan hybridized fibers showed spotty features of the emulsified chitosan-citrate complex particles locating close to the surface and the inside of the hybridized fibers. At the lowest content of incorporated chitosan (i.e., 0.5% w/w chitosan), both the tenacity and the elongation at break of the obtained chitosan-spotted alginate fibers were the greatest. Further increase in the chitosan content resulted in a monotonous decrease in the property values. Lastly, preliminary studies demonstrated that the obtained chitosan-spotted alginate fibers showed great promises as carriers for drug delivery. PMID:19072144

  19. Steady state protein levels in Geobacter metallireducens grown with Iron (III) citrate or nitrate as terminal electron acceptor.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrendt, A. J.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Lindberg, C.; Zhu, W.; Yates, J. R., III; Nevin, K. P.; Lovley, D.; Giometti, C. S.; Biosciences Division; The Scripps Research Inst.; Univ. of Massachusetts

    2007-01-01

    Geobacter species predominate in aquatic sediments and submerged soils where organic carbon sources are oxidized with the reduction of Fe(III). The natural occurrence of Geobacter in some waste sites suggests this microorganism could be useful for bioremediation if growth and metabolic activity can be regulated. 2-DE was used to monitor the steady state protein levels of Geobacter metallireducens grown with either Fe(III) citrate or nitrate to elucidate metabolic differences in response to different terminal electron acceptors present in natural environments populated by Geobacter. Forty-six protein spots varied significantly in abundance (p<0.05) between the two growth conditions; proteins were identified by tryptic peptide mass and peptide sequence determined by MS/MS. Enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were more abundant in cells grown with Fe(III) citrate, while proteins associated with nitrate metabolism and sensing cellular redox status along with several proteins of unknown function were more abundant in cells grown with nitrate. These results indicate a higher level of flux through the TCA cycle in the presence of Fe(III) compared to nitrate. The oxidative stress response observed in previous studies of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown with Fe(III) citrate was not seen in G. metallireducens.

  20. Kinetic modeling of 52Fe/52mMn-citrate at the blood-brain barrier by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Calonder, C; Würtenberger, P I; Maguire, R P; Pellikka, R; Leenders, K L

    1999-11-01

    The kinetics of iron at the blood-brain barrier of the monkey were studied in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and the tracer 52Fe/52mMn-citrate. 52mMn is the beta(+)-emitting daughter nuclide of 52Fe and therefore contributes to the observed signal and background in the PET images and may influence the quantification of physiological relevant iron parameters. The kinetics of pure (52m)Mn-citrate at the blood-brain barrier of the monkey were studied experimentally, and the analysis of the data with a reasonable compartment model led to equal efflux and influx parameters for Mn (1.35 +/- 0.3 x 10(-2) min(-1)). By using complexes between Mn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, the validity of the proposed model could be confirmed. To describe the observed kinetics of 52Fe/(52m)Mn-citrate, the manganese model was coupled to an iron model, which finally allowed the quantification of two iron-specific parameters: an input rate into global brain tissue of 7.15 +/- 2.6 x 10(-4) min(-1) and a time delay of roughly 24 min to account for the observed activities. The simpler linearization procedure has been proposed and could be applied to all our data sets and is able to replace the complicated nonlinear iron/manganese tracer kinetic model neglecting any influence of manganese on the analysis. PMID:10537064

  1. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    PubMed

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD. PMID:25828665

  2. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    PubMed Central

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

  3. Ca2+-citrate uptake and metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    PubMed

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S

    2013-08-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca(2+) and not as free citrate or the Mg(2+)-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca(2+)-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca(2+) and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca(2+)-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

  4. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  5. ATP citrate lyase improves mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Das, Suman; Morvan, Frederic; Jourde, Benjamin; Meier, Viktor; Kahle, Peter; Brebbia, Pascale; Toussaint, Gauthier; Glass, David J; Fornaro, Mara

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with skeletal muscle pathology, including cachexia, sarcopenia, and the muscular dystrophies. ATP citrate lyase (ACL) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes mitochondria-derived citrate into oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Here we report that activation of ACL in skeletal muscle results in improved mitochondrial function. IGF1 induces activation of ACL in an AKT-dependent fashion. This results in an increase in cardiolipin, thus increasing critical mitochondrial complexes and supercomplex activity, and a resultant increase in oxygen consumption and cellular ATP levels. Conversely, knockdown of ACL in myotubes not only reduces mitochondrial complex I, IV, and V activity but also blocks IGF1-induced increases in oxygen consumption. In vivo, ACL activity is associated with increased ATP. Activation of this IGF1/ACL/cardiolipin pathway combines anabolic signaling with induction of mechanisms needed to provide required ATP. PMID:26039450

  6. Crystal and Solution Studies Reveal That the Transcriptional Regulator AcnR of Corynebacterium glutamicum Is Regulated by Citrate-Mg2+ Binding to a Non-canonical Pocket

    PubMed Central

    García-Nafría, Javier; Baumgart, Meike; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Bott, Michael; Wilson, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial bacterium as well as a model organism for the order Corynebacteriales, whose citric acid cycle occupies a central position in energy and precursor supply. Expression of aconitase, which isomerizes citrate into isocitrate, is controlled by several transcriptional regulators, including the dimeric aconitase repressor AcnR, assigned by sequence identity to the TetR family. We report the structures of AcnR in two crystal forms together with ligand binding experiments and in vivo studies. First, there is a citrate-Mg2+ moiety bound in both forms, not in the canonical TetR ligand binding site but rather in a second pocket more distant from the DNA binding domain. Second, the citrate-Mg2+ binds with a KD of 6 mm, within the range of physiological significance. Third, citrate-Mg2+ lowers the affinity of AcnR for its target DNA in vitro. Fourth, analyses of several AcnR point mutations provide evidence for the possible involvement of the corresponding residues in ligand binding, DNA binding, and signal transfer. AcnR derivatives defective in citrate-Mg2+ binding severely inhibit growth of C. glutamicum on citrate. Finally, the structures do have a pocket corresponding to the canonical tetracycline site, and although we have not identified a ligand that binds there, comparison of the two crystal forms suggests differences in the region of the canonical pocket that may indicate a biological significance. PMID:23589369

  7. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. PMID:26852108

  8. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  9. Electrophysiological characterization of human and mouse sodium-dependent citrate transporters (NaCT/SLC13A5) reveal species differences with respect to substrate sensitivity and cation dependence.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Ruud; Peeva, Polina M; Rong, James X; Sher, Emanuele

    2015-11-01

    The citric acid cycle intermediate citrate plays a crucial role in metabolic processes such as fatty acid synthesis, glucose metabolism, and β-oxidation. Citrate is imported from the circulation across the plasma membrane into liver cells mainly by the sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT; SLC13A5). Deletion of NaCT from mice led to metabolic changes similar to caloric restriction; therefore, NaCT has been proposed as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we expressed mouse and human NaCT into Xenopus oocytes and examined some basic functional properties of those transporters. Interestingly, striking differences were found between mouse and human NaCT with respect to their sensitivities to citric acid cycle intermediates as substrates for these transporters. Mouse NaCT had at least 20- to 800-fold higher affinity for these intermediates than human NaCT. Mouse NaCT is fully active at physiologic plasma levels of citrate, but its human counterpart is not. Replacement of extracellular sodium by other monovalent cations revealed that human NaCT was markedly less dependent on extracellular sodium than mouse NaCT. The low sensitivity of human NaCT for citrate raises questions about the translatability of this target from the mouse to the human situation and raises doubts about the validity of this transporter as a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic diseases in humans. PMID:26324167

  10. Calcium citrate and vitamin D in the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Blanch Rubió, Josep; Díaz Curiel, Manuel; Díez Pérez, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    The combination of calcium with vitamin D (vitamin D(3) [colecalciferol]) forms the basis of preventive and therapeutic regimens for osteoporosis. A number of studies have suggested that the combination of calcium and vitamin D is effective when administered at respective dosages of at least 1200 mg and 800 IU per day, although efficacy is, as expected, affected by patient compliance. Overall, treatment with this combination appears to be effective in reducing the incidence of non-vertebral and hip fractures. Also, in all drug studies (of antiresorptive and anabolic agents and strontium ranelate) that demonstrated a reduction in risk of osteoporotic fractures, patients also took calcium and vitamin D supplements. An important finding in this regard is that vitamin D levels have been demonstrated to be inadequate in more than half of women treated for osteoporosis in the US and Europe. The capacity of the small intestine to absorb calcium salts depends on the solubility and ionization of the salts. These properties vary for different salts, with fasting calcium citrate absorption being greater than that of calcium lactogluconate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate formulations taken between meals may help to prevent abdominal distension and flatulence, as well as minimize the risk of renal calculus formation, thus helping to optimize patient compliance. Therefore, calcium citrate combined with vitamin D is the combination of choice for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:21405146

  11. Bulk synthesis of nanocrystalline urania powders by citrate gel-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Amirthapandian, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Bulk quantities (60 g) of nanocrystalline (nc) free flowing urania powders with crystallite size ranging from 38 to 252 nm have been synthesized for the first time by the citrate gel combustion method. A systematic study of the influence of the fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) ratio (R) on the characteristics of the urania powders has been carried out for the first time. Mixture with an "R" value of 0.25 exhibited a vigorous auto-ignition reaction. This reaction was investigated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in-situ thermogravimetry coupled with differential thermal analysis and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS). The bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon and size distribution of particles of this powder were unique. Microscopic and microstructural investigation of selected samples revealed the presence of nanocrystals with irregular exfoliated morphology; their Electron Energy Loss Spectra testified the covalency of the U-O bond.

  12. Comparison of Citrated Human Blood, Citrated Sheep Blood, and Defibrinated Sheep Blood Mueller-Hinton Agar Preparations for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Satzke, Catherine; Seduadua, Anna; Chandra, Reginald; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Mulholland, E. Kim; Russell, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with citrated human or citrated sheep blood was compared with the use of routinely used Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The alternate supplements were found to be unsatisfactory, particularly for testing resistant isolates, and therefore are not recommended. PMID:20668133

  13. Scaling of Structural and Rheological Responde of L3 Sponge Phases in the "Sweetened" Cetylpyridinium/Hexanol/Dextrose/Brine System

    SciTech Connect

    Porcar, L.; Hamilton, William A; Butler, Paul D; Warr, G. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the shear response of sponge phases in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/brine/dextrose systems by parallel measurements of rheology and structure by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our measurements show that this dextrose added to the extensively studied CPCl/hexanol/brine system is taken up exclusively by the brine solvent, resulting in an equivalent CPCl/hexanol membrane structure and phase behavior for this modified system. Adding dextrose to the brine in these systems to volume fractions up to 0.4 allows us to increase the solvent viscosity by more than an order of magnitude. This lowers the cooperative membrane diffusion coefficient in this system as measured by dynamic light scattering by the same factor, resulting in a corresponding slowing of the Helfrich fluctuation dominated membrane dynamics. Our results show clear and consistent evidence of shear-induced sponge to lamellar phase transformations in these systems. Further, both the rheological and microstructural responses of these systems follow universal master curves when plotted against a rescaled applied shear {sub {gamma}}{eta}{sub s}/{phi}{sup 3}, where {phi} is the membrane volume fraction and {eta}{sub s} is the viscosity of the brine/dextrose solvent. This well-defined shear response is characterized by three distinct regimes. At low shear rates the sponge phases exhibit Newtonian flow behavior and no structural change is observed. For intermediate shear rates, the systems shear thin and SANS measurements show that the sponge phases are progressively transformed into lamellar phases with the CPCl/hexanol membrane normals aligned parallel to the velocity gradient. This continuous process and the absence of a stress plateau in the rheological measurements both rule out the existence of a biphasic state in this region and thus of a first-order transition between sponge and lamellar phases as is observed in equilibrium phase diagrams. At higher shear rates, the

  14. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a citrate-radiolytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanžić, Nikolina; Jurkin, Tanja; Maksimović, Aleksandar; Gotić, Marijan

    2015-01-01

    The classical citrate method is based on the reduction of an Au(III) precursor with sodium citrate in an aqueous solution near the boiling point. In this work gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesised via a citrate method using reduction by gamma-irradiation at room temperature. The Au(III)-citrate aqueous precursor solution was gamma-irradiated to doses of up to 30 kGy. The dose rate of gamma-irradiation was ~8 kGy h-1. The GNP size was controlled by the adsorbed dose as well as by different saturated gases (air or nitrogen) present in precursor solutions. The results showed that gamma-irradiation produced smaller GNPs in the presence of precursor solutions saturated with nitrogen compared with the ones saturated with air. By increasing both the gold(III) and citrate concentrations in precursor solutions, stable and highly concentrated colloidal gold/citrate suspensions were synthesised using classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods. Gamma-irradiation thus produced well-dispersed and highly concentrated GNPs in an aqueous citrate solution in the presence of dissolved oxygen and without adding any reducing or stabilising agents. Radiolytically intensified citrate oxidation and decarboxylation to acetone and other products by dissolved oxygen was advantageous for Au(III) reduction and subsequent formation of gold nanoparticles. Since the completely same precursor solutions were used both in the classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods, a real comparison of GNP sizes between these two methods was given.

  15. Ferric citrate controls phosphorus and delivers iron in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B; Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T; Whittier, Frederick C; Linfert, Douglas R; Galphin, Claude M; Athreya, Balaji P; Nossuli, A Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-02-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  16. Ferric Citrate Controls Phosphorus and Delivers Iron in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J.; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T.; Whittier, Frederick C.; Linfert, Douglas R.; Galphin, Claude M.; Athreya, Balaji P.; Nossuli, A. Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J.; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S.; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P.

    2015-01-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of −2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  17. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity. PMID:26863933

  18. Citrate complexing sol-gel process of lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Linlin; Zhu, Kongjun

    2016-05-01

    The citrate complexing sol-gel process to fabricate lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric thin films was studied. Soluble niobium source of niobium-citric acid (Nb-CA) solution was utilized as a raw material to synthesize (K,Na)NbO3 thin films, by pyrolyzing at 450-550∘C and annealing at 650∘C. The film pyrolyzed at 450∘C shows poor crystallization with porous morphology, whereas the film pyrolyzed at 550∘C appear to be well-crystallized and denser, and the ferroelectricity was also proved by the P-E hysteresis loop measurement.

  19. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  20. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation. PMID:22164251

  1. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  2. Study of Ni-Zn Ferrite Prepared From Citrate Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheesh, V. D.; Vinesh, A.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.

    2011-07-01

    Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 prepared using citrate precursor method and calcined at different temperatures is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and DC magnetization. Magnetization study shows that critical size of the sample is around 50 nm. Mössbauer studies confirm that there is no change in the cation distribution with calcining and also that a particle size distribution exists in samples calcined at higher temperatures. Thus the change in magnetic properties can be entirely attributed to structural parameters due to variation in size leading to different core-spin ratio, grain boundary effects etc.

  3. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: Studies within a structure-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Różycki, Bartosz Cieplak, Marek

    2014-12-21

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermodynamically than their mesophilic and cryophilic homologues, which we observe both in the magnitude of thermal fluctuations near the native state and in the kinetics of thermal unfolding. The level of stability correlates with the average coordination number for amino acid contacts and with the degree of structural compactness. The pattern of positional fluctuations along the sequence in the closed conformation is different than in the open conformation, including within the active site. The modes of correlated and anticorrelated movements of pairs of amino acids forming the active site are very different in the open and closed conformations. Taken together, our results show that the precise location of amino acid contacts in the native structure appears to be a critical element in explaining the similarities and differences in the thermodynamic properties, local flexibility, and collective motions of the different forms of the enzyme.

  4. Functional groups in the activity and regulation of Escherichia coli citrate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Danson, Michael J.; Weitzman, P. David J.

    1973-01-01

    1. Citrate synthase has been purified from Escherichia coli and shown to exist at an equilibrium between three forms: monomer (mol.wt. 57000), tetramer (mol.wt. 230000) and, possibly, octamer. Modification of the enzyme by photo-oxidation and by treatment with specific chemical reagents has been carried out to gain information on the amino acid residues involved in enzymic activity and in the inhibition of activity by NADH and α-oxoglutarate. 2. Several photo-oxidizable amino acids appear to be involved in activity. The nature of the pH-dependence of their rates of photo-oxidation with Methylene Blue suggests that these are histidines, a conclusion supported by the greater rate of photo-inactivation with Rose Bengal and the destruction of activity by diethyl pyrocarbonate. 3. The participation of histidine at the α-oxoglutarate effector site is indicated by photo-oxidation and the participation of cysteine at the NADH effector site suggested by photo-oxidation is confirmed by the desensitization to NADH produced by treatment with 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate). Inactivation of the enzyme after modification with this reagent suggests the additional involvement of cysteine in catalytic activity. 4. Amino acid analyses of native and photo-oxidized enzyme are consistent with these conclusions. 5. Modification with 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide indicates the participation of tryptophan in the activity of the enzyme. PMID:4359019

  5. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: Studies within a structure-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RóŻycki, Bartosz; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-12-01

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermodynamically than their mesophilic and cryophilic homologues, which we observe both in the magnitude of thermal fluctuations near the native state and in the kinetics of thermal unfolding. The level of stability correlates with the average coordination number for amino acid contacts and with the degree of structural compactness. The pattern of positional fluctuations along the sequence in the closed conformation is different than in the open conformation, including within the active site. The modes of correlated and anticorrelated movements of pairs of amino acids forming the active site are very different in the open and closed conformations. Taken together, our results show that the precise location of amino acid contacts in the native structure appears to be a critical element in explaining the similarities and differences in the thermodynamic properties, local flexibility, and collective motions of the different forms of the enzyme.

  6. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: studies within a structure-based model.

    PubMed

    Różycki, Bartosz; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-12-21

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermodynamically than their mesophilic and cryophilic homologues, which we observe both in the magnitude of thermal fluctuations near the native state and in the kinetics of thermal unfolding. The level of stability correlates with the average coordination number for amino acid contacts and with the degree of structural compactness. The pattern of positional fluctuations along the sequence in the closed conformation is different than in the open conformation, including within the active site. The modes of correlated and anticorrelated movements of pairs of amino acids forming the active site are very different in the open and closed conformations. Taken together, our results show that the precise location of amino acid contacts in the native structure appears to be a critical element in explaining the similarities and differences in the thermodynamic properties, local flexibility, and collective motions of the different forms of the enzyme. PMID:25527961

  7. Citrate mediated synthesis and tuning of luminescence in Eu3+ incorporated Gd2O3 nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhilash Kumar, R. G.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2015-02-01

    Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphors were prepared successfully by a large-scale facile solution based citrate-metal complex controlled combustion method and was systematically studied by varying the citric acid to metal cation ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and radiative properties were done to evaluate the crystal structure, phase formation, phase composition, surface morphology, radiative and luminescent properties of the prepared nanophosphors. Photoluminescent emission intensity of the samples can be correlated with the amount of citric acid, improved crystallinity, uniform morphology, particle size, reduced defects, and proper diffusion of Eu3+ in to the crystal structure of Gd2O3. Higher asymmetricity results in intense red emission (612 nm) due to 5D0-7F2 forced electric dipole transition and found that photoluminescence intensity is highest for the sample prepared with citric acid to metal cation ratio of 2:1. The existence of strong red emission from Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphor corresponding to 5D0-7F2 transition (612 nm) of Eu3+ under UV light excitation make it a promising candidate for applications in bio assays, magnetic resonance imaging, deep uv LED's, solid state lighting, fluorescent lamps and flat panel displays.

  8. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  9. Formation of BaTiO 3 from Citrate Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, M.; Rao, M. Subba

    1994-12-01

    On thermal decomposition barium bis(citrato)oxotitanate (IV) citrate heptahydrate produces stoichiometric BaTiO3 fine powders at about 650°C. Thermal decomposition of the precursor proceeds through three major stages, viz. (i) dehydration, (ii) decomposition of the citrate to form an oxycarbonate intermediate Ba2Ti2O5CO3, and (iii) decomposition of the intermediate carbonate to form BaTiO3. Spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques are presently employed to characterize the precursor and the intermediates isolated at various stages. As-prepared BaTiO3 is a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases. The primary particle size of the powder is on the order of 100 nm, as revealed by the TEM technique. Calcining the powders above 800°C results in the formation of complete tetragonal phase with improved crystallinity. The resultant powders are sinter active to give dense monophasic ceramic compacts having densities in the range 95-99% of the theoretical value. Depending on the processing conditions, the dielectric constant (εr) varies from 1600 to 3000 at 1 kHz, while the dielectric loss, tan δ, ranges from 0.003 to 0.009 at 300 K.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes citA and citZ were repressed during early exponential growth phase in nutrient broth medium and were induced as cells reached the end of exponential phase. Both genes were also induced by treatment of cells with the drug decoyinine. After induction, the steady-state level of citZ mRNA was about five times higher than that of citA mRNA. At least some of the citZ transcripts read through into the isocitrate dehydrogenase (citC) gene. Transcription from an apparent promoter site located near the 3' end of the citZ gene also contributed to expression of citC. In minimal medium, citA transcription was about 6-fold lower when glucose was the sole carbon source than it was when succinate was the carbon source. Expression of the citZ gene was repressed 2-fold by glucose and 10-fold when glucose and glutamate were present simultaneously. This latter synergistic repression is similar to the effect of glucose and glutamate on steady-state citrate synthase enzyme activity. CitR, a protein of the LysR family, appeared to be a repressor of citA but not of citZ. Images PMID:8045899

  11. Long-term Stability of Esomeprazole in 5% Dextrose Infusion Polyolefin Bags at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C after Microwave Freeze-thaw Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hecq, Jean-daniel; Rolin, Catherine; Godet, Marie; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2015-01-01

    To improve quality assurance, security, time management, and cost saving of drug delivery, preparation in advance of intravenous solutions has been developed for several infusion solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of esomeprazole 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose polyolefin bags after freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing. The stability of five polyolefin bags containing approximately 0.4 mg/mL of esomeprazole and five other bags containing approximately 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20 degrees C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C. Esomeprazole concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column C8, a mobile phase consisting of 35% of acetonitrile and 65% of Na2HPO4 buffer at pH 7.59 with HPO4 (2 M) and NaOH (0.5 M), and detection with a diode array detector at 280 nm. Visual, microscopic, and spectrophotometric observation and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but little change of color was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance at 350, 410, and 550 nm. Based on a shelf life of 90% residual potency, esomeprazole solutions (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) were stable for at least 20 or 29 days, respectively, after a freezing and microwave thawing period, where 95% one-side lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, esomeprazole (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service, thawed, and stored at least 20 days at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C

  12. PHOTODEGRADATION OF A TERNARY IRON(III)-URANIUM(VI)-CITRIC ACID COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms of photodegradation of binary iron- and uranium-citrate and ternary iron-uranium-citrate complexes were elucidated. Citric acid degradation products were identified by HPLC and GC, and the metal precipitates were identified by XRD and EXAFS. Photodegradation of a b...

  13. CRRT Regional Anticoagulation Using Citrate in the Liver Failure and Liver Transplant Population.

    PubMed

    Wonnacott, Rob; Josephs, Brandi; Jamieson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Regional citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) use in patients with liver failure or post-liver transplant has been considered a contraindication because of the risk of citrate toxicity development. Regional citrate has the benefit of decreased bleeding risks over systemic anticoagulation; therefore, it is of great benefit to the coagulopathic and surgical populations. This article analyzes current empiric data and compares with a case study specifically related to liver failure, liver transplant, and CRRT use. We found that the use of a total serum to ionized calcium ratio was much more reliable in measuring liver function than liver enzyme figures. This when paired with a citrate-reduction guideline based on serum to ionized calcium ratios provided effective, early management of citrate toxicity. Using new measurements to calculate liver metabolism of citrate and using a new citrate-reducing guideline allow the bedside practitioner to use regional citrate anticoagulation in patients with liver failure and liver transplant who require CRRT. PMID:27254640

  14. Addition of senna improves quality of colonoscopy preparation with magnesium citrate

    PubMed Central

    Vradelis, Stergios; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sharifi, Yalda; Buchel, Otto; Keshav, Satish; Chapman, Roger W; Braden, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively investigate the effectiveness and patient’s tolerance of two low-cost bowel cleansing preparation protocols based on magnesium citrate only or the combination of magnesium citrate and senna. METHODS: A total of 342 patients who were referred for colonoscopy underwent a colon cleansing protocol with magnesium citrate alone (n = 160) or magnesium citrate and senna granules (n = 182). The colonoscopist rated the overall efficacy of colon cleansing using an established score on a 4-point scale. Patients were questioned before undergoing colonoscopy for side effects and symptoms during bowel preparation. RESULTS: The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7% in the magnesium citrate group and 4% in the magnesium citrate/senna group (P = 0.44). Adequate visualization of the colonic mucosa was rated superior under the citramag/senna regimen (P = 0.004). Both regimens were well tolerated, and did not significantly differ in the occurrence of nausea, bloating or headache. However, abdominal cramps were observed more often under the senna protocol (29.2%) compared to the magnesium citrate only protocol (9.9%, P < 0.0003). CONCLUSION: The addition of senna to the bowel preparation protocol with magnesium citrate significantly improves the cleansing outcome. PMID:19360920

  15. In vivo detection of citrate in brain tumors by 1H MRS at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Changho; Ganji, Sandeep K.; Madan, Akshay; Hulsey, Keith M.; An, Zhongxu; Zhang, Song; Pinho, Marco C.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Bachoo, Robert M.; Maher, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test whether the citrate is elevated in adult patients with gliomas using 1H MRS at 3T in vivo. Methods Thirty-four adult patients were enrolled in the study, including 6 subjects with glioblastomas, 8 subjects with astrocytomas (5 WHO grade-3 and 3 grade-2), and 20 subjects with oligodendrogliomas (5 grade-3 and 15 grade-2). Five healthy volunteers were studied for baseline citrate data. Single-voxel localized spectra were collected with PRESS TE = 35 and 97 ms and analyzed with LCModel using numerically calculated basis spectra that include the effects of the PRESS radio-frequency and gradient pulses. Results Citrate was not measurable by MRS in healthy brain, but was detected in tumor patients at both echo times. The citrate concentration was estimated to be as high as 1.8 mM with reference to water at 42 M, with CRLB as low as 5%. The mean citrate level was 0.7±0.4 mM (mean±SD, n=32) with median CRLB of ~12%. No correlation was identified between citrate concentration and tumor grade or histological type. Conclusion Citrate was increased in the majority of gliomas in adult patients. The elevated citrate in our data indicates an altered metabolic state of tumor relative to healthy brain. PMID:24123337

  16. Struvite crystal growth inhibition by trisodium citrate and the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa; Olszynski, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the crystallization of struvite was studied. To evaluate such an effect an experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine was performed. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation. The crystallization process was induced by the addition of aqueous ammonia solution to mimic the bacterial activity. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to struvite formation and decreases the growth efficiency of struvite. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the nucleation and growth of struvite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds NH4 + and Mg2+ ions in the range of pH from 7 to 9.5 characteristic for struvite precipitation. The most important is the MgCit- complex whose concentration strongly depends on an increase in pH rather than on an increase in citrate concentrations.

  17. Gallium-67 citrate localization in osteoclast nuclei of Paget's disease of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, B.G.; Masuoka, L.S.; Graham, C.C. Jr.; Singer, F.R.; Waxman, A.D.

    1988-06-01

    Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy has been used to indicate the extent of bone involvement in patients with Paget's disease of bone and is an excellent marker in monitoring the effects of specific therapy. Since gallium uptake is dependent on cellular function, autoradiographic techniques can be applied to cells of Paget's lesions to understand better the mechanism of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate uptake. Bone biopsies were obtained from sites of increased uptake using (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scintigraphy in two patients with Paget's disease. In both patients electron microscopic autoradiographs demonstrated a high concentration of silver grains over the nuclei of osteoclasts. The cellular mechanism is unknown but may be related to the known inhibitory effect of calcitonin on osteoclast activity. The association of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate with the nucleus of the osteoclasts is unique and different from tumor cells in which there is a high association of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate with the lysosome fraction within the cytoplasm.

  18. A novel citrate selective electrode based on surfactant modified nano-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Hasheminejad, Mahdieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    A citrate-selective sensor was prepared by modification of a PVC membrane with modified nano-clinoptilolite particles by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium surfactant (SMZ). A Nernstian slope of 29.9 ± 0.2 mV per decade of citrate concentration was obtained over the concentration range of 5.0 × 10(-5)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) of citrate. The electrode showed a fast response time (⩽ 10 s) and a detection limit of 1.3 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) of citrate. The linear range and detection limit were respectively changed to 1.0 × 10(-4)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) and 1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) of citrate when the micronized clinoptilolite particles were used. PMID:25442622

  19. Model-Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Erion, D M; Maurer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, <10% of hepatic citrate originates from plasma. Similar estimates were determined experimentally in mice and rats. This suggests that NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  20. Model‐Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Erion, DM; Maurer, TS

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium‐coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, <10% of hepatic citrate originates from plasma. Similar estimates were determined experimentally in mice and rats. This suggests that NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  1. 3-Bromopyruvate antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate, synergizes with citrate and exerts novel anti-glioma effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Diem, T H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which seems vital for cancer microenvironment and progression. 3BP is a closely related structure to lactate and pyruvate and may antagonize their effects as a novel mechanism of its action. Pyruvate exerted a potent H(2)O(2) scavenging effect to exogenous H(2)O(2), while lactate had no scavenging effect. 3BP induced H(2)O(2) production. Pyruvate protected against H(2)O(2)-induced C6 glioma cell death, 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death but not against DAO/D-serine-induced cell death, while lactate had no protecting effect. Lactate and pyruvate protected against 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death and energy depletion which were overcome with higher doses of 3BP. Lactate and pyruvate enhanced migratory power of C6 glioma which was blocked by 3BP. Pyruvate and lactate did not protect against C6 glioma cell death induced by other glycolytic inhibitors e.g. citrate (inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and sodium fluoride (inhibitor of enolase). Serial doses of 3BP were synergistic with citrate in decreasing viability of C6 glioma cells and spheroids. Glycolysis subjected to double inhibition using 3BP with citrate depleted ATP, clonogenic power and migratory power of C6 glioma cells. 3BP induced a caspase-dependent cell death in C6 glioma. 3BP was powerful in decreasing viability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells (U373MG) and C6 glioma in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PMID:22318356

  2. [Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence. PMID:24115661

  3. Usefulness of gallium-67 citrate scanning in testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Willan, B.D.; Penney, H.; Castor, W.R.; McGowan, D.G.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis of 77 consecutive patients with a histologic diagnosis of seminoma testis, assessed and treated at the Cross Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1982, is presented. Ga-67 citrate was first used in the assessment of patients with malignant testicular tumors in 1973. Following three years of study that supported the observation of the gallium-avid nature of seminoma, gallium scans became routine in the initial staging assessment and were used also when recurrence was suspected. From 1977 through 1982, 72 patients with biopsy-proven seminoma testis were assessed initially for extent of disease by Ga-67 scanning. Comparison with intravenous pyelography and bipedal lymphography was possible for accuracy of tumor assessment. The scan sensitivity was 83%, and the specificity was 95%. During the same period, gallium was studied in nonseminomatous testicular tumors but the results were disappointing and its use was discontinued. The gallium-avid nature of seminoma testis may be useful in determining the extent of disease.

  4. Response of patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis to tamoxifen citrate.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H; Chen, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether tamoxifen citrate at 20mg/day for 1 year had a beneficial effect on laboratory findings, bone marrow mastocytosis, common clinical symptoms, or quality-of-life assessment for 5 women and 2 men with indolent systemic mastocytosis. Tamoxifen was well tolerated. We found significant reductions in the platelet count, serum alkaline phosphatase, and 24-h urinary excretion of N-methylhistamine and significant increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase and (excluding 2 patients taking aspirin) in 24-h urinary excretion of 11β-prostaglandin F2α. Overall, no change occurred in percent involvement of bone marrow by mastocytosis. Symptom scores were mild and did not change during the treatment. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores for quality of life physical and mental components showed no marked changes. Tamoxifen, an older, nonhematotoxic medication, has limited activity in systemic mastocytosis at the dosage used in this study. PMID:26612479

  5. Citrate-based {open_quotes}Talspeak{close_quotes} actinide-lanthanide separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Bond, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Lanthanide elements are produced in relatively high yield by fission of {sup 235}U. Almost all the lanthanide isotopes decay to stable nonradioactive lanthanide isotopes in a relatively short time. Consequently, it is highly advantageous to separate the relatively small actinide fraction from the relatively large quantities of lanthanide isotopes. The TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Complexes) is one of the few means available to separate the trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. Previous work based on the use of lactic or glycolic acid has shown deleterious effects of some impurity ions such as zirconium(IV), even at concentrations on the order of 10{sup {minus}4} M. Other perceived problems were the need to maintain the pH and reagent concentrations within a narrow range and a significant solubility of the organic phase at high carboxylic acid concentrations. The authors` cold experiments showed that replacing the traditional extractants glycolic or lactic acid with citric acid eliminates or greatly reduces the deleterious effects produced by impurities such as zirconium. An extensive series of batch tests was done using a wide range of reagent concentrations at different pH values, temperatures, and contact times. The results demonstrated that the citrate-based TALSPEAK can tolerate appreciable changes in pH and reagent concentrations while maintaining an adequate lanthanide extraction. Experiments using a three-stage glass mixer-settler showed a good lanthanide extraction, appropriate phase disengagement, no appreciable deleterious effects due to the presence of impurities such as zirconium, excellent pH buffering, and no significant loss of organic phase.

  6. Identification and characterization of the mitochondrial targeting sequence and mechanism in human citrate synthase.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Liao, Ching-Chun; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Lin, Chin-Chih; Yeh, Chin-Wei; Teng, Chiao-Fang; Chang, Wen-Tsan

    2009-08-01

    Citrate synthase (CS), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, plays a decisive role in regulating energy generation of mitochondrial respiration. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm as preproteins with an amino (N)-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) that directs mitochondria-specific sorting of the preprotein. However, the MTS and targeting mechanism of the human CS protein are not fully characterized. The human CS gene is a single nuclear gene which transcribes into two mRNA variants, isoform a (CSa) and b (CSb), by alternative splicing of exon 2. CSa encodes 466 amino acids, including a putative N-terminal MTS, while CSb expresses 400 residues with a shorter N terminus, lacking the MTS. Our results indicated that CSa is localized in the mitochondria and the N-terminal 27 amino acids, including a well-conserved RXY downward arrow (S/A) motif (the RHAS sequence), can efficiently target the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into the mitochondria. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the conserved basic amino acids and serine/threonine residues revealed that the R9 residue is essential but all serine/threonine residues are dispensable in the mitochondrial targeting function. Moreover, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of the preprotein import receptors, including TOM20, TOM22, and TOM70, showed that all three preprotein import receptors are required for transporting CSa into the mitochondria. In conclusion, we have experimentally identified the mitochondrial targeting sequence of human CSa and elucidated its targeting mechanism. These results provide an important basis for the study of mitochondrial dysfunction due to aberrant CSa trafficking. PMID:19479947

  7. Presence of Fe3+ and Zn2+ promoted biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex and removal of metals from solutions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun-Wei; Tao, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; He, Xiao-Hong; Gao, Ping; Li, Da-Ping

    2013-12-15

    The promotion to Cd-citrate complex biotransformation via addition of Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) was investigated. Single Fe(III)- or Zn-citrate complex was completely degraded by Pseudomonas sp. MBR, Cd-citrate complex was not. In the Cd-citrate media with molar ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, pH increase obtained from the metabolism of excess citrate slightly promoted the biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex, Cd remained in solutions. The presence of Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) resulted in complete biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex in the 1:1:2 Fe:Cd:citrate and Zn:Cd:citrate and 1:1:1:3 Fe:Zn:Cd:citrate media. Alkaline pH obtained from biotransformation of metal-citrate complexes caused almost complete removal of metals (>98%) through precipitation and co-precipitation. Pseudomonas sp. MBR potentially could be used to treat wastewater containing mixed citrate complexes of Fe(III), Zn and Cd. PMID:23820427

  8. Recessive mutations in SLC13A5 result in a loss of citrate transport and cause neonatal epilepsy, developmental delay and teeth hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hardies, Katia; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Asselbergh, Bob; Geuens, Thomas; Deconinck, Tine; Azmi, Abdelkrim; May, Patrick; Brilstra, Eva; Becker, Felicitas; Barisic, Nina; Craiu, Dana; Braun, Kees P J; Lal, Dennis; Thiele, Holger; Schubert, Julian; Weber, Yvonne; van 't Slot, Ruben; Nürnberg, Peter; Balling, Rudi; Timmerman, Vincent; Lerche, Holger; Maudsley, Stuart; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Koeleman, Bobby P C; De Jonghe, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The epileptic encephalopathies are a clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous subgroup of epilepsy syndromes. Most epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic cause and patients are often found to carry a heterozygous de novo mutation in one of the genes associated with the disease entity. Occasionally recessive mutations are identified: a recent publication described a distinct neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (MIM 615905) caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Here, we report eight additional patients belonging to four different families with autosomal recessive mutations in SLC13A5. SLC13A5 encodes a high affinity sodium-dependent citrate transporter, which is expressed in the brain. Neurons are considered incapable of de novo synthesis of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates; therefore they rely on the uptake of intermediates, such as citrate, to maintain their energy status and neurotransmitter production. The effect of all seven identified mutations (two premature stops and five amino acid substitutions) was studied in vitro, using immunocytochemistry, selective western blot and mass spectrometry. We hereby demonstrate that cells expressing mutant sodium-dependent citrate transporter have a complete loss of citrate uptake due to various cellular loss-of-function mechanisms. In addition, we provide independent proof of the involvement of autosomal recessive SLC13A5 mutations in the development of neonatal epileptic encephalopathies, and highlight teeth hypoplasia as a possible indicator for SLC13A5 screening. All three patients who tried the ketogenic diet responded well to this treatment, and future studies will allow us to ascertain whether this is a recurrent feature in this severe disorder. PMID:26384929

  9. Derivation of Pitzer Interaction Parameters for an Aqueous Species Pair of FeCitrate- and Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.; Olivas, T.; Nemer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP is located within the bedded salts of the Permian Salado Formation, which consists of interbedded halite and anhydrite layers overlaying the Castile Formation. The waste includes, but is not limited to, the salts of citric acid and iron. To calculate the solution chemistry for brines of WIPP-relevance, WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) employs the Pitzer formulation to determine the activity coefficients of aqueous species in brine. The current WIPP thermodynamic database, however, does not include iron species and their Pitzer parameters, in spite of the fact that there will be a large amount of iron in the WIPP. Iron would be emplaced as part of the waste, as well as the containers for the waste. The objective of this analysis is to derive the Pitzer binary interaction parameters for the pair of Mg2+ and FeCitrate-. Briefly, an aqueous model for dissolution of Fe(OH)2(s) in MgNa2Citrate solution was fitted to the experimentally measured solubility data. The aqueous model consists of several chemical reactions and related Pitzer interaction parameters. Specifically, Pitzer binary interaction parameters for the Mg2+ and FeCitrate- pair (β(0), β(1), and Cφ) were fitted to the experimental data. Anoxic gloveboxes were used to keep the oxygen level low (less than 6 ppm) throughout the experiments. Aging time was more than 800 days to ensure equilibrium. EQ3NR packaged in EQ3/6 v.8.0a calculates the aqueous speciation and saturation index using an aqueous model addressed in EQ3/6's database. The saturation index indicates how far the system is from equilibrium with respect to the solid of interest. Thus, the smaller the sum of squared saturation indices that the aqueous model calculates for the given number of experiments, the more closely the model attributes equilibrium to each

  10. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    PubMed Central

    Aghanejad, Ayuob; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Ardaneh, Khosro; Bolourinovin, Fatemeh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Samani, Ali Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (8Ga) citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC), chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS), radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe), and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC), specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM), chemical purity (Sn, Fe<0.3 ppm and Zn<0.2 ppm) within 15 min at 500C. The biodistribution of 68Ga-citrate was consistent with former reports up to 120 minutes. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country. PMID:27408889

  11. The sol gel synthesis of perovskites by an EDTA/citrate complexing method involves nanoscale solid state reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhoff, A.; Arnold, M.; Martynczuk, J.; Gesing, Th. M.; Wang, H.

    2008-06-01

    Nowadays, sol-gel procedures are well established in the synthesis of complex oxides as they allow to obtain phase pure products and to control precisely their stoichiometry. This quality makes them a tool of choice for the preparation of perovskite-type oxides. To optimize the functional properties of these materials, it is essential to set accurately their possible complex stoichiometries. However, details of the formation of the perovskite crystal remain obscure. Different stages of an ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA)/citrate-gel based synthesis process for mixed conducting (Ba 0.5Sr 0.5)(Fe 0.8Zn 0.2)O 3- δ of cubic perovskite structure are elucidated. The combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy with X-ray diffraction reveals that the perovskite-type oxide is formed already at moderate temperatures at around 700 °C via nanoscale solid state reactions between finely-dispersed crystalline intermediates identified as a spinel and a carbonate. The reaction scheme, however, is intricate and includes stuffed tridymite structures as transient phases. The ultrafine intermixing of extremely small reactants makes EDTA/citrate-gel based procedures superior to classical solid state routes with respect to applications that demand phase purity and stoichiometry control.

  12. Combined Oral Administration of Bovine Collagen Peptides with Calcium Citrate Inhibits Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JunLi; Wang, YiHu; Song, ShuJun; Wang, XiJie; Qin, YaYa; Si, ShaoYan; Guo, YanChuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Methods Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. Results OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Conclusions Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:26258559

  13. Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid-Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossman, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Students have standardized a sodium hydroxide solution and analyzed commercially available sports drinks by titrimetric analysis of the triprotic citric acid, dihydrogen phosphate, and dihydrogen citrate and by ion chromatography for chloride, total phosphate and citrate. These experiments are interesting examples of analyzing real-world food and…

  14. Osteoblast biocompatibility on poly(octanediol citrate)/sebacate elastomers with controlled wettability.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Szili, Endre J; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Dutta, Naba; Steele, David A; Kumar, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the biocompatibility of poly(octanediol citrate)/sebacate (p(OCS)) biodegradable polyester elastomers. The growth of human MG63 osteoblast-like cells was studied on p(OCS) films. Three types of p(OCS) films were synthesised simply by varying the concentrations of 1,8-octanediol (OD), citric acid (CA), and sebacic acid (SA) monomers at initial molar ratios of 1:1:0, 1:0.75:0.25 and 1:0.5:0.5. At these ratios, the p(OCS) films exhibit decreasing hydrophilicity as shown by the measured water contact angle values of 31, 41 and 64 degrees , respectively. For all the samples, no difference in cell growth was detected after 1 day of cell culture. However, after 4 days, the highest number of viable cells was detected on the p(OCS) film synthesised with the intermediate CA molar ratio of 0.75. This sample also contains the median concentration of surface carboxylic acid groups and hydrophilicity. Following long-term cell culture (18 days), a statistically significant higher density of viable cells had grown on the p(OCS) films with SA molar ratios of 0.25 (P < 0.0001) and 0.5 (P = 0.002) in comparison to the material containing 100% CA and no SA. The work demonstrated that the performance of possible p(OCS) bone tissue engineering scaffolds could be improved by simply adjusting the molar ratios of CA and SA in the pre-polymer without any requirements for post-synthesis modification. PMID:20507707

  15. Circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) as mediators of the innate immune response in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that temperamental cattle have greater non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and an altered innate immune response compared to calm cattle. Therefore, this trial was designed to determine if increasing energy availability via a lipid infusion or bolus dextrose inject...

  16. Physicochemical and Microbiological Stability of the Extemporaneous Sildenafil Citrate Oral Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Sawatdee, Somchai; Woradechakul, Chuthamas; Sae Chee, Kridsada; Atipairin, Apichart

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil is a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that is effectively used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In several countries, hospital pharmacists prepare the drug in an extemporaneous liquid preparation as there are no liquid formulations available for pediatric and adult uses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of an extemporaneous sildenafil citrate oral suspension for 90 days, according to the ASEAN guideline on stability studies of drug products. The results showed that the preparation was a white suspension with a sweet taste. It was a viscous and weakly acidic mixture with pseudoplastic behavior. The drug content was in the range between 99.23% and 102.23%, and the microbial examination met the general requirements throughout the study period. Therefore, the extemporaneously compounded sildenafil suspensions were physically, chemically, and microbiologically stable for at least 90 days when stored at 30° and 40°C. Furthermore, the in-use stability study showed that the preparations had acceptable attributes at least 14 days after the first-time use. This might provide an alternative option when the commercial suspension is unavailable. PMID:26839846

  17. Electrospun composite scaffolds containing poly(octanediol-co-citrate) for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Kai, Dan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-07-01

    A biocompatible and elastomeric nanofibrous scaffold is electrospun from a blend of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) [POC] and poly(L-lactic acid) -co-poly-(3-caprolactone) [PLCL] for application as a bioengineered patch for cardiac tissue engineering. The characterization of the scaffolds was carried out by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile measurement. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds are studied with regard to the percentage of POC incorporated with PLCL and the results of the study showed that the mechanical property and degradation behavior of the composites can be tuned with respect to the concentration of POC blended with PLCL. The composite scaffolds with POC: PLCL weight ratio of 40:60 [POC/PLCL4060] was found to have a tensile strength of 1.04 ± 0.11 MPa and Young's Modulus of 0.51 ± 0.10 MPa, comparable to the native cardiac tissue. The proliferation of cardiac myoblast cells on the electrospun POC/PLCL scaffolds was found to increase from Days 2 to 8, with the increasing concentration of POC in the composite. The morphology and cytoskeletal observation of the cells also demonstrated the biocompatibility of the POC containing scaffolds. Electrospun POC/PLCL4060 nanofibers are promising elastomeric substrates that might provide the necessary mechanical cues to cardiac muscle cells for regeneration of the heart. PMID:22328272

  18. Mussel-inspired soft-tissue adhesive based on poly(diol citrate) with catechol functionality.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yali; Ji, Ting; Liang, Kai; Zhu, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Marine mussels tightly adhering to various underwater surfaces inspires human to design adhesives for wet tissue adhesion in surgeries. Characterization of mussel adhesive plaques describes a matrix of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which provides strong adhesion in aquatic conditions. Several synthetic polymer systems have been developed based on this DOPA chemistry. Herein, a citrate-based tissue adhesives (POEC-d) was prepared by a facile one-pot melt polycondensation of two diols including 1,8-octanediol and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), citric acid (CA) and dopamine, and the effects of hydrophilic and soft PEO on the properties of adhesives were studied. It was found that the obtained adhesives exhibited water-soluble when the mole ratio of PEO to 1,8-octanediol was 70%, and the equilibrium swelling percentage of cured adhesive was about 144%, and degradation rate was in the range of 1-2 weeks. The cured adhesives demonstrated soft rubber-like behavior. The lap shear adhesion strength measured by bonding wet pig skin was in the range of 21.7-33.7 kPa, which was higher than that of commercial fibrin glue (9-15 kPa). The cytotoxicity tests showed the POEC-d adhesives had a low cytotoxicity. Our results supports that POEC-d adhesives, which combined strong wet adhesion with good biodegradability, acceptable swelling ratio, good elasticity and low cytotoxicity, have potentials in surgeries where surgical tissue adhesives, sealants, and hemostatic agents are used. PMID:26704547

  19. Treatment of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency with high doses of citrate and aspartate.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Kahler, S G; Kishnani, P S; Artigas-Lopez, M; Pappu, A S; Steiner, R; Millington, D S; Van Hove, J L

    1999-12-01

    A patient with severe pyruvate carboxylase deficiency presented at age 11 weeks with metabolic decompensation after routine immunization. She was comatose, had severe lactic acidemia (22 mM) and ketosis, low aspartate and glutamate, elevated citrulline and proline, and mild hyperammonemia. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed subdural hematomas and mild generalized brain atrophy. Biotin-unresponsive pyruvate carboxylase deficiency was diagnosed. To provide oxaloacetate, she was treated with high-dose citrate (7.5 mol/kg(-1)/day(-1)), aspartate (10 mmol/kg(-1)/day(-1)), and continuous drip feeding. Lactate and ketones diminished dramatically, and plasma amino acids normalized, except for arginine, which required supplementation. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), glutamine remained low and lysine elevated, showing the treatment had not normalized brain chemistry. Metabolic decompensations, triggered by infections or fasting, diminished after the first year. They were characterized by severe lactic and ketoacidosis, hypernatremia, and a tendency to hypoglycemia. At age 3(1/2) years she has profound mental retardation, spasticity, and grand mal and myoclonic seizures only partially controlled by anticonvulsants. The new treatment regimen has helped maintain metabolic control, but the neurological outcome is still poor. PMID:10588840

  20. Nanoscale zero-valent iron for the removal of Zn2+, Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kržišnik, Nina; Mladenovič, Ana; Škapin, Andrijana Sever; Škrlep, Luka; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2014-04-01

    The parameters which influence the removal of different zinc (Zn) species: Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions by nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated at environmental relevant pH values. Untreated, surface modified and silica-fume supported nZVI were applied at different iron loads and contact times to Zn solutions, which were buffered to pH 5.3, 6.0 and 7.0. The results revealed that pH, the type of nZVI, the iron load, the contact time, and the Zn species all had a significant influence on the efficiency of removal. Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate were the most effectively removed from aqueous solutions by untreated nZVI. Zn(2+) removal was governed mainly by adsorption onto precipitated iron oxides. Complete removal of Zn(2+) and Zn(II)-citrate was obtained at all pH values investigated. The removal of strong Zn(II)-EDTA complex was successful only at acidic pH, which favored degradation of Zn(II)-EDTA. Consequently, the released Zn(2+) was completely removed from the solution by adsorption onto iron oxides. PMID:24463023

  1. Preventing serpin aggregation: The molecular mechanism of citrate action upon antitrypsin unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Mary C.; Morton, Craig J.; Feil, Susanne C.; Hansen, Guido; Adams, Julian J.; Parker, Michael W.; Bottomley, Stephen P.

    2008-11-21

    The aggregation of antitrypsin into polymers is one of the causes of neonatal hepatitis, cirrhosis, and emphysema. A similar reaction resulting in disease can occur in other human serpins, and collectively they are known as the serpinopathies. One possible therapeutic strategy involves inhibiting the conformational changes involved in antitrypsin aggregation. The citrate ion has previously been shown to prevent antitrypsin aggregation and maintain the protein in an active conformation; its mechanism of action, however, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the citrate ion prevents the initial misfolding of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have solved the crystal structure of citrate bound to antitrypsin and show that a single citrate molecule binds in a pocket between the A and B beta-sheets, a region known to be important in maintaining antitrypsin stability.

  2. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: uptake of iron from ferric citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Messenger, A.J.M.; Ratledge, C.

    1982-01-01

    In mycobacterial growth medium 40 to 400 ..mu..M citrate was required to solubilize 2 ..mu..M /sup 55/Fe. This solubilized /sup 55/Fe was taken up into both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient washed cell suspensions of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Although the /sup 55/Fe was taken up into the cell, the citrate was not. The uptake system with M. smegmatis was not inhibited by electron transport inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, or thiol reagents and was saturable with iron at approximately 35 ..mu..M. The system was independent of the iron transport systems already known to exist in M. smegmatis: i.e., the two exochelin routes of assimilation as well as the mycobactin-salicylate system. It was not induced by the presence of 400 ..mu..M citrate in the growth medium, nor did the presence of citrate in the medium affect the production of either exochelin or mycobactin.

  3. DEFINITIVE SOX CONTROL PROCESS EVALUATIONS: LIMESTONE, DOUBLE ALKALI, AND CITRATE FGD PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a detailed comparative technical and economic evaluation of limestone slurry, generic double alkali, and citrate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, assuming proven technology and using representative power plant, process design, and economic pre...

  4. Performance of 18 polymers in aluminum citrate colloidal dispersion gels

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal dispersion gels are made up of low concentrations of polymer and aluminum citrate in water. These gels, which are mixed as a homogeneous solution at the surface, provide a valuable tool for in-depth blockage of high permeability regions of rock in heterogeneous reservoirs. Performance of colloidal dispersion gels depends strongly on the type and quality of polymer used. This paper provides an overview of the performance of 18 different polymers in colloidal dispersion gels. 14 of the polymers were partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides or AMPS polymers in dry crystalline form with varying degrees of hydrolysis and molecular weight. The group also includes one cationic polyacrylamide, one carboxymethyl cellulose, one partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in emulsion form and one polysaccharide in dry form. Gels were mixed with the polymers at two polymer concentrations, three polymer:aluminum ratios and in different concentrations of potassium chloride. The gels were quantitatively tested at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after crosslinking using the transition pressure test, which is a screen flow resistance test. Of the six polymer types tested, only the dry partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides and AMPS polymers formed colloidal dispersion gels. Gel strength generally increased with increasing anionic charge and molecular weight; however, the manner in which the polymer is manufactured and the impurities present in the polymer also play roles which are more significant than originally expected.

  5. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation.

  6. Is sildenafil citrate affect endometrial receptivity? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Biyiksiz, Pelin Costur; Filiz, Serdar; Vural, Birol

    2011-10-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Sc) on expressions of β(3) integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is taking part in endometrium receptivity in implantation window period in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) performed rats. In this study, Wistar albino female rats were used and were divided into four groups as control, COH, Sc, and COH + Sc groups. They were sacrificed on the third, fourth, and fifth day of pregnancy, uteruses were resected, and uteri sections were stained with immunohistochemical method and evaluated. β(3) integrin immunoreactivity was most intensely observed in the endometrial glandular epithelium (GE) and stromal cells in the Sc group on the third day, whereas immunoreactivity was most intensely detected in the luminal epithelium (LE), GE, and stromal cells in the Sc group on the fourth day. VEGF immunoreactivity was most intensely observed in the endometrial LE in the Sc group on the third day, in the Sc and COH + Sc groups on the fourth day, and in the COH + Sc group on the fifth day. Our results indicated that Sc plays a role in both implantation and decidualization by affecting β(3) integrin and VEGF expressions in implantation window period in rats. PMID:21190420

  7. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM)

    PubMed Central

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. Materials and methods A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. Results The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139–140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Conclusions Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences. PMID:27346973

  8. AcsD catalyzes enantioselective citrate desymmetrization in siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Stefan; Kadi, Nadia; McMahon, Stephen A; Song, Lijiang; Oves-Costales, Daniel; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; Johnson, Kenneth A; Carter, Lester G; Botting, Catherine H; White, Malcolm F; Challis, Gregory L; Naismith, James H

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens need to scavenge iron from their host for growth and proliferation during infection. They have evolved several strategies to do this, one being the biosynthesis and excretion of small, high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The biosynthesis of siderophores is an important area of study, not only for potential therapeutic intervention but also to illuminate new enzyme chemistries. Two general pathways for siderophore biosynthesis exist: the well-characterized nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-dependent pathway and the NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) pathway, which relies on a different family of sparsely investigated synthetases. Here we report structural and biochemical studies of AcsD from Pectobacterium (formerly Erwinia) chrysanthemi, an NIS synthetase involved in achromobactin biosynthesis. The structures of ATP and citrate complexes provide a mechanistic rationale for stereospecific formation of an enzyme-bound (3R)-citryladenylate, which reacts with L-serine to form a likely achromobactin precursor. AcsD is a unique acyladenylate-forming enzyme with a new fold and chemical catalysis strategy. PMID:19182782

  9. Self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate of tamoxifen citrate for enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kapse, Sonali V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V

    2012-06-15

    We disclose a self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate (SNP) of tamoxifen citrate (TMX), which forms TMX loaded polymeric nanoparticles, on dilution with aqueous media. SNP comprised TMX, polymer (Kollidon SR) and surfactant/s dissolved in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle. Binary surfactant mixtures of Aerosol OT (AOT) with Tween 80 revealed synergistic reduction in surface tension to enable both high entrapment efficiency (EE) and low particle size (PS). Synergism of the surfactants was confirmed by molecular interaction parameter(β(σ)). Combination of AOT and Tween 80 resulted in EE (∼85%) and PS (<250nm). Formation of TMX-KSR nanoparticles in situ was reproducible under most experimental conditions and exhibited pH independent behavior. Dilution volume (>80mL) influenced both PS and EE while dilution temperature influenced only PS. Marginal increase in size was evident at the end of 1h nevertheless was not of concern as TMX SNP exhibited near complete release in 1h. DSC and XRD studies revealed amorphous nature of TMX in nanoparticles. FTIR imaging confirmed uniform distribution of TMX in nanoparticles. ESEM and TEM revealed spherical nanoparticles. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc labeled TMX SNP in rats revealed no significant absorption however oral pharmacokinetics revealed enhanced oral bioavailability of TMX (165%) compared to TMX suspension. SNP presents a new in situ approach, for design of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles. PMID:22414426

  10. Silicon Injection Granulomata: 67Ga Citrate Findings in Free Silicon Buttock Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sara; Chun, Kwang; Benchekroun, Mohammed Taoudi; Akamnonu, Olisaemeka; Freeman, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Ga citrate is frequently used in the workup of fever of unknown origin. Here, we report a case of avid Ga-citrate in bilateral gluteal regions of a patient with a history of free silicon injection buttock augmentation referred for suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis. CT findings were equivocal for inflammation/infection in the buttock region, and nuclear scintigraphy allowed for more definitive diagnosis. PMID:26953658

  11. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c)...

  12. Improved crystallinity, spatial arrangement and monodispersity of submicron La0.7Ba0.3MnO3 powders: A citrate chelation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Ch. N.; Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Ganesan, V.; Sathe, V. G.; Phase, D. M.; Kale, S. N.

    2012-11-01

    The perovskite manganite systems have been the materials of tremendous interest due to their strong correlation between structure, transport and magnetism. These materials in their single-crystal form show colossal magneto-resistance (CMR), but the applied fields are very high (˜1-5 T). The polycrystalline samples do show high low-field magneto-resistance (LFMR), but good amount of control over particle sizes and grain-boundary distribution is required, which is well known but less realized in practical approaches. In this context, we report on synthesis and manipulation of polycrystalline La0.7Ba0.3MnO3 (LBMO) submicron powders using citric acid chelation. The Citrate-gel route is used to synthesize poly-dispersed LBMO powders which are subjected to citrate chelation for a duration of 0 (LB0) to 4 h(LB4) . The samples show improved ordering in X-ray diffraction patterns. Raman spectroscopy scans indicate changed mode signatures due to the probable chelating process, which alters the surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron microscopy shows an evidence of fine citrate layer on the grain boundaries. Low temperature B-H curves exhibit fine hysteresis loops for all samples, while room temperature B-H curves shows paramagnetic response. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the formation of well arranged, connected, mono-dispersed grains of LB4 sample, as against polydispered LB0. The magneto-resistance (at H=100 kOe) is seen to enhance for LB4 at its transition temperature (75%, as compared to LB0, where it is 60%), which can be attributed to the well-controlled inter-grain tunneling phenomenon and thin insulating regions in between, created due to citrate chelation, which probably enhances the scattering phenomenon and its susceptibility to applied fields. As citric acid is known to chelate Mn ions, it probably chelates the smaller LB particulate structure and leaves behind citrate-connected submicron grains of LBMO, which are seen to be well engineered.

  13. Transcription of the mitochondrial citrate carrier gene: Identification of a silencer and its binding protein ZNF224

    SciTech Connect

    Iacobazzi, Vito; Infantino, Vittoria; Convertini, Paolo; Vozza, Angelo; Agrimi, Gennaro; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2009-08-14

    In the last few years, we have been functionally characterizing the promoter of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier (CIC). In this study we show that CIC silencer activity extends over 26 bp (-595/-569), which specifically bind a protein present in HepG2 cell nuclear extracts. This transcription factor was purified by DNA affinity and identified as ZNF224. Overexpression of ZNF224 decreases LUC transgene activity in cells transfected with a construct containing the CIC silencer region, whereas ZNF224 silencing activates reporter transcription in cells transfected with the same construct. Moreover, overexpression and silencing of ZNF224 diminishes and enhances, respectively, CIC transcript and protein levels. Finally, ZNF224 is abundantly expressed in fetal tissues contrary to CIC. It is suggested that CIC transcriptional repression by ZNF224 explains, at least in part, the low expression of CIC in fetal tissues in which fatty acid synthesis is low.

  14. Structural determination of Cu and Fe-Citrate complexes: theoretical investigation and analysis by ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alexandre C; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Mancini, Daiana T; Oliveira, Maria C; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-03-01

    The combined use of ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) and theoretical calculations for the determination of citrate:metal (metal=Cu and Fe) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their calculated structures readjusted, from what was originally simulated, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was before simulated. The thermodynamic stability (ΔH(aq.)(0)) of the complexes optimized at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level was more exoenergetic than for the complexes found by the PM6 semi-empirical method. PMID:25557399

  15. Assessment of Multiplate platelet aggregometry using citrate, heparin or hirudin in Rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Greg; O'Donnell, Lisa; Hanbury, David B; Cline, J Mark; Caudell, David L

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance aggregometry (EIA) has gained popularity in clinical and research applications. Nonhuman primates are used to study disease and drug-related mechanisms that affect hemostasis, therefore establishing normal EIA parameters are necessary. The anticoagulants sodium heparin, hirudin and sodium citrate and three agonists, ADP, ASPI, and collagen were evaluated. Whole blood from 12 adult male rhesus macaques was collected to evaluate anticoagulants, sodium heparin, hirudin and sodium citrate using three agonists (ADP, ASPI and collagen), on the Multiplate® 5.0 Analyzer. Platelet function was reported for three parameters: Area under the curve (AUC), aggregation, and aggregation velocity. There was a significant difference in mean AUC between citrate and heparin samples, and citrate and hirudin samples regardless of the agonist used. There was no difference in AUC between heparin and hirudin. ADP-activated samples showed an increase in impedance with hirudin samples compared to citrate. Furthermore, heparin and hirudin out-perform citrate as the anticoagulant for EIA in the macaque. Finally, this study demonstrates the utility of the Multiplate® system in this model and provides important insight into anticoagulant choice when using EIA. PMID:25549285

  16. Mitochondrial Citrate Transporter-dependent Metabolic Signature in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Eleonora; Tassone, Flora; Wong, Sarah; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J; Song, Gyu; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2015-09-18

    The congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), characterized by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5-3 Mb on chromosome 22 at locus 11.2, is the most common microdeletion disorder (estimated prevalence of 1 in 4000) and the second risk factor for schizophrenia. Nine of ∼30 genes involved in 22qDS have the potential of disrupting mitochondrial metabolism (COMT, UFD1L, DGCR8, MRPL40, PRODH, SLC25A1, TXNRD2, T10, and ZDHHC8). Deficits in bioenergetics during early postnatal brain development could set the basis for a disrupted neuronal metabolism or synaptic signaling, partly explaining the higher incidence in developmental and behavioral deficits in these individuals. Here, we investigated whether mitochondrial outcomes and metabolites from 22qDS children segregated with the altered dosage of one or several of these mitochondrial genes contributing to 22qDS etiology and/or morbidity. Plasma metabolomics, lymphocytic mitochondrial outcomes, and epigenetics (histone H3 Lys-4 trimethylation and 5-methylcytosine) were evaluated in samples from 11 22qDS children and 13 age- and sex-matched neurotypically developing controls. Metabolite differences between 22qDS children and controls reflected a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis (higher lactate/pyruvate ratios) accompanied by an increase in reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, cholesterol, and fatty acids). Altered metabolism in 22qDS reflected a critical role for the haploinsufficiency of the mitochondrial citrate transporter SLC25A1, further enhanced by HIF-1α, MYC, and metabolite controls. This comprehensive profiling served to clarify the biochemistry of this disease underlying its broad, complex phenotype. PMID:26221035

  17. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30

  18. Sensitive and selective SERS probe for trivalent chromium detection using citrate attached gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yingjie; Liu, Honglin; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions.In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31985c

  19. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    PubMed Central

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p<0.05) and dose-response relationship between treatments. Results The addition of Cacit and TMP did not provide a higher fluoride concentration in enamel, however it reduced (p<0.05) mineral loss when compared to other dentifrices; the dentifrice with Cacit and TMP and a low fluoride concentration presented similar results when compared to a dentifrice with 1,100 mg F/g (p>0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  20. ATP citrate lyase knockdown impacts cancer stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, J-i; Doro, N; Seth, P; Sukhatme, V P

    2013-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) knockdown (KD) causes tumor suppression and induces differentiation. We have previously reported that ACL KD reverses epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. Because EMT is often associated with processes that induce stemness, we hypothesized that ACL KD impacts cancer stem cells. By assessing tumorsphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, we showed this to be the case in A549 cells, which harbor a Ras mutation, and in two other non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, H1975 and H1650, driven by activating EGFR mutations. Inducible ACL KD had the same effect as stable ACL KD. Similar effects were noted in another well-characterized Ras-induced mammary model system (HMLER). Moreover, treatment with hydroxycitrate phenocopied the effects of ACL KD, suggesting that the enzymatic activity of ACL was critical. Indeed, acetate treatment reversed the ACL KD phenotype. Having previously established that ACL KD impacts signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, not the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and that EMT can be reversed by PI3K inhibitors, we were surprised to find that stemness in these systems was maintained through Ras-MAPK signaling, and not via PI3K signaling. Snail is a downstream transcription factor impacted by Ras-MAPK signaling and known to promote EMT and stemness. We found that snail expression was reduced by ACL KD. In tumorigenic HMLER cells, ACL overexpression increased snail expression and stemness, both of which were reduced by ACL KD. Furthermore, ACL could not initiate either tumorigenesis or stemness by itself. ACL and snail proteins interacted and ACL expression regulated the transcriptional activity of snail. Finally, ACL KD counteracted stem cell characteristics induced in diverse cell systems driven by activation of pathways outside of Ras-MAPK signaling. Our findings unveil a novel aspect of ACL function, namely its impact on cancer

  1. ATP citrate lyase knockdown impacts cancer stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hanai, J-I; Doro, N; Seth, P; Sukhatme, V P

    2013-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) knockdown (KD) causes tumor suppression and induces differentiation. We have previously reported that ACL KD reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. Because EMT is often associated with processes that induce stemness, we hypothesized that ACL KD impacts cancer stem cells. By assessing tumorsphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, we showed this to be the case in A549 cells, which harbor a Ras mutation, and in two other non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, H1975 and H1650, driven by activating EGFR mutations. Inducible ACL KD had the same effect as stable ACL KD. Similar effects were noted in another well-characterized Ras-induced mammary model system (HMLER). Moreover, treatment with hydroxycitrate phenocopied the effects of ACL KD, suggesting that the enzymatic activity of ACL was critical. Indeed, acetate treatment reversed the ACL KD phenotype. Having previously established that ACL KD impacts signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, not the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and that EMT can be reversed by PI3K inhibitors, we were surprised to find that stemness in these systems was maintained through Ras-MAPK signaling, and not via PI3K signaling. Snail is a downstream transcription factor impacted by Ras-MAPK signaling and known to promote EMT and stemness. We found that snail expression was reduced by ACL KD. In tumorigenic HMLER cells, ACL overexpression increased snail expression and stemness, both of which were reduced by ACL KD. Furthermore, ACL could not initiate either tumorigenesis or stemness by itself. ACL and snail proteins interacted and ACL expression regulated the transcriptional activity of snail. Finally, ACL KD counteracted stem cell characteristics induced in diverse cell systems driven by activation of pathways outside of Ras-MAPK signaling. Our findings unveil a novel aspect of ACL function, namely its impact on cancer

  2. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand.

    PubMed

    Kumahor, Samuel K; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air-water interface in addition to a solid-water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air-water and solid-water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH=9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH=5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid-water and air-water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3-5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air-water interface. In contrast, the solid-water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the relevant processes. PMID

  3. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6 to 80.9%). They contain 13–21 exons and 12–20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5). A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS). Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange “Honganliu” exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo (AFP) has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole. PMID:25806039

  4. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF ORGANIC ACID SALTS ON GROWTH OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM SPORE INOCULA DURING CHILLING OF MARINATED GROUND TURKEY BREAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens germination and outgrowth by salts of organic acids such as sodium lactate, sodium acetate, buffered sodium citrate and buffered sodium citrate supplemented with sodium diacetate was evaluated during continuous chilling of ground turkey. Turkey breast meat was ...

  5. Structural basis for the extended substrate spectrum of AmpC BER and structure-guided discovery of the inhibition activity of citrate against the class C β-lactamases AmpC BER and CMY-10.

    PubMed

    Na, Jung Hyun; Cha, Sun Shin

    2016-08-01

    AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C β-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C β-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C β-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C β-lactamases, and also suggest that the citrate scaffold is recognized by the active sites of class C β-lactamases. PMID:27487828

  6. 21 CFR 172.755 - Stearyl monoglyceridyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage... controlled chemical reaction of the following: Reactant Limitations Citric acid Monoglycerides of fatty...

  7. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles. PMID:24652587

  8. The Aqueous Complexation of Thorium with Citrate under Neutral to Basic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R; Cho, Herman M; Dixon, David A; Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J; Wang, Zheming

    2006-04-20

    The aqueous complexation of thorium with citrate was investigated under neutral to basic conditions and over a broad range of ionic strengths. The solubility data for ThO2(am) as a function of citrate concentration indicate the presence of stable species with citrate-to-metal ratios of between two to three. The dependence of the ThO2(am) solubilities on hydrogen ion concentration can also be readily explained by the classical assumption of hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) ion to form mixed thorium-hydroxide-citrate complexes. 13C NMR spectra of the species in solution confirm that the citrate-to-metal ratio of the species in solution is between two and three and show that the citrate attaches to the metal in a bidentate fashion through oxygens on the -carboxylate and -alkoxyl groups, rather than through the carboxylate groups. The 13C NMR spectra, as well as a density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure study of the presumptive complexes, suggests that the associated α-hydroxyl proton can be displaced during complex formation. These findings indicate an alternative explanation for the observed changes in solubility as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, the displacement of protons from the citrate alkoxyl groups via metal binding. Removal of protons from the alkoxyl groups or hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) cannot be distinguished by thermodynamic measurements, however the species with the α-hydroxyl proton removed (i.e., ThOH(Cit)25- and Th(Cit)38-) would appear to better represent the microscopic binding. Apparent equilibrium constants for the solution phase reactions of these species and the hydrous thorium oxide have been calculated as a function of ionic strength.

  9. Supplying dextrose before insemination and L-arginine during the last third of pregnancy in sow diets: effects on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H; Quiniou, N; Roy, H; Lottin, A; Boulot, S; Gondret, F

    2014-04-01

    Preweaning piglet mortality is largely attributed to the incidence of low birth weight and birth weight variation within the litter. Therefore, developing strategies to increase within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight is important. This study investigated the effects of different feeding strategies based on specific nutrient supplies in sow diet on the within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0). Four batches of highly prolific crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were used. Three dietary treatments were compared: supplies of dextrose during the week before insemination (190 g/d) and of L-arginine (25.5 g/d) from d 77 of pregnancy until term (DEXA, n = 26); a dietary supplementation of L-arginine only (25.5 g/d), from d 77 of pregnancy until term (ARGI, n = 24); and no supplementation to a standard gestation diet (CTL; n = 23). Total born piglets (TB), i.e., piglets born alive (BA) and stillborn piglets, were numbered and weighed at birth and at weaning. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in a model that included dietary treatment (ARGI, DEXA, and CTL), initial parity (1, 2 and 3, 4, and more), and backfat thickness (below or above the average value at the onset of the experiment: 15.7 mm) as the main effects and batch as random effect. The treatment did not influence (P > 0.10) the number of piglets at birth (on average 15.6 ± 3.8 and 14.2 ± 3.6 for TB and BA, respectively) or piglet BW0 (on average 1.48 ± 0.26 and 1.50 ± 0.26 kg for TB and BA, respectively). The coefficient of variation of piglet BW0 (CV(BW0)) was less in litters from ARGI sows than in litters from CTL sows and intermediate in litters from DEXA sows (for TB: 21.4, 23.4, and 25.7%, P = 0.08; for BA: 20.6, 22.5, and 25.4%, P = 0.03, in the ARGI, DEXA, and CTL groups, respectively). Irrespective of diet, CV(BW0) was less (P < 0.01) in litters with 16 TB piglets or less than in the largest litters (20.9 vs. 26.5%). Litter growth rate during lactation and

  10. Establishment of simultaneous treatment model with citrate for preventing nephropathy induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, Naoki; Shimo, Takeo; Matsumoto, Koji; Taniguchi, Tetsuya; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Nagata, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    As a precedent study for elucidating the mechanism of possible urinary bladder carcinogenesis due to xanthine crystals induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, we have determined the experimental conditions suitable for the 52-week simultaneous treatment with citrate in F344 rats. Simultaneous treatment with citrate and FYX-051 produced both increased urinary citrate excretion and suppression of urinary xanthine deposition at around 4 hours after a single dosing, but these effects disappeared 2 hours later, indicating a lack of the durability of citrate effects. Next, we carried out a 7-day simultaneous treatment study by two daily treatments, that is, FYX-051 (6 mg/kg) and citrate (2,000 mg/kg), followed by citrate-alone treatment, under the conditions of selected dosing intervals, the second dose of citrate, and dosing volume. As a result, the dosing interval of citrate was found to be optimal at 4 hours, but not at 3 or 5 hours, because this treatment completely inhibited intrarenal xanthine deposition. The dose of citrate for the second treatment and the dosing volume were found to be sufficient at 1,500 mg/kg and 10 mL/kg, respectively. Subsequently, a 4-week study by simultaneous treatment at 3 mg/kg of FYX-051 and citrate (2,000 mg/kg) + citrate (1,500 mg/kg), under the improved conditions, revealed that renal lesions could be drastically inhibited. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the interval of two citrate treatments is pivotal and indicated that the improved model would be useful for the mechanistic study of FYX-051-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis because of an easier treatment method than our previous model. PMID:21105859

  11. Investigation of fatty acid accumulation in the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae under nitrogen limited culture condition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoling; Chen, Wei Ning

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type strain and engineered strain with an overexpressed heterologous ATP-citrate lyase (acl) were cultured in medium with different carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and their fatty acid production levels were investigated. The results showed that when the S. cerevisiae engineered strain was cultivated under nitrogen limited culture condition, the yield of mono-unsaturated fatty acids showed higher than that under non-nitrogen limited condition; with the carbon concentration increased, the accumulation become more apparent, whereas in the wild type strain, no such correlation was found. Besides, the citrate level in the S. cerevisiae under nitrogen limited condition was found to be much higher than that under non-nitrogen limited condition, which indicated a relationship between the diminution of nitrogen and accumulation of citrate in the S. cerevisiae. The accumulated citrate could be further cleaved by acl to provide substrate for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:24755317

  12. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., dibasic ((NH4)2HC6H5O7, CAS Reg. No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., dibasic ((NH4)2HC6H5O7, CAS Reg. No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., dibasic ((NH4)2HC6H5O7, CAS Reg. No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  15. In vitro evaluation of biodegradable epsilon-caprolactone-co-D, L-lactide/silica xerogel composites containing toremifene citrate.

    PubMed

    Ahola, M; Rich, J; Kortesuo, P; Kiesvaara, J; Seppälä, J; Yli-Urpo, A

    1999-04-30

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) polymers were blended with toremifene citrate or with toremifene citrate impregnated silica xerogel in order to develop a controlled release formulation. The copolymers were synthesized by bulk polymerization and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The in vitro release of toremifene citrate, an antiestrogenic compound, and silica was carried out in simulated body fluid (pH 7.4) containing 0.5 wt% sodium dodecylsulphate at 34 degrees C. The in vitro release studies indicate that the release flux of toremifene citrate increases with increasing weight fraction of caprolactone in the copolymer. Silica xerogel had a minor enhancing effect on the release rate of toremifene citrate. Copolymers containing larger amounts of D,L-lactide (PLA-CL20 and PLA-CL40 copolymers) were not suitable matrices for the delivery of toremifene citrate in a controlled manner because of the burst effect. The fraction of toremifene citrate released from PLA-CL80 matrix increased with the increasing loading of toremifene citrate. The results of the study indicate that the in vitro release of toremifene citrate can be adjusted by varying the polymer composition and also the initial drug loading. PMID:10370214

  16. Inhibition of Unfolding and Aggregation of Lens Protein Human Gamma D Crystallin by Sodium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Goulet, Daniel R.; Knee, Kelly M.; King, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Cataract affects 1 in 6 Americans over the age of 40, and is considered a global health problem. Cataract is caused by the aggregation of unfolded or damaged proteins in the lens, which accumulate as an individual ages. Currently, surgery is the only available treatment for cataract, however, small molecules have been suggested as potential preventative therapies. In this work, we study the effect of sodium citrate on the stability of Human γD Crystallin (HγD-Crys), a structural protein of the eye lens, and two cataract-related mutants, L5S HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys. In equilibrium unfolding-refolding studies, the presence of 250 mM sodium citrate increased the transition midpoint of the N-td of WT HγD-Crys and L5S HγD-Crys by 0.3 M GuHCl, the C-td by 0.6M GuHCl, and the single transition of I90F HγD-Crys by 0.4M GuHCl. In kinetic unfolding reactions, sodium citrate demonstrates a measurable stabilization effect only for the mutant I90F HγD-Crys. In the presence of citrate, a kinetic unfolding intermediate of I90F HγD-Crys can be observed, which was not observed in the absence of citrate. Rate of aggregation was measured using solution turbidity, and sodium citrate demonstrates negligible effect on rate of aggregation of WT HγD-Crys, but considerably slows the rate of aggregation of both L5S HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys. The presence of sodium citrate dramatically slows refolding of WT HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys, but has a significantly smaller effect on the refolding of L5S HγD-Crys. The differential stabilizing effect of sodium citrate suggests that the ion is binding to a partially unfolded conformation of the C-td, but a solution-based Hofmeister effect cannot be eliminated as a possible explanation for the effects observed. These results suggest that sodium citrate may be a potential preventative agent for cataract. PMID:21600897

  17. Stabilizing effect of citrate buffer on the photolysis of riboflavin in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Ahmed, Sofia; Kazi, Sadia Hafeez; Mirza, Tania; Aminuddin, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation the photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in the presence of citrate species at pH 4.0–7.0 has been studied. A specific multicomponent spectrophotometric method has been used to assay RF in the presence of photoproducts during the reactions. The overall first-order rate constants (kobs) for the photolysis of RF range from 0.42 to 1.08×10–2 min−1 in the region. The values of kobs have been found to decrease with an increase in citrate concentration indicating an inhibitory effect of these species on the rate of reaction. The second-order rate constants for the interaction of RF with total citrate species causing inhibition range from 1.79 to 5.65×10–3 M−1 min−1 at pH 4.0–7.0. The log k–pH profiles for the reactions at 0.2–1.0 M citrate concentration show a gradual decrease in kobs and the value at 1.0 M is more than half compared to that of k0, i.e., in the absence of buffer, at pH 5.0. Divalent citrate ions cause a decrease in RF fluorescence due to the quenching of the excited singlet state resulting in a decrease in the rate of reaction and consequently leading to the stabilization of RF solutions. The greater quenching of fluorescence at pH 4.0 compared to that of 7.0 is in accordance with the greater concentration of divalent citrate ions (99.6%) at that pH. The trivalent citrate ions exert a greater inhibitory effect on the rate of RF photolysis compared to that of the divalent citrate ions probably as a result of excited triplet state quenching. The values of second-order rate constants for the interaction of divalent and trivalent citrate ions are 0.44×10–2 and 1.06×10–3 M–1 min–1, respectively, indicating that the trivalent ions exert a greater stabilizing effect, compared to the divalent ions, on RF solutions. PMID:25755977

  18. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  19. Development and validation of a citrate synthase directed quantitative PCR marker for soil bacterial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Classen, Aimee T; Austin, Emily E; Crawford, Kerri M; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2012-01-01

    Molecular innovations in microbial ecology are allowing scientists to correlate microbial community characteristics to a variety of ecosystem functions. However, to date the majority of soil microbial ecology studies target phylogenetic rRNA markers, while a smaller number target functional markers linked to soil processes. We validated a new primer set targeting citrate synthase (gtlA), a central enzyme in the citric acid cycle linked to aerobic respiration. Primers for a 225 bp fragment suitable for qPCR were tested for specificity and assay performance verified on multiple soils. Clone libraries of the PCR-amplified gtlA gene exhibited high diversity and recovered most major groups identified in a previous 16S rRNA gene study. Comparisons among bacterial communities based on gtlA sequencing using UniFrac revealed differences among the experimental soils studied. Conditions for gtlA qPCR were optimized and calibration curves were highly linear (R2 > 0.99) over six orders of magnitude (4.56 10^5 to 4.56 10^11 copies), with high amplification efficiencies (>1.7). We examined the performance of the gtlA qPCR across a variety of soils and ecosystems, spanning forests, old fields and agricultural areas. We were able to amplify gtlA genes in all tested soils, and detected differences in gtlA abundance within and among environments. These results indicate that a fully developed gtlA-targeted qPCR approach may have potential to link microbial community characteristics with changes in soil respiration.

  20. Efficacy of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate in the treatment of oral paraquat intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, P; Friedman, P A; Lovejoy, F H

    1985-02-01

    The binding capacity of activated charcoal for paraquat was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared with Fuller's earth. In vitro activated charcoal absorbs paraquat and is as effective as Fuller's earth. Activated charcoal's absorbing capacity for paraquat is increased when it is suspended in magnesium citrate and is maximal at pH 7.8. Paraquat (200 mg/kg) administered orally to male mice, followed 30 minutes later by activated charcoal, Fuller's earth (4 gm/kg), and magnesium citrate (0.01 cc/gm) resulted in a survival rate of 31% in the controls, 63% in the activated charcoal and Fuller's earth groups, and 69% in the magnesium citrate group (P values not significant). When activated charcoal was administered concomitantly with magnesium citrate, the survival rate was improved significantly to 94% (P less than 0.01). The efficacy and greater availability of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate make these materials the treatment of choice for gastrointestinal decontamination in oral paraquat poisoning. PMID:3970396

  1. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation. PMID:21742986

  2. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of /sup 67/Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with /sup 111/In T4NMPYP and /sup 67/Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of /sup 111/In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Ferric Citrate Hydrate as a Phosphate Binder and Risk of Aluminum Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ferric citrate hydrate was recently approved in Japan as an oral phosphate binder to be taken with food for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The daily therapeutic dose is about 3 to 6 g, which comprises about 2 to 4 g of citrate. Oral citrate solubilizes aluminum that is present in food and drinking water, and opens the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing aluminum absorption and urinary excretion. In healthy animals drinking tap water, oral citrate administration increased aluminum absorption and, over a 4-week period, increased aluminum deposition in brain and bone by about 2- and 20-fold, respectively. Renal excretion of aluminum is impaired in patients with chronic kidney disease, thereby increasing the risk of toxicity. Based on human and animal studies it can be surmised that patients with CKD who are treated with ferric citrate hydrate to control hyperphosphatemia are likely to experience enhanced absorption of aluminum from food and drinking water, thereby increasing the risk of aluminum overload and toxicity. PMID:25341358

  4. Regional citrate anticoagulation for RRTs in critically ill patients with AKI.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Santo; Pistolesi, Valentina; Tritapepe, Luigi; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic complications have been reported in up to 30% of critically ill patients with AKI undergoing RRT with systemic anticoagulation. Because bleeding is associated with significantly increased mortality risk, strategies aimed at reducing hemorrhagic complications while maintaining extracorporeal circulation should be implemented. Among the alternatives to systemic anticoagulation, regional citrate anticoagulation has been shown to prolong circuit life while reducing the incidence of hemorrhagic complications and lowering transfusion needs. For these reasons, the recently published Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Kidney Injury have recommended regional citrate anticoagulation as the preferred anticoagulation modality for continuous RRT in critically ill patients in whom it is not contraindicated. However, the use of regional citrate anticoagulation is still limited because of concerns related to the risk of metabolic complications, the complexity of the proposed protocols, and the need for customized solutions. The introduction of simplified anticoagulation protocols based on citrate and the development of dialysis monitors with integrated infusion systems and dedicated software could lead to the wider use of regional citrate anticoagulation in upcoming years. PMID:24993448

  5. Clomiphene Citrate Effectively Increases Testosterone in Obese, Young, Hypogonadal Men

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Sachin V.; Murray, Pamela J.; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with low testosterone (T) in adult males and in pubertal boys. Therapy for hypogonadism with exogenous T may lead to testicular atrophy and later infertility. Only a few studies have demonstrated that the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) clomiphene citrate (CC), an estrogen receptor antagonist, increases T in obese hypogonadal men while preventing testicular atrophy. No studies to date using CC have been done in younger obese post-pubertal hypogonadal males. Objective To determine whether CC therapy is effective in increasing serum T levels in hypogonadal post-pubertal obese males 18-21 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart analysis of records in obese men aged 18-21 years was done. Patients with early morning T level <350 ng/dl were given 25 mg CC on alternate days. Out of 18 patients found to have low T, 11 were analyzed. Baseline serum T, LH, FSH, weight and BMI were compared at baseline and after 3 months of CC treatment. Results Baseline T level was 233 ± 66 ng/dl and increased to 581 ± 161 ng/dl (p<0.0001) after 3 months of CC treatment. Baseline LH levels increased from 3.3 ± 1.6 mIU/mL to 5.7 ± 1.7 mIU/mL (p=0.027). Similarly, baseline FSH levels increased from 2.8 ± 1.5 mIU/mL to 6.2 ± 3 mIU/mL after CC treatment (p=0.026). There was no correlation between baseline or post treatment weight or BMI and the T level, LH, or FSH level. Conclusion This is the first study reporting on CC therapy in obese, hypogonadal post-pubertal men 18-21 years. The SERM CC increased T in obese post-pubertal hypogonadal men, similar to efficacy of CC in adult hypogonadal men over the age 21 years. Larger randomized controlled studies to study the safety and potential use of CC to improve T in young obese HG men are needed. PMID:26844009

  6. Structural characterization of environmentally relevant ternary uranyl citrate complexes present in aqueous solutions and solid state materials.

    PubMed

    Basile, Madeline; Unruh, Daniel K; Flores, Erin; Johns, Adam; Forbes, Tori Z

    2015-02-14

    Organic acids are important metal chelators in environmental systems and tend to form soluble complexes in aqueous solutions, ultimately influencing the transport and bioavailability of contaminants in surface and subsurface waters. This is particularly true for the formation of uranyl citrate complexes, which have been utilized in advanced photo- and bioremediation strategies for soils contaminated with nuclear materials. Given the complexity of environmental systems, the formation of ternary or heterometallic uranyl species in aqueous solutions are also expected, particularly with Al(iii) and Fe(iii) cations. These ternary forms are reported to be more stable in aqueous solutions, potentially enhancing contaminant mobility and uptake by organisms, but the exact coordination geometries of these soluble molecular complexes have not been elucidated. To provide insight into the nature of these species, we have developed a series of geochemical model compounds ([(UO(2))(2)Al(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Al(2)), [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-1) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)(H(2)O)(2)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-2) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(4)(OH)(4)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](8-) (U(2)Fe(4))) that were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Mass spectroscopy was then employed to compare the model compounds to species present in aqueous solutions to provide an enhanced understanding of the ternary uranyl citrate complexes that could be relevant in natural systems. PMID:25372632

  7. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported. PMID:23656399

  8. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    PubMed Central

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  9. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency of orgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Conclusion Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women. PMID:25473627

  10. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  11. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate-cyclodextrin nanosuspension complexes for use in metered-dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Phetmung, Hirihattaya; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-10-15

    Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate was complexed with α-, hydroxypropyl-β- and γ-cyclodextrin (α-CD, HP-β-CD and γ-CD, respectively) to enhance its water solubility. The complexes of sildenafil citrate monohydrate with all types of CDs were characterized by phase solubility diagrams, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and dielectric constants. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate complexed with CDs was developed as nanosuspensions for use in a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations were prepared by a bottom-up process using dried ethanol as a solvent and HFA-134a as an antisolvent and propellant in order to form nanosuspensions. A 3×3 factorial design was applied for the contents of the dried ethanol and HFA-134a propellant. The phase solubility profiles of the sildenafil and cyclodextrins were described as AL type with a mole ratio 1:1. The piperazine moiety of sildenafil formed an inclusion in the cavity of the CDs. The particle diameters of the sildenafil citrate monohydrate suspensions in pMDIs were all within a nanosuspension size range. An assay of the sildenafil content showed that the formation of complexes with CDs was close to 100%. In the case of the formulations with CDs, the emitted doses varied within 97.4±10.8%, the fine particle fractions (FPFs) were in a range of 45-81%, the fine particle dose (FPD) was 12.6±2.0 μg and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were 1.86±0.41 μm. In contrast, the formulations without CDs produced a low emitted dose of sildenafil (<60%). Therefore, only sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations containing CDs were suitable for use as aerosols. PMID:23876498

  12. 40 CFR 798.5375 - In vitro mammalian cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported: (i) Cells... cultures. Heparinized or acid-citrate-dextrose whole blood should be added to culture medium containing a... treated and control culture, total number of aberrations per group; frequency distribution of number...

  13. Morphology control of hydroxyapatite microcrystals: Synergistic effects of citrate and CTAB.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-05-01

    Using hydrothermal treatment and with the synergistic regulating effects of citrate and CTAB, various 3D hierarchical superstructure of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microcrystals were synthesized by simply adjusting the Ct/CTAB ratio and calcium-citrate complex (CC) morphology. The resulting superstructure was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc. With the shape transformation of CC from sphere-like colloid, nano-needle to lamellar-like particles, the final products were hollow spheres, bunched-like microrods and nanorod clusters, respectively. A possible mechanism for the formation of HAp hierarchical microstructure was proposed. PMID:26952410

  14. [Automatic platelets numbering with citrate as anticoagulant: is the result valid?].

    PubMed

    Védy, Serge; Boom, Bruno; Perez, Pascale; Schillinger, Sarah; Ragot, Céline; Bakkouch, Sylvie; Puyhardy, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Platelets count is usually realised on EDTA anticoagulant. This one is sometimes able to generate platelets agregats. That is the reason why the first thing to do encountering thrombopenia is to check for agregats on blood thin smear. In case of positive result, a control can be asked using another anticoagulant. The most used is sodium citrate. A correction has to be applied to the automat result because blood is diluted in anticoagulant. But no one says those haematological automats are exact on citrate as they are on EDTA. That's what we wanted to check. PMID:21896411

  15. Interfacial properties of asymmetrically functionalized citrate-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles related to molecular adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Won

    A detailed understanding of the conformation of adsorbed molecules and regional surface functionalization of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is challenging for nanometer-size (10 -- 100 m) materials and necessary for fundamental studies and applications. The studies are motivated by open questions related to surface chemistry of noble MNPs. Although citrate-stabilized gold NPs (AuNPs) have been widely used, the citrate layer is not well-understood. Thiols have been suggested to displace citrate anions adsorbed on metal surfaces due to strong gold-sulfur interaction, but quantitative experimental evidence of the extent of ligand-exchange has not been reported. Whereas asymmetrically-functionalized AuNPs are utilized for nanoparticle assembly due to the interparticle coupling of localized surface plasmons, the interface between asymmetric nanoparticles in single assemblies has not been studied. Noble MNPs with sizes smaller than citrate-stabilized AuNPs also need to be surface-modified for stability in water for biological applications. The dissertation presents investigations of the chemical and physical properties of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) related to ligand adsorption at the metal surface. Firstly, self-assembled layers of citrate adsorbed on AuNP (111), (110), and (100) surfaces were proposed, based on geometric considerations and spectroscopic investigations by infrared (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption characteristics of citrate are the unique structure of adsorbed species, intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds and van der Waals attractions, bilayer formation, surface coverage, nanoparticle-stabilization role, and chirality. Secondly, IR and XPS studies showed coadsorption of thiolate on the surface of citrate-stabilized AuNPs. Steric, chelating effects and intermolecular interactions are the origins of the strong adsorption of citrate on AuNP surfaces. Surface coverage was determined from XPS analyses. Thirdly, an

  16. Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction.

    PubMed

    Saha, J; Akhter, S; Prasad, I; Siddiq, S

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate which drug is better in ovulation induction between clomiphene citrate and letrozole. The study was carried out in the infertility unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Centre for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from January 2007 to December 2007. One hundred and sixty five cases were taken for the study. It was a prospective interventional comparative study of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in infertile cases. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I - newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with clomiphene citrate. Group II - clomiphene citrate resistant cases studied with letrozole, Group III - newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with letrozole. The cases were followed up for outcome; (ovulation). The TVS was done on 12th or 13th day of menstruation and level of serum progesterone on 21st day of menstrual cycle to see the evidence of ovulation. Endometrial thickness was also measured. The data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. The variables that influenced the study were-age, occupation, socioeconomic status, menstrual cycle, marital age, parity, history of MR, history of abortion, past medical and surgical history. In the current study it was observed that the signs of ovulation were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group I treated with clomiphene citrate in comparison to Group II clomiphene citrate resistant cases treated with letrozole. The rate of ovulation was higher in Group I than that of Group III treated with letrozole, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The signs of ovulation were present in 45(81.8%) cases in Group I, 33(60.0%) cases in Group II and 37(67.3%) cases in Group III. This findings of the study suggested that clomiphene citrate is higher successful than letrozole though not statistically

  17. A tri-serine tri-lactone scaffold for the quantification of citrate in urine.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Ali; Caglayan, Mehmet Gokhan; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-01-31

    Tri-serine tri-lactone based C3 symmetry fluorescent sensors were synthesized. Citrate is shown to bind to sensors, while displaying an increase in fluorescence intensity for the sensor with thiourea and a quenching for the sensor with sulfonamide. Information-rich responses of the sensors enable us to discriminate structurally similar anions, including mono-, di- and tri-carboxylates with 100% correct classification. A simple two-sensor array enables the determination of the concentration of citrate in urine without any sample preparation with high accuracy (error < 2%). PMID:26669653

  18. Comparison of the metabolic responses to ingestion of hydrothermally processed high-amylopectin content maize, uncooked maize starch or dextrose in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Richard M; Gray, Benjamin J; Turner, Daniel

    2014-04-14

    Optimal carbohydrate ingestion strategies as nutritional therapy for glycogen storage diseases have not been fully realised, in part, due to difficulties in accessing patient cohorts, alongside limited details on metabolic effects and insight into working mechanisms. The present pilot study compared glycaemic and fuel oxidation responses following the ingestion of a hydrothermally processed maize starch (HPMS), an uncooked maize starch (UCMS) and maize-derived dextrose (DEX) at rest and during and after exercise in healthy individuals. A total of eight participants (seven males and one female; body mass (BM) 76.9 (SEM 5.2) kg) visited the laboratory on three occasions. During each visit, the participants ingested 1 g/kg BM of HPMS (Glycosade™), UCMS (Argo™) or DEX as a 10% solution. Blood samples were collected over a 2 h rest period and for 2 h after a 60 min treadmill run at 65 (SEM 1) % VO(2max). Mean values with their standard errors were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Blood glucose concentrations under the HPMS condition were significantly elevated from resting values at 90 min (P=0.02) after ingestion compared with those under the UCMS (60 min; P=0.02) and DEX (30 min; P=0.001) conditions. The rate of carbohydrate use during exercise after the ingestion of HPMS was 7-9% lower compared with that after the ingestion of either DEX or UCMS (P<0.05). The total amount of lipids oxidised during exercise was greater under the HPMS condition (26.2 (SEM 2.8) g) compared with that oxidised under the UCMS (19.6 (SEM 2.7) g; P=0.04) or DEX (20.6 (SEM 3.6) g; P=0.07) condition. The results demonstrated a glycaemic advantage to the ingestion of HPMS over that of UCMS or DEX. Carbohydrate oxidation was reduced after the ingestion of HPMS compared with that after the ingestion of UCMS or DEX, with a corresponding higher rate of endogenous lipid use during exercise. PMID:24229467

  19. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  20. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters encoded by distinct Al tolerance genes function independently in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) -activated malate and citrate exudation from roots plays an important role in conferring Al tolerance to many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, the gene encoding an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that functions in Arabid...

  1. Identification and Characterization of a Re-Citrate Synthase in Dehalococcoides Strain CBDB1▿‡

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Paul, Steffanie; Khodaverdi, Viola; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Kretzschmar, Utta; Adrian, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    The genome annotations of all sequenced Dehalococcoides strains lack a citrate synthase, although physiological experiments have indicated that such an activity should be encoded. We here report that a Re face-specific citrate synthase is synthesized by Dehalococcoides strain CBDB1 and that this function is encoded by the gene cbdbA1708 (NCBI accession number CAI83711), previously annotated as encoding homocitrate synthase. Gene cbdbA1708 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified. The enzyme catalyzed the condensation of oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to citrate. The protein did not have homocitrate synthase activity and was inhibited by citrate, and Mn2+ was needed for full activity. The stereospecificity of the heterologously expressed citrate synthase was determined by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI LC/MS). Citrate was synthesized from [2-13C]acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate by the Dehalococcoides recombinant citrate synthase and then converted to acetate and malate by commercial citrate lyase plus malate dehydrogenase. The formation of unlabeled acetate and 13C-labeled malate proved the Re face-specific activity of the enzyme. Shotgun proteome analyses of cell extracts of strain CBDB1 demonstrated that cbdbA1708 is expressed in strain CBDB1. PMID:21784924

  2. Nanocrystalline ceria powders through citrate-nitrate combustion.

    PubMed

    Purohit, R D; Saha, S; Tyagi, A K

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceria powders have been synthesized by combustion technique using citric acid as a fuel and nitrate as an oxidizer. The auto-ignition of the gels containing cerium nitrate and citric acid resulted in ceria powders. A theory based on adiabatic flame temperature for different citric acid-to-cerium nitrate molar ratios has been proposed to explain the nature of combustion reaction and its correlation with the powder characteristics. Specific surface area and primary particle size of the ceria powder obtained through fuel-deficient precursor was found to be approximately = 127 m2/g and 2.5-10 nm, respectively. The combustion synthesized ceria powder when cold pressed and sintered in air at 1250 degrees C for 1 hour resulted in approximately = 96% of its theoretical density with sub-micron grains. PMID:16573097

  3. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  4. Sol-gel processing and characterization of potassium niobate nano-powders by an EDTA/citrate complexing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yang; Zhu, Kongjun; Qiu, Jinhao; Pang, Xuming; Ji, Hongli

    2012-05-01

    The present research describes a modified sol-gel technique used to obtain nano-crystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) powders by using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)/citrate as a complexing agent. The metal ions chemically interact with EDTA in the precursor sol. The aging treatments lead to the formation of a precursor-polymeric gel network. The effects of the amounts of citric acid and EDTA on the stability of the precursor sol are investigated. The influence of excess K on the formation of pure-phase KNbO3 powders is also studied. The obtained gels and powders are characterized by thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that a stable precursor sol is formed when n(CA):n(Mn+) = 3:1 and n(EDTA) :n(NH4OH) = 1:3.5. The xerogel is calcined at 700-850 °C to prepare the KNbO3 nano-powder. The smallest grain size of the sample obtained at 850 °C is about 60 nm when the K/Nb molar ratio equals 1.2.

  5. A unique dinuclear mixed V(V) oxo-peroxo complex in the structural speciation of the ternary V(V)-peroxo-citrate system. potential mechanistic and structural insight into the aqueous synthetic chemistry of dinuclear V(V)-citrate species with H2O2.

    PubMed

    Kaliva, M; Gabriel, C; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Voyiatzis, G; Zervou, M; Mateescu, C; Salifoglou, A

    2011-11-21

    Diverse vanadium biological activities entail complex interactions with physiological target ligands in aqueous media and constitute the crux of the undertaken investigation at the synthetic level. Facile aqueous redox reactions, as well as nonredox reactions, of V(III) and V(V) with physiological citric acid and hydrogen peroxide, under pH-specific conditions, led to the synthesis and isolation of a well-formed crystalline material upon the addition of ethanol as the precipitating solvent. Elemental analysis pointed to the molecular formulation (NH4)4[(VO2){VO(O2)}(C6H5O7)2]·1.5H2O (1). Complex 1 was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The crystallographic structure of 1 reveals the presence of the first dinuclear V(V)-citrate complex with non-peroxo- and peroxo-containing V(V) ions, concurrently present within the basic VV2O2 core. The nonperoxo unit VO2+ and the peroxo unit VO(O2)+ are each coordinated to a triply deprotonated citrate ligand in a distinct coordination mode and coordination geometry around the V(V) ions. These units are similar to those in homodinuclear complexes bearing oxo or peroxo groups. The unique assembly of both units in the anion of 1 renders the latter as a potential intermediate in the peroxidation process, from [V2O4(C6H5O7)2]4– to [V2O2(O2)2(C6H6O7)2]2–. The transformation reactions of 1 establish its connection with several V(V) and V(IV) dinuclear species present in the aqueous distribution of the V(IV,V)-citrate systems. The shown position of 1 as an intermediate in the mechanism of H2O2 addition to dinuclear V(V)-citrate species portends its role in the complex aqueous distribution of species in the ternary V(V)-peroxo-citrate system and its potential reactivity in (bio)chemically relevant media. PMID:22029259

  6. Investigation the efficacy of intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin and dextrose and intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency on pain level reduction and range of motion improvement in primary osteoarthritis of knee

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Imani, Farnad; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Entezary, Saeed Reza; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ziaeefard, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases and the knee is the most commonly affected joint. Intra-articular prolotherapy is being utilized in acute and chronic pain management setting. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three methods of intra-articular knee joint therapies with erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency. Materials and Methods: After approval by the Ethics Committee and explaining the therapeutic method to volunteers, 70 patients who were suffering from primary knee osteoarthrosis went through one of the treatment methods (erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency). The study was double-blind randomized clinical trial performed from December 2012 to July 2013. Patients’ pain level was assessed through the visual analog pain scale (VAS), and range of motion (ROM) was measured by goniometric method. Furthermore, patients’ satisfaction was assessed before and after different treatment methods in weeks 2, 4, and 12. For analysis, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and repeated measured ANOVA were utilized. Results: The demographic results among the three groups did not indicate any statistical difference. The mean VAS in erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 3.15 ± 1.08, 3.15 ± 1.08, and 3.5 ± 1.23, respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Knee joint ROM in the erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 124 ± 1.50, 124 ± 1.4, and 123 ± 1.53 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Satisfaction score in the 12th week in erythropoietin group was extremely satisfied 15%, satisfied 55%, and moderately satisfied 30%, (P = 0.005). No specific side-effects were observed. Conclusion: Intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin was more effective in terms of pain level reduction and ROM improvement compared with dextrose and pulsed radiofrequency. PMID:25422652

  7. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  8. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 6061 (February 7, 2012) (Preliminary...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). This clarification... Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009). These deposit requirements...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of poly(1,2-propanediol-co-1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) biodegradable elastomers for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Ping; Sun, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yanfei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, citric acid, 1,8-octanediol and 1,2-propanediol were used as reactive monomers to synthesize poly(1,2-propanediol-co-1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (PPOC) elastomers by melt polycondensation. The PPOC elastomers were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hydrophilic test and mechanical test. The results indicated that citric acid had reacted with 1,8-octanediol and 1,2-propanediol, respectively. The sol content, swelling degree and hydrophilicity of PPOC elastomers increased with the higher content of 1,2-propanediol, while the tensile strength and the thermal degradation temperature decreased. The results indicate the addition of 1,2-propanediol reduces the crosslinking density and the flexibility of PPOC elastomers. PMID:24211946

  10. Does Potassium Citrate Medical Therapy Increase the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Stone Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Victor; Haleblian, George E.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Potassium citrate has been extensively used in the treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Recent evidence suggests that it may contribute to increasing urinary pH and, as such, increase the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. We performed a retrospective review of our patients to further investigate this phenomenon.

  11. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  12. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  13. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  14. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  15. Direct effect of vanadium on citrate uptake by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV).

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Akino, Hironobu; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenichiro

    2002-07-01

    Vanadium pentoxide is used as a catalyst and a ferrovanadium alloy ingredient in automotive steels and in jet engines and airframes. In addition, vanadium is found in fuel oils. Thus, occupational exposures to vanadium pentoxide and trioxide may occur during the cleaning of oil-fired ship boilers, and from oil-fired power station boilers. Occupational exposure to vanadium pentoxide induces green tongue, asthmatic symptoms and albuminuria with cast. Urinary citrate is freely filtered at the glomerulus, and its reabsorption in the proximal tubule is the major determinant of the rate of renal excretion. In this study, we exposed rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) to vanadium pentoxide and examined their citrate uptake characteristics. The preincubation of BBMV with 1 mM V2O5 for 8 hours significantly inhibited citrate uptake compared with that of BBMV without V2O5, preincubation. These findings indicate that the preincubation of BBMV with vanadium pentoxide results in a time-dependent inhibition of citrate uptake by BBMV. These findings might contribute to nephrotoxicity in vanadium exposure. PMID:12141377

  16. On-chip recalcification of citrated whole blood using a microfluidic herringbone mixer.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marcus; Wallbank, Alison M; Dennis, Kimberly A; Wufsus, Adam R; Davis, Kara M; Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-11-01

    In vitro assays of platelet function and coagulation are typically performed in the presence of an anticoagulant. The divalent cation chelator sodium citrate is among the most common because its effect on coagulation is reversible upon reintroduction of divalent cations. Adding divalent cations into citrated blood by batch mixing leads to platelet activation and initiation of coagulation after several minutes, thus limiting the time blood can be used before spontaneously clotting. In this work, we describe a herringbone microfluidic mixer to continuously introduce divalent cations into citrated blood. The mixing ratio, defined as the ratio of the volumetric flow rates of citrated blood and recalcification buffer, can be adjusted by changing the relative inlet pressures of these two solutions. This feature is useful in whole blood assays in order to account for differences in hematocrit, and thus viscosity. The recalcification process in the herringbone mixer does not activate platelets. The advantage of this continuous mixing approach is demonstrated in microfluidic vascular injury model in which platelets and fibrin accumulate on a collagen-tissue factor surface under flow. Continuous recalcification with the herringbone mixer allowed for flow assay times of up to 30 min, more than three times longer than the time achieved by batch recalcification. This continuous mixer allows for measurements of thrombus formation, remodeling, and fibrinolysis in vitro over time scales that are relevant to these physiological processes. PMID:26634014

  17. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts. PMID:19482799

  18. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  19. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zesiewicz, T A; Helal, M; Hauser, R A

    2000-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a phosphodiesterase type V inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction. Ten men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and erectile dysfunction were prescribed 50-100 mg sildenafil citrate to use in eight sexual encounters over a 2-month period. Patients underwent Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluations and completed a Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and a Sexual Health Inventory-M version (SHI-M) at baseline and after 8 weeks. There was statistically significant improvement in total SHI-M scores (23.8 +/- 2.0 vs 16.6 +/- 2.8; p = 0.01), overall sexual satisfaction (p = 0.03), satisfaction with sexual desire (p = 0.04), ability to achieve erection (p = 0.02), ability to maintain erection (p = 0.03), and ability to reach orgasm (p = 0.04) with use of sildenafil citrate. UPDRS and BDI scores were not significantly changed. Side effects included headache in one patient during three sexual encounters. In this open-label study, sildenafil citrate significantly improved sexual function in men with PD and erectile dysfunction. PMID:10752581

  20. Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    {sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.