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Sample records for acid cla content

  1. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatCLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  2. Variations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of processed cheese by lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, O-Jun; Choi, Nag-Jin; Oh, Se Jong; Jeong, Ha-Yeon; Song, Man-Kang; Jeong, Inhye; Kim, Young Jun

    2009-04-22

    Dairy products are major sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); thus, an increase in CLA content can improve the quality value of dairy products. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening period on the level of CLA in processed cheese. CLA content in milk varied with the period of lactation; high in spring (April and May, about 6.8 mg CLA/g fat) and relatively low in mid summer and winter (about 4.3 mg CLA/g fat). The effects of dietary regimen and ripening period were determined in milk, which was obtained from March to May. After aging for 4 months, the cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed on pasture contained relatively higher levels of CLA compared to cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors (8.12 mg CLA/g fat vs 6.76 mg CLA/g fat), but there was no difference in 7 month-aged cheeses. In both pasture and indoor feeding, 7 month-aged cheeses showed higher CLA content than 4 month-aged cheeses. The contents of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) were significantly higher in cheese from pasture fed cows compared to those in cows fed indoors. These findings should be helpful for the efficient production of functional dairy products with high CLA contents.

  3. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  4. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  5. Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    PubMed

    Koba, Kazunori; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric (cis or trans) isomers of linoleic acid with a conjugated double bond. The most representative CLA isomers are 9c,11t-18:2 and 10t,12c-18:2. CLA has been shown to exert various potent physiological functions such as anticarcinogenic, antiobese, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties. This means CLA can be effective to prevent lifestyle diseases or metabolic syndromes. Also, reports suggest that physiological effects of CLA are different between the isomers, for example the 10t,12c isomer is anticarcinogenic, antiobese and antidiabetic, whereas the 9c,11t isomer is mainly anticarcinogenic. We describe here the physiological properties of CLA including the possible mechanism and the possibility to benefit human health.

  6. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich potato chips by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Castrodale, Chelsey L; Proctor, Andrew

    2011-03-23

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by photoisomerization of soy oil linoleic acid. Nutritional studies have shown that CLA possesses health benefits in terms of reducing certain heart disease and diabetes risk factors. Potato chips are snacks that are readily produced in the CLA-rich soy oil containing CLA levels similar to those of the oil used for frying. The objective of this study was to develop an FTIR method to rapidly determine the CLA content of oil in potato chips. Photoirradiated soy oil samples with ∼25% total CLA were mixed with control soy oil, and 100 soy oil samples with total CLA levels ranging from 0.89 to 24.4% were made. Potato chips were fried using each of these 300 g CLA rich soy oil mixtures at 175 °C for approximately 3 min. Duplicate GC-FID fatty acid analyses were conducted on oil extracted from each batch of potato chips. The chip samples were ground and then scanned using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with the aid of a high-pressure clamp, and duplicate spectra of each sample were averaged to obtain an average spectrum. Calibration models were developed using PLS regression analysis. These correlated the CLA isomer concentrations of potato chips obtained by GC-FID fatty acid analysis with their corresponding FTIR spectral features. The calibration models were fully cross validated and tested using samples that were not used in the calibration sample set. Calibrations for total CLA, trans,trans CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had coefficients of determinations (R2v) between 0.91 and 0.96 and corresponding root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) ranging from 0.005 to 1.44. The ATR-FTIR technique showed potential as a method for the determination of the CLA levels in unknown potato chip samples.

  7. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation in edible oils by photoisomerization: a review.

    PubMed

    Gangidi, Rahul Reddy; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) that is commonly found in dairy and ruminant fats, is geometrical and positional isomer of linoleic acid (LA). Edible oils are not good sources of CLA. Attempts have been made to generate CLA in edible oils through photoisomerization procedures. CLA isomers have several proven health benefits. This article reviews procedures for producing CLA containing edible oils by photoisomerization approach and applications of photoisomerized oils for food uses. The article reviews (1) the photoisomerized production of CLA containing oils on lab scale, with customized equipment, at pilot plant scale; (2) the effects of iodine content, photoisomerization time, refining, interference from minor components of oils, efficacy of different edible oils containing LA, interference from antioxidants; (3) the chemical kinetics, oxidative stability; and (4) photoisomerized oils for frying oils and as drying oils.The review also briefly covers methods of measurement of CLA.

  9. The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer groups in milk of two Polish sheep breeds determined by silver ion liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC).

    PubMed

    Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Radzik-Rant, Aurelia; Rant, Witold; Czauderna, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazneńska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01).

  10. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of α-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products.

  11. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis.

  12. Impact of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Jonggun; Whang, Kwang-Youn; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has garnered special attention as a food bioactive compound that prevents and attenuates obesity. Although most studies on the effects of CLA on obesity have focused on the reduction of body fat, a number of studies have demonstrated that CLA also increases lean body mass and enhances physical performances. It has been suggested that these effects may be due in part to physiological changes in the skeletal muscle, such as changes in the muscle fiber type transformation, alteration of the intracellular signaling pathways in muscle metabolism, or energy metabolism. However, the mode of action for CLA in muscle metabolism is not completely understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects of CLA on skeletal muscle metabolism. Given that CLA not only reduces body fat, but also improves lean mass, there is great potential for the use of CLA to improve muscle metabolism, which would have a significant health impact.

  13. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids.

  14. Implication of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human health.

    PubMed

    Dilzer, Allison; Park, Yeonhwa

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention in the last two decades for its variety of biologically beneficial effects. CLA reduces body fat, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and modulates immune and inflammatory responses as well as improves bone mass. It has been suggested that the overall effects of CLA are the results of interactions between two major isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. This review will primarily focus on current CLA publications involving humans, which are also summarized in the tables. Along with a number of beneficial effects of CLA, there are safety considerations for CLA supplementation in humans, which include effects on liver functions, milk fat depression, glucose metabolism, and oxidative stresses.

  15. Isolation, molecular characterization and screening of indigenous lactobacilli for their abilities to produce bioactive conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Puniya, Anil Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Ingestion of conjugated linoleic acid poised many health benefits; however, amount of CLA one can get through generalized diet in is inadequate in exerting the desired benefits. Therefore, presence of CLA producing lactobacilli in dairy fermented foods has a tremendous potential to increase the CLA content. Therefore, present study was focused to isolate and characterize CLA producing lactobacilli from different dairy products and human faeces. Arguably, 283 lactobacilli were isolated from various sources and tested for CLA production. Fifty-seven CLA producing (≥20 µg/ml) lactobacilli were selected from screening in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth and reconstituted with skim milk (SM), supplemented with 0.5 mg/ml of linoleic acid. Positive strains were classified into-L. plantarum (44%), L. gasseri (30%), L. fermentum (21%) and L. salivarius (5%) species. Nineteen most efficient strains (CLA ≥25 µg/ml) were further assessed in SM for CLA production. Total 08 strains produced significantly higher CLA in SM than MRS and also produced cis 9, trans 11, trans 10, cis 12 and trans 9, trans 11 isomers. Overall, L. plantarum HIF15 was reported as the best producer of CLA and other 08 lactobacilli may be utilized for the formulation of CLA-enriched functional foods to support these bacteria to synthesize CLA in the human gut.

  16. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  17. Dietary CLA combined with palm oil or ovine fat differentially influences fatty acid deposition in tissues of obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Alves, Susana P; Alfaia, Cristina M; Castro, Matilde F; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in combination with fat from vegetable versus animal origin on the fatty acid deposition, including that of individual 18:1 and 18:2 (conjugated and non-conjugated) isomers, in the liver and muscle of obese rats was investigated. For this purpose, 32 male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing palm oil or ovine fat, supplemented or not with 1% of 1:1 cis(c)9,trans(t)11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers mixture. Total fatty acid content decreased in the liver and muscle of CLA-fed rats. In the liver, CLA increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in 11.9% and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in 6.5%. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) relative proportions were increased in 30.6% by CLA when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. In the muscle, CLA did not affect SFA but decreased MUFA and PUFA percentages. The estimation of Δ9-indices 16 and 18 suggested that CLA inhibited the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in the liver (a decrease of 13-38%), in particular when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. Concerning CLA supplementation, the t10,c12 isomer percentage was 60-80% higher in the muscle than in the liver. It is of relevance that rats fed ovine fat, containing bio-formed CLA, had more c9,t11 CLA isomer deposited in both tissues than rats fed palm oil plus synthetic CLA. These results highlight the importance to further clarify the biological effects of consuming foods naturally enriched in CLA, alternatively to CLA dietary supplementation.

  18. Production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 and its compatibility with CLA-producing rumen bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Hui Gyu; Heo, Wan; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyun Seop; Bae, Gui Seck; Chung, Soo Hyun; Seo, Ho-Chan; Kim, Young Jun

    2011-02-09

    This study was performed to characterize the ability of an active Bifidobacterium strain to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and to test its possible utilization as a probiotic compatible to the ruminal condition. Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 can actively convert linoleic acid (LA) to cis-9,trans-11-CLA, which is a major isomer derived from microbial conversion. LMC520 showed reasonable tolerance under acidic conditions (pH 2.5 with 1% pepsin) and in the presence of oxgall (0-3%). The growth and CLA production of LMC520 were tested under ruminal conditions and compared with those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, which is a major CLA producer in the rumen as an intermediate in the biohydrogenation (BH) process. LMC520 converted 15% of LA to CLA under ruminal conditions, which was 2 times higher activity than that of A38, and there was no decline in CLA level during prolonged incubation of 48 h. The BH activity of LMC520 was comparable to that of A38. When LMC520 was cocultured with A38, even with slight decrease of CLA due to high BH activity by A38, but the level of CLA was maintained by the high CLA-producing activity of LMC520. This comparative study shows the potential of this strain to be applied as a functional probiotic not only for humans but also for ruminants as well as to increase CLA production.

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fatty acid composition of milk, curd and Grana Padano cheese in conventional and organic farming systems.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Aldo; Sigolo, Samantha; Piva, Gianfranco

    2009-08-01

    CLA levels and fatty acid composition were measured to compare the fat composition in organic bulk milk, destined to the production of Grana Padano cheese, with those produced by conventional system. The curds and Grana Padano cheeses were also analysed to evaluate the effects of the production technology on the CLA content. All analysed organic samples were characterized by higher annual means of CLA, vaccenic acid (TVA) and linolenic acid (LNA) in comparison with conventional samples (with P<0.05). Nevertheless, no particular effect of the production technology was seen on the CLA content. The animal diet appears to be the factor which has the highest effect on the CLA concentration in milk and milk products and an organic diet based on fresh or dried forage, that is rich in CLA precursory fatty acids, may improve the yield of fatty acids with beneficial effects on health.

  20. Growth, carcass characteristics, muscle conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, and response to intravenous glucose challenge in high percentage Wagyu, Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin steers fed sunflower oil-containing diet.

    PubMed

    Mir, P S; Mir, Z; Kubert, P S; Gaskins, C T; Martin, E L; Dodson, M V; Calles, J A Elias; Johnson, K A; Busboom, J R; Wood, A J; Pittenger, G J; Reeves, J J

    2002-11-01

    muscle fat content but increased (P = 0.01) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations by 339%. Results indicated that IVGTT measures were not appropriate indices of marbling potential in cattle and that dietary oil can enhance CLA content of beef.

  1. The combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and extra virgin olive oil increases mitochondrial and body metabolism and prevents CLA-associated insulin resistance and liver hypertrophy in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Flávia G; Vicentini, Tatiane M; Teodoro, Bruno G; Dalalio, Felipe M; Dechandt, Carlos R P; Prado, Ieda M R; Curti, Carlos; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Uyemura, Sergio A; Alberici, Luciane C

    2016-02-01

    Clinical conditions associated with obesity can be improved by daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with CLA and EVOO, either alone or in combination, changes body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energetics. Male C57Bl/6 mice were divided into one of four groups: CLA (1:1 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12; 18:2 isomers), EVOO, CLA plus EVOO or control (linoleic acid). Each mouse received 3 g/kg body weight of the stated oil by gavage on alternating days for 60 days. Dietary supplementation with CLA, alone or in combination with EVOO: (a) reduced the white adipose tissue gain; (b) increased body VO2 consumption, VCO2 production and energy expenditure; (c) elevated uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression and UCP activity in isolated liver mitochondria. This organelle, when energized with NAD(+)-linked substrates, produced high amounts of H2O2 without inducing oxidative damage. Dietary supplementation with EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameter, but supplementation with CLA itself promoted insulin resistance and elevated weight, lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 expression in liver. Interestingly, the in vivo antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine abolished the CLA-induced rise of body metabolism and liver UCP expression and activity, while the in vitro antioxidant treatment with catalase mitigated the CLA-dependent UCP-2 expression in hepatocytes; these findings suggest the participation of an oxidative-dependent pathway. Therefore, this study clarifies the mechanisms by which CLA induces liver UCP expression and activity, and demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effects of combined CLA and EVOO supplementation.

  2. CLA-enriched diet containing t10,c12-CLA alters bile acid homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Letona, Amaia Zabala; Niot, Isabelle; Laugerette, Fabienne; Athias, Anne; Monnot, Marie-Claude; Portillo, Maria P; Besnard, Philippe; Poirier, Hélène

    2011-08-01

    Mice fed a mixture of CLA containing t10,c12-CLA lose fat mass and develop hyperinsulinemia and hepatic steatosis due to an accumulation of TG and cholesterol. Because cholesterol is the precursor in bile acid (BA) synthesis, we investigated whether t10,c12-CLA alters BA metabolism. In Expt. 1, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard diet for 28 d supplemented with a CLA mixture (1 g/100 g) or not (controls). In Expt. 2, the feeding period was reduced to 4, 6, and 10 d. In Expt. 3, mice were fed a diet supplemented with linoleic acid, c9,t11-CLA, or t10,c12-CLA (0.4 g/100 g) for 28 d. In Expt. 1, the BA pool size was greater in CLA-fed mice than in controls and the entero-hepatic circulation of BA was altered due to greater BA synthesis and ileal reclamation. This resulted from higher hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and ileal apical sodium BA transporter expressions in CLA-fed mice. Furthermore, hepatic Na(+)/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) (-52%) and bile salt export pump (BSEP) (-77%) protein levels were lower in CLA-fed mice than in controls, leading to a greater accumulation of BA in the plasma (+500%); also, the cholesterol saturation index and the concentration of hydrophobic BA in the bile were greater in CLA-fed mice, changes associated with the presence of cholesterol crystals. Expt. 2 suggests that CLA-mediated changes were caused by hyperinsulinemia, which occurred after 6 d of the CLA diet before NTCP and BSEP mRNA downregulation (10 d). Expt. 3 demonstrated that only t10,c12-CLA altered NTCP and BSEP mRNA levels. In conclusion, t10,c12-CLA alters BA homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

  3. Metabolism of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans.

    PubMed

    Mele, Maria Cristina; Cannelli, Giorgio; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Melis, Maria Paola; Murru, Elisabetta; Stanton, Catherine; Banni, Sebastiano

    2013-08-01

    The c9,t11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is the most abundant CLA form present in the human diet, and is particularly prevalent in milk and dairy products, and is known to exert several health benefits in experimental animal models. A possible mechanism of action of c9,t11CLA relies on its metabolism via desaturases and elongases and partial beta oxidation in peroxisomes. In this study, we aimed to establish plasma incorporation of c9,t11CLA and its downstream metabolites in healthy volunteers after daily dietary intakes of 0.8g, 1.6g or 3.2g of c9,t11CLA in capsule form for two months. Following supplementation, the plasma concentrations of c9,t11CLA and its metabolites conjugated dienes (CD) 18:3 and the beta oxidation product CD 16:2 were incorporated in a linear fashion, while on the other hand CD 20:3 reached a plateau following intakes of 1.6g/d of dietary intake, and was not further increased following higher CLA intakes. We may conclude that supplementation of c9,t11 CLA levels result in linear responses of CLA and its main metabolites in plasma. In addition, only the highest concentration of CLA intake tested (3.2g/d) yielded plasma concentrations of CLA and metabolites close to the range found sufficient to exert nutritional effects in experimental animal models.

  4. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  5. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  6. Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Pappritz, Julia; Meyer, Ulrich; Kramer, Ronny; Weber, Eva-Maria; Jahreis, Gerhard; Rehage, Jürgen; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-04-01

    The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the

  7. Milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits growth of human mammary MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, M; Devery, R; Lawless, F; Murphy, J; Stanton, C

    The relationship between growth and the antioxidant enzyme defence system in human MCF-7 (breast) cancer cells treated with bovine milk fat enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was studied. Milk enriched in CLA was obtained from cows on pasture supplemented with full fat rapeseeds and full fat soyabeans (1). Cell number decreased up to 90% (p < 0.05) and lipid peroxidation increased 15-fold (p < 0.05) following incubation of MCF-7 cells for 8 days with increasing levels of milk fat yielding CLA concentrations between 16.9 and 22.6 ppm. Growth suppression and prooxidant effects of milk fat CLA were independent of the variable composition of the milk fat samples, suggesting that CLA was the active ingredient in milk fat responsible for the cytotoxic effect. Mixtures containing isomers of CLA (c9, t11-, t10, c12-, c11, t13- and minor amounts of other isomers) and linoleic acid (LA) at similar concentrations to the milk fat samples were as effective at inhibiting growth and stimulating peroxidation of MCF-7 cells as the milk fatty acids. Incubation of the cells with the c9, t11 CLA isomer (20 ppm) or the mixture of CLA isomers (20 ppm) for 8 days resulted in a 60% decrease (p < 0.05) in viability compared with untreated controls and was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than incubation with the t10, c12 CLA isomer (20 ppm), which caused only a 15% decrease in cell numbers under similar conditions. A 25% increase (p < 0.05) in cell proliferation occurred when LA (20 ppm) alone was incubated with MCF-7 cells for 8 days. 14C-CLA was preferentially incorporated into the phospholipid fraction of the MCF-7 cell lipids in a dose-dependent manner and CLA accumulated in cell membranes more efficiently when the cells were incubated in the presence of milk fat than the c9, t11 synthetic CLA isomer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were induced in MCF-7 cells exposed to milk fat (containing 16.9-22.6 ppm CLA) over 8

  8. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  9. Fatty acid composition of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) during maturation: effect of the lipid modulators trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA) and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Prates, E G; Alves, S P; Marques, C C; Baptista, M C; Horta, A E M; Bessa, R J B; Pereira, R M

    2013-05-01

    The effect of maturation and of two lipid modulators supplementation along in vitro maturation (IVM) on fatty acid (FA) and dimethylacetal (DMA) composition of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were studied. Abattoir-derived immature COC were analyzed for FA and DMA or submitted to IVM as follows: control group; t10,c12 CLA group, t10,c12 CLA supplementation for 44 h; Forskolin group, forskolin supplementation during the initial 2 h; t10,c12 CLA + forskolin group, t10,c12 CLA for 44 h and forskolin for just 2h. Each experimental group had five replicates. FA analysis of oocytes, cumulus cells (CC), follicular fluid, and culture media were performed by gas-liquid chromatography. Oocytes and their CC had different FA composition. Oocytes were richer in saturated FA (SFA) preferentially maintaining their FA profile during maturation. Mature CC had the highest polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content. Five individual and total SFA, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), notably oleic acid (c9-18:1), percentages were lower (P ≤ 0.023) in mature than in immature CC. t10,c12 CLA was accumulated by COC from t10,c12 CLA and t10,c12 CLA + forskolin groups, mostly in CC where MUFA and an eicosatrienoic isomer decreased (P ≤ 0.043). Nevertheless, PUFA or FA and DMA total content were not affected. Arachidonic acid was reduced in t10,c12 CLA + forskolin CC and hexadecanal-DMA-16:0 in t10,c12 CLA CC. Forskolin alone increased (P ≤ 0.043) c9-18:1 in oocytes. In conclusion, maturation process clearly changed porcine COC FA and DMA profiles, mostly of CC, also more susceptible to modifications induced by t10,c12 CLA. This possibility of manipulating COC lipid composition during IVM could be used to improve oocyte quality/cryopreservation efficiency.

  10. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of new betulin and betulinic acid esters with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    PubMed

    Tubek, Barbara; Mituła, Paweł; Niezgoda, Natalia; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of new ester derivatives of betulin (3a-c) and betulinic acid (4) with conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA; in a mixture of 43.4% 9c, 11t; 49.5% 10t, 12c; 7.1% other isomers) is presented. Esterification was carried out with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as the coupling agent in the presence of 4-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP) in dichloromethane (or pyridine). The in vitro cytotoxic effect of betulin (1), betulinic acid (2), a mixture of CLA isomers and their derivatives (3a-c, 4) was examined using the MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (P388, CEM/C2, CCRF/CEM and HL-60) and the SRB assay on the HT-29 cell line. Ester 4 was the most active among the esters synthesized against the CEM/C2 cell line with an ID50 value 16.9 +/- 6.5 microg/mL. Betulin (1), betulinic acid (2) and CLA were the most active agents against the cancer cell lines studied.

  11. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  12. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores.

  13. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid content of fermented cow milk.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Nadia; Pizzolongo, Fabiana; Montefusco, Immacolata; Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaele

    2015-05-01

    The ability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12), to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus during milk fermentation has been evaluated in this study. Pasteurized cow milk and infant formula were used. Infant formula was selected for its high linoleic acid content, for being a source of CLA and for its prebiotic compounds, e.g. galacto-oligosaccharides. The microorganisms were not able to increase the CLA content of the fermented products under the given experimental conditions. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) occurred between the CLA content in milk and the fermented samples. The CLA contents of 10 commercial fermented milk products were determined. The highest CLA content was observed in fermented milk containing only Str. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) promotes endurance capacity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ-mediated mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with exercise training potentially improved endurance capacity via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-mediated mechanism in mice. This study determined the role of exercise and/or CLA in endurance capacity and PPARδ-associated regulators. Male 129Sv/J mice were fed either control (soybean oil) or CLA (0.5%) containing diets for 4 weeks and were further divided into sedentary or training regimes. CLA supplementation significantly reduced body weight and fat mass independent of exercise during the experimental period. Endurance capacity was significantly improved by CLA supplementation, while no effect of exercise was observed. Similarly, CLA treatment significantly increased expressions of sirtuin 1 and PPARγ coactivator-1α, up-stream regulators of PPARδ, in both sedentary and trained animals. With respect to downstream markers of PPARδ, CLA up-regulated the key biomarker needed to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis, nuclear respiratory factor 1. Moreover, CLA supplementation significantly induced overall genes associated with muscle fibers, such as type I (slow-twitch) and type II (fast twitch). Taken together, it suggests that CLA improves endurance capacity independent of mild-intensity exercise via PPARδ-mediated mechanism.

  15. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks.

  16. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-11-06

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases.

  17. Free fatty acid and triacylglycerol forms of CLA isomers are not incorporated equally in the liver but do not lead to differences in bone density and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    DeGuire, Jason R; Weiler, Hope A

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have compared differences between conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in triacylglycerol (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) form. This study assessed differences in liver incorporation, mineral mass balance, bone density, and biomarkers of bone metabolism between FFA and TG CLA diets. Rats (n=36) were fed a control (CTRL) or 1% CLA diet in FFA or TG form (1:1 mixture c9, t11: t10, c12). Liver content of c9, t11 CLA from FFA was greater than TG form and CTRL (FFA: 0.05±0.01 vs. TG: 0.02±0.01 vs. CTRL: 0.001±0.001% total fatty acids, P<0.0001). Liver t10, c12 CLA did not differ among groups (P=0.11). No diet differences among groups for growth, bone biomarkers or mass nor mineral balance were found. These findings suggest that c9, t11 CLA in FFA form is preferentially incorporated in the liver but fatty acid forms of CLA do not affect bone or mineral outcomes.

  18. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Catanese, Patrizia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rizzuto, Luigi; Marozzi, Paola; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Stampone, Tomaso; Cappello, Francesco; Morici, Giuseppe; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C) supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  19. Effect of pH on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation of linolenic acid biohydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongjae

    2013-08-01

    Conventional beliefs surrounding the linolenic acid (LNA; cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3) biohydrogenation (BH) pathway propose that it converts to stearic acid (SA) without the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as intermediate isomers. However, an advanced study (Lee and Jenkins, 2011) verified that LNA BH yields multiple CLAs. This study utilized the stable isotope tracer to investigate the BH intermediates of (13)C-LNA with different pH conditions (5.5 and 6.5). The (13)C enrichment was calculated as a (13)C/(12)C ratio of labeled minus unlabeled. After 24 h, eight CLA isomers were significantly enriched on both pH treatment, this result verifies that these CLAs originated from (13)C-LNA BH which supports the results of Lee and Jenkins (2011). The enrichment of cis-cis double bond CLAs (cis-9 cis-11 and cis-10 cis-12 CLA) were significantly higher at low pH conditions. Furthermore, the concentration of cis-10 cis-12 CLA at low pH was four times higher than at high pH conditions after a 3 h incubation. These differences support the LNA BH pathways partial switch under different pH conditions, with a strong influence on the cis-cis CLA at low pH. Several mono-, di-, and tri-enoic fatty acid isomers were enriched during 24 h of incubation, but the enrichment was decreased or restricted at low pH treatment. Based on these results, it is proposed that low pH conditions may cause a changed or limited capacity of the isomerization and reduction steps in BH.

  20. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Karimi, R; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Rezayazdi, K; Mousavi, M; Safari, H; Martinez-Pastor, F

    2017-02-07

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the semen production and sperm freezability in Holstein bulls. Twelve bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 per group). Bulls received the normal diet (control group) or the normal diet top-dressed with 50 g of CLA (treated group) for 10 weeks. The control group received 40 g/day calcium soap of fatty acid. Fresh and post-thaw semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected at the 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 week of supplementation. Semen evaluations including sperm concentration, motion characteristics (subjective and computer-assisted), viability (Eosin-Nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and abnormality were conducted. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output were not affected by dietary treatment (p > .05). The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology in fresh semen significantly increased (p < .05) in the CLA-fed group compared to control group. Also, in CLA-fed group, the proportion of post-thaw spermatozoa with abnormal morphology at week 10 of trial was significantly higher in CLA than control group (p < .05). Progressive motility tended to be increased in the CLA-fed group, although dietary supplementation did not affect other CASA parameters or viability in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. In this study, CLA supplementation had little positive effect on fresh or post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

  1. Absorption and metabolism of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and of its oxidation product 9,11-furan fatty acid by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Merkel, Roswitha; Lengler, Imme; Lampen, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    Furan fatty acids (furan-FA) can be formed by auto-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and may therefore be ingested when CLA-containing foodstuff is consumed. Due to the presence of a furan ring structure, furan-FA may have toxic properties, however, these substances are toxicologically not well characterized so far. Here we show that 9,11-furan-FA, the oxidation product of the major CLA isomer cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), is not toxic to human intestinal Caco-2 cells up to a level of 100 μM. Oil-Red-O staining indicated that 9,11-furan-FA as well as c9,t11-CLA and linoleic acid are taken up by the cells and stored in the form of triglycerides in lipid droplets. Chemical analysis of total cellular lipids revealed that 9,11-furan-FA is partially elongated probably by the enzymatic activity of cellular fatty acid elongases whereas c9,t11-CLA is partially converted to other isomers such as c9,c11-CLA or t9,t11-CLA. In the case of 9,11-furan-FA, there is no indication for any modification or activation of the furan ring system. From these results, we conclude that 9,11-furan-FA has no properties of toxicological relevance at least for Caco-2 cells which serve as a model for enterocytes of the human small intestine.

  2. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  3. A self-assembling nanomedicine of conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX) with higher drug loading and carrier-free characteristic.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ting; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Yang; Duan, Xiao-Chuan; Ren, Wei; Dan Huang; Yin, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-11-04

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the hypothesis that conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX), a novel fatty acid modified anti-cancer drug conjugate, could self-assemble forming nanoparticles. The results indicated that a novel self-assembling nanomedicine, CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 105 nm), with Cremophor EL (CrEL)-free and organic solvent-free characteristics, was prepared by a simple precipitation method. Being the ratio of CLA-PTX:DSPE-PEG was only 1:0.1 (w/w), the higher drug loading CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 90%) possessed carrier-free characteristic. The stability results indicated that CLA-PTX@PEG NPs could be stored for at least 9 months. The safety of CLA-PTX@PEG NPs was demonstrated by the MTD results. The anti-tumor activity and cellular uptake were also confirmed in the in vitro experiments. The lower crystallinity, polarity and solubility of CLA-PTX compared with that of paclitaxel (PTX) might be the possible reason for CLA-PTX self-assembling forming nanoparticles, indicating a relationship between PTX modification and nanoparticles self-assembly. Overall, the data presented here confirm that this drug self-delivery strategy based on self-assembly of a CLA-PTX conjugate may offer a new way to prepare nanomedicine products for cancer therapy involving the relationship between anticancer drug modification and self-assembly into nanoparticles.

  4. A self-assembling nanomedicine of conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX) with higher drug loading and carrier-free characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ting; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Yang; Duan, Xiao-Chuan; Ren, Wei; Dan Huang; Yin, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the hypothesis that conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX), a novel fatty acid modified anti-cancer drug conjugate, could self-assemble forming nanoparticles. The results indicated that a novel self-assembling nanomedicine, CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 105 nm), with Cremophor EL (CrEL)-free and organic solvent-free characteristics, was prepared by a simple precipitation method. Being the ratio of CLA-PTX:DSPE-PEG was only 1:0.1 (w/w), the higher drug loading CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 90%) possessed carrier-free characteristic. The stability results indicated that CLA-PTX@PEG NPs could be stored for at least 9 months. The safety of CLA-PTX@PEG NPs was demonstrated by the MTD results. The anti-tumor activity and cellular uptake were also confirmed in the in vitro experiments. The lower crystallinity, polarity and solubility of CLA-PTX compared with that of paclitaxel (PTX) might be the possible reason for CLA-PTX self-assembling forming nanoparticles, indicating a relationship between PTX modification and nanoparticles self-assembly. Overall, the data presented here confirm that this drug self-delivery strategy based on self-assembly of a CLA-PTX conjugate may offer a new way to prepare nanomedicine products for cancer therapy involving the relationship between anticancer drug modification and self-assembly into nanoparticles.

  5. Modulation of oxidative stress by γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer mixture in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Dubick, Michael A; Omaye, Stanley T

    2012-06-01

    Individually, γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC), a dipeptide and precursor of glutathione (GSH), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a trans-fatty acid, exhibit antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to compare effects of co-administration of GGC and CLA to treatment with GGC alone on oxidative stress and GSH synthesis in human endothelial cells. Changes in levels of 8-epi-PGF2α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), GSH, total antioxidants, GSH synthetase (GSS) expression, and transcription factor DNA binding were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with GGC alone (100 μmol/L) or combined with CLA isomer mixture (10, 50, 100 μmol/L) for 24h. Significantly higher levels of TBARS, 8-epi-PGF2α, GSH, and GSS protein were found in cells treated with GGC and 10 μmol/L CLA, compared to cells treated with GGC alone, indicative of prooxidant effects of CLA. Approximately 40% cell death was microscopically observed in cells incubated with GGC and 100 μmol/L CLA. Despite lower levels of GSH, treatment with GGC and 50 μmol/L CLA appeared to be protective from oxidative stress similar to treatment with GGC alone, as indicated by lower levels of TBARS, compared to control cells not treated with GGC and CLA.

  6. Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Fan, Yawei; Zhang, Zhiwu; Yu, Hai; An, Yin; Kramer, John K G; Deng, Zeyuan

    2009-03-01

    Human milk was obtained from 97 healthy lactating women from five different regions in China. Twenty-four hour dietary questionnaire identified the foods consumed that showed distinct differences in food types between cities. The southern and central regions had higher levels of total trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in human milk than the northern region. The major isomers in human milk from the northern region were vaccenic and rumenic acids, whereas the other regions had a random distribution of these isomers. This was consistent with the isomer distribution in the refined vegetable oils used and their increased formation during high temperature stir-frying. The human milk composition showed little evidence that partially hydrogenated fats were consumed, except eight mothers in Guangzhou who reported eating crackers, plus four other mothers. The TFA concentration in these human milk samples was higher (2.06-3.96%). The amount of n-6 (1.70-2.24%) and n-3 (0.60-1.47%) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in human milk and the resultant ratio (1.43-2.95) showed all mothers in China had an adequate supply of HUFA in their diet. Rapeseed oil was consumed evidenced by erucic acids in human milk. The levels of erucic acid were below internationally accepted limits for human consumption. The levels of undesirable TFA and CLA isomers in human milk are a concern. Efforts to decrease the practice of high temperature stir-frying using unsaturated oils, and a promotion to increase consumption of dairy and ruminant products should be considered in China.

  7. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) supplementation on the activity of enzymes participating in the formation of arachidonic acid in liver microsomes of rats--probable mechanism of CLA anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Stanimirova, Ivana; Stawarski, Tomasz; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) supplementation on the activity of enzymes that take part in the synthesis of arachidonic acid (AA) and also to investigate the relation between their activity and the neoplastic process. The enzyme activities were established indirectly, because their measure was the amount of AA formed in vitro, being developed from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Spraque-Dawley rats. In addition, the indices of Δ⁶-desaturase (D6D) and Δ⁵-desaturase (D5D) were determined. To this aim, the method of high per-formance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection was used. Between the examined groups, statistically significant differences were observed in the activities of enzymes as well as D6D. The carcinogenic agent applied (DMBA) was found to significantly increase the activity of the examined enzymes. Negative correlation was found between the activities of desaturases and CLA supplementation, whereas the activity of those enzymes was a little higher in the group of rats with chemically induced cancer process. The neoplastic process has a stimulating effect on the activity of D6D. The decrease of D6D activity, resulting from the presence of CLA in the animals' diet, may confirm the anticancer properties of these isomers.

  8. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) on B16-F10 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Du, Ruo; Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Qiang; Song, Ping; Song, Wen-Ding; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC)-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX). The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes' cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 μg/g) and 4 hours (1.17±0.28 μg/g) was 2.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that of CLA-PTX solution at 1 hour (0.79±0.06 μg/g) and 4 hours (0.58±0.04 μg/g). The value of the area under the curve for the first 24 hours in the tumors of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice was significantly higher than that in the SSL-CLA-PTX and CLA-PTX solution-treated groups (P<0.01). The in vivo antitumor results indicated that iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX significantly inhibited

  9. Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) interferes with lipid droplet accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Tworek, Leslee; Poole, Jenna; Zahradka, Peter

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesize that the biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA, have different effects on early and late stages 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Both c9-t11 and t10-c12CLA stimulated early stage pre-adipocyte differentiation (day 2), while t10-c12CLA inhibited late differentiation (day 8) as determined by lipid droplet numbers and both perilipin-1 levels and phosphorylation state. At day 8, the adipokines adiponectin, chemerin and adipsin were all reduced in t10-c12CLA treated cells versus control cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed perilipin-1 was present solely on lipid droplets on day 8 in t10-c12 treated 3T3-L1 cells, whereas preilipin-1 was also located in the perinuclear region in control and c9-t11 treated cells. The t10-c12CLA isomer also decreased levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and inhibited lipolysis. These findings indicate that the decrease in lipid droplets caused by t10-c12CLA is the result of an inhibition of lipid droplet production during adipogenesis rather than a stimulation of lipolysis. Additionally, treatment with Gö6976 blocked the effect of t10-c12CLA on perilipin-1 phosphorylation, implicating PKCα in perilipin-1 phosphorylation, and thus a regulator of triglyceride catabolism. These data are supported by evidence that t10-c12CLA activated PKCα. These are the first data to show that CLA isomers can affect lipid droplet dynamics in adipocytes through PKCα.

  10. A self-assembling nanomedicine of conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX) with higher drug loading and carrier-free characteristic

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ting; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Yang; Duan, Xiao-Chuan; Ren, Wei; Dan Huang; Yin, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the hypothesis that conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX), a novel fatty acid modified anti-cancer drug conjugate, could self-assemble forming nanoparticles. The results indicated that a novel self-assembling nanomedicine, CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 105 nm), with Cremophor EL (CrEL)-free and organic solvent-free characteristics, was prepared by a simple precipitation method. Being the ratio of CLA-PTX:DSPE-PEG was only 1:0.1 (w/w), the higher drug loading CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 90%) possessed carrier-free characteristic. The stability results indicated that CLA-PTX@PEG NPs could be stored for at least 9 months. The safety of CLA-PTX@PEG NPs was demonstrated by the MTD results. The anti-tumor activity and cellular uptake were also confirmed in the in vitro experiments. The lower crystallinity, polarity and solubility of CLA-PTX compared with that of paclitaxel (PTX) might be the possible reason for CLA-PTX self-assembling forming nanoparticles, indicating a relationship between PTX modification and nanoparticles self-assembly. Overall, the data presented here confirm that this drug self-delivery strategy based on self-assembly of a CLA-PTX conjugate may offer a new way to prepare nanomedicine products for cancer therapy involving the relationship between anticancer drug modification and self-assembly into nanoparticles. PMID:27812039

  11. Identification of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers by silver ion-liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry (Ag+-LC/O3-MS).

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenxing; Black, Brenna A; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Gänzle, Michael G; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2013-08-06

    A novel method for the identification of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers has been developed in which silver ion liquid chromatography is coupled to in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry (Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS). The mobile phase containing CLA isomers eluting from the Ag(+)-LC column flows through a length of gas-permeable tubing within an ozone rich environment. Ozone penetrating the tubing wall reacts with the conjugated double bonds forming ozonolysis product aldehydes. These, and their corresponding methanol loss fragment ions formed within the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source, were detected by in-line MS and used for the direct assignment of double bond positions. Assignment of positional isomers is based entirely on the two pairs of diagnostic ions seen in the in-line O3-MS mass spectra. In this way, de novo identification of CLA positional isomers, i.e. without requiring comparison to CLA standards, was achieved. The Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS method was applied to the analysis of CLA isomers in a commercial CLA supplement, milk fat, and the lipid extract from a Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1460 culture. The results demonstrate how Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS can be used for the direct and fast determination of CLA isomers at low concentrations and in complex lipid mixtures.

  12. Trans-10,cis-12-CLA-caused lipodystrophy is associated with profound changes of fatty acid profiles of liver, white adipose tissue and erythrocytes in mice: possible link to tissue-specific alterations of fatty acid desaturation.

    PubMed

    Jaudszus, Anke; Moeckel, Peter; Hamelmann, Eckard; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce body fat mass. To investigate the effects of individual CLA isomers on the fatty acid profiles of lipogenic (liver and white adipose) and lipid sensitive (erythrocyte) tissues, BALB/c mice were fed with 1 of 2 diets supplemented with either a c9,t11-CLA-enriched and t10,c12-CLA-free or a CLA-mixture containing both isomers in equal amounts (1% w/w of the diet) for 5 weeks. A control group was fed with a diet enriched in sunflower oil to energy balance the CLA. Compared to the t10,c12-CLA-free and the control diets, we observed a significant reduction of adipose tissue accompanied by fatty livers in the CLA-mix-fed group. These alterations in body fat distribution entailed a conspicuous shift of the fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue and livers. Liver enlargement was mainly caused by accumulation of C18 monoenes that accounted for 67 ± 1% of total fatty acid methyl esters. The significant reduction of the 18:0/18:1 desaturation index in the liver upon CLA-mix diet indicated high stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity. In contrast, reduction in white adipose tissue was largely driven by percental reduction of monounsaturated fatty acids (p ≤ 0.001). 16:0/ 16:1 and 18:0/18:1 desaturation indices for white adipose tissue significantly increased, suggesting an inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase upon CLA-mix diet. The fatty acid profile of the erythrocytes widely reflected that of livers, depending on the supplemented diet. These profound changes in fatty acid composition of lipogenic organs due to t10,c12-CLA intake may be the consequence of functional alterations of lipid metabolism.

  13. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  14. Metabolic and growth inhibitory effects of conjugated fatty acids in the cell line HT-29 with special regard to the conversion of t11,t13-CLA.

    PubMed

    Degen, Christian; Ecker, Josef; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) exhibit growth inhibitory effects on colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. To investigate whether the anticancerogenic potency depends on number or configuration of the conjugated double bonds, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; C18:2) isomers and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA; C18:3) isomers on viability and growth of HT-29 cells were compared. Low concentrations of CLnAs (<10μM) yielded a higher degree of inhibitory effects compared to CLAs (40μM). All trans-CFAs were more effective compared to cis/trans-CFAs as follows: t9,t11,t13-CLnA≥c9,t11,t13-CLnA>t11,t13-CLA≥t9,t11-CLA>c9,t11-CLA. The mRNA expression analysis of important genes associated with fatty acid metabolism showed an absence of ∆5-/∆6-desaturases and elongases in HT-29 cells, which was confirmed by fatty acid analysis. Using time- and dose-dependent stimulation experiments several metabolites were determined. Low concentrations of all trans-CFAs (5-20μM) led to dose-dependent increase of conjugated t/t-C16:2 formed by β-oxidation of C18 CFAs, ranging from 1-5% of total FAME. Importantly, it was found that CLnA is converted to CLA and that CLA is inter-converted (t11,t13-CLA is metabolized to c9,t11-CLA) by HT-29 cells. In summary, our study shows that growth inhibition of human cancer cells is associated with a specific cellular transcriptomic and metabolic profile of fatty acid metabolism, which might contribute to the diversified ability of CFAs as anti-cancer compounds.

  15. The dietary fatty acid 10E12Z-CLA induces epiregulin expression through COX-2 dependent PGF(2α) synthesis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Sinha, Raghu; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of dietary fatty acids that are widely marketed as weight loss supplements. The isomer responsible for this effect is the trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10E12Z-CLA) isomer. 10E12Z-CLA treatment during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induces expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2). This work demonstrates that COX-2 is also induced in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after a single treatment of 10E12Z-CLA at both the mRNA (20-40 fold) and protein level (7 fold). Furthermore, prostaglandin (PG)F(2α), but not PGE(2), is significantly increased 10 fold. In female BALB/c mice fed 0.5% 10E12Z-CLA for 10 days, COX-2 was induced in uterine adipose (2 fold). In vitro, pharmacological COX-2 inhibition did not block the effect of 10E12Z-CLA on adipocyte-specific gene expression although PGF(2α) was dose-dependently decreased. These studies demonstrate that PGF(2α) was not by itself responsible for the reduction in adipocyte character due to 10E12Z-CLA treatment. However, PGF(2α), either exogenously or endogenously in response to 10E12Z-CLA, increased the expression of the potent mitogen and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) ligand epiregulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Blocking PGF(2α) signaling with the PGF(2α) receptor (FP) antagonist AL-8810 returned epiregulin mRNA levels back to baseline. Although this pathway is not directly responsible for adipocyte dependent gene expression, these results suggest that this signaling pathway may still have broad effect on the adipocyte and surrounding cells.

  16. Vaccenic acid-mediated reduction in cytokine production is independent of c9,t11-CLA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard; Schlörmann, Wiebke; Fischer, Janine; Kramer, Ronny; Degen, Christian; Rohrer, Carsten; Roth, Alexander; Gabriel, Holger; Barz, Dagmar; Gruen, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The ruminant trans fatty acid vaccenic acid (tVA) favorably alters markers of inflammation. However, it is not yet clear whether these effects are attributed to its endogenous partial conversion to c9,t11-CLA, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. We compared the cytokine reducing potential of tVA to c9,t11-CLA in human T-helper (Th) cells as a main source of cytokine production during inflammation. Secondly, we assessed whether a bioconversion of tVA to c9,t11-CLA via stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) encoded activity takes place in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in order to relate the outcomes of intracellular cytokine measurement to the degree of conversion. TVA reduced the percentage of both IL-2 and TNF-α expressing Th cells significantly, but to a lesser extent compared to c9,t11-CLA, as determined by flow cytometry after alloreactive stimulation of PBMC. Pre-treatment with the selective PPARγ antagonist T0070907 largely re-established the IL-2 and TNF-α positive Th cell population in both tVA and c9,t11-CLA treated cultures. Interestingly, while the portion of tVA dose-dependently increased within the cellular lipid fraction, the initially marginal amount of c9,t11-CLA remained unaltered. However, SCD mRNA although abundantly expressed in PBMC was not regulated by tVA. Conclusively, these results suggest that the cytokine reducing effect of tVA in human T cells is independent of c9,t11-CLA, since no bioconversion occurred. Moreover, the data provide evidence that tVA mechanistically acts in a manner similar to c9,t11-CLA.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling by the upregulation of PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-04-01

    Along with its effect on body fat reduction, dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to improve physical activity and endurance capacity in mice. It has been suggested these effects may in part be due to physiological changes in skeletal muscle, however, the mode of action is not completely understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the relevant mechanisms of CLA isomers for mitochondrial biogenesis, one of the most important adaptive responses in skeletal muscle. Both cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA isomers increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), however, only the t10,c12 isomer, but not c9,t11, increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) compared to the control. Among downstream biomarkers of PGC-1α, the CLA mixed isomer enhanced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ). Both c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers increased expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), while the c9,t11 increased expression of cytochrome c (Cyt C) and t10,c12 CLA increased expression of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), respectively. Both CLA isomers significantly increased mitochondrial DNA copy number compared to that of control. These findings suggest that the individual CLA isomers potentiate mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α-NRF-1-Tfam signaling cascade, although downstream regulation may be isomer dependent.

  18. Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in the Milk Fate from Qingphai Yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk and the milk products of yak (Bos grunniens) are major ingredients in the daily diets of Tibetan herders while dairy products from Bos taurus breeds are important dietary components in the U.S. Also, genetic advantages in yak milk fatty acid profiles might benefit to dairy production in the...

  19. Determination by GC×GC of fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer profiles in six selected tissues of lambs fed on pasture or on indoor diets with and without rumen-protected CLA.

    PubMed

    Pellattiero, Erika; Cecchinato, Alessio; Tagliapietra, Franco; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2015-01-28

    In this study GC×GC was used to study the effects of pasture, hay, concentrate (indoor), and indoor plus 8 g/day of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (indoor-CLA) diets on the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of six tissues (muscles, fatty tissues, and liver) collected from 36 lambs. This powerful technique allowed the quantification of 128 FAs, of which 21 SFAs, 16 MUFAs, 19 PUFAs were identified by reference standards. The diets had similar, but not identical, effects on FA profiles (g/100 g FA) in the various tissues, as both indoor diets reduced total PUFAs (from 8.91 ± 6.27 to 8.06 ± 5.97; p < 0.05) and n-3 PUFAs (from 2.70 ± 2.37 to 1.50 ± 1.69; p < 0.01) and increased n-6 PUFA (from 3.76 ± 2.46 to 4.58 ± 3.42; p < 0.01), branched (from 2.37 ± 2.05 to 3.23 ± 0.54; p < 0.01), odd-chain FAs (from 5.88 ± 5.33 to 7.07 ± 1.51; p < 0.01) compared to pasture. Indoor-CLA increased CLAc9,t11 (from 0.42 ± 0.13 to 0.53 ± 0.19; p < 0.01), CLAt10,c12 (from 0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.12 ± 0.22; p < 0.05), and CLAc11,t13 (from 0.02 ± 0.04 to 0.05 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) compared to indoor.

  20. Effects of two supplementation levels of linseed combined with CLA or tallow on meat quality traits and fatty acid profile of adipose and different muscle tissues in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Bee, G; Jacot, S; Guex, G; Biolley, C

    2008-05-01

    Dietary linseed supply efficiently elevates the linolenic acid concentration of pork. The main problem of increasing the n-3 fatty acid tissue levels arises from a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Increasing the saturation level of tissue lipids by the dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) or tallow might prevent oxidation. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of dietary CLA or tallow supplementation combined with extruded linseed on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of muscles (longissimus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) and subcutaneous fat (SF). The enzyme activity of the de novo lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in the SF was also assessed. From 18 to 104 kg BW, 32 Swiss Large White barrows were fed a diet supplemented with either: (1) 2% linseed (L2); (2) 3% linseed (L3); (3) 2% linseed + 1% CLA (L2-C) or (4) 2% linseed + 1% tallow (L2-T). The linolenic and eicosatrienoic acid concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) and the ∑n-6/∑n-3 ratio was lower (P < 0.01) in all tissues of L3 than L2 and L2-T barrows. Only in the SF the docosapentaenoic acid concentration was increased (P < 0.01) in L3 barrows. Compared with the other three diets, feeding the L2-C diets increased (P < 0.01) the amount of myristic, palmitic, stearic and palmitoleic acid at the expense of the oleic and eicosenoic acid content in the intramuscular and SF lipids. Except for the lower (P < 0.05) eicosadienoic acid concentration in the muscles, feeding the L2-C treatment resulted in similar polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and ∑n-6/∑n-3 ratio than feeding L2 or L2-T diets. Both the c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA isomers found in the CLA-supplemented diet were also detected in the tissues, but the c9,t11-isomer was more abundant than the t10,c12-isomer. De novo lipogenesis was not (P > 0.05) affected by the dietary fats, whereas Δ9-desaturase activity was depressed (P < 0.05) by CLA inclusion (L2-C

  1. [Bioconversion of conjugated linoleic acid by resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 in potassium phosphate buffer system].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-yan; Chen, Wei; Tian, Feng-wei; Zhao, Jian-xin; Zhang, Hao

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, which was screened from the Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, has the capacity to convert the linoleic acid (LA) into conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Some specific isomers of CLA with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from free linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 under aerobic conditions. The produced CLA isomers are identified as the mixture of cis-9, trans-ll-octadecadienoic acid (CLA1) trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (CLA2), 96.4% of which is CLA1. The washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 producing high levels of c9, t11-CLA were obtained by cultivated in MRS media containing 0.5 mg/mL linoleic acid, indicating that the enzyme system for CLA production is induced by linoleic acid. After a 24-hour bioconversion at 37 degrees C with shaking (120 r/min), 312.4 microg/mL c9, t11-CLA is produced. And after a 36-hour bioconversion, the content of c9, t11-CLA decreases while hydroxy-octadecaenoic acid increases. In addition, the c9, t11-CLA isomer can be transformed to hydroxy- octadecaenoic acid when the mixed CLA (c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA) were used as the substrate, which suggests that c9, t11-CLA is one of the intermediates of the bioconversion products from free LA by washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058.

  2. Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, fails to attenuate CLA-induced milk fat depression and hepatic lipid accumulation in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Diwakar; Teter, Beverly B; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Erdman, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the combination of rosiglitazone (ROSI) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on mammary and hepatic lipogenesis in lactating C57Bl/6 J mice. Twenty-four lactating mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatments applied from postpartum day 6 to day 10. Treatments included: (1) control diet, (2) control plus 1.5 % dietary CLA (CLA) substituted for soybean oil, (3) control plus daily intra-peritoneal (IP) rosiglitazone injections (10 mg/kg body weight) (ROSI), and (4) CLA plus ROSI (CLA-ROSI). Dam food intake and milk fat concentration were depressed with CLA. However, no effects were observed with ROSI. The CLA-induced milk fat depression was due to reduced expression for mammary lipogenic genes involved in de-novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, FA uptake and desaturation, and triacyglycerol synthesis. Liver weight (g/100 g body weight) was increased by CLA due to an increase in lipid accumulation triggering a compensatory reduction in mRNA abundance of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase I and stearoyl-CoA desaturase I. On the contrary, no effects were observed with ROSI on hepatic and mammary lipogenic gene and enzyme expression. Overall, feeding CLA to lactating mice induced milk fat depression and increased hepatic lipid accumulation, probably due to the presence of trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, while ROSI failed to significantly attenuate both hepatic steatosis and reduction in milk fat content.

  3. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patricia L; Karakach, Tobias K; Currie, Deborah L; McLeod, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/-) and LDLr(-/-) mice) we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area), was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix) supplementation in both apoE(-/-) (p<0.05, n = 11) and LDLr(-/-) mice (p<0.01, n = 10). Principal component analysis was utilized to delineate the influence of multiple plasma and tissue metabolites on the development of atherosclerosis. Group clustering by dietary supplementation was evident, with the t-10, c-12 CLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/-) strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (p<0.05, n = 10), triglyceride (p<0.01, n = 10) and cholesterol ester content (p<0.01, n = 10). Furthermore, t-10, c-12 CLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  5. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid reduces hepatic triacylglycerol content without affecting lipogenic enzymes in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Amaia; Churruca, Itziar; Macarulla, M Teresa; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo, María P

    2004-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to the positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid. The dietary intake of CLA has been associated with changes in lipid metabolism. The aim of the present work was to assess the effects of the two main isomers of CLA on sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c mRNA levels, as well as on mRNA levels and the activities of several lipogenic enzymes in liver. For this purpose hamsters were fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with 5 g linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 or trans-10,cis-12 CLA/kg diet for 6 weeks. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer intake produced significantly greater liver weight, but also significantly decreased liver fat accumulation. No changes in mRNA levels of SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and lipogenic enzymes, or in the activities of these enzymes, were observed. There was no effect of feeding cis-9,trans-11 CLA. These results suggest that increased fat accumulation in liver does not occur on the basis of liver enlargement produced by feeding the trans-10,cis-12 isomer of CLA in hamsters. The reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol content induced by this isomer was not attributable to changes in lipogenesis.

  6. Human breast milk enrichment in conjugated linoleic acid after consumption of a conjugated linoleic acid-rich food product: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Moutsioulis, Athena A; Rule, Daniel C; Murrieta, Charles M; Bauman, Dale E; Lock, Adam L; Barbano, David M; Carey, Gale B

    2008-07-01

    Human breast milk is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Some compounds, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), come partly from the mother's diet and are produced by the mother's body and secreted into the milk. Although several studies have examined the effect of chronic CLA supplementation on breast milk CLA appearance, little is known about the transfer of food CLA to breast milk over the short term. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary analysis of the kinetics of CLA appearance in breast milk over the short term. Seven women expressed breast milk at 4- to 6-hour intervals for 2 days after eating either CLA-enriched (1912 mg CLA) or control (231 mg CLA) cookies. Milk samples were freeze-dried, fatty acid methyl esters were prepared using methanolic-potassium hydroxide (KOH), and CLA isomers were quantified by gas chromatography. Analysis revealed the following: (1) CLA enrichment of total fatty acids in the breast milk for 48 hours post ingestion of the CLA-enriched cookies was 2.9-fold above control; (2) total breast milk CLA content for 48 hours post CLA-enriched cookies ingestion was 46% greater than post CLA-moderate cookies ingestion; (3) after ingestion of the CLA-enriched cookies, breast milk CLA enrichment plateaued between 8 to 28 hours. This preliminary study suggests that breast milk fatty acids are enriched in CLA compared to control within 28 hours after the ingestion of a CLA-rich food product and invites further research on the extent and timing with which breast milk composition reflects dietary CLA content.

  7. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  8. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on color and lipid oxidation of beef patties during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Ye, B W; Lee, J L; Ha, Y L; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2004-04-01

    The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on color and lipid oxidation of beef patties were investigated. Ground beef was divided into three batches. The control patties were prepared with 90% lean meat and 10% tallow. The second treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 9.5% tallow+0.5% CLA sources. The third treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 8% tallow+2% CLA sources. The patties were wrap-packaged and then stored at 4° for 14 days. The CLA concentration significantly increased (P<0.05) by substituting CLA sources for fat. Storage of the patties did not alter the CLA concentration in beef patties. The treatment substituted with CLA sources had significantly lower TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) values (P<0.05) than the control. For oxymyoglobin contents and a* value, substituted CLA sources treatments had significantly higher values than the control. However, L* value significantly increased by substituting CLA sources for fat.

  9. Individual CLA Isomers, c9t11 and t10c12, Prevent Excess Liver Glycogen Storage and Inhibit Lipogenic Genes Expression Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maslak, Edyta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Szumny, Antoni; Szczepnski, Wojciech; Franczyk-Zarow, Magdalena; Kopec, Aneta; Chlopicki, Stefan; Leszczynska, Teresa; Kostogrys, Renata B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of individual conjugated linoleic acid isomers, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and systemic endothelial dysfunction in rats fed for four weeks with control or high-fructose diet. The high-fructose diet hampered body weight gain (without influencing food intake), increased liver weight and glycogen storage in hepatocytes, upregulated expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the liver. Both CLA isomers prevented excessive accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Specifically, t10c12-CLA decreased concentration of serum triacylglycerols and LDL + VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol, and affected liver lipid content and fatty acid composition by downregulation of liver SCD-1 and FAS expression. In turn, the c9t11-CLA decreased LDL+VLDL cholesterol in the control group and downregulated liver expression of FAS without significant effects on liver weight, lipid content, and fatty acid composition. In summary, feeding rats with a high-fructose diet resulted in increased liver glycogen storage, indicating the induction of gluconeogenesis despite simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Although both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12) display hepatoprotective activity, the hypolipemic action of the t10c12-CLA isomer proved to be more pronounced than that of c9t11-CLA.

  10. X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering study of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) chloranilic acid (CLA) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, M.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Sobczyk, L.; Pawlukojć, A.; Grech, E.; Wischnewski, A.; Zamponi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The DMP · CLA and DMP · CLA-d 2 crystals below 100 K are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c with four molecules in the unit cells. Infinite chains of hydrogen bonded counterparts are formed with O⋯N distances equal to 2.767(2) and 2.639(2) for non-deuterated DMP · CLA. Deuteration leads to the Ubbelohlde effect particularly well manifested in the second short O-H⋯N bridge (elongation by ca. 0.02 Å). In the IR spectra a Hadži's trio of the broad absorption is observed characteristic of strong hydrogen bonds. In the INS spectra the vibrational density of states and methyl rotational tunnel splittings were determined. The temperature dependence of tunneling bands enabled to make mode assignments and to determine the methyl rotational potentials. Comparison of the results to the pure electron donor DMP was made and the difference found can be almost completely assigned to the steric changes of the environment. A weak isotope effect with deuteration of the OH⋯N bridges of the DMP · CLA complex is assigned to a charge transfer of δe/ e = 0.006.

  11. CLA Wrestles with the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrocks, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Report on the 1992 Canadian Library Association (CLA) conference discusses plans for a national summit on information policy, the current situation of public libraries, updating of policy statements, and strengthening CLA. CLA officers and awards are listed. (MES)

  12. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    acids. It was found that CLA neither acts as a radical scavenger nor is it converted into a metal chelator in the Fe2 +- ion dependent oxidative reaction...damage, irrespective of its effect on tissue malondial- dehyde levels. These observations were made under conditions of constitutive as well as induced...these observations we are now focusing our efforts on determining the effects of CLA on manmmary gland development and the pathogenetically definable

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).

    PubMed

    Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou

    2015-02-01

    Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty acid to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty acid profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could

  14. CLA reduces inflammatory mediators from A427 human lung cancer cells and A427 conditioned medium promotes differentiation of C2C12 murine muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Oraldi, Manuela; Maggiora, Marina; Paiuzzi, Elena; Canuto, Rosa A; Muzio, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is thought to have anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cancer cachexia is unknown. Two effects were here investigated: that of CLA on inflammatory mediator production in human lung cancer cells, and that of reduced mediators on the myogenic differentiation of murine muscle C2C12 cells. The latter cells were grown in medium conditioned by human lung cancer A427 cells, with or without CLA, to mimic only the effect of molecules released from the tumor "in vivo", excluding the effect of host-produced cachectic factors. The results obtained show that CLA was found to reduce the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but had no effect on IL-6 production. The mechanisms underlying the effect of CLA on cytokine or PGE2 release in A427 cells are probably mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, which increased at 24 h CLA treatment. In turn, the reduced content of inflammatory mediators in medium conditioned by A427 cells, in the presence of CLA, allowed muscle cells to proliferate, again by inducing PPAR. The involvement of PPARα was demonstrated by treatment with the antagonist MK-886. The findings demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and myogenic action of CLA and point to its possible application as a novel dietary supplement and therapeutic agent in inflammatory disease states, such as cachexia.

  15. DFT calculations of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (CLA): Comparison to INS, IR and Raman vibration spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlukojć, A.; Sobczyk, L.; Prager, M.; Bator, G.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2008-12-01

    The inelastic neutron scattering (INS), infrared and Raman spectra of crystalline 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (26DMP·CLA) were measured. Simultaneously the DFT calculations of the molecular structures and frequencies of the normal vibrations were performed by using various functionals. The INS spectra were simulated in the energy range up to 1200 cm -1, on the basis of the calculated frequencies. A very good conformity was obtained between experimental and calculated data with respect to the structure as well as to frequencies, with exception, however, of the CH 3 torsional modes. The structural analysis based on the deviation from the sum of the van der Waals radii showed that the packing of the methyl groups in the 26DMP·CLA complex was markedly stronger than that in the neat 26DMP. However, the DFT calculations overestimated the role of this effect that may be due to a limitation of the applied methods. In addition the anharmonicity of the rotational potential led to the librational energies different from those obtained using a harmonic potential.

  16. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF

  17. Adipocyte membrane glycerol permeability is involved in the anti-adipogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Martins, Susana V; Madeira, Ana; Lopes, Paula A; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Prates, José A M; Moura, Teresa; Soveral, Graça

    2015-03-06

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a group of minor fatty acids from ruminant origin, has long been recognized as a body fat lowering agent. Given the trans(t)10,cis(c)12-CLA well documented interference on lipolysis, we hypothesized for adipocytes altered permeation to glycerol when supplemented with this isomer. 3T3-L1 murine differentiated adipocytes were medium supplemented with linoleic acid (LA) and individual or combined c9,t11 and t10,c12-CLA isomers. Adipocytes treated with the t10,c12-CLA isomer and CLA mixture showed reduced triacylglycerols content (p < 0.001), re-enforcing the t10,c12-CLA as the anti-adipogenic CLA isomer. This finding was supported by decreased Δ9-desaturase index and adipocyte differentiation markers for the t10,c12-CLA group (p < 0.001), which suggest reduced lipogenesis and differentiation, respectively. The glycerol permeability was higher in all CLA treated cells compared to control and LA groups (p < 0.05). The increase in glycerol permeability agrees with both reduced triacylglycerols and non-osmotic cellular volume in the t10,c12-CLA and CLA mixture groups. Taken together, our data suggest that the increased adipocyte plasma membrane glycerol fluxes may be part of the anti-adipogenic response to CLA treatments.

  18. Trans-10,cis-12-CLA dysregulate lipid and glucose metabolism and induce hepatic NR4A receptors.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria A; Badimon, Lina; Rodriguez, Cristina; Arnal, Carmen; Noone, Enda J; Roche, Helen M; Osada, Jesus; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of two isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA), on glucose metabolism and hepatic expression of NR4A receptors, key transcription factors regulating gluconeogenesis. ApoE-deficient mice were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous westernized diets enriched with c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA or linoleic acid (control diet). Plasma glucose, NEFA, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the t10,c12-CLA group compared with c9,t11-CLA or control group. Plasma insulin concentrations were lowered by c9,t11-CLA compared with either control or t10,c12-CLA group. Hepatic expression of NR4A receptors (Nur77, Nurr1 and NOR-1) was induced by t10,c12-CLA while c9,t11-CLA had not effect. Consistently t10,c12-CLA up-regulated key genes involved in gluconeogenesis including glucose-6-phosphatase, enolase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase. Hepatic expression of NR4A receptors correlated with plasma NEFA, with the expression of their target gene fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36 and with the accumulation of fat in the liver. These results suggest that t10,c12-CLA promote dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, at least in part, by an isomer-specific modulation of hepatic expression of NR4A receptors.

  19. Three hen strains fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk accumulation rates and source-specific isomer deposition.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2015-04-01

    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation.

  20. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Human Adipocyte Delipidation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu; Fabiyi, Olowatoyin; Morrison, Ron F.; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease in triglyceride content, insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid uptake, incorporation into lipid, and oxidation compared with controls. In parallel, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and many of its downstream targets were diminished by trans-10, cis-12 CLA, whereas leptin gene expression was increased. Prior to changes in gene expression and metabolism, trans-10, cis-12 CLA caused a robust and sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling. Furthermore, the trans-10, cis-12 CLA-mediated activation of MEK/ERK could be attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and pertussis toxin. In parallel, pretreatment with U0126 blocked the ability of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to alter gene expression and attenuate glucose and fatty acid uptake of the cultures. Intriguingly, the induction by CLA of MEK/ERK signaling was linked to hypersecretion of adipocytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that trans-10, cis-12 CLA decreases the triglyceride content of newly differentiated human adipocytes by inducing MEK/ERK signaling through the autocrine/paracrine actions of interleukins-6 and 8. PMID:15067015

  1. Advances in research on cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid: a major functional conjugated linoleic acid isomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of linoleic acid. Since the identification of CLA as a factor that can inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, thousands of studies have been conducted in the last several decades. Among the many isomers discovered, cis-9, trans-11 CLA is the most intensively studied because of its multiple, isomer-specific effects in humans and animals. This paper provides an overview of the available data on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, including its isomer-specific effects, biosynthesis, in vivo/in vitro research models, quantification, and the factors influencing its content in ruminant products.

  2. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  3. CLA Reaches beyond Its Borders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrocks, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the activities at the Canadian Library Association (CLA) 1992 annual conference. Topics discussed include First Nations libraries; help for third world countries; censorship; IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) activities; financial concerns of CLA; publishing plans; work on a national information…

  4. Short communication: Effects of milk fat depression induced by a dietary supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on properties of semi-hard goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Chen, S X; Rovai, M; Lock, A L; Bauman, D E; Gipson, T A; Ren, F Z; Zeng, S S

    2009-06-01

    Dietary supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduce milk fat synthesis in lactating goats. This study investigated effects of milk fat depression induced by dietary CLA supplements on the properties of semi-hard goat cheese. Thirty Alpine does were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups and fed diets with lipid-encapsulated CLA that provided trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 0 (control), 3 (CLA-1), and 6 g/d (CLA-2). The experiment was a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Periods were 2 wk in length, each separated by 2-wk periods without CLA supplements. Bulk milk was collected on d 3 and 13 of each of 3 periods for cheese manufacture. The largest decrease (23.2%) in milk fat content, induced by the high dosage (6 g/d per doe) of trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplementation at d 13 of treatment, resulted in decreases of cheese yield and moisture of 10.2 and 10.0%, respectively. Although CLA supplementation increased the hardness, springiness, and chewiness, and decreased the cohesiveness and adhesiveness of cheeses, no obvious defects were detected and no significant differences were found in sensory scores among cheeses. In conclusion, milk fat depression induced by a dietary CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA resulted in changes of fat-to-protein ratio in cheese milk and consequently affected properties of semi-hard goat cheese.

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid pork research.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Kramer, John K G

    2004-06-01

    The driving force behind most conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) research in swine has been related to potential improvements in animal production. Early work that used rodent models indicated that feeding CLA could potentially reduce body fat, increase lean content, increase growth rate, and improve feed conversion efficiency. Producer-backed funding organizations were, therefore, receptive to proposals to extend this research to pigs, and many studies have been completed worldwide. In general, improvements in body composition were found, but evidence indicating that CLA improves growth rate or feed conversion was limited. Inclusion of CLA into pig diets was, however, shown to increase muscle marbling fat and fat hardness, and both of these characteristics have the potential to increase carcass value. Currently, Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik AG (BASF) has the international marketing license to include synthetic CLA in animal feeds, but to date this practice is not approved in Canada or the United States. If and when approval is granted, the next step in realizing CLA's economic potential would be to seek approval for claiming CLA enrichment in pork and pork products. Given the ability of swine to accumulate relatively high amounts of CLA in their tissues, pork and pork products could become an important vehicle for delivery of physiologically significant amounts of CLA to consumers.

  6. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. PMID:25309587

  7. Hydrogen bonded NHO chains formed by chloranilic acid (CLA) with 4,4‧-di-t-butyl-2,2‧-bipyridyl (dtBBP) in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bator, G.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Sobczyk, L.; Owczarek, M.; Pawlukojć, A.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2012-01-01

    In crystalline state 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid, CLA) forms with 4,4'-di-t-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (dtBBP) the hydrogen bonded chains along the b-axis. From one side of the CLA molecule the proton transfer takes place and the hydrogen bond length is very short (2.615 Å). A continuous infrared absorption is observed for dtBBP·CLA in the wavenumber range between 3100 and 800 cm -1 also indicating the strong hydrogen bonds. The DSC measurements show a weak, close to continuous, phase transition at 414 K. The complex dielectric permittivity for a single crystal sample was measured in the temperature range 100-440 K and at frequencies between 200 Hz and 2 MHz. The dielectric response is a combination of semiconducting properties and a relaxation process most probably connected with the proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds. The mechanism of the structural phase transition is discussed.

  8. Grazing increases the concentration of CLA in dairy cow milka.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, M N; Kanneganti, R; Massingill, L J; Broderick, G A; Park, Y; Pariza, M W; Ferguson, J D; Wu, Z

    2014-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether increased CLA in milk of dairy cows fed fresh pasture compared with alfalfa and corn silages was because of ruminal or endogenous synthesis. Eight Holsteins were fed a total mixed ration using alfalfa and corn silages as the forage source in confinement or grazed in a replicated crossover design. The proportion of total fatty acids as CLA (primarily c9, t11-18:2) in g/100 g was 0.44 v. 0.28 in ruminal digesta, 0.89 v. 0.53 in omasal digesta and 0.71 v. 1.06 in milk during confinement feeding and grazing, respectively. Blood plasma CLA was 0.54 v. 1.05 mg/l for the two treatments, respectively. The increased concentration of CLA in milk with grazing likely resulted from increased synthesis through desaturation of t11-18:1 in the mammary gland.

  9. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei; Shen, Sheng-rong; Ruan, Hui; Zhou, Qian; Ma, Liu-liu; He, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines. Of these isolates, lp15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 µg/ml of linoleic acid (LA). Compared to other strains, L. plantarum strain lp15 showed the highest tolerance upon increased levels of LA in the medium, i.e., up to 600 µg/ml. This strain converted about 25% of LA into CLA isomers [predominantly cis-9, trans-11 CLA (9-CLA) and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10-CLA)], of which 75% was 9-CLA. Interestingly, though the conversion rate of LA into CLA by lp15 remained stable between 100 to 600 µg/ml LA levels in the medium, it dropped sharply at 1000 µg/ml. Taken together, the lp15 strain displayed relatively high LA tolerance with higher conversion rate, which implies that this strain is a valuable candidate for enhancing the CLA content in food-sources like pickles. PMID:22042657

  10. Differences in CLA isomer distribution of cow's milk lipids.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jana; Collomb, Marius; Möckel, Peter; Sieber, Robert; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    The uniqueness of ruminant milk lipids is based on their high concentration of CLA. Maximal CLA concentrations in milk lipids require optimal conditions of ruminal fermentation and substrate availability, conditions like those present in pasture-fed cows. Our previous work showed that farm management (indoor feeding vs. pasture feeding) markedly influenced the CLA concentration. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the farm management system as dependent on different locations. Milk samples from different locations (Thuringia and the Alps, representing diverse altitudes) were collected during the summer months and analyzed for FA profile and CLA isomer distribution. The proportion of PUFA and total CLA in milk fat was significantly lower in milk from indoor cows compared with the pasture cows in the Alps. The trans-11 18:1 in milk fat of Alpine cows was elevated, in contrast to lower values for trans-10 18:1. Milk from cows grazing pasture in the Alps was higher in EPA and lower in arachidonic acid than milk from indoor-fed cows. The proportion of cis,trans/trans,cis isomers of CLA was 10 times higher from the indoor cows than from the Alpine cows. In addition to the major isomer cis-9,trans-11, this difference also occurred for the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, which represented more than a fourth of the total CLA present in milk fat. This is the first report showing a special isomer distribution in the milk fat of cows living under very natural conditions. We hypothesize that the CLA isomer trans-11,cis-13 is formed in large quantity as a result of grazing mountain pasture, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid.

  11. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls.

  12. trans-trans Conjugated linoleic acid enriched soybean oil reduces fatty liver and lowers serum cholesterol in obese zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, William; Gadang, Vidya; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal; Devareddy, Latha

    2011-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collection of octadecadienoic fatty acids that have been shown to possess numerous health benefits. The CLA used in our study was produced by the photoisomerization of soybean oil and consists of about 20% CLA; this CLA consists of 75% trans-trans (a mixture of t8,t10; t9,t11; t10,t12) isomers. This method could be readily used to increase the CLA content of all soybean oil used as a food ingredient. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil, fed as a dietary supplement, on body composition, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and markers of glucose control and liver function of obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil lowered the serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by 41 and 50%, respectively, when compared to obese controls. Trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil supplementation also lowered the liver lipid content significantly (P < 0.05) with a concomitant decrease in the liver weight in the obese rats. In addition, glycated hemoglobin values were improved in the group receiving CLA-enriched soybean oil in comparison to the obese control. PPAR-γ expression in white adipose tissue was unchanged. In conclusion, trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil was effective in lowering total liver lipids and serum cholesterol.

  13. Fatty acid profile, trans-octadecenoic, α-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Florence, Ana Carolina R; Béal, Catherine; Silva, Roberta C; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Pilleggi, Ana Lucia O S; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-12-15

    Development of dairy organic probiotic fermented products is of great interest as they associate ecological practices and benefits of probiotic bacteria. As organic management practices of cow milk production allow modification of the fatty acid composition of milk (as compared to conventional milk), we studied the influence of the type of milk on some characteristics of fermented milks, such as acidification kinetics, bacterial counts and fatty acid content. Conventional and organic probiotic fermented milks were produced using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340. The use of organic milk led to a higher acidification rate and cultivability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Fatty acids profile of organic fermented milks showed higher amounts of trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1, 1.6 times) and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including cis-9 trans-11, C18:2 conjugated linoleic (CLA-1.4 times), and α-linolenic acids (ALA-1.6 times), as compared to conventional fermented milks. These higher levels were the result of both initial percentage in the milk and increase during acidification, with no further modification during storage. Finally, use of bifidobacteria slightly increased CLA relative content in the conventional fermented milks, after 7 days of storage at 4°C, whereas no difference was seen in organic fermented milks.

  14. Oleic acid attenuates trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated inflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10,cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a δ-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 days, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis.

  15. Modulation of Oxidative Stress by Gamma-Glutamylcysteine (GGC) and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomer Mixture in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-02

    treatment and pooled. Then, cells were suspended and lysed with a hypotonic buffer and 10% (w/v) Nonidet P - 40 . After spinning, the cell pellet was re...imately 40 % cell death was microscopically observed in cells incubated with GGC and 100 lmol/L CLA. Despite lower levels of GSH, treatment with GGC... p < 0.05 were considered to be sta- tistically significant. All results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. 3. Results 3.1. Cell viability

  16. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions. PMID:20219103

  17. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  18. Studies on the production of conjugated linoleic acid from linoleic and vaccenic acids by mixed rumen protozoa.

    PubMed

    Or-Rashid, Mamun M; AlZahal, Ousama; McBride, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the capability of mixed rumen protozoa to synthesize conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic (LA) and vaccenic acids (VA). Rumen contents were collected from fistulated cows. The protozoal fraction was separated and washed several times with MB9 buffer and then resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The suspensions were anaerobically incubated up to 18 h at 38.5 degrees C with substrates in the presence (P-AB) or the absence of antibacterial-agents (P-No-AB). Neither P-AB nor P-No-AB suspensions were capable of producing CLA from VA (11t-18:1). Linoleic acid was catabolized by P-No-AB to a greater extent than P-AB. Different isomers of CLA were synthesized by P-AB from LA. The 9c11t-CLA was predominant. Thirty seven percent of the maximum accumulated 9c11t-CLA was found in the P-AB suspension as early as 0.1 h into the incubation period. Accumulation of 10t12c-CLA in P-AB suspension was approximately 10.0 times lower than that of 9c11t-CLA. There were no significant productions of VA, 10t-18:1, and 18:0 in P-AB compared with the control, indicating that rumen protozoa have no ability to biohydrogenate CLA isomers. On the other hand, the concentrations of 10t-18:1, VA, and 18:0 in P-No-AB were greater (P < 0.05) compared with those in P-AB, indicating the role of symbiotic bacteria associated with P-No-AB in biohydrogenating CLA isomers. We concluded that mixed rumen protozoa are capable of synthesizing CLA from LA through isomerization reactions. However, they are incapable of metabolizing CLA further. They are also incapable of vaccenic acid biohydrogenation and/or desaturation.

  19. Amino acid contents of infant foods.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Lourdes; Alegría, Amparo; Farré, Rosaura

    2006-01-01

    The protein quality of three milk-cereal-based infant foods (paps) was evaluated by determining their amino acid contents and calculating the amino acid score. Proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which cysteine and methionine were oxidized with performic acid. Amino acids were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection with a prior derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. Tryptophan was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection after basic hydrolysis. Glutamic acid, proline and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tryptophan and cysteine had the lowest contents. Tryptophan was the limiting amino acid in the analyzed infant foods. A pap serving (250 ml) contributes significantly to fulfillment of the recommended dietary allowances of essential and semi-essential amino acids for infants (7-12 months old) and young children (1-3 years old).

  20. Screening of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid in milk and to adhere to the intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Castañeda, J; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Astiazarán-García, H; Garcia, H S; Estrada-Montoya, M C; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to provide beneficial effects on health; however, the amount consumed in food is far from that required for the desired effects. Thus, increasing the CLA content in dairy foods through milk fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers an interesting alternative. Moreover, some LAB may be able to adhere to the intestinal mucosa and produce CLA through endogenous synthesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to screen LAB isolates for their ability to produce CLA in skim milk and in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Additionally, the ability of selected CLA-producing LAB to adhere to the intestinal mucosa in a murine model was assessed. Results showed that of 13 strains of Lactobacillus tested, only 4 were able to produce CLA in skim milk supplemented with linoleic acid (13.44 ± 0.78 to 50.9 ± 0.26 µg/mL). Furthermore, these 4 Lactobacillus strains were able to survive and produce CLA in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and to adhere to the intestinal mucosa of Wistar rats after 7 d of oral inoculation with fluorescently labeled bacteria. Accordingly, these 4 Lactobacillus strains may be used to manufacture fermented dairy foods to increase CLA content, and consumption of these fermented milks may result in CLA produced endogenously by these LAB.

  1. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

  2. A comparison between CLNA and CLA effects on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J; Fernández-Quintela, A; Macarulla, M T; Churruca, I; García, C; Rodríguez, V M; Simón, E; Portillo, M P

    2009-03-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as an anti-obesity molecule for humans is still a matter for debate. Thus, a great deal of scientific work is focussed on the research of new effective molecules without deleterious effects on health. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effects of jacaranda seed oil, rich in a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA), jacaric acid (cis-8,trans-10,cis-12), on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition in rats, and to compare these effects with those of trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Twenty-six male Wistar rats were divided into three groups fed with high-fat diets, supplemented or not (control group) with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA group) or 0.5% jacaric acid (CLNA group) for 7 weeks. No statistical differences in food intake or in final body weight were found. Whereas CLA reduced adipose tissue size, CLNA did not. Both CLA and CLNA significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol. In spite of a lack of significant changes in glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR index was significantly increased, as well as did non-esterified fatty acid levels in CLNA-fed rats. No changes in liver composition were observed. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, jacaric acid, unlike CLA, does not show a body-fat lowering effect. Even though it leads to a healthy lipoprotein profile, it impairs insulin function. Consequently, it cannot be proposed as an anti-obesity molecule.

  3. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and high-oleic sunflower oil on performance and egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C; García-Rebollar, P; Cachaldora, P; Méndez, J; de Blas, J C

    2005-02-01

    (1) Laying hen performance, yolk fatty acid (FA) concentrations, sensory quality and firmness of eggs were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO). (2) Nine diets were arranged factorially, with three concentrations of CIA (0, 1 and 2 g/kg) and HOSO (10, 20 and 30 g/kg). (3) Type of diet did not affect egg production traits. (4) Dietary addition of CLA decreased yolk lipid content and yolk lipid concentrations of monounsaturated FA, C(20:4 n-6) and C(22:6 n-3), but increased those of CLA and saturated FA. (5) Dietary addition of HOSO increased monounsaturated FA concentrations in the yolk lipid but decreased those of CLA and saturated FA. (6) CLA supplementation increased yolk moisture and firmness and impaired the sensory quality of eggs. (7) An interaction between CLA and HOSO addition was found as effects of CLA addition on yolk lipid CLA concentrations and egg quality traits were smaller when the amount of HOSO in the diet increased. (8) Regression equations have been calculated in order to predict yolk CLA and C(18:1), concentration from dietary composition, and yolk firmness from yolk FA composition.

  4. Lecithin-Based Nano-emulsification Improves the Bioavailability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-02-17

    In this study, we investigated the effects of lecithin-based nano-emulsification on the heat stability and bioavailability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) forms. CLA nano-emulsion in TG form exhibited a small droplet size (70-120 nm) compared to CLA nano-emulsion in FFA form (230-260 nm). Nano-emulsification protected CLA isomers in TG form, but not in free form, against thermal decomposition during the heat treatment. The in vitro bioavailability test using monolayers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells showed that nano-emulsification increased the cellular uptake of CLA in both FFA and TG forms. More importantly, a rat feeding study showed that CLA content in small intestinal tissues or plasma was higher when CLA was emulsified, indicating an enhanced oral bioavailability of CLA by nano-emulsification. These results provide important information for development of nano-emulsion-based delivery systems that improve thermal stability and bioavailability of CLA.

  5. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  6. [Analysis of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat by capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Shen, Xiangzhen; Han, Hangru; Zhao, Ruqian; Chen, Jie

    2006-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a term representing a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with a conjugated double bond system. Conjugated linoleic acid has attracted a great deal of interest among nutritionists because it is a natural fat component that appears to have a number of health improvement properties. The cis-9, trans-11-CLA is the major CLA isomer found in dairy products accounting for 75% to 90% of the total CLA in milk fat. A capillary gas chromatographic method equipped with a flame ionization detector for the analysis of the cis-9, trans-11-CLA in milk fat was developed. The cis-9, trans-11-CLA was extracted with hexane-isopropanol, methylated with methanol-sodium methylate and cis-9, trans-11-CLA was separated and quantified using gas chromatography. Retention time of the peaks was used for qualitative analysis, while external standard method was used for quantitative analysis. The recovery of the cis-9, trans-11-CLA was 100.26%. The relative standard deviation was 1.9% (n = 6). This method presented is advantageous for high precision, high sensitivity analysis with smaller sample size and simpler pretreatment. It would be of significance for analyzing the contents of other fatty acids in the milk and milk products.

  7. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  8. Effectiveness of rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil to enhance the α-linolenic acid content in milk from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pi, Y; Gao, S T; Ma, L; Zhu, Y X; Wang, J Q; Zhang, J M; Xu, J C; Bu, D P

    2016-07-01

    production and the concentration of functional fatty acids (ALA, vaccenic acid, and CLA) in milk fat while decreasing the content of saturated fatty acids.

  9. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  10. Moderate doses of conjugated linoleic acid isomers mix contribute to lowering body fat content maintaining insulin sensitivity and a noninflammatory pattern in adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2010-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates body composition, especially by reducing adipose tissue. However, despite the increasing knowledge about CLA's beneficial effects on obesity management, the mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, in some human studies fat loss is accompanied by impairment in insulin sensitivity, especially when using the trans-10,cis-12 isomer. The aim of this work was to study the effects of moderate doses of CLA on body fat deposition, cytokine profile and inflammatory markers in mice. Mice were orally treated with a mixture of CLA isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 (50:50), for 35 days with doses of CLA1 (0.15 g CLA/kg body weight) and CLA2 (0.5 g CLA/kg body weight). CLA had discrete effects on body weight but caused a clear reduction in fat mass (retroperitoneal and mesenteric as the most sensitive depots), although no other tissue weights were affected. Glucose and insulin were not altered by CLA treatment, and maintenance of glucose homeostasis was observed even under insulin overload. The study of gene expression (Emr1, MCP-1, IL-6, TNFalpha, PPARgamma2 and iNOS) either in adipocytes and/or in the stromal vascular fraction indicated that CLA does not lead to the infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue or to the induction of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The use of a mixture of both isomers, as well as moderate doses of CLA, is able to induce a reduction of fat gain without an impairment of adipose tissue function while preserving insulin sensitivity.

  11. Incorporation profiles of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in cell membranes and their positional distribution in phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, Papasani V.; Gould, Ian G.; Lal, Samanta; Aizezi, Buzulagu

    2010-01-01

    Although the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have several isomer-specific biological effects including anti-carcinogenic and anti-adipogenic effects, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. To determine their potential effects on membrane structure and function, we studied the incorporation profiles of four CLA isomers (trans-10 cis-12 (A), trans-9 trans-11 (B), cis-9 trans-11 (C), and cis-9 cis-11 (D)) in CHO and HepG2 cells. All four isomers were incorporated into cellular lipids as efficiently as linoleic acid (LA), with the majority of the incorporated CLA present in membrane rafts. Of the four isomers, only CLA-A increased the cholesterol content of the raft fraction. Over 50% of the incorporated CLAs were recovered in phosphatidylcholine of CHO cells, but in HepG2 the neutral lipids contained the majority of CLA. The desaturation index (18:1/18:0 and 16:1/16:0) was reduced by CLA-A, but increased by CLA-B, the effects being apparent mostly in raft lipids. The Δ9 desaturase activity was inhibited by CLAs A and C. Unlike LA, which was mostly found in the sn-2 position of phospholipids, most CLAs were also incorporated significantly into the sn-1 position in both cell types. These studies show that the incorporation profiles of CLA isomers differ significantly from that of LA, and this could lead to alterations in membrane function, especially in the raft-associated proteins. PMID:20920595

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid in processed cheeses during the manufacturing stages.

    PubMed

    Luna, Pilar; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela

    2005-04-06

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring micronutrient in milk fat and dairy products consisting of a group of geometric and positional isomers. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and type of CLA isomers found in two commercial processed cheeses (portions and slices) as well as to monitor their evolution during the different manufacturing stages. Total CLA concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 7.9 mg/g of fat, and rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), the isomer responsible for the biological functions, represented >80% of total CLA. trans-11,cis-13 and trans-11,trans-13 were, with approximately 4% each, the second main CLA isomers. trans-trans isomers accounted for <10% of total CLA. The processing parameters used in this research had negligible effects on the CLA content of processed cheese and did not modify the isomer profile in these dairy products, thereby confirming the stability of rumenic acid during manufacturing.

  13. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  14. Chemical, physical, and sensory properties of dairy products enriched with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Jones, E L; Shingfield, K J; Kohen, C; Jones, A K; Lupoli, B; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E; Williams, C M; Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on human health. Ruminant-derived meat, milk and dairy products are the predominant sources of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the human diet. This study evaluated the processing properties, texture, storage characteristics, and organoleptic properties of UHT milk, Caerphilly cheese, and butter produced from a milk enriched to a level of cis-9,trans-11 CLA that has been shown to have biological effects in humans. Forty-nine early-lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were fed total mixed rations containing 0 (control) or 45 g/kg (on dry matter basis) of a mixture (1:2 wt/wt) of fish oil and sunflower oil during two consecutive 7-d periods to produce a control and CLA-enhanced milk, respectively. Milk produced from cows fed the control and fish and sunflower oil diets contained 0.54 and 4.68 g of total CLA/100 g of fatty acids, respectively. Enrichment of CLA in raw milk from the fish and sunflower oil diet was also accompanied by substantial increases in trans C18:1 levels, lowered C18:0, cis-C18:1, and total saturated fatty acid concentrations, and small increases in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The CLA-enriched milk was used for the manufacture of UHT milk, butter, and cheese. Both the CLA-enhanced butter and cheese were less firm than control products. Although the sensory profiles of the CLA-enriched milk, butter, and cheese differed from those of the control products with respect to some attributes, the overall impression and flavor did not differ. In conclusion, it is feasible to produce CLA-enriched dairy products with acceptable storage and sensory characteristics.

  15. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P < 0.01) and in both CO and SO-fed mice (P < 0.05) in response to CLA on d14. Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P < 0.01) but not in SO-fed mice on day 7 and 10, but on day 14 CLA increased lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P < 0.001). Expression and activation level of proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Sterol regulatory binding protein 1c was decreased by CLA in CO-fed mice and increased in SO-fed mice (P < 0.05). Malic enzyme expression was increased by CLA (P < 0.001) and CO (P < 0.01). Therefore, CLA-induced lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  16. Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Biopolymer Encapsulation on Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Sun Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan; Chun, Se Chul; Lee, Si Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Forty mice were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of the diet to be fed as follows: 5% (low) fat diet (T1: LF); 20% (high) fat diet (T2: HF); 20% fat containing 1% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (T3: HFC); and 20% fat containing 1% CLA with 0.5% biopolymers (T4: HFCB). The high-fat with CLA diet groups (HFC and HFCB) and the low-fat diet group (LF) tended to have lower body weights and total adipose tissue weights than those of the high-fat diet group (HF). Serum leptin and triglyceride were significantly lower in the high fat with CLA-fed groups (HFC and HFCB) and the low-fat diet group (LF) than those in the high-fat diet group (HF). It is noteworthy that the high-fat with CLA and biopolymers group (HFCB) showed the lowest serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. In the high-fat-fed group (HF), voluntary travel distance as a measure of physical activity decreased after three weeks of feeding. However, the CLA-fed groups showed increased physical activity. The groups fed high-fat diets supplemented with CLA alone and with CLA and biopolymers had higher viscosity of small intestinal contents than that in the low- and high-fat dietary groups. PMID:23531540

  17. Dietary t10,c12-CLA but not c9,t11 CLA reduces adipocyte size in the absence of changes in the adipose renin-angiotensin system in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    DeClercq, Vanessa; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2010-11-01

    In obesity, increased activity of the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and enlarged adipocytes with altered adipokine production are linked to the development of obesity-related health problems and cardiovascular disease. Mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been shown to reduce adipocyte size and alter the production of adipokines. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding individual CLA isomers on adipocyte size and adipokines associated with the local adipose RAS. Male fa/fa Zucker rats received either (a) control, (b) cis(c)9,trans(t)11-CLA, or (c) t10,c12-CLA diet for 8 weeks. The t10,c12-CLA isomer reduced adipocyte size and increased cell number in epididymal adipose tissue. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that neither CLA isomer altered mRNA or protein levels of angiotensinogen or AngII receptors in adipose tissue. Likewise, levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were unchanged in adipose tissue. Similarly, neither CLA isomer had any effect on phosphorylation nor DNA binding of NF-κB. Our results suggest that although the t10,c12-CLA isomer had beneficial effects on reducing adipocyte size in obese rats, this did not translate into changes in the local adipose RAS or associated adipokines.

  18. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-05-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism.

  19. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-01-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism. PMID:25035711

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the productivity of laying hens and egg quality during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shang, X G; Wang, F L; Li, D F; Yin, J D; Li, J Y

    2004-10-01

    Five hundred and four 40-wk-old Brown Dwarf hens (1.51 +/- 0.08 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to measure the effects of dietary CLA on laying hen productivity and egg quality during refrigerated storage. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolks. From d 12 to 18, eggs from hens fed diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% CLA diets were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 28 d. At designated times (1, 14, or 28 d), eggs were taken, broken, and shelled to evaluate water content, pH, and ion concentration. Firmness of hard-cooked egg yolk was also determined. With increased dietary CLA, feed intake, BW gain, rate of egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency all decreased linearly (P < 0.01). The weight of the yolk, albumen, and shell decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Concentration of CLA in the yolk lipids increased quadratically (P < 0.01), with increasing dietary CLA. Concurrent increases (P < 0.01) in the concentration of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids and decreases (P < 0.01) in oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and archidonic acids in egg yolk lipids were observed. Days of storage and CLA (P < 0.01) increased yolk firmness. Egg yolk water content and pH increased with storage and CLA content (P < 0.01). Corresponding decreases were observed in albumen pH. Regardless of dietary treatment, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg yolks increased with longer storage time. At 28 d of storage, there was a linear (P < 0.01) increase in Na, K, and Mg content in egg yolks as dietary CLA increased. In contrast to the egg yolk, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg albumen decreased with storage time. On d 28, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in the Na content of

  1. Probiotic in lamb rennet paste enhances rennet lipolytic activity, and conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic acid content in Pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Albenzio, M; Quinto, M; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2009-04-01

    Cheeses manufactured using traditional lamb rennet paste, lamb rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, and lamb rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium longum were characterized for the lipolytic pattern during ripening. Lipase activity of lamb rennet paste, lamb rennet containing Lb. acidophilus, and lamb rennet containing a mix of bifidobacteria was measured in sheep milk cream substrate. Rennet paste containing probiotics showed a lipase activity 2-fold greater than that displayed by traditional rennet. Total free fatty acid (FFA) in sheep milk cream was lower in lamb rennet paste (981 microg/g of milk cream) than in lamb rennet containing Lb. acidophilus (1,382.4 microg/g of milk cream) and in lamb rennet containing a mix of bifidobacteria (1,227.5 microg/g of milk cream) according to lipase activity of lamb rennet paste. The major increase of FFA in all cheeses occurred during the first 30 d of ripening with the greatest values being observed for C16:0, C18:0 C18:1. At 60 d of ripening all cheeses showed a reduction in the amount of free fatty acids; in particular, total free fatty acids underwent a decrease of more than 30% from 30 to 60 d in cheeses manufactured using traditional lamb rennet paste, whereas the same parameter decreased 10% in cheeses manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing Lb. acidophilus and cheeses manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing a mix of B. lactis and B. longum. Cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by the greatest levels of total conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) 9-cis, 11-trans CLA and 9-trans, 11-trans CLA, whereas cheese containing bifidobacteria displayed the greatest levels of free linoleic acid. Rennet pastes containing viable cells of Lb. acidophilus and a mix of B. lactis and B. longum were able to influence the amount of FFA and CLA in Pecorino cheese during ripening.

  2. Enrichment of maternal diet with conjugated linoleic acids influences desaturases activity and fatty acids profile in livers and hepatic microsomes of the offspring with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Stawarska, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Czuba, Katarzyna; Konarska, Anna; Mazurkiewicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of diet supplementation of pregnant and breast-feeding female Sprague-Dawley rats with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on the Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activity in hepatic microsomes as well as on fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in liver and hepatic microsomes of the progeny with chemically induced mammary tumors. Rats were divided into two groups with different diet supplementation (vegetable oil (which did not contain CLA) or CLA). Their female offspring was divided within these groups into two subgroups: (1)--fed the same diet as mothers (K1 - oil, 01 - CLA), and (2)--fed the standard fodder (K2, O2). At 50th day of life, the progeny obtained carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene). Higher supply of CLA in diet of mothers resulted in lower susceptibility to chemically induced mammary tumors in their offspring (p = 0.0322). It also influenced the fatty acids profile in livers and in hepatic microsomes, especially polyunsaturated n3 and n6 fatty acids. CLA inhibited the activity of the desaturases, which confirmed that CLA can reduce the level of arachidonic acid directly, reducing linoleic acid content in membranes, or indirectly, through the regulation of its metabolism. We were unable to confirm or deny the antioxidative properties of CLA. Our results indicate that the higher supply of CLA in mothers' diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding causes their incorporation into tissues of children, changes the efficiency of fatty acids metabolism and exerts health-promoting effect in their adult life reducing the breast cancer risk.

  3. Beef tallow increases the potency of conjugated linoleic acid in the reduction of mouse mammary tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Neil E; Lim, Debora; Erickson, Kent L

    2006-01-01

    Animal studies consistently show that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces mammary tumorigenesis including metastasis. Relatively low concentrations of CLA are required for those effects, and a threshold level exists above which there is no added reduction. We reasoned that the concentration of CLA required to effectively alter mammary tumor metastasis may be dependent on the type of dietary fat because select fatty acids can enhance or suppress normal or malignant cell growth and metastasis. For this study, the diets (a total of 12 different groups) differed in fatty acid composition but not in energy from fat (40%). In experiments involving spontaneous metastasis, mice were fed for 11 wk; in experiments in which mice were injected i.v. with tumor cells, they were fed for 7 wk. Mice were then assessed for the effect of CLA concentration on mammary tumorigenesis. Mammary tumor growth was not altered, but metastasis was significantly decreased when beef tallow (BT) replaced half of a defined vegetable fat blend (VFB). That blend reflects the typical fat content of a Western diet. In addition, that same VFB:BT diet lowered the concentration of CLA required to significantly decrease mammary tumor metastasis from 0.1% of the diet to 0.05%. A diet in which corn oil replaced half of the VFB did not lower the threshold from 0.1 to 0.05%. In vitro, the main fatty acid in vegetable oil, linoleic acid, reduced the efficacy of CLA toxicity on mammary tumor cells in culture. Alternatively, fatty acids normally found in BT, such as oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids, either did not change or enhanced the cytolytic effects of CLA isomers on mouse mammary tumor cells in culture. These data provide evidence that dietary BT, itself with negligible levels of CLA, may increase the efficacy of dietary CLA in reducing mammary tumorigenesis.

  4. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  5. CLaMS: Classifier for Metagenomic Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Amrita

    2010-12-01

    CLaMS-"Classifer for Metagenonic Sequences" is a Java application for binning assembled metagenomes wings user-specified training sequence sets and other user-specified initial parameters. Since ClAmS analyzes and matches sequence composition-based genomic signatures, it is much faster than binning tools that rely on alignments to homologs; CLaMS can bin ~20,000 sequences in 3 minutes on a laptop with a 2.4 Ghz. Intel Core 2 Duo processor and 2 GB Ram. CLaMS is meant to be desktop application for biologist and can be run on any machine under any operating system on which the Java Runtime Environment is enabled. CLaMS is freely available in both GVI-based and command-line based forms.

  6. 10e12z CLA alters adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte cytokine expression and induces macrophage proliferation.

    PubMed

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Eser, Pinar O; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-05-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 (10e12z) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer of CLA is responsible for loss of lipid storage or adipose tissue in vitro or in vivo. This isomer also induces inflammatory signaling in both mouse and human adipocytes in vitro. However, when these events occur and whether they are significant enough to affect other cell types are unclear. In these experiments, the 3T3-L1 cell line has been used to examine the interaction between inflammatory signaling and decreased differentiation or lipid storage induced by 10e12z CLA. In assays measuring both lipid accumulation and gene expression, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells exhibit concurrent induction of inflammatory signaling, as measured by cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and a decrease in adipocyte marker gene expression. Furthermore, in fully differentiated adipocytes, as identified in microarray assays and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction, 10e12z CLA also significantly affected expression of both matrix metalloprotein-3 (MMP-3), collagen VI α 3 ColVI alpha 3 (VIα3) and the cytokine epiregulin, demonstrating that the effects of 10e12z broadly impact adipocyte function. In agreement with other experimental systems, 10e12z CLA inhibited RAW 264.7 cell proliferation; however, in response to adipocyte-conditioned media, 10e12z-CLA-treated adipocytes induced proliferation of this cell line, suggesting that the effect of 10e12z CLA is context dependent. These results are largely consistent with the known activation of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor-κB in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo by 10e12z CLA treatment and demonstrate that adipose is an important target tissue of this isomer that impacts other cell types.

  7. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    AD __ _ _ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-94-J-4274 TITLE: Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry Thompson, Ph.D...DATES COVERED October 1999 Final (14 Sep 94 - 13 Sep 99) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA DAMD1 7-94-J...for the prevention of human breast cancer. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Breast Cancer, Molecular Markers 10 9 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  8. High-level exogenous trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid plays an anti-lipogenesis role in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongfang; Liu, Hongyun; Liu, Jianxin; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Chong; Yang, Weiren

    2014-07-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) were treated by 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, 150 μmol/L trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to evaluate the effects of different level trans10, cis12 CLA on lipogenesis in BMEC. Addition of 75-150 μmol/L trans10, cis12 CLA reduced significantly the triacylglycerol (TAG) content (P<0.05), but did not have inhibiting action on cell proliferation (P>0.05). Treatment with 150 μmol/L trans10, cis12 CLA for 48 h resulted in a 17.1% reduction (P<0.0001) of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, C14acids (UFA) and a corresponding reduction of the mRNA abundance of acetyl coenzyme A (acetylCoA) carboxylase (ACC) (P=0.046), fatty acid synthase (FAS) (P=0.017) and stearoylCoA desaturase1 (SCD1) (P=0.002). Another finding was that trans10, cis12 CLA elevated expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase2 (DGAT2) (P=0.020) and long chain acylCoA synthetases (ACSL) (P=0.032). In conclusion, higher trans10, cis12 CLA, not low trans10, cis12 CLA, inhibited milk fat synthesis and changed fatty acid composition by regulating the expression of FAS, ACC, SCD1, DGAT2 and ACSL.

  9. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuelan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Peipei; Shi, Tianhong; Wei, Xiangfa

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell. PMID:27383812

  10. Divergent effects of a CLA-enriched beef diet on metabolic health in ApoE-/- and ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Toomey, Sinead; McBride, Rachael; McMonagle, Jolene; Morine, Melissa J; Belton, Orina; Moloney, Aidan P; Roche, Helen M

    2013-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found naturally in meat and dairy products, and represents a potential therapeutic functional nutrient. However, given the discrepancies in isomer composition and concentration, controversy surrounds its proposed antidiabetic, antiobesity effects. This study focused on the effects of CLA-enriched beef (composed predominantly of c9, t11-CLA) in two separate models of metabolic disease: proatherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice and diabetic, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Animals were fed CLA-enriched beef for 28 days, and markers of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis were assessed. Comprehensive hepatic transcriptomic analysis was completed to understand divergent metabolic effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol and increased adiponectin levels in ob/ob mice. In contrast, plasma lipid profiles and glucose homeostasis deteriorated and promoted atherosclerosis following the CLA-enriched beef diet in ApoE(-/-) mice. Hepatic transcriptomic profiling revealed divergent effects of CLA-enriched beef on insulin signaling and lipogenic pathways, which were adversely affected in ApoE(-/-) mice. This study demonstrated clear divergence in the effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef improved metabolic flexibility in ob/ob mice, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. However, CLA-enriched diet increased expression of lipogenic genes, resulting in inefficient fatty acid storage which increases lipotoxicity in peripheral organs, and led to profound metabolic dysfunction in ApoE(-/-) mice. While CLA may have potential health effects, in some circumstances, caution must be exercised in presenting this bioactive lipid as a potential functional food for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  11. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only...

  12. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only...

  13. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows.

    PubMed

    Dohme-Meier, F; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  14. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dohme-Meier, F.; Bee, G.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  15. Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Microemulsions and their Biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Kishita, Kazuaki; Ibaraki, Kayo; Itakura, Shoko; Yamasaki, Yumi; Nishikata, Naoko; Yamamoto, Kenji; Shimizu, Masataka; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has several beneficial biological properties. Specifically, trans10, cis12-CLA, one of the CLA isomers, has strong physiologic activity against cancer and obesity. However, compared with cis9, trans11-CLA, a naturally occurring CLA isomer, trans10, cis12-CLA tends to be easily metabolized. Therefore, to make efficient use of its biological properties, it is necessary to overcome the rapid clearance of trans10, cis12-CLA from the blood. Here, we employed premix membrane emulsification to prepare two oil-in-water CLA microemulsions (CLA-ME), 100 nm CLA-ME and 200 nm CLA-ME, and investigated their pharmacokinetics in a mouse model. We report that 100 nm CLA-ME contributed to the concentration of blood CLA for longer than 200 nm CLA-ME, indicating that small CLA microparticles were more suitable for maintaining blood trans10, cis12-CLA levels in vivo. However, both CLA-ME could be hardly detected in blood and other tissues 24 h after administration, suggesting that additional strategies for prolonging CLA-ME half-life are required.

  16. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  17. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, Kevin J; Salo-Väänänen, Pirjo; Pahkala, Eero; Toivonen, Vesa; Jaakkola, Seija; Piironen, Vieno; Huhtanen, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    Based on potential health benefits, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat concentrations of cis-9 18:1, 18:3 n-3 and conjugated linoleic (CLA) content in milk without compromising the sensory or storage characteristics of processed milk or dairy products. Sixteen Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-d experimental periods and a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of forage conservation method, concentrate level and supplements of propylene glycol (PG), and their interactions on milk fatty acid composition and vitamin content. Experimental treatments consisted of four conserved forages offered ad libitum, supplemented with two levels of a standard concentrate (7 or 10 kg/d) and PG (0 and 210 g/d) fed as three equal meals. Primary growths of timothy and meadow fescue sward were conserved by ensiling with none (NA), an inoculant enzyme preparation (IE) or a formic acid based (FORM) additive or as hay 1 week later. Conservation of grass by drying rather than ensiling resulted in lower forage 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, total fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. In spite of lower intakes, milk fat 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content was higher (P < 0.05) for hay than for silage diets (12.1, 9.6, 9.6 and 9.3 and 5.00, 3.51, 4.27 and 2.93 g/kg total fatty acids, for hay, NA, IE and FORM silages, respectively). Forage conservation method had no clear effects on milk trans 18:1 or CLA content. Compared with silage, hay diets resulted in milk containing lower (P < 0.001) riboflavin, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene concentrations, but had no effect on ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine or retinol content. Feeding more concentrates had no effect on milk fatty acid composition or milk vitamin content, other than lowering (P < 0.001) 16:0 concentrations from 348 to 338 g/kg fatty acids. Supplements of PG led to small (P < 0.05) increases in milk 13:0 anteiso and 15

  18. Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry.

    PubMed

    Ojanguren, Aitziber; Ayo, Josune

    2013-06-20

    Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air) on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80-200 °C) and air flow (7-20 L/h) range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method) was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow). It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.

  19. Influence of different CLA isomers on insulin resistance and adipocytokines in pre-diabetic, middle-aged men with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Diana; Herrmann, Julia; Much, Daniela; Pfeuffer, Maria; Laue, C; Winkler, P; Helwig, Ulf; Bell, Doris; Auinger, Annegret; Darabaneanu, Stephanie; Ruether, Andreas; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are natural PPARγ ligands, which showed conflicting effects on metabolism in humans. We examined metabolic effects of different isomers of CLA in subjects with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphisms. A total of 35 men underwent four intervention periods in a crossover study design: subjects with either genotypes received c9, t11 CLA or t10, c12 CLA, a commercially available 1:1 mix of both isomers or reference oil (linoleic acid (LA)). Adipocytokines, insulin, glucose and triglycerides were assessed in the fasting state and after a standardized mixed meal. Across all genotypes, there was a significant (p = 0.025) CLA treatment effect upon postprandial (pp) HOMA-IR values, with c9, t11 CLA and CLA isomer mix improving, but t10, c12 CLA isomer worsening. In Ala12Ala subjects, the t10, c12 isomer caused weight gain (p = 0.03) and tended to increase postprandial insulin levels (p = 0.05). In Pro12Pro subjects, t10, c12 resulted in reduction in waist circumference (p = 0.03). The comparison of the different genotype groups revealed statistically different changes in fasting and postprandial insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin after intervention. c9, t11 CLA and the commercial CLA mix showed beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity compared with LA, while t10, c12 CLA adversely affects body weight and insulin sensitivity in different PPAR genotypes. CLA isomers have different effects on metabolism in Ala and Pro carriers.

  20. CLaMS-Ice: Large-scale cirrus cloud simulations in comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anja; Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Spichtinger, Peter; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Dreiling, Volker; Zöger, Martin; Krämer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are an element of uncertainty in the climate system and have received increasing attention since the last IPCC reports. The interactions of different freezing mechanisms, sedimentation rates, updraft velocity fluctuations and other factors that determine the formation and evolution of those clouds is still not fully understood. Thus, a reliable representation of cirrus clouds in models representing real atmospheric conditions is still a challenging task. At last year's EGU, Rolf et al. (2015) introduced the new large-scale microphysical cirrus cloud model CLaMS-Ice: based on trajectories calculated with CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002 and Konopka et al. 2007), it simulates the development of cirrus clouds relying on the cirrus bulk model by Spichtinger and Gierens (2009). The qualitative agreement between CLaMS-Ice simulations and observations could be demonstrated at that time. Now we present a detailed quantitative comparison between standard ECMWF products, CLaMS-Ice simulations, and in-situ measurements obtained during the ML-Cirrus campaign 2014. We discuss the agreement of the parameters temperature (observational data: BAHAMAS), relative humidity (SHARC), cloud occurrence, cloud particle concentration, ice water content and cloud particle radii (all NIXE-CAPS). Due to the precise trajectories based on ECMWF wind and temperature fields, CLaMS-Ice represents the cirrus cloud vertical and horizontal coverage more accurately than the ECMWF ice water content (IWC) fields. We demonstrate how CLaMS-Ice can be used to evaluate different input settings (e.g. amount of ice nuclei, freezing thresholds, sedimentation settings) that lead to cirrus clouds with the microphysical properties observed during ML-Cirrus (2014).

  1. Induction of apoptosis by c9, t11-CLA in human endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells via ERα-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jihui; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Jing; Ye, Shuhong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Hongzhou; Wang, Han

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can inhibit cancer cells growth and induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CLA, including cis9, trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10, c12-CLA), on apoptosis of human endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells and its related mechanisms. The MTT analysis was used to evaluate the effect of CLA isomers on the viability of endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells. We then estimated the apoptosis by Morphological observation and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry. We also used Western blot analysis to assess the expression of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2 proteins and the activation of Akt/p-Akt and ERα/p-ERα. Propylpyrazole-triol (PPT), a selective ERα agonist was used to confirm the induction of apoptosis by c9, t11 CLA may relate to ERα-mediated pathway. In CLA-treated RL 95-2 cells, we found that c9, t11-CLA inhibited viability and trigged apoptosis, as judged from nuclear morphology and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were significant increased, but no obvious change was observed about Akt and p-Akt in c9, t11-CLA-treated cells. However, the expression of total ERα level in RL 95-2 cells-treated with c9, t11-CLA was unchanged, while in the concentration of 80 mM, c9, t11-CLA down-regulated the protein expression level of p-ERα. Then PPT has the antagonistic action on growth inhibitory effect in RL 95-2 cells incubated with c9, t11-CLA. This study demonstrated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis in RL 95-2 cells, and may involve in ERα-mediated pathway. These results indicated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells and may be potential agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  2. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar; Nonboe, Pernille; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-03-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type II, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115 g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha concentration compared with the control, P < 0.0001. We observed no other significant differences in the effect of the interventions diets. In conclusion, when given as part of a diet rich in butter, a mixture of CLA isomers increased lipid peroxidation but did not affect risk markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, or fasting insulin and glucose concentrations.

  3. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p < 0.05), however, post hoc statistical tests did not reveal any differences (p > 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  4. Dietary trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduces murine collagen-induced arthritis in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    Dietary trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce inflammation in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CA) model. To understand the anti-inflammatory potential of t10c12-CLA in the diet, the minimum dose of pure dietary t10c12-CLA capable of reducing CA was investigated. Because plasma inflammatory cytokines often do not reflect the progression of late-stage arthritis, inflamed tissue cytokine concentrations were also investigated in relation to increasing dietary t10c12-CLA amounts. Mice were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments upon the establishment of arthritis: corn oil (CO) or 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375%, or 0.5% t10c12-CLA (wt:wt) for 84 d. Sham mice (no arthritis) were fed CO and served as controls. Arthritic paw score, based on subjective assessment of arthritic severity, and paw thickness decreased linearly overall [16-65% (P < 0.001) and 0.5-12% (P < 0.001), respectively] as dietary t10c12-CLA increased (P < 0.001, R(2) < 0.81). Increasing dietary t10c12-CLA was associated with a decrease in plasma interleukin (IL)-1β at days 21 and 42 compared with CO-fed arthritic mice, such that mice fed ≥0.25% t10c12-CLA had IL-1β concentrations that were similar to sham mice. Plasma cytokines returned to sham mice concentrations by day 63 regardless of treatment; however, an arthritis-induced elevation in paw IL-1β decreased linearly as dietary t10c12-CLA concentrations increased at day 84 (P = 0.007, R(2) = 0.92). Similarly, increasing dietary t10c12-CLA linearly decreased paw tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P = 0.05, R(2) = 0.70). In conclusion, ≥0.125% t10c12-CLA dose-dependently reduced inflammation in a murine CA model.

  5. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  6. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  7. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shari; Goodspeed, Leela; Wietecha, Tomasz; Houston, Barbara; Omer, Mohamed; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Subramanian, Savitha; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Chait, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. Objective We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15–25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. Methods Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured. Results By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation. Conclusions These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter

  8. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  9. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O

    1979-03-01

    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  10. Refeeding with conjugated linoleic acid increases serum cholesterol and modifies the fatty acid profile after 48 hours of fasting in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim; Andreoli, María Florencia; Illesca, Paola G; Payão Ovídio, Paula; Bernal, Claudio A; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2014-12-01

    There is no consensus about the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism, especially in animals fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum, liver and adipose tissue, as well as the oxidative stress generated in rats refed with high-fat diets after a 48 hour fast. Rats were refed with diets containing soybean oil, rich in linoleic acid [7% (Control Group - C) or 20% (LA Group)], CLA [CLA Group - 20% CLA mixture (39.32 mole% c9,t11-CLA and 40.59 mole% t10,c12- CLA)], soybean oil + CLA (LA+CLA Group - 15.4% soybean oil and 4.6% CLA) or animal fat (AF, 20% lard). The CLA group showed lower weight gain and liver weight after refeeding, as well as increased serum cholesterol. The high dietary fat intake induced fat accumulation and an increase in -tocopherol in the liver, which were not observed in the CLA group. Circulating -tocopherol was increased in the CLA and CLA+LA groups. The high- fat diets reduced liver catalase activity. CLA isomers were incorporated into serum and tissues. In this shortterm refeeding experimental model, CLA prevented hepatic fat accumulation, although it produced an increase in serum cholesterol.

  11. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P < 0.05) lower cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P < 0.05) in dry heating than in moist heating, and was characterized by the prevalence of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. On the whole, the response to cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  12. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid and vitamin E on performance, energy metabolism, and change of fat depot mass in transitional dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schäfers, S; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Drong, C; Frahm, J; Kluess, J; Raschka, C; Rehage, J; Tröscher, A; Pelletier, W; Dänicke, S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E as well as their interaction on performance variables and lipomobilization during late pregnancy and early lactation (wk 6 antepartum until wk 10 postpartum). For this purpose, 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows were assigned to 4 dietary groups in a 2 × 2 design with the factors CLA and vitamin E at 2 levels. For this trial, we selected cows with a high body condition score because they are more likely to mobilize fat and consequently are at a higher risk of developing ketosis. Furthermore, concentrate proportions were adjusted to provoke ketosis. Lactation performance variables were analyzed in 3 periods (d 42 antepartum until calving, 1 to 21 d in milk, 22 to 70 d in milk). Dry matter intake and net energy intake were reduced in animals receiving CLA. Milk fat content was reduced in the CLA group compared with the control group (4.83 vs. 5.46% in period 2; 3.36 vs. 4.57% in period 3). In the vitamin E and the CLA + vitamin E groups, reduction of milk fat content was observed in period 3 (3.76 vs. 4.57% compared with the control group). Milk yield was not affected by treatment. β-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations and liver lipid contents were not influenced by CLA or vitamin E. Moreover, longitudinal changes of adipose tissue depot mass were not affected by dietary treatments. Results suggest that the effects CLA had on milk composition were compensated by an increased milk yield and a decreased dry matter intake. Reduced milk energy output in CLA-treated animals was compensated by a reduced dry matter intake. Therefore, the net energy balance was not affected by either treatment. Consequently, we found no group effect on the mobilization of adipose tissue.

  13. Catalyst for Change: The CIC/CLA Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, David C.

    2011-01-01

    From the fall of 2008 through the spring of 2011, 47 colleges and universities, organized and supported by the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), administered the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) to their students. The CLA is a test of critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving, and written communication developed by the…

  14. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    PubMed

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  15. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  16. Adiposity and serum parameters in hamsters fed energy restricted diets supplemented or not with trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Lasa, A; Simón, E; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates body composition, reducing body fat accumulation in various mammalian species. However, very few studies have been carried out to assess the effect of CLA on previously stored body fat. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effectiveness of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in improving alterations produced by high-fat feeding in body fat and serum parameters when it was included in an energy-restricted diet. For this purpose male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed on high-fat diet for 7 weeks in order to increase their body fat content, and a further 25% energy-restricted diet supplemented or not with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA for 3 weeks. Adipose tissues, liver and gastrocnemious muscles were dissected and weighed. Adipocyte diameter and number were assessed in epididymal adipose tissue. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose were measured in serum. Three weeks of energy restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and white adipose tissue size in all anatomical locations, without changes in liver and gastrocnemious muscle weights. Epididymal adipocyte size was reduced, but total adipocyte number remained unchanged. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols and glucose were significantly reduced. No differences were observed between the restricted groups (control and CLA supplemented). In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the addition of trans-10,cis-12 CLA to the diet does not increase the benefits produced by energy restriction.

  17. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cholesterol content of foods. 101.62 Section 101.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Nutrient Content Claims § 101.62 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a...

  18. Microbially safe utilization of non-inactivated oats (Avena sativa L.) for production of conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Vahvaselkä, Marjatta; Lehtinen, Pekka; Laakso, Simo

    2006-02-08

    A microbially safe process for the enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in oats was developed. The process consists of hydrolysis of oat lipids by non-inactivated oat flour, followed by propionibacterium-catalyzed isomerization of the resulting free linoleic acid to CLA. The first stage was performed at water activity (a(w)) 0.7, where hydrolysis of triacylglycerols progressed efficiently without growth of the indigenous microflora of flour. Thereafter, the flour was incubated as a 5% (w/v) aqueous, sterilized slurry with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. The amount of CLA produced in 20 h was 11.5 mg/g dry matter corresponding to 116 mg/g lipids or 0.57 mg/mL slurry. The oat flour had also the capability to hydrolyze exogenous oils at a(w) 0.7. Sunflower oil, added to increase linoleic acid content in triacylglycerols 2.7-fold, was hydrolyzed rapidly. Isomerization of this oil-supplemented flour as a 5% slurry gave final CLA content of 22.3 mg/g dry matter after 50 h of fermentation, corresponding to 118 mg/g lipids or 1.14 mg/mL slurry. Storage stability of CLA in fermented oat slurries at 4 degrees C was good.

  19. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen.

    PubMed

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05). Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

  20. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05). Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation. PMID:26950867

  1. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  2. Salicylic acid content of spices and its implications.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Srivastava, Rajeev; Baxter, Gwen J; Graham, Alan B; Lawrence, James R

    2006-04-19

    This work was done to determine the salicylate content of a variety of commonly used spices and to assess whether this potential dietary source of salicylate was bioavailable. Spices, Indian cooked dishes, and blood and urine samples taken after ingestion of a test meal were investigated for their salicylate content using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The serum salicylic acid concentrations in samples from villagers in southern India were also measured and have been compared with typical European values. Salicylic acid was determined in all spices (up to 1.5 wt %) and cooked dishes. The salicylate content of blood and urine was shown to increase following consumption of the meal, indicating that this dietary source of salicylic acid was bioavailable. Salicylic acid levels in the serum from rural Indians were significantly (median almost 3-fold) higher than values previously measured in Western vegetarians. Chemoprotective aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, and this phytochemical may contribute to the low cancer incidence in rural India.

  3. Implication of fermentable carbohydrates targeting the gut microbiota on conjugated linoleic acid production in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Druart, Céline; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Dewulf, Evelyne M; De Backer, Fabienne C; Possemiers, Sam; Van de Wiele, Tom; Moens, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc; Cani, Patrice D; Larondelle, Yvan; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-09-28

    In vitro experiments have shown that isolated human gut bacteria are able to metabolise PUFA into conjugated PUFA like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). The hypothesis of the present paper was that high-fat (HF) diet feeding and supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates that have prebiotic properties modulate the in vivo production of CLA by the mouse gut microbiota. Mice were treated for 4 weeks as follows: control (CT) groups were fed a standard diet; HF groups were fed a HF diet rich in linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6); the third groups were fed with the HF diet supplemented with either inulin-type fructans (HF-ITF) or arabinoxylans (HF-Ax). HF diet feeding increased rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2 CLA) content both in the caecal and liver tissues compared with the CT groups. ITF supplementation had no major effect compared with the HF diet whereas Ax supplementation increased further rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2 CLA) in the caecal tissue. These differences between both prebiotics may be linked to the high fat-binding capacity of Ax that provides more substrates for bacterial metabolism and to differential modulation of the gut microbiota (specific increase in Roseburia spp. in HF-Ax v. HF). In conclusion, these experiments supply the proof of concept that the mouse gut microbiota produces CLA in vivo, with consequences on the level of CLA in the caecal and liver tissues. We postulate that the CLA-producing bacteria could be a mediator to consider in the metabolic effects of both HF diet feeding and prebiotic supplementation.

  4. Fatty acid profile of Canadian dairy products with special attention to the trans-octadecenoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Sanjaya; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2008-01-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) produced via partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils increases the risk of coronary heart disease. However, some studies have suggested that ruminant TFA, especially vaccenic acid (VA or 11t-18:1) and rumenic acid (RA or 9c,11t-18:2), which is a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer, may have potential beneficial health effects for humans. To date, no concerted effort has been made to provide detailed isomer composition of ruminant TFA and CLA of Canadian dairy products, information that is required to properly assess their nutritional impacts. To this end, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of popular brands of commercial cheese (n = 17), butter (n = 12), milk (n = 8), and cream (n = 4) sold in retail stores in Ottawa, Canada, in 2006-2007 by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. The average total TFA content of cheese, butter, milk, and cream samples were 5.6, 5.8, 5.8, and 5.5% of total fatty acids, respectively. VA was the major trans-octadecenoic acid (18:1) isomer in all the Canadian dairy samples with average levels of (as % total trans-18:1) 33.9% in cheese, 35.6% in butter, 31.0% milk, and 30.1% in cream. The different dairy products contained very similar levels of CLA, which ranged from 0.5 to 0.9% of total fat. RA was the major CLA isomer of all the dairy products, accounting for 82.4-83.2% of total CLA. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the fatty acid profile between the 4 different dairy groups, which suggests lack of processing effects on the fatty acid profile of dairy fat.

  5. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability.

  6. Hyaluronic acid content of deep and subcutaneous bursae of man.

    PubMed Central

    Canoso, J J; Stack, M T; Brandt, K D

    1983-01-01

    To provide a comparison of the contents of subcutaneous and deep bursae we dissected these structures from unfixed cadavers without apparent joint disease. No free fluid was found within any olecranon or prepatellar bursae (examples of subcutaneous bursae), while viscous fluid was invariably present in the (deep) retrocalcaneal bursae. The hyaluronic acid content of the washings of 5 rectrocalcaneal bursae ranged from 142 to 591 nmol hexosamine (mean = 281 nmol hexosamine). In contrast, the hyaluronic acid content of 4 olecranon bursae was much lower (range 35-72 nmol, mean 53 nmol hexosamine), and hyaluronate was not detected in washings from either of 2 prepatellar bursae. The greater hyaluronate content of the retrocalcaneal bursae did not appear to be due to a greater surface area, since on the basis of calculations made from plaster casts the surface areas of the olecranon and prepatellar bursae were approximately 3 times and 2 times, respectively, greater than that of the retrocalcaneal bursae. The data suggest that, although hyaluronic acid may lubricate deep bursae, other factors may be more important in reducing friction within superficial bursae. Images PMID:6847262

  7. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  8. The Botrytis cinerea PAK kinase BcCla4 mediates morphogenesis, growth and cell cycle regulating processes downstream of BcRac.

    PubMed

    Minz-Dub, Anna; Sharon, Amir

    2017-02-06

    Rac proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes. Effector proteins that interact with active Rac convey the GTPase-generated signal to downstream developmental cascades and processes. Here we report on the analysis of the main effector and signal cascade downstream of BcRac, the Rac homolog of the grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. Several lines of evidence highlighted the p21-activated kinase Cla4 as an important effector of Rac in fungi. Analysis of Δbccla4 strains revealed that the BcCla4 protein was sufficient to mediate all of the examined BcRac-driven processes, including hyphal growth and morphogenesis, conidia production and pathogenicity. In addition, the Δbccla4 strains had altered nuclei content, a phenomenon that was previously observed in Δbcrac isolates, thus connecting the BcRac/BcCla4 module with cell cycle control. Further analyses revealed that BcRac/BcCla4 control mitotic entry through changes in phosphorylation status of the cyclin dependent kinase BcCdk1. The complete cascade includes the kinase BcWee1, which is downstream of BcCla4 and upstream of BcCdk1. These results provide a mechanistic insight on the connection of cell cycle, morphogenesis and pathogenicity in fungi, and position BcCla4 as the most essential effector and central regulator of all of these processes downstream of BcRac.

  9. Effects of fish oil and conjugated linoleic acids on carnitine homeostasis in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shibani, M; Keller, J; König, B; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Stangl, G I; Ringseis, R; Eder, K

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on genes involved in carnitine homeostasis were compared in laying hens. Three groups of laying hens were fed on a control diet or a diet with either 3% of fish oil or CLA for 4 weeks. 2. Feed intake and egg production rate did not differ between the three groups. Diets with fish oil or CLA had only a weak effect on mRNA levels of PPARα target genes (ACO, CPT-I) in the liver and did not influence mRNA concentrations of the most important carnitine transporter OCTN2, enzymes of involved in carnitine synthesis (TMLD, TMABA-DH, BBD) or concentrations of carnitine in plasma, liver and total egg contents. 3. Hens fed the CLA diet had lower concentrations of free and total carnitine in egg yolk but higher concentrations of carnitine in albumen than control hens (P < 0·05), whereas the amount of free and total carnitine in whole egg did not differ. 4. In conclusion, the study showed that feeding fish oil or CLA causes only a weak activation of PPARα in tissues of laying hens that probably explained the lack of effect on carnitine homeostasis. The results contrast with those in humans and mice that show a significant effect of synthetic PPARα agonists on carnitine homeostasis in humans and mice.

  10. Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit).

    PubMed

    Golden, K D; Williams, O J

    2001-06-01

    A study is conducted to determine the amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of breadfruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). An HPLC method is used for the determination of amino acids and fatty acids in breadfruit. Representative amino acid samples are derivatized with phenylisothiocianate and the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with a 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer and 0.01M ammonium acetate in acetonitrile-methanol-water (44:10:46, v/v). Representative fatty acid samples are derivatized with phenacyl bromide and the resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and water. Amino acid and fatty acid derivatives are detected by ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The analysis of the carbohydrates in breadfruit employs a GC method. Carbohydrates are derivatized using trimethylchlorosilane and hexamethyldisilazane to form trimethylsilyl ethers. Compounds in the samples are separated by the temperature programming of a GC using nitrogen as the carrier gas. Percent recoveries of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates are 72.5%, 68.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. The starch content of the breadfruit is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.

  11. Pros and cons of CLA consumption: an insight from clinical evidences.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sailas; Prakasan, Priji; Sreedharan, Sajith; Wright, Andre-Denis G; Spener, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded upon human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are clinically proven or not. With a general introduction on the chemistry of CLA, major clinical evidences pertaining to intervention strategies, body composition, cardio-vascular health, immunity, asthma, cancer and diabetes are evaluated. Supposed adverse effects such as oxidative stress, insulin resistance, irritation of intestinal tract and milk fat depression are also examined. It seems that no consistent result was observed even in similar studies conducted at different laboratories, this may be due to variations in age, gender, racial and geographical disparities, coupled with type and dose of CLA supplemented. Thus, supposed promising results reported in mechanistic and pre-clinical studies cannot be extrapolated with humans, mainly due to the lack of inconsistency in analyses, prolonged intervention studies, follow-up studies and international co-ordination of concerted studies. Briefly, clinical evidences accumulated thus far show that CLA is not eliciting significantly promising and consistent health effects so as to uphold it as neither a functional nor a medical food.

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of extremely pure triacylglycerols enriched in conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Weifei; Xu, Yang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2013-08-13

    This work was objectively targeted to synthesize extremely pure triacylglycerols (TAG) enriched in conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) for medical and dietetic purposes. Extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG was successfully synthesized by using the multi-step process: TAG was primarily synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification of CLA and glycerol and then the lower glycerides [monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG)] in the esterification mixtures was hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFAs) by a mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (lipase SMG1), finally, the FFAs were further separated from TAG by low temperature (150 °C) molecular distillation. The operation parameters for the lipase SMG1-catalyzed hydrolysis were optimized using response surface methodology based on the central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The operation parameters included water content, pH and reaction temperature and all of these three parameters showed significant effects on the hydrolysis of lower glycerides. The optimal conditions were obtained with a water content of 66.4% (w/w, with respect to oil mass), pH at 5.7 and 1 h of reaction time at 19.6 °C. Under these conditions, the content of lower glycerides in the reaction mixture decreased from 45.2% to 0.3% and the purity of CLA-enriched TAG reached 99.7%. Further purification of TAG was accomplished by molecular distillation and the final CLA-enriched TAG product yielded 99.8% of TAG. These extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG would be used for in vivo studies in animals and humans in order to get specific information concerning CLA metabolism.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acids influence fatty acid metabolism in ovine ruminal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Masur, F; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Fuhrmann, H; Gäbel, G

    2016-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), particularly cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12), are used as feed additives to adapt to constantly increasing demands on the performance of lactating cows. Under these feeding conditions, the rumen wall, and the rumen epithelial cells (REC) in particular, are directly exposed to high amounts of CLA. This study determined the effect of CLA on the fatty acid (FA) metabolism of REC and expression of genes known to be modulated by FA. Cultured REC were incubated with c9t11, t10c12, and the structurally similar FA linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA), and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) for 48 h at a concentration of 100 µM. Cellular FA levels were determined by gas chromatography. Messenger RNA expression levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and 4 were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Fatty acid evaluation revealed significant effects of CLA, LA, OA, and TVA on the amount of FA metabolites of β-oxidation and elongation and of metabolites related to desaturation by SCD. The observed changes in FA content point (among others) to the ability of REC to synthesize c9t11 from TVA endogenously. The mRNA expression levels of SCD identified a decrease after CLA, LA, OA, or TVA treatment. In line with the changes in mRNA expression, we found reduced amounts of C16:1n-7 cis-9 and C18:1n-9 cis-9, the main products of SCD. The expression of MCT1 mRNA increased after c9t11 and t10c12 treatment, and CLA c9t11 induced an upregulation of MCT4. Application of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α antagonist suggested that activation of PPARα is involved in the changes of MCT1, MCT4, and SCD mRNA expression induced by c9t11. Participation of PPARγ in the changes of MCT1 and SCD mRNA expression was shown by the application of the respective antagonist. The study demonstrates that exposure to CLA affects both FA metabolism and regulatory pathways within REC.

  14. Cytometry of deoxyribonuclei acid content and morphology of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Because spermatogenesis is exquisitely sensitive to external influences, sperm can serve as a biological dosimeter. Advances in interpreting induced sperm abnormalities require a better understanding of sperm characteristics. This report reviews the application of several methods for automated, quantitative detection of shape changes, methods that are faster and more sensitive than conventional subjective technqiues. Variability of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid content as a bioassay of genetic damage is explored, and limitations of the bioassay are discussed. New flow cytometric techniques that could lead to sexing mammalian sperm are examined.

  15. Effects of dietary CLA on n-3 HUFA score and N-acylethanolamides biosynthesis in the liver of obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Piras, Antonio; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that PPAR alpha agonists induce N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) biosynthesis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a known dietary PPAR alpha inducer, may therefore increase OEA and PEA levels and favor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis by enhancing peroxisomal β-oxidation via induction of liver PPARα. To evaluate whether CLA is able to increase DHA, OEA and PEA levels and thereby influencing liver lipid deposition in a model of visceral obesity-induced fatty liver, Zucker rats were fed a background diet rich in saturated fat with or without 1% of CLA for 4 weeks. Our data showed that CLA intake increased DHA, OEA and PEA levels in the liver by 24%, 31% and 36% respectively, and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by 16%. We may conclude that dietary CLA is able to influence not only fatty acid metabolism but also the biosynthesis of bioactive mediators such as OEA and PEA which may contribute to ameliorate fatty liver.

  16. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio.

  17. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  18. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  19. Milk fat responses to butterfat infusion during conjugated linoleic acid-induced milk fat depression in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Moallem, U; Teter, B B; Fardin-Kia, A R K; Erdman, R A

    2013-04-01

    During diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD), the short and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) that originate from the circulation. Our hypothesis was that increased availability of SMCFA might rescue conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced MFD in lactating dairy cows. To test that hypothesis, 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows (128 ± 23 d in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk experimental periods. Treatments were applied during the last 2 wk of each period and included 3× daily abomasal infusion of a total of (1) 230 g/d of LCFA (blend of 59% cocoa butter, 36% olive oil, and 5% palm oil); (2) 420 g/d of butterfat (BF); (3) 230 g/d of LCFA with 27 g/d of CLA (LC-CLA), containing 10 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA; and (4) 420 g/d of butterfat with 27 g/d of CLA (BF-CLA). Butterfat provided 50% of C16 (115 g/d) and similar amounts of C18 FA as found in LCFA, such that the difference between the BF and LCFA treatments was 190 g/d of SMCFA. No treatment effects were observed for DMI or milk yield. Milk fat content was reduced by 41 and 32%, whereas milk fat yield was reduced by 41 and 38% with LC-CLA and BF-CLA, respectively, compared with their respective controls. Abomasal infusion of CLA reduced de novo synthesized fatty acid (DNFA; SMCFA and 50% C16:0) concentration, whereas DNFA tended to be greater with BF infusion. An interaction was observed between SMCFA and CLA as the increased availability of SMCFA reduced stearoyl-CoA-desaturase-1 gene expression, whereas it tended to reduce lipoprotein lipase (LPL), 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT-6), sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) gene expression in the presence of CLA. The mRNA expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis

  20. The effects of conjugated linoleic acids on breast cancer: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Arman; Akbarian, Shahab Aldin; Ghiyasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Recently prevention strategies for breast cancer are focused on lifestyle modification such as diet. Some dietary factors such as Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can lower the risk of breast cancer, metastasis and some factors concerning this malignancy. Many studies have been established in this field, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated this association based on systematic review among published scientific literature. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar and Persian database (Iran Medex, magiran) to identify relevant studies. We summarized the findings of 8 papers in this review. Although, three cohort studies were not overall identified a protective effect of CLA dietary intake or CLA content in breast tissue on breast cancer incidence, metastasis and death, one of them showed an inverse association after adjusting for age. Also, among case-control studies a weak inverse association between breast cancer risk and CLA dietary intake and serum levels among post-menopausal women was reported. Besides, a clinical trial showed that some indicator of breast tumor decreased after CLA administration among women with breast adenocarcinoma. Lacking published evidence suggested inconsistent results. So, further well-designed studies are required, particularly in considering the main breast cancer risk factors. PMID:27512684

  1. Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) by conjugated fatty acid in obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Chen, Xiaoe; Li, Duo

    2015-02-25

    Conjugated fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) have drawn significant attention for their variety of biologically beneficial effects. Evidence suggested that CLA and CLNA could play physiological roles by regulating the expression and activity of PPAR γ. This review summarizes the current understanding of evidence of the role of CLA (cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA) and CLNA (punicic acid and α-eleostearic acid) in modulating the expression or activity of PPAR γ that could in turn be employed as complementary treatment for obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Expected genetic response for oleic acid content in pork.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2012-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (C18:1) content in pork are important issues for the pig industry and consumers. Data from a purebred Duroc line were used to i) estimate the genetic parameters of IMF and C18:1 and their genetic correlations with lean growth components, and ii) evaluate the opportunities for genetically improving C18:1 in IMF. The data set used for estimating genetic parameters consisted of 93,920 pigs, from which 85,194 had at least 1 record for BW or backfat thickness (BT) at 180 d and 943 for IMF and C18:1 at 205 d. Intramuscular fat content and C18:1, expressed as percentage of total fatty acids, were determined in the gluteus medius muscle by gas chromatography. Genetic parameters for C18:1 were estimated under a Bayesian 4-trait multivariate animal mixed model. Heritability of C18:1 was 0.50, with a probability of 95% of being greater than 0.37. Genetic correlations of C18:1 with BW, BT, and IMF were 0.11, 0.22, and 0.47, respectively (with a probability of 95% of being greater than -0.07, 0.04, and 0.27, respectively). Genetic responses were evaluated by deterministic simulation using a half-sib recording scheme for C18:1 and the previously estimated parameters. The C18:1 content is expected to exhibit only minor changes in selection programs directed at growth rate but to decrease in those focusing on lean content. Maximum expected response in C18:1 at no lean growth loss (i.e., at no change in BW and BT) was 0.44%, with a resulting correlated response in IMF of 0.15%. However, because lean growth is emphasized in the breeding goal, the resulting response scenarios are more constrained. We concluded that there is evidence to support the idea that C18:1 in IMF is genetically determined and defined selection strategies can lead to response scenarios in which C18:1, IMF, BT, and BW can be simultaneously improved. However, if adopted, the potential for lean growth would be reduced. The extent to which it is affordable relies on how much

  3. t10,c12-CLA decreases adiposity in peripubertal mice without dose-related detrimental effects on mammary development, inflammation status, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Foote, M R; Giesy, S L; Bernal-Santos, G; Bauman, D E; Boisclair, Y R

    2010-12-01

    The trans 10, cis 12-conjugated linoleic acid (10,12-CLA) isomer reduces adiposity in several animal models. In the mouse, however, this effect is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Moreover, 10,12-CLA was recently shown to promote mammary ductal hyperplasia and ErbB2/Her2-driven mammary cancer in the mouse. Reasons for detrimental effects of 10,12-CLA on the mouse mammary gland could relate to its effect on the mammary fat pad (MFP), which is essential for normal development. Accordingly, we hypothesized that mammary effects of 10,12-CLA were mediated through the MFP in a dose-dependent manner. Female FVB mice were fed 10,12-CLA at doses of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.5% of the diet from day 24 of age, and effects on mammary development and metabolism were measured on day 49. The 0.5% dose reduced ductal elongation and caused premature alveolar budding. These effects were associated with increased expression of inflammatory markers and genes shown to alter epithelial growth (IGF binding protein-5) and alveolar budding (TNF-α and receptor of activated NF-κB ligand). The 0.5% dose also caused hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. In contrast, the 0.1% 10,12-CLA dose had no adverse effects on mammary development, metabolic events, and inflammatory responses, but remained effective in decreasing adipose weights and lipogenic gene expression. These results show that a low dose of 10,12-CLA reduces adiposity in the mouse without negative effects on mammary development, inflammation, and metabolism, and suggest that previously reported detrimental effects relate to the use of excessive doses.

  4. Maternal high-fat diet-induced programing of gut taste receptor and inflammatory gene expression in rat offspring is ameliorated by CLA supplementation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation influences later life predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease in offspring. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined, but one potential target that has received scant attention and is likely pivotal to disease progression is that of the gut. The present study examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on offspring metabolic profile and gut expression of taste receptors and inflammatory markers. We speculate that preventing high-fat diet-induced metainflammation improved maternal metabolic parameters conferring beneficial effects on adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA) throughout gestation and lactation. Plasma/tissues were taken at day 24 and RT-PCR was carried out on gut sections. Offspring from HF mothers were significantly heavier at weaning with impaired insulin sensitivity compared to controls. This was associated with increased plasma IL-1β and TNFα concentrations. Gut Tas1R1, IL-1β, TNFα, and NLRP3 expression was increased and Tas1R3 expression was decreased in male offspring from HF mothers and was normalized by maternal CLA supplementation. Tas1R1 expression was increased while PYY and IL-10 decreased in female offspring of HF mothers. These results suggest that maternal consumption of a HF diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring predisposition to obesity and metabolic dysregulation. This may be associated with dysregulation of taste receptor, incretin, and inflammatory gene expression in the gut.

  5. Glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate after dilute acid pretreatment is affected by the starch content in rice straw.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Oshima, Tomoko; Matsuda, Fumio; Sasaki, Kengo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as rice straw, is often utilized as a bioresource after being hydrolyzed using dilute acid and separated into liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue. However, the biomass component that determines the distribution between liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue has not yet been clarified. In this study, the glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate and weight of acid-insoluble residue of 13 rice cultivars were analyzed. Starch content was positively correlated with glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate, and negatively correlated with acid-insoluble residue weight. These results indicate that the glucose in the liquid hydrolysate is mainly liberated from starch rather than cellulose in the rice straw. These observations suggest that starch content is a good indicator of the glucose distribution between the liquid hydrolysate and insoluble residue.

  6. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding.

  7. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  8. Anti-obesity activity of diglyceride containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Jin-Joo; Lee, Ki Nam; Jeong, Jae-Hwang; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Lee, Young Ho; Jeong, Seong-woon; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p < 0.01). All test solutions significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride, glucose and free fatty acids in the serum compared with control (p < 0.05). The levels of total cholesterol were also significantly reduced in DG and DG-CLA groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CLA significantly decreased weights of renal and epididymal fats compared with the control (p < 0.05). DG and DG-CLA also significantly decreased the epididymal fat weights compared with the control (p < 0.05). A remarkable decrease in the number of lipid droplets and fat globules was observed in the livers of mice treated with DG, CLA, and DG-CLA compared to control. Treatments of DG and CLA actually increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These results suggest that DG-CLA containing 22% CLA have a respectable anti-obesity effect by controlling serum lipids and fat metabolism. PMID:19687618

  9. Effects of modified tall oil versus a commercial source of conjugated linoleic acid and increasing levels of modified tall oil on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, P R; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D; Unruh, J A; Woodworth, J C; Smith, J S; Tokach, M D

    2000-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched feed additives for swine. These additives included a source of CLA that was commercially available (CLA-60) and modified tall oil (MTO). Experiment 1 used 36 barrows (initially 37.6+/-2.8 kg) to compare the effects of CLA-60 and MTO on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. The corn-soybean meal diets contained .50% soybean oil (control), .50% CLA-60, or .50% MTO. Pigs fed CLA-60 had less (P = .03) ADG from 37.6 to 72.6 kg than the control pigs; otherwise, pigs fed either CLA-60 or MTO had growth performance similar (P > .15) to that of the control pigs. Pigs fed MTO grew faster (P = .03) and consumed more feed (P = .10) over the duration of the experiment (37.6 to 106.4 kg) than pigs fed CLA-60. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > .15) plasma triglycerides or carcass characteristics, but pigs fed either MTO or CLA-60 had greater saturation of fatty acids in the adipose tissue at the 10th rib than pigs fed the control diet. Experiment 2 used 80 barrows (initially 33.4+/-2.2 kg) to examine the effects of increasing levels of MTO on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. The corn-soybean meal diet contained 1% cornstarch, which was replaced with MTO to give dietary levels of .25, .50, or 1.00% MTO. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > .15) growth performance. Feeding increasing levels of MTO quadratically decreased (P = .02) average backfat thickness and longissimus muscle drip loss (P = .04) and quadratically increased longissimus muscle area (P = .07) and percentage lean (P = .03). Feeding MTO tended to increase belly firmness (P < .10) compared with pigs fed the control diet. These traits appeared to be optimized with .50% MTO. In summary, pigs fed MTO had greater ADG, ADFI, and ending BW than pigs fed CLA-60. Feeding MTO does not appear to affect growth performance but improves carcass lean content and may

  10. [Effect of dietary VE on the contents of salivary acid and MDA in RBC membrane].

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Dong, Z; Zhang, Y; Chen, Y

    1997-05-01

    Vitamin E can protect membrane from the damage of lipid peroxidation, Salivary acid is the residual of carbohydrate on the membrane. To evaluate the effect of dietary VE on salivary acid, the contents of MDA and salivary acid of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane of rats were measured. The rats were fed with different amounts of dietary VE and stayed at different temperatures. The results revealed that the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane reduced markly (P < 0.01) and the content of MDA of RBC membrane was stable (P > 0.05) after the rats were exposed to cold for 10 days. High dietary VE intake increased the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane (P < 0.01). There was no correlation between the content of salivary acid and MDA of RBC membrane. It suggested that dietary VE could raise the content of salivary acid in RBC membrane, but it can not be explained by the reduction of LPO.

  11. Maternal conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and inflammation in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, C A; Segovia, S A; Markworth, J F; Gray, C; Zhang, X D; Milan, A M; Mitchell, C J; Barnett, M P G; Roy, N C; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M; Cameron-Smith, D

    2016-03-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation leads to metabolic disorders in offspring concomitant with increased adiposity and a proinflammatory phenotype in later life. During the fetal period, the impact of maternal diet on skeletal muscle development is poorly described, despite this tissue exerting a major influence on life-long metabolic health. This study investigated the effect of a maternal HFD on skeletal muscle anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory signaling in adult rat offspring. Furthermore, the actions of maternal-supplemented conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on these measures of muscle phenotype were investigated. A purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal fat), a CD supplemented with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal fat, 1% total fat as CLA), a high-fat (HFD; 45% kcal fat from lard), or a HFD supplemented with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal fat from lard, 1% total fat as CLA) was fed ad libitum to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring received a standard chow diet from weaning, and the gastrocnemius was collected for analysis at day 150. Offspring from HF and HFCLA mothers displayed lower muscular protein content accompanied by elevated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 (Ser(536)) and expression of the catabolic E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were increased in HF offspring, an effect reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. The present study demonstrates the importance of early life interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of poor maternal diet on offspring skeletal muscle development.

  12. CLA Has a Useful Effect on Bone Markers in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aryaeian, N; Shahram, F; Djalali, M

    2016-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, chronic disease which may increase the risk of osteoporosis. This study was carried out in order to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone markers in rheumatoid arthritis disease which is the most common autoimmune disease. The present study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Subjects included 52 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who were divided into two groups. Group I received standard treatment plus 2 daily 1.25 g capsules (Containing about 2 g of 9-cis 11-trans isomer and 10-cis 12-trans isomer in ratio of 50 -50 CLA in glycerinated form), Group II received standard treatment plus 2 Placebo 1.25 g capsules containing sunflower oil with high oleic acid. Telopeptides C, osteocalcin, and MMP3 were analyzed by ELISA method, PGE2 was done by competitive enzymatic immunoassay method, and IGF-1 was analyzed by the IRMA method based on the sandwich method and ALK-P of bone. Before and after the intervention, the questionnaires about general information, nutrition assessment and medical history were filled out by the subjects. Nutritional assessment was done by a 24-h record questionnaire for the three-day diet. The results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18).

  13. Development of design of CLA: target lens line-focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechun; Zhu, Jianqiang

    1999-08-01

    In this paper the principle of CLA-target system to obtain focal line with homogenous intensity distribution was described. And tow new structure modal CLA used for improving the homogeneous of focal line was described and the numerical results of the classical CLA and new type CLA was also given. Those result showed that the focal line long-range intensity distribution can be improved greatly by using CLA with optimized unequal cylindrical lens element for beam with Gaussian intensity distribution and by using hybrid element CLA for the case of super-Gaussian distribution. The optimal process was treated by simulated annealing method. The intensity modulation decreased to 0.7 percent for optimized 4-element unequal width CLA system when incident laser with Gaussian section distribution.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers.

  15. The triacylglycerol preparation of conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Chae, S H; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Johnson, D; Maxim, J; Smith, S B

    2009-04-01

    It is proposed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) would depress the lipid oxidation caused by irradiation of cooked, aerobically stored ground beef patties. The free fatty acid (FFA-CLA) and triacylglycerol (TAG-CLA) preparations of CLA were added at 0%, 1%, 2%, or 4% during the grinding process. Patties were irradiated at 1.5-2.0kGy and frozen at -20°C. Subsequently, the patties were tempered to 4°C, cooked to 70°C and held at 4°C for 7d. Enrichment of ground beef with CLA increased the cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers in ground beef patties, even after cooking. Weight loss (P=0.03) and percentage fat (P=0.05) were higher in irradiated beef patties than in control patties. Irradiation decreased the concentration of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in the ground beef by over 60% (P=0.07), whereas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (P=0.004) in irradiated beef patties than in control patties. The 1% concentration of added TAG-CLA reduced TBARS in irradiated ground beef patties, whereas 2% and 4% FFA-CLA depressed TBARS (CLA type×percentage interaction P=0.04). Irradiation increased the cardboard and painty aromatic attributes (P⩽0.05), and FFA-CLA preparation increased the painty aromatic attribute and afterburn aftertaste, but these effects were not observed with the TAG-CLA preparation (CLA type×treatment interaction P<0.04). Adding 1% TAG-CLA to ground beef during grinding can reduce lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties without the negative aftertastes associated with the FFA-CLA preparation.

  16. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering.

  17. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  18. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on t10, c12-conjugated linoleic acid-induced changes in fatty acid composition of mouse liver, adipose and muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation of 1.5% docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) with 0.5% t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; CLA) prevented the CLA-induced increase in expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and the decrease in expression of genes involved in fat...

  19. Oil and Fatty Acid Content Among Diverse Sesame Genetic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum contains oil used for salads, cooking while the seeds are used on hamburger buns, candies, and are used to make tahini. Sesame oil is known to reduce cholesterol due to the high polyunsaturated fat content in the oil. Oil content ranges from about 40 to 63% among sesame acces...

  20. Modulation of inflammation and immunity by dietary conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-08-15

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. This family of polyunsaturated fatty acids has drawn significant attention in the last three decades for its variety of biologically beneficial properties and health effects. CLA has been shown to exert various potent protective functions such as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiadipogenic, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties in animal models of disease. Therefore, CLA represents a nutritional avenue to prevent lifestyle diseases or metabolic syndrome. Initially, the overall effects of CLA were thought to be the result of interactions between its two major isomers: cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12. However, later evidence suggests that such physiological effects of CLA might be different between the isomers: t-10, c-12-CLA is thought to be anticarcinogenic, antiobesity and antidiabetic, whereas c-9, t-11-CLA is mainly anti-inflammatory. Although preclinical data support a benefit of CLA supplementation, human clinical findings have yet to show definitive evidence of a positive effect. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the mechanisms of action and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary CLA supplementation and evaluate the potential uses of CLA in human health and disease.

  1. Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

    1991-04-01

    The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.

  2. Validation of the large-scale Lagrangian cirrus model CLaMS-Ice by in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anja; Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Dreiling, Volker; Zöger, Martin; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are an element of uncertainty in the climate system and have received increasing attention since the last IPCC reports. The interaction of varying freezing meachanisms, sedimentation rates, temperature and updraft velocity fluctuations and other factors that lead to the formation of those clouds is still not fully understood. During the ML-Cirrus campaign 2014 (Germany), the new cirrus cloud model CLaMS-Ice (see Rolf et al., EGU 2015) has been used for flight planning to direct the research aircraft HALO into interesting cirrus cloud regions. Now, after the campaign, we use our in-situ aircraft measurements to validate and improve this model - with the long-term goal to enable it to simulate cirrus cloud cover globally, with reasonable computing times and sufficient accuracy. CLaMS-Ice consists of a two-moment bulk model established by Spichtinger and Gierens (2009a, 2009b), which simulates cirrus clouds along trajectories that the Lagrangian model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002 and Konopka et al. 2007) derived from ECMWF data. The model output covers temperature, pressure, relative humidity, ice water content (IWC), and ice crystal numbers (Nice). These parameters were measured on board of HALO by the following instruments: temperature and pressure by BAHAMAS, total and gas phase water by the hygrometers FISH and SHARC (see Meyer et al 2014, submitted to ACP), and Nice as well as ice crystal size distributions by the cloud spectrometer NIXE-CAPS (see also Krämer et al., EGU 2015). Comparisons of the model results with the measurements yield that cirrus clouds can be successfully simulated by CLaMS-Ice. However, there are sections in which the model's relative humidity and Nice deviate considerably from the measured values. This can be traced back to e.g. the initialization of total water from ECMWF data. The simulations are therefore reinitiated with the total water content measured by FISH. Other possible sources of uncertainties are investigated, as

  3. Lack of genoprotective effect of phytosterols and conjugated linoleic acids on Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Daly, Trevor J; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Connor, Tom P; O'Brien, Nora M

    2009-08-01

    Much interest has focused on the cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols (plant sterols) but limited data suggests they may also possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), sourced from meat and dairy products of ruminant animals, has also received considerable attention as a potential anti-cancer agent. Therefore, the aims of this project were to (i) examine the effects of phytosterols and CLA on the viability and growth of human intestinal Caco-2 cells and (ii) determine their potential genoprotective (comet assay), COX-2 modulatory (ELISA) and apoptotic (Hoechst staining) activities. Caco-2 cells were supplemented with the phytosterols campesterol, beta-sitosterol, or beta-sitostanol, or a CLA mixture, or individual CLA isomers (c10t12-CLA, t9t11-CLA) for 48 h. The three phytosterols, at the highest levels tested, were found to reduce both the viability and growth of Caco-2 cells while CLA exhibited isomer-specific effects. None of the phytosterols protected against DNA damage. At a concentration of 25 microM, both c10t12-CLA and t9t11-CLA enhanced (P<0.05) oxidant-induced, but not mutagen-induced, DNA damage. Neither the phytosterols nor CLA induced apoptosis or modulated COX-2 production. In conclusion, campesterol, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitostanol, c10t12-CLA, and t9t11-CLA were not toxic to Caco-2 cells, at the lower levels tested, and did not exhibit potential anti-carcinogenic activity.

  4. [New method of near infrared spectra analysis for the content of acid soluble lignin of Acacia].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The near infrared spectra analysis model of the content of the acid soluble lignin and the model of the content of the Klason lignin were built by the iterative method separately at first. The results show that the prediction effect of the content of the Klason lignin is obviously better than that of the acid soluble lignin. Different from usual methods of building near infrared spectra analysis model, the approximate linear relation between the contents of the acid soluble lignin and the contents of the Klason lignin was used. Combined with the near infrared spectroscopy data of multi-wavelength, twenty sub models of prediction of the content of the acid soluble lignin were built with the help of the Klason lignin content whose prediction effect is better than that of the acid soluble lignin. By calculating the weighted mean value of the prediction values of these sub models, the new prediction value of the content of the acid soluble lignin of each acacia specimen was obtained at last. The prediction error of the new model is obviously less than that of the model built by the iterative method. It is possible that the method of modeling in the paper can be used to some chemical component contents when the predictions of them by usual methods are not very effective, and the effects of the near infrared spectra analysis of them will be improved.

  5. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  6. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  7. Milk from cows grazing on cool-season pastures provides an enhanced profile of bioactive fatty acids compared to those grazed on a monoculture of pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Egolf, Emily; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2017-02-15

    The demand for dairy products from grass-fed cows is driven, in part, by their more desirable fatty acid (FA) profile, containing more n-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) than conventionally produced dairy products. This study investigated the effects of pearl millet (PM) vs. cool-season pasture (CSP) on animal performance and milk FA in a grazing system. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a repeated measures design with four-week periods. Forage type had no effect on animal performance (estimated dry matter intake, milk production, fat, or protein). The contents of CLA and n-3 FA in a serving of whole milk (3.25% fat) increased when cows grazed CSP compared to PM. A serving of whole milk from cows grazing PM had a higher content of saturated FA and branched-chain FA. In conclusion, the contents of various bioactive FA were higher in milk fat of cows grazing a CSP compared to PM.

  8. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  9. Preparative separation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) from fermented Camellia oleifera Abel cake by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) encapsulation using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Guanglei; Li, Xiuping; Du, Jiasu; Wang, Jingbo

    2014-03-01

    This paper concentrates on the separation of three conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers (trans-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA) by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) encapsulation using countercurrent chromatography from Camellia oleifera Abel cake fermented by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus sp. LL-ZSDS001. The elution sequence of the CLA isomers, the mixing zones and mechanism of separation are discussed. The separation of 305.9mg of the crude sample yielded three isomeric compounds: 91.3mg of trans-9,trans-11 CLA, 84.1mg of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 79.7mg of cis-9,trans-11 CLA at high purities of 98%, 94% and 96%, respectively.

  10. Rumen microbial response in production of CLA and methane to safflower oil in association with fish oil or/and fumarate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang Z; Long, Rui J; Yan, Chang G; Lee, Hong G; Kim, Young J; Song, Man K

    2011-06-01

    Supplementation effect of fish oil and/or fumarate on production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and methane by rumen microbes was examined when incubated with safflower oil. One hundred and twenty milligrams of safflower oil (SO), safflower oil with 24 mg fish oil (SOFO), safflower oil with 24 mmol/L fumarate (SOFA), or safflower oil with 24 mg fish oil and 24 mmol/L fumarate (SOFOFA) were added to the 90 mL culture solution. The culture solution was also made without any supplements (control). The SOFA and SOFOFA increased pH and propionate (C3) compared to other treatments from 3 h incubation time. An accumulated amount of total methane (CH(4) ) for 12 h incubation was decreased by all the supplements compared to control. The concentrations of c9,t11CLA for all the incubation times were increased in the treatments of SOFO, SOFA and SOFOFA compared to SO. The highest concentration of c9,t11CLA was observed from SOFOFA among all the treatments at all incubation times. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined fumarate and/or fish oil when incubated with safflower oil could depress CH(4) generation and increase production of C(3) and CLA under the condition of current in vitro study.

  11. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages.

  13. Perflourocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in house dust, suggesting strongly the presence of indoor sources of these compounds. The main goal of this study was to identify and rank potentially important indoor sources by determining th...

  14. Chronic administration of ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid changes microsomal membrane lipid content and fatty acid compositions in rats.

    PubMed

    Bellentani, S; Chao, Y C; Ferretti, I; Panini, R; Tiribelli, C

    1996-03-27

    We studied the effect of oral supplementation with ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) or tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat hepatic microsomes. UDCA and TUDCA significantly increased the total amount of lipids with the exception of cholesteryl-esters. UDCA significantly increased the triglycerides and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) microsomal content, and decreased the cholesterol/phospholipids and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PE ratio. Both treatments increased the percentage oleic acid and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in each class of lipids. UDCA and TUDCA had a different action on PUFA microsomal molar percentage of phospholipids: UDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PE fraction, while TUDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PC fraction. These changes in the hepatic lipid content and composition might in part explain both cytoprotective action of these hydrophillic bile acids and their effect on membrane fluidity.

  15. Impact of light quality on biomass production and fatty acid content in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, Malin; Jönsson, Helene Larsson; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Carlsson, Anders S

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to monochromatic light at six different wavelengths in order to study the effect on biomass productivity and fatty acid content. A significantly higher amount of biomass by produced in the treatments with yellow, red and white light compared with blue, green and purple light. There were also significant differences in total lipid content and fatty acid profile between the treatments. The green light regime gave the lowest concentration of lipids, but increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus it can be concluded that light quality significantly affects biomass productivity, total lipid concentration and fatty acid profile in the microalga C. vulgaris.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid improves glucose utilization in the soleus muscle of rats fed linoleic acid-enriched and linoleic acid-deprived diets.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Ana C; Hirabara, Sandro; Sain, Juliana; Latorre, María E; González, Marcela; Curi, Rui; Bernal, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The effect that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has on glucose metabolism in experimental animals depends on nutritional conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that CLA improves glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in rats fed different levels of dietary linoleic acid (LA). We investigated the effect of CLA on the uptake, incorporation, and oxidation of glucose and glycogen synthesis in the soleus muscle of rats who were fed either LA-enriched (+LA) or LA-deprived (-LA) diets, under basal conditions and in the absence or presence of insulin and/or palmitate. For 60 days, male Wistar rats were fed 1 of 4 diets consisting of +LA, -LA, or +LA and -LA supplemented with CLA. Nutritional parameters and soleus glucose metabolism were evaluated. Under basal conditions, CLA enhanced soleus glucose oxidation, whereas increased glucose uptake and incorporation were observed in the -LA + CLA group. Conjugated linoleic acid-supplemented rats presented a lower response to insulin on glucose metabolism compared with non-CLA-supplemented rats. Palmitate partially inhibited the effect of insulin on the uptake and incorporation of glucose in the +LA and -LA groups but not in the +LA + CLA or -LA + CLA groups. Dietary CLA increased glucose utilization under basal conditions and prevented the palmitate-induced inhibition of glucose uptake and incorporation that is stimulated by insulin. The beneficial effects of CLA were better in LA-deprived rats. Conjugated linoleic acid may also have negative effects, such as lowering the insulin response capacity. These results demonstrate the complexities of the interactions between CLA, palmitate, and/or insulin to differentially modify muscle glucose utilization and show that the magnitude of the response is related to the dietary LA levels.

  17. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages.

  18. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  19. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  20. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  1. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  2. Relation of acidity and sensory quality with sterol content of olive oil from stored fruit.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, F; Varona, I; Albi, M A

    2000-04-01

    Composition of the sterol fraction, fatty acid, acidity, and the sensorial evaluation of virgin olive oils were studied in two eastern Spanish varieties grown and processed under the same conditions. Fruits were stored at 5 degrees C and ambient temperature for different times. During fruit storage, there was no significant variation (P = 0.05) in fatty acid composition. However, the sterol composition of the oil varied markedly (in particular, there was an increase in stigmasterol), acidity increased, and there was a very significant decrease in sensorial quality. The stigmasterol content presented a high correlation with the acidity and sensory evaluation (P < 10(-)(6)). The total sterol content increased gradually with olive storage time. Oils with stigmasterol greater than campesterol are graded to a low level (lampant). It is of interest that sensorial quality is revealed by stigmasterol content, a fact unknown until now.

  3. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production.

  4. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation.

  5. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  6. Fatty acid, amino acid, mineral and antioxidant contents of acha (Digitaria exilis) grown on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Robert H.; Laabes, Emmanuel P.; Presley, Jack M.; Schulze, John; Andrews, Ronnee; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Lu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (also known as acha, hungry rice) has been cultivated for millennia in the dry savannahs of West Africa, but much remains to be learned about its nutritional properties. Acha was collected in four villages in Northern Nigeria and analyzed for fatty acids, minerals, amino acids and antioxidant content. Fatty acids accounted for 1.91% of the dry weight, with 47.4% linoleic acid and 30.5% oleic acid. The content of the essential minerals, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, zinc and calcium averaged 4.88, 1060, 0.23, 23.0 and 172 μg/g, respectively. The protein content was 6.53% and the essential amino acid pattern, except for lysine, compared favorably to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference protein. The total polyphenolic content of methanolic extracts of acha matched that of common cereals (for example, maize, rice, wheat) and the extracts contained substantial amounts of free-radical scavenging substances. Thus, acha is a source of many nutrients critical to human health. PMID:26635994

  7. [Change in acylneuraminic acid content of T-lymphocytes and in plasma in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Stickl, H; Huber, W; Faillard, H; Becker, A; Holzhauser, R; Graeff, H

    1991-01-04

    Increased sialic acid levels reflecting tumor burden are found on the surface of T-lymphocytes and in the plasma of patients with carcinoma of the mammary gland. The data of the determinations of sialic acid content and distribution on T-cells, using microanalytical methods such as HPLC and a colorimetric test, show that the total sialic acid content is increased by about 60% and that nearly 80-90% of the sialic acids consist of N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl-neuraminic acid, in comparison to the healthy controls (not containing O-acetylated neuraminic acid). Investigations on lymphocytes of malignant melanoma patients show similar changes of sialic acid content and distribution on the cell surface. Increased sialic acid levels are also found in the plasma of patients with cancer but no O-acetylated derivative can be found. Furthermore the examinations show that the separation of the T-lymphocytes from the total lymphocyte fraction is not required. Determination of sialic acids in the total lymphocyte fraction can be a simplification in carrying out further diagnostic investigations. A high level of sialic acids as "antirecognition factor" seems to be not only a marker of tumor cells but also an attribute of T-lymphocytes, involved in the defence against the malignoma (malignant melanoma, breast cancer). Considering the possible contribution of sialic acid to the immunoregulatory protective mechanism during the first stage of pregnancy, sialic acid content and distribution on T-cells of pregnant women are investigated. Both an increase and a change in the distribution of sialic acids can be excluded.

  8. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  9. Trans fatty acid content of selected brands of West German nut-nougat cream.

    PubMed

    Laryea, M D; Biggemann, B; Funke, M; Lombeck, I; Bremer, H J

    1988-12-01

    The fatty acid composition including trans fatty acids of 12 brands of nut-nougat creams were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. The creams consisted mainly of sugar and partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. The lipid content, which was quantified gravimetrically, amounted to between 30 and 38.2% in the different brands. The fatty acid composition varied considerably between the different creams. Linoleic acid, the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), ranged from 12 to 39%. Palmitic acid (16:0), which was the main fatty acid, varied from 9 to 27%. The total trans fatty acid content of the 12 creams ranged from 0.9 to 12.3%. Only two of the creams contained less than 1% of trans fatty acids; 18:1t was the trans fatty acid found in the greatest amounts, whereas 16:1t and 14:1t were only found in trace amounts. Three samples had amounts of 18:2tt, 18:2ct, and 18:2tc between 0.7 and 1.06%; only small amounts of linoleate isomers were detected in the other creams. Our results show that trans fatty acids are present in every brand of chocolate cream tested. Since the potential risk of arteriosclerosis and cancer resulting from the consumption of trans fatty acids is not yet clear, different ways of production should be used in order to eliminate them from the creams that are a preferred bread spread of infants and children.

  10. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  11. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  12. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “nonfat... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated fat,”...

  13. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “nonfat... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated fat,”...

  14. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....409. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat...,” “no saturated fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated...

  15. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....309. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat...,” “no saturated fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated...

  16. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-03-24

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  17. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin.

  18. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  19. Relationship between hydroxycinnamic acid content, lignin composition and digestibility of maize silages in sheep.

    PubMed

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Antonio; Flores, Gonzalo; Barceló, Alfonso Ros; Masa, Antón; Pomar, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids and the composition of lignin were studied in relation to the digestibility of a collection of 91 maize silages in wethers. Total lignin and guaiacyl content showed the highest correlation coefficients with digestibility. Using the above-mentioned chemical parameters, eight equations were also developed to predict digestibility. The prediction of organic matter digestibility produced a high adjusted R2 value (0.487) using total lignin, guaiacyl, esterified ferulic acid and esterified p-coumaric acid content as predictors. The prediction of in vivo dry matter digestibility produced a higher adjusted R2 value (0.516) using the same variables as predictors. Cell wall digestibility depends on a multiplicity of factors and it is not possible to attribute a causal effect on in vivo digestibility to any single factor. However, total lignin, guaiacyl and p-coumaric acid content emerge as good predictors of digestibility.

  20. Correlation between Chlorophyll and Chlorogenic Acid Content in Tobacco Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A positive correlation (r = 0.75, P < 0.01) was obtained between chlorophyll and chlorogenic acid content in the seedling leaves of burley and dark tobaccos. The dark tobaccos contained significantly higher concentrations of both constituents than the burleys. Such a correlation also occurred in a cytoplasmic mutant of chlorophyll-variegated tobacco when the green and yellow laminae were compared. In addition, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol-oxidase was higher in the green lamina than in the yellow tissue, which coincided with quantitative distribution of chlorogenic acid. Chlorophyll deficiency induced by streptomycin in tobacco seedlings resulted in a progressive decrease in chlorogenic acid content. However, an interruption of streptomycin treatment provoked accumulation of the two compounds. Dark-grown seedlings showed an increase in the content of chlorophyll and chlorogenic acid upon illumination. Incorporation of l-phenylalanine-U-14C into chlorogenic acid during leaf greening was drastically reduced owing to the presence of phenylpyruvate; the latter compound is a possible by-product of chlorophyll biosynthesis. This phenomenon was also evident with light-grown leaves. Results suggest that in addition to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase as a key enzyme regulating chlorogenic acid biosynthesis, an alternative pathway involving the conversion of phenylpyruvate to cinnamate may be functional in tobacco leaves. This pathway may bear importance as to higher chlorogenic acid content in dark tobaccos than in burleys. PMID:16658575

  1. Variability in phytic acid content and protein digestibility of grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Chitra, U; Vimala, V; Singh, U; Geervani, P

    1995-02-01

    Several genotypes, number given within parenthesis, of chickpea, pigeonpea, urd bean, mung bean and soybean, differing in seed characteristics were analyzed for phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), protein, total phosphorus, and seed size. Phytic acid contents and IVPD values differed significantly among and within these species. Phytic acid content (mg/g) was the highest in soybean (36.4) followed by urd bean (13.7), pigeonpea (12.7), mung bean (12.0) and chickpea (9.6). On an average, phytic acid constituted 78.2 percent of the total phosphorus content and this percentage figure was the highest in soybean and the lowest in mung bean. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of pigeonpea and chickpea genotypes varied from 60.4 to 74.4 percent and 65.3 to 79.4 percent, respectively. The IVPD values of genotypes of mung bean, urd bean and soybean ranged from 67.2 to 72.2 percent, 55.7 to 63.3 percent and 62.7 to 71.6 percent, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between phytic acid and IVPD of these genotypes. Phytic acid was significantly and positively correlated with protein but the magnitude of correlation was very low in chickpea and pigeonpea. Results indicate that the genotypes of pulses with low phytic acid content could be identified and used in breeding program to improve their nutritive value and utilization.

  2. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  3. Individual isomers of conjugated linoleic acid reduce inflammation associated with established collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Shane M; Campbell, James P; Butz, Daniel E; Fulmer, Tyler G; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Cook, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    Previously, dietary conjugated linoleic acid [(CLA), an equal mixture of cis-9, trans-11 (c9t11) and trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12) CLA isomers], was found to reduce inflammation in the murine collagen antibody-induced arthritis model, but less so in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, an arthritic model dependent upon acquired immunity. Because CLA is known to alter the acquired immune response, it was hypothesized that feeding CLA after the establishment of arthritis would reduce paw swelling in the CIA model. In this study, upon the establishment of arthritic symptoms, mice were randomized to the following dietary treatments: corn oil (CO) control (n = 6), 0.5% c9t11-CLA (n = 8), 0.5% t10c12-CLA (n = 6), or 1% combined CLA (1:1 c9t11:t10c12-CLA, n = 6). Paws were scored for severity of arthritis and measured for changes in thickness during an 84-d study period. Dietary c9t11- and combined-CLA similarly decreased the arthritic score (29%, P = 0.036, P = 0.049, respectively, when normalized to initial score) and paw thickness (0.11 mm, P = 0.027, P = 0.035, respectively) compared with CO. Dietary t10c12-CLA reduced the arthritic score (41%, P = 0.007 when normalized) and paw thickness (0.12 mm, P = 0.013) relative to CO. Reduced interleukin-1beta on d 7 and 21 for all CLA treatments (n = 3) relative to CO suggested that antiinflammatory effects of CLA isomers might work by common mechanisms of known pathways involved in chronic inflammation. In conclusion, dietary CLA reduced inflammation associated with CIA, and both c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA exhibited antiinflammatory effects.

  4. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lukas; Mueller, André; Barthel, Christiane; Snijders, Bianca; Jansen, Margje; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Huber, Machteld; Kummeling, Ischa; von Mandach, Ursula; Steinhart, Hans; Thijs, Carel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. The content of rumenic acid (the main CLA) increased in a statistically significant way while going from a conventional diet (no organic dairy/meat products, 0.25 weight % (wt%), n 186) to a moderately organic diet (50-90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.29 wt%, n 33, P = 0.02) and to a strict organic diet (>90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.34 wt%, n 37, P acid). Hence, the levels of CLA and TVA in human milk can be modulated if breastfeeding mothers replace conventional dairy and/or meat products by organic ones. A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed.

  5. The influence of manufacture on the free D-amino acid content of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Csapó, J; Varga-Visi, E; Lóki, K; Albert, Cs

    2006-06-01

    The changes in the concentration and those of composition of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid enantiomers were investigated during manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The amount of D-alanine increased continuously during ripening following the liberation of L-alanine originated from the proteolysis of milk proteins. There was slightly more D-aspartic and D-glutamic acid in the dry matter of curd after pressing than before pressurization. The D-amino acid content and the ratio of the D-enantiomers related to the total amount of free amino acids differed significantly among cheeses produced with different single-strain starters. The D-amino acid composition changed during manufacture, but the influence of the strain selection was not significant on the D-amino acid pattern.

  6. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  7. Enhancement of microalgae growth and fatty acid content under the influence of phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Salama, El-Sayed; Kabra, Akhil N; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jung Rae; Min, Booki; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-11-01

    The growth of Scenedesmus obliquus improved with increase in phytohormones concentrations (10(-8)-10(-)(5)M). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) supported the maximum growth at 10(-5)M with 17.7×10(6)cells/mL and total fatty acid of 97.9mg/g-DCW, enhancing the growth by 1.9-fold compared to control (9.5×10(6)cells/mL). While 10(-5)M of a newly discovered phytohormone Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DAH) demonstrated a 2.5-fold higher growth with 23.5×10(6)cells/mL and a total fatty acid content of 100mg/g-DCW. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid content increased up to 56% and 59% at 10(-)(5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The highest carbohydrate content (33% and 34%) achieved at 10(-8)M and 10(-5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. While, the highest protein content (34% and 35%) obtained at 10(-8)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The current investigation demonstrates that phytohormones accelerate microalgal growth and induce the quality and quantity of fatty acid content for biodiesel production.

  8. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population.

  9. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits.

  10. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid and trans-C18:1 fatty acid production by mixed ruminal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martin, S A; Jenkins, T C

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify environmental factors that influence conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-C18:1 fatty acid production by mixed ruminal bacteria. Ruminal contents were collected from a 600-kg ruminally fistulated Hereford steer maintained on pasture. Mixed ruminal bacteria were obtained by differential centrifugation under anaerobic conditions and added to a basal medium that contained a commercial emulsified preparation of soybean oil and a mixture of soluble carbohydrates (cellobiose, glucose, maltose, and xylose). Culture samples were collected from batch culture incubations at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, and 48 h. Continuous culture incubations were conducted at dilution rates of 0.05 and 0.10 h(-1) with extracellular pH values of 5.5 and 6.5, and 0.5 and 1.0 g/L of mixed soluble carbohydrates. Culture samples were obtained from the culture vessel once steady-state conditions had been achieved. In batch culture, trans-C18:1 concentrations increased over time and reached a maximum at 48 h. Little CLA was produced during the first 8 h, but cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations remained high between 24 and 30 h. When mixed ruminal bacteria were maintained in continuous culture on 0.5 g/L of mixed soluble carbohydrates, concentrations of trans-C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA were reduced (P < 0.05) at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) and an extracellular pH of 5.5. Similar effects were also observed when 1.0 g/L of mixed soluble carbohydrates was used. When extracellular pH was lowered to 5.0, neither trans-C18:1 or CLA isomers were detected. In conclusion, our results suggest that culture pH appears to have the most influence on the production of trans-C18:1 and CLA isomers by mixed ruminal bacteria.

  11. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration.

  12. Human health effects of conjugated linoleic acid from milk and supplements.

    PubMed

    McCrorie, Tracy A; Keaveney, Edel M; Wallace, Julie M W; Binns, Nino; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2011-12-01

    The primary purpose of the present review was to determine if the scientific evidence available for potential human health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is sufficient to support health claims on foods based on milk naturally enriched with cis-9, trans-11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA). A search of the scientific literature was conducted and showed that almost all the promising research results that have emerged in relation to cancer, heart health, obesity, diabetes and bone health have been in animal models or in vitro. Most human intervention studies have utilised synthetic CLA supplements, usually a 50:50 blend of c9, t11-CLA and trans-10, cis-12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA). Of these studies, the only evidence that is broadly consistent is an effect on body fat and weight reduction. A previous review of the relevant studies found that 3.2 g CLA/d resulted in a modest body fat loss in human subjects of about 0.09 kg/week, but this effect was attributed to the t10, c12-CLA isomer. There is no evidence of a consistent benefit of c9, t11-CLA on any health conditions; and in fact both synthetic isomers, particularly t10, c12-CLA, have been suspected of having pro-diabetic effects in individuals who are already at risk of developing diabetes. Four published intervention studies using naturally enriched CLA products were identified; however, the results were inconclusive. This may be partly due to the differences in the concentration of CLA administered in animal and human studies. In conclusion, further substantiation of the scientific evidence relating to CLA and human health benefits are required before health claims can be confirmed.

  13. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  14. Circulating CLA(+) T cells in atopic dermatitis and their possible role as peripheral biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Czarnowicki, T; Santamaria-Babí, L F; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA(+) ) T cells are specialized for skin homing and represent the main T-cell population in atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions. CLA(+) is expressed on the surface of circulating CD45RO(+) memory T cells and most skin-infiltrating T cells. Mechanistic studies and thus treatment advancements are limited by the need of large number of skin biopsies. Circulating CLA(+) T cells may be a reliable surrogate marker of the inflammatory events occurring in the skin, and thus, the evaluation of CLA(+) T cells in the blood may eliminate the need for skin biopsies. Preliminary work in AD has established that disease-associated T-cell abnormalities can be approached by either a study of skin lesions or activated CLA(+) T-cell subsets in peripheral blood. Future studies in adults and children, across different skin disorders, correlating blood and skin phenotypes and determining skin-homing T-cell functional properties are needed to establish whether CLA(+) memory subsets can be used as biomarkers and a substitute for skin biopsies. This review summarizes the latest advancements reached on circulating CLA(+) in AD and the great potential they harbor in understanding AD mechanisms.

  15. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laurence; Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Ferlay, Anne; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Based on the potential benefits to long-term human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. The impact of plant oil supplements to diets containing different forages on caprine milk fatty acid composition was examined in two experiments using twenty-seven Alpine goats in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with 28 d experimental periods. Treatments comprised of no oil (control) or 130 g/d of sunflower-seed oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) supplements added to diets based on grass hay (H; experiment 1) or maize silage (M; experiment 2). Milk fat content was enhanced (P<0.01) on HSO, HLO and MLO compared with the corresponding H or M control diets, resulting in 17, 15 and 14% increases in milk fat secretion, respectively. For both experiments, plant oils decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0-16:0 and odd- and branched-chain fatty acid content and increased 18:0, trans-Delta(6-9,11-14,16)-18:1 (and their corresponding Delta-9 desaturase products), trans-7, trans-9-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-8, cis-10-CLA concentrations. Alterations in the distribution of cis-18:1, trans-18:1, -18:2 and CLA isomers in milk fat were related to plant oil composition and forage in the diet. In conclusion, plant oils represent an effective strategy for altering the fatty acid composition of caprine milk, with evidence that the basal diet is an important determinant of ruminal unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the goat.

  16. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  17. Orally administered conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates allergic dermatitis induced by repeated applications of oxazolone in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Tomonori; Tokunaga, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Masao; Erickson, Laurie; Kawahara, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the constituents of animal products with possible health benefits such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CLA using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Mice were orally administered either a CLA mixture containing equal amounts of 9c, 11 t-CLA and 10 t, 12c-CLA, or high linoleic acid safflower oil, and allergic dermatitis was induced on the ear by repeated topical applications of oxazolone. Oral administration of the CLA mixture but not the high linoleic safflower oil attenuated the symptoms of allergic dermatitis in both ear weights and clinical scores. This effect was associated with decreased levels of ear interleukin-4 (IL-4) and plasma immunoglobulin E. The immunomodulatory effects of the CLA isomers were compared by an in vitro cytokine production assay. The results showed that 9c, 11 t-CLA, the most predominant isomer in animal products, significantly inhibited IL-4 and interferon-γ production from mouse splenocytes with similar potency to 10 t, 12c-CLA. These findings suggest that CLA, a constituent of animal products, has a potentially beneficial effect for amelioration of allergic dermatitis.

  18. [Dynamic change of four triterpenic acids contents in different organs of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and phenology].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-yang; Xie, Xiao-mei; Li, Qian-wen; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Sheng-lin; Wang, He-qun; Yu, Wen-xia; Yang, Mo

    2015-03-01

    The loquat is widely cultivated in China, its succulent fruits, leaves and flower are used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. The study is aimed to analyse the content of the four triterpene compounds ( ursolic acid, corosolic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid) in different organs, and investigate the dynamic changes in different phenological period. The triterpenic acids content in the samples was measured by HPLC based on the plant phenological observations. The results showed that order of four triterpenic acids content in different organs from high to low was defoliation (23.2 mg x g(-1)) > mature leaves (21.7 mg x g(-1)) > young leaves (17.5 mg x g(-1)) > fruits (7.36 mg x g(-1)) > flowers (6.40 mg x g(-1)). The triterpenic acids were not detected in the seeds. The total amount of the four triterpenic acids in the loquat leaves collected in the different phenological stages of sprout, flower bud, blossom and fruit varied between 17.8 and 26.2 mg x g(-1) (defoliation), 16.5 and 23.5 mg x g(-1) (mature leaves), 14.7 and 21.5 mg x g(-1) (young leaves), respectively. The content increased progressively with the leaf development, maturation and aging. There was a higher level of the dry material and triterpenic acids accumulation in the mature leaves during fruit enlargement. This paper attempts to present the case for medicinal plants of a broad geographical distribution to study on the secondary metabolites and harvesting time.

  19. Forage breeding and management to increase the beneficial fatty acid content of ruminant products.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R J; Scollan, N D; Lee, M R F; Ougham, H J; Humphreys, M O

    2003-05-01

    The declining consumption of ruminant products has been partly associated with their high proportion (but not necessarily content) of saturated fatty acids. Recent studies have focused on the less prominent fact that they are also important sources of beneficial fatty acids, including n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids. alpha-Linolenic acid (18 : 3n-3) is of particular interest because it also contributes to improved flavour of beef and lamb. Many recent studies showed large effects of special concentrates on levels of fatty acids in milk and meat. However, the 'rumen protection' treatments, needed to ensure a worthwhile level of fatty acid in products, are expensive. Herbage lipids are the cheapest and safest source of these fatty acids and so breeding to increase delivery of fatty acids from plants into ruminant products is an important long-term strategy. Plant lipids usually contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 which are the precursors of beneficial fatty acids. Whilst some plants are particularly rich in individual fatty acids (e.g. 18 : 3n-3 in linseed), there are also useful levels in grass and clover (Trifolium Spp.). Levels of fatty acids in forages in relation to species and varieties are considered, as well as management and conservation methods. Relationships between levels of fatty acids and existing traits and genetic markers are identified. The effects of forage treatments on the fatty acid content of ruminant products are reviewed. The higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk from cows fed clover silages show that the level of fatty acids in herbage is not the only factor affecting levels of fatty acids in ruminant products. Further effort is needed to characterise susceptibility of unsaturated fatty acids to oxidative loss during field wilting and biohydrogenation losses in the rumen, and the relative importance of plant and microbial processes in these losses. The pathways

  20. Simple Process for the Reduction in the Nucleic Acid Content in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zee, J. A.; Simard, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A simple one-step process for the nucleic acid reduction in Rhodotorula glutinis is described. The process consists of submitting the yeast cells to a heat treatment in an acidic (pH 2) spent medium. The optimal temperature for pH 2 medium is 90 C and the final nucleic acid content in treated yeasts was 1.2%. Heat treatment at acidic pH is preferred to that at alkaline pH because it offers a better protection for amino acids and crude protein, while being more efficient in lowering the nucleic acid level. The new process is economic and rapid and could be easily used for industrial application. PMID:234157

  1. Variation of ursolic acid content in eight Ocimum species from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, M Goretti V; Vieira, Icaro G P; Mendes, Francisca N P; Albuquerque, Irineu L; dos Santos, Rogério N; Silva, Fábio O; Morais, Selene M

    2008-10-14

    Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA) content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%). This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  2. [Ammonia, glutamine and glutamic acid content of rat tissues during and after hyperoxia].

    PubMed

    Gabibov, M M

    1975-01-01

    The content of ammonia, glutamine, glutamic acid was measured in the brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, skeletal muscles and blood rats exposed to a 4 atm oxygen atmosphere and during aftereffects. The hyperoxic atmosphere resulted in an increase of ammonia and glutamic acid and in a decrease of glutamine in the tissues. The return to the norm of the compounds occurred slowly and nonuniformly, lasting for 40 to 60 posthyperoxic days.

  3. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Na-Young; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lim, Yunsook

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage). We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:20871865

  4. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  5. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  6. Effects of induced subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat content and milk fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Videau, Y; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2008-06-01

    Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Diets with 20% and 34% wheat induced a marginal and a severe subacute ruminal acidosis respectively. After 11 days, diets with wheat strongly reduced the milk yield and milk fat content, increased the proportions of C8:0 to C13:0 even- or odd-chain fatty acids, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids but decreased the proportions of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 fatty acids. Wheat also increased the proportions of trans-5 to trans-10 C18:1, the latter exhibiting a 10-fold increase with 34% of wheat compared with value during the initial 0% wheat period. There was also an increase of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 fatty acid and a decrease of trans-11 to trans-16 C18:1 fatty acids. The evolution during adaptation or after return to a 0% wheat diet was rapid for pH but much slower for the fatty acid profile. The mean ruminal pH was closely related to milk fat content, the proportion of odd-chain fatty acids (linear relationship) and the ratio of trans-10 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 (nonlinear relationship). Such changes in fatty acid profile suggested a possible use for non-invasive diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis.

  7. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (∼23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ∼30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus.

  8. Characterization of the acute lactational response to trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Bauman, D E

    2011-12-01

    Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in the dairy cow. The decrease in milk fat yield during abomasal infusion of CLA reaches a nadir after 3 to 5 d. The acute responses to CLA were evaluated using 4 cows in a crossover design. Cows were milked with the aid of oxytocin every 4h from -28 to 80h and every 6h from 86 to 116h relative to the initiation of abomasal CLA infusion. An initial priming dose of 7.5g of CLA was given at time zero followed by infusion of 2.5g every 4h for 72h. Plasma CLA reached a near-steady-state concentration by 4h, and initial plasma enrichments were greatest in the triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acid fractions. Milk CLA concentration peaked at 6h and reached steady state by 22h. At termination of the infusion, decreases in milk CLA concentration and yield and plasma CLA concentration were best fit by a reciprocal-linear function. Milk fat percentage decreased progressively after 2h and was significant by 14h. Milk fatty acid profile was initially unchanged, but between 18 and 36h after initiation of the CLA dose the proportions of fatty acids progressively shifted, resulting in an increase in fatty acids >C16 and a decrease in fatty acids CLA than other enzymes in milk fat synthesis. The initial decrease in milk fat synthesis involved an equal depression of short- and long-chain fatty acid pathways and was followed thereafter by a more pronounced decrease in the synthesis of de novo fatty acids.

  9. Increase of ascorbic acid content and nutritional quality in spinach leaves during physiological acclimation to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Simona; Moscatello, Stefano; Famiani, Franco; Battistelli, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of acclimation to 10 degrees C on the leaf content of ascorbic and oxalic acids, was investigated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). At 10 degrees C the content of ascorbic acid in leaves increased and after 7 days it was about 41% higher than in plants remaining under a 25 degrees C/20 degrees C day/night temperature regime. In contrast, the content of oxalate, remained unchanged. Transfer to 10 degrees C increased the ascorbic but not the oxalic acid content of the leaf intercellular washing fluid (IWF). Oxalate oxidase (OXO EC 1.2.3.4) activity was not detected in extracts of leaf blades. Therefore, oxalic acid degradation via OXO was not involved in the control of its content. Our results show that low temperature acclimation increases nutritional quality of spinach leaves via a physiological rise of ascorbic acid that does not feed-forward on the content of oxalic acid.

  10. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  11. Evidence in the formation of conjugated linoleic acids from thermally induced 9t12t linoleic acid: a study by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Christy, Alfred A

    2009-10-01

    Thermally induced isomerisation leading to the formation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) has been observed for the first time during the thermal treatment of 9t12t fatty acid triacylglycerol, and methyl ester. Fifteen microlitre portions of the triacylglycerol sample containing 9t12t fatty acid (trilinoelaidin) were placed in micro glass ampoules and sealed under nitrogen, then subjected to thermal treatment at 250 degrees C. The glass ampoules were removed at regular time intervals, cut open, and the contents were analysed by infrared spectroscopy using a single reflectance attenuated total internal reflectance crystal accessory. The samples were then subjected to derivatisation into their methyl esters. The methyl esters of the isomerised fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. The same procedure was repeated with methyl ester samples containing 9t12t fatty acid (methyl linoelaidate). Each sample was subjected to infrared measurements and gas chromatographic analysis after appropriate dilution in heptane. The results show that the thermally induced isomerisation of 9t12t fatty acids from both triacylglycerol molecules and methyl esters give identical CLA profiles as those found for the thermally induced isomerisation of 9c12c fatty acids. The infrared spectrometry provides additional evidence confirming the formation of CLA acids during thermal treatment. A mechanism for the formation of the CLAs from 9t12t fatty acid molecules is also formulated for the first time. This mechanism complements the pathways of formation of CLAs from 9c12c fatty acids during thermal treatment.

  12. Vertical and Seasonal Variations of Bacterioplankton Subgroups with Different Nucleic Acid Contents: Possible Regulation by Phosphorus†

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yoko; Kim, Chulgoo; Nagata, Toshi

    2005-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to examine seasonal variations in basin-scale distributions of bacterioplankton in Lake Biwa, Japan, a large mesotrophic freshwater lake with an oxygenated hypolimnion. The bacterial communities were divided into three subgroups: bacteria with very high nucleic acid contents (VHNA bacteria), bacteria with high nucleic acid contents (HNA bacteria), and bacteria with low nucleic acid contents (LNA bacteria). During the thermal stratification period, the relative abundance of VHNA bacteria (%VHNA) increased with depth, while the reverse trend was evident for LNA bacteria. Seasonally, the %VHNA was strongly positively correlated (r = 0.87; P < 0.001) with the concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphorus, but not with the concentration of chlorophyll a. The growth of VHNA bacteria was significantly enhanced by addition of phosphate or phosphate plus glucose but not by addition of glucose alone. Although the growth of VHNA and HNA bacteria generally exceeded that of LNA bacteria, our data also revealed that LNA bacteria grew faster than and were grazed as fast as VHNA bacteria in late August, when nutrient limitation was presumably severe. Based on these results, we hypothesize that in severely P-limited environments such as Lake Biwa, P limitation exerts more severe constraints on the growth of bacterial groups with higher nucleic acid contents, which allows LNA bacteria to be competitive and become an important component of the microbial loop. PMID:16204494

  13. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…

  14. Dry matter production and nutrient content of longan grown on an acid Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the adaptability of longan (Dimocarpus longan) to acidic soils high in aluminum (Al). A 2-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient content in shoots of four cultivars of longan. S...

  15. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  16. Use of Raman spectroscopy for determining erucic acid content in canola oil.

    PubMed

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Temiz, Havva Tumay; Ercioglu, Elif; Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-04-15

    This study presents a novel method to determine erucic acid in canola oil samples by using Raman spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The oil mixtures were prepared at various concentrations of erucic acid ranging from 0% to 33.56% (w/w) through binary combinations of different oils. In order to predict erucic acid content, Raman spectroscopy and GC results were correlated by means of partial least squares analysis. High coefficient of determination values was obtained for both calibration and validation data sets, which are 0.990 and 0.982, respectively. The results of the present study reveal the potential of Raman spectroscopy for rapid determination (45s) of erucic acid in canola oil. Further research would be useful to improve the method to put it forward as an alternative to GC in the erucic acid analysis.

  17. Ascorbic acid contents in transgenic potato plants overexpressing two dehydroascorbate reductase genes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Aiguo; Shi, Qinghua; Yu, Xianchang

    2011-03-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) is one of the most important nutritional quality factors in many horticultural crops and has many biological activities in the human body. Dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1; DHAR) plays an important role in maintaining the normal level of ascorbic acid (AsA) by recycling oxidized ascorbic acid. To increase AsA content of potato, we isolated and characterized the cDNAs encoding two isoform DHARs localized in cytosol and chloroplast from potato, and developed two types of transgenic potato plants overexpressing cytosolic DHAR gene and chloroplastic DHAR, respectively. Incorporation of the transgene in the genome of potato was confirmed by PCR and real time RT-PCR. The overexpression of cytosolic DHAR significantly increased DHAR activities and AsA contents in potato leaves and tubers, whereas chloroplastic DHAR overexpression only increased DHAR activities and AsA contents in leaves, and did not change them in tubers. These results indicated that AsA content of potato can be elevated by enhancing recycling ascorbate via DHAR overexpression, moreover, cytosolic DHAR might play main important roles in improving the AsA contents of potato tubers.

  18. Effect of deep-fat frying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids and potassium contents of plantain cylinders.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gonzalez, Juan A; Avallone, Sylvie; Brat, Pierre; Trystram, Gilles; Bohuon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The influence of thermal treatment (frying of plantain) on the micronutrients ascorbic acid, potassium and carotenoids is evaluated. Cylinders (diameter 30 mm, thickness 10 mm) of plantain (Musa AAB 'barraganete') were fried at four thermal treatments (120-180 degrees C and from 24 to 4 min) to obtain products with approximately the same water content (approximately 0.8+/-0.02 kg/kg1) and fat content (approximately 0.15+/-0.06 kg/kg). The thermal study used the cook value and the mean cook value as indicators of the effect of several different treatment temperatures and times on quality. Deep-fat frying had no significant effect on carotenoid contents at any frying conditions, and on potassium content, except at 120 degrees C and 24 min (loss acid. The process with the greatest effect was low temperature and long time (120 degrees C/24 min), as observed for potassium and ascorbic acid. These results are in agreement with other studies that demonstrated short thermal treatments at high temperatures protect food nutritional quality, as shown by the cook value and the mean cook value. In our work, deep-fat frying of plantain preserved most of the micronutrient contents that were evaluated.

  19. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  20. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  1. Available lysine and digestible amino acid contents of proteinaceous foods of India.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Bains, Kiran; Moughan, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Cereals and legumes are staple foods in India and are limiting in lysine and sulphur amino acids, respectively. Available lysine loss, due to Maillard-type reactions that may occur during food preparation, exacerbates the problem of lysine deficiency particularly in cereals. Consequently, determining the contents of digestible essential amino acids, particularly lysine, is important. True ileal digestibilities of most amino acids (including total and reactive lysine) were determined for ten food ingredients and eleven foods commonly consumed in India. Semi-synthetic diets each containing either an ingredient or the prepared food as the sole protein source were formulated to contain 100 g kg(-1) protein (75 g kg(-1) for rice-based diets) and fed to growing rats. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. Digesta were collected and the amino acid content (including reactive lysine) of diets and ileal digesta determined. Available (digestible reactive) lysine content ranged from 1·9-15·4 g kg(-1) and 1·8-12·7 g kg(-1) across the ingredients and prepared foods respectively. True ileal amino acid digestibility varied widely both across ingredients and prepared foods for each amino acid (on average 60-92 %) and across amino acids within each ingredient and prepared food (overall digestibility 31-96 %). Amino acid digestibility was low for many of the ingredients and prepared foods and consequently digestibility must be considered when assessing the protein quality of poorer quality foods. Given commonly encountered daily energy intakes for members of the Indian population, it is estimated that lysine is limiting for adults in many Indian diets.

  2. Effect of CLA on performance and immune response of weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M; Ledur, V S; Fischer, M M; Bockor, L; Cibulski, S P; Gava, D

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA on the immune response and performance of piglets when subjected to an immune challenge. A total of 32 weanling pigs (17 to 23 d of age) with an initial BW of 8.9 kg were allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 3 levels of dietary CLA (0%, 1%, and 2%) and 2 levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (unchallenged and challenged). Challenged pigs were challenged on d 7 and 21. On d 4 and 18, all pigs were inoculated with BSA for assessment of IgG production. There was no difference in growth performance among piglets receiving different CLA supplementation levels. However, LPS-challenged piglets had poorer BW (P < 0.05), ADFI (P < 0.01), and ADG (P < 0.001) compared with the control group at d 35 postweaning. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets also had increased respiratory rate (P < 0.001) and rectal temperature (P < 0.001), and decreased plasma proteins, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts (P < 0.05). Production of IgG against BSA was increased in the 1% CLA supplementation group (P < 0.001), indicating that CLA has an immunomodulatory effect. Supplementation with CLA did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, plasma proteins, red and white blood cell count, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature after LPS challenge. Although CLA supplementation did not influence growth performance or certain immune system measurements, the increased IgG titers with 1% CLA dietary supplementation indicate that it has a beneficial effect on the humoral immune system of weaned piglets.

  3. Relationship of fatty acid composition to intramuscular fat content in beef from crossbred Wagyu cattle.

    PubMed

    Kazala, E C; Lozeman, F J; Mir, P S; Laroche, A; Bailey, D R; Weselake, R J

    1999-07-01

    The deposition of i.m. fat, or marbling, in cattle is recognized as a desirable carcass trait in North American beef grading schemes. In order to investigate the relationship between degree of marbling and fatty acid composition of whole bovine muscle, we extracted the total lipid from pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) (n = 23) and longissimus (n = 36) muscles from Wagyu crossbred cattle that were assigned Canadian Grading Agency marbling scores ranging from 1 to 8 on an inverse 10-point scale (i.e., a score of 1 indicated "very abundant" marbling and a score of 10 would be assigned to a carcass "devoid" of marbling). Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of the total lipid and triacylglycerol fractions were resolved and quantified through GLC. Marbling scores were negatively associated with total lipid from both PCD (r = -.57, P < .01) and longissimus (r = -.80, P < .001). Differences between PCD and longissimus were found for almost all FAME studied from both lipid fractions, but no differences (P > .05) were seen when the monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) ratios were compared. Heifers had higher (P < .05) oleic acid content and lower (P < .05) palmitic acid content in lipid extracted from both muscles, resulting in higher (P < .05) MUFA/SFA ratios than those for steers. The relative amount of myristic acid increased as the lipid content (total lipid and triacylglycerol) increased in either longissimus (r values from .48 to .55; n = 36; P < .01) or PCD muscles (r from .67 to .76; n = 23; P < .001). The relative amount of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12 isomer) from total lipid was negatively associated with all chemical measurements of lipid from the longissimus (r from -.52 to -.64; n = 36; P < .001) and PCD muscles (r from -.75 to -.85; n = 23; P < .001). This association was not significant (P > .1) for either muscle when linoleic acid from the triacylglycerol fraction was examined, suggesting the negative association between this fatty acid and lipid

  4. Amino acid contents and transport of fixed N in nodules of Leucaena leucocephala variety K-8

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala var. K-8 were grown with a N-free fertilizer or fertilizer containing /sup 15/N-depleted (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.01 atom /sup 15/N; 10 ppm). The nodules of 5 month old trees grown on N-free media were used for /sup 15/N-enriched treatment and as controls. Nodules from plants grown on /sup 15/N-depleted media were also used. Nodules were extracted with 0.5% aqueous toluene and aliquots were analyzed with a Beckman 120B Amino Acid Analyzer. Samples were separated into free ammonium, Asp-N, Glu-N, Asn and Gln amide- and amino-N, and remaining amino acids. Fractions were then analyzed for /sup 15/N content. Asn (27.3 umol/gfw) represented 56% of the total free amino acid pool in the nodules. Asn (amide-N and amino-N) also represented approximately 77% of the total N fixed during the one hour /sup 15/N-enriched N/sub 2/ and the /sup 15/N-depleted treatments. Based on these findings and the fact that the ureide fraction is barely detectable in the nodules (0.25 ..mu..mol/gfw), the authors considers L. leucocephala an amide transporter of fixed N. Additional information will be presented on the amino acid contents of tissues, as well as a time course of amino acid content from seed through nodulation.

  5. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  6. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Proximate Composition, Amino Acid, Mineral, and Heavy Metal Content of Dried Laver

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Ki, Kyung-Nam; Chung, Ha-Yull

    2013-01-01

    Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds. The most popular commercial dried laver species, P. tenera and P. haitanensis, were collected from Korea and China, respectively, and evaluated for proximate composition, amino acids, minerals, trace heavy metals, and color. The moisture and ash contents of P. tenera and P. haitanensis ranged from 3.66~6.74% and 8.78~9.07%, respectively; crude lipid and protein contents were 1.96~2.25% and 32.16~36.88%, respectively. Dried lavers were found to be a good source of amino acids, such as asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, and taurine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, Fe, and Se minerals were selected for analysis. A clear regional variation existed in the amino acid, mineral, and trace metal contents of lavers. Regular consumption of lavers may have heath benefits because they are relatively low in fat and high in protein, and contain functional amino acids and minerals. PMID:24471123

  8. Biohydrogenation of Linoleic Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Cultured Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Gabriela Christina; De Dea Lindner, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have attracted significant attention due to their important physiological properties, which have been observed in humans. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) demonstrate the ability to produce CLA isomers (C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12) from the linoleic acid (LA) present in milk or in synthetic media. CLA isomers can be synthesized in vitro by LAB using vegetable oils rich in LA. The aim of this review is to present an update on the studies that have been conducted on the production of CLA isomers from LA mainly by LAB and of the factors that influence this conversion (source and concentration of LA and fermentation conditions). In addition, this review presents the relationship between the consumption of CLA isomers and their health benefits in humans such as anti-atherosclerosis and anti-carcinogenic effects. There is considerable variation between the studies concerning the beneficial effects of CLA in animal models, which have not been reflected in human studies. This can be attributed to the differences in the doses of CLA isomers used and to the different sources of CLA. Furthermore, the regulatory and scientific information classifying the physiological properties of CLA, which serve as support for the claims of its potential as a functional ingredient, are presented. More research is needed to determine whether CLA production by LAB can be enhanced and to determine the optimal requirements for these microbial cultures. Furthermore, safety and efficacy of CLA consumption have to be investigated in the future. PMID:28231108

  9. Lymphocytes infiltrating primary cutaneous neoplasms selectively express the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA).

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, A. B.; Smoller, B. R.; Warnke, R. A.; Picker, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) is the T-cell ligand for E-selectin and is involved in tissue selective migration of memory/effector T cells to chronic inflammatory sites in skin. Here, we examine the hypothesis that CLA is also involved in the local host immune response to cutaneous neoplasms. Eleven primary cutaneous melanomas, nine primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, and 11 assorted neoplasms metastatic to cutaneous and noncutaneous sites were immunostained with anti-CLA (HECA-452), as well as antibodies directed against B cells (CD20), T/NK cells (CD43), and memory/effector T cells (CD45RO). Essentially all of the lymphocytes surrounding and infiltrating both the cutaneous and noncutaneous tumors were CD43+/CD20-, and most expressed the memory/effector marker CD45RO. CLA was expressed on 10 to 80% (mean: 50%) of T cells associated with primary cutaneous neoplasms (including both melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas) but was essentially absent from noncutaneous primaries (including those metastatic to dermis) and from cutaneous primaries metastatic to dermis or other sites. Overall, the results suggest that CLA+memory T cells are a major component of the local host immune response to cutaneous neoplasms and are likely recruited to the skin by site-specific rather than tumor-specific mechanisms. The lack of a CLA+T-cell response to dermal metastases suggests that epidermal involvement may be required to attract this subset. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7684198

  10. Assessment of phenolic acid content and in vitro antiradical characteristics of hawthorn.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Nilgün; Tunçel, Muzaffer

    2011-06-01

    The infusions and extracts obtained from leaves with flowers, fruit peel, and seed from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Family Rosaceae) were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their total content of phenolics, levels of phenolic acids, and in vitro antiradical activity. Total phenolic content of extracts was determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant activity was determined for phenolic extracts by a method involving the use of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Phenolic acids containing extracts and infusions from hawthorn leaves, fruit peel, and seeds were obtained using different polarity solvents and separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which enabled improved separation by the use of a C(18) column, an acidic mobile phase, and gradient elusion. The highest total phenolic content (343.54 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g) and the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity as the inhibition percentage (60.36%) were obtained in ethyl acetate extract from hawthorn leaves with flower. Also, the highest phenolic acid content was measured in the extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers: protocathechuic (108-128 mg/100 g), p-hydroxy benzoic (141-468 mg/100 g), caffeic (137-3,580 mg/100 g), chlorogenic (925-4,637 mg/100 g), ferulic (3,363-3,462 mg/100 g), vanillic (214 mg/100 g), and syringic (126 mg/100 g) acids. The results indicate that hawthorn is a promising plant because of its high antioxidant activity.

  11. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Rakib, Md. Abdur; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup; Han, Jae Hee; Kim, Jeong Ok

    2013-01-01

    The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43) expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells. PMID:24371460

  12. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  13. Cellular fatty acid compositions and isoprenoid quinone contents of 23 Legionella species.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, M A; Moss, C W

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions and ubiquinone contents of 182 Legionella strains representing 23 species were determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Except for the type strain of Legionella erythra (ATCC 35303T), all Legionella species contained large (40 to 90%) amounts of branched-chain fatty acids and only trace to small (less than 0.5 to 5%) amounts of ester-linked hydroxy acids. The 23 species were placed in three major fatty acid groups on the basis of differences in the relative amounts of 14-methylpentadecanoic (Ci16:0), hexadecanoic (C16:1), and 12-methyltetradecanoic (Ca15:0) acids. All Legionella species contained ubiquinones with 9 to 14 isoprene units in the side chains and were divided into five different ubiquinone groups. The species were further differentiated into 16 groups on the basis of qualitative and quantitative differences in their fatty acid compositions and ubiquinone contents. Both of these chemical characteristics can be used to distinguish Legionella species from other gram-negative bacteria and rapidly and accurately identify suspected isolates before serologic and other tests are done. PMID:2715320

  14. Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. [Nondestructive test on predicting sugar content and valid acidity of mango by spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-jia; He, Yong; Bao, Yi-dan

    2008-12-01

    Mango is a kind of popular tropic fruit in the word, and its quality will affect the health of consumers. Unsaturated acid is an important component in mango. So it is very important and necessary to detect the sugar content and valid acidity in mango fast and non-destructively. Visible and short-wave near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIRS) was applied in the present study to predict sugar content and valid acidity of mango. Because of the non-linear information in spectral data characteristics of the pattern were analyzed by neural network optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-BP). Spectral data were compressed by the partial least squares (PLS). The best number of principal components (PCs) was selected according the accumulative reliabilities (AR). PCs could be used to replace the complex spectral data. After some preprocessing and through full cross validation, 17 principal components presenting important information of spectra were confirmed as the best number of principal components for valid acidity, and 18 PCs as best number of principal components for sugar content. Then, these best principal components were taken as the input of GA-BP neural network. One hundred thirty five samples were randomly collected as modeling, and the remaining 45 as samples to check the forecast results by the model. For the sake of testing the GA-BP model, at the same time we took the BP neural network on the same PCs. The quality of the calibration model was evaluated by the correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of calibration (SECV), and the prediction results were assessed by correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of prediction (SEP). Comparing PLS-BP model with PLS-GA-BP model, the coefficients of determination (R) of 0.788/0.83699 and standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.133312/0.109447 were calculated in valid acidity. The sugar content result was calculated by the coefficients of determination (R) = 0.75705/0.85409 and standard errors of

  16. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils.

  17. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  18. Characterization and stability analysis of zinc oxide nanoencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Choy, Jin-Ho; Shin, Jiwon; Lim, Seung-Yong; Oh, Jae-Min; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Oh, Sangsuk

    2010-08-01

    Nanoencapsulation technology has a diverse range of applications, including drug-delivery systems (DDS) and cosmetic and chemical carriers, because it can deliver various bio- and organic-molecules and improve their stabilities. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has health benefits, including being an anticancer agent, but it decreases flavor due to volatiles from oxidation. To improve the stability of CLA for food applications, nanoencapsulated CLA was synthesized for use in zinc basic salt (ZBS) and characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental CHN analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, UV/VIS spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of nanoencapsulated CLA at 180 degrees C, a temperature similar to that used in cooking, was analyzed by gas chromatography. The gallery height of nanoencapsulated CLA was determined to be approximately 26 A through powder X-ray diffractometry; therefore, the CLA molecules were closely packed with zig-zag form between the intracrystalline spaces of nano particles. Elemental CHN analysis and ICP data determined the chemical composition of nanoencapsulated CLA to be Zn(4.86)(OH)(8.78)(CLA)(0.94). By TGA, it was determined about 45% (wt/wt) of weight loss corresponded to CLA, which is good agreement with the 42.13% (wt/wt) determined from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elemental CHN analysis. UV/VIS spectroscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed encapsulated CLA maintained a conjugated diene structure, supporting the presence of CLA. Nanoencapsulation improved the thermal stability of CLA by about 25%, compared to pristine CLA. Practical Application: This system can be used for protection of encapsulated negatively-charged food ingredients from thermal processing.

  19. Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1

    PubMed Central

    Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

  20. Modelling the Polar Summer Tropopause with CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, G.; Roiger, A.; Schiller, C.; Schlager, H.; Mueller, R.; Grooss, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the frame of the International Polar Year 2008 the field campaign POLARCAT-GRACE (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport: Greenland Aerosol and Chemistry Experiment) has been carried out from Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The main focus of this campaign was on surveying the Arctic summer tropopause as well as on detecting and probing forest fire plumes from Siberia and Canada. During the campaign observations of several atmospheric components like ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide and aerosol were obtained. Model simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) are used for interpretation of observational data. Utilization of a suite of inert tracers initialized with origins of air masses with respect to Potential Vorticity and geographical position as well as tracers marking forest fire and pollution plumes give insight into the influence of transport processes on the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Model results show a mixing layer below the thermally defined tropopause, consisting of shallow structures of mixed-in formerly stratospheric air, possibly being remnants of stratospheric intrusions, as well as upper level isentropic transport of tropospheric air of subtropical origin into the stratosphere. Additionally tropospheric influence from East Asian pollution on the lowermost stratosphere triggered by special meteorological conditions is visible in the model results, in good agreement with observations.

  1. Modelling the Polar Summer Tropopause with CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Gebhard; Roiger, Anke; Schiller, Cornelius; Schlager, Hans; Vogel, Bärbel; Grooss, Jens-Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the International Polar Year 2008 the POLARCAT-GRACE (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport: Greenland Aerosol and Chemistry Experiment) has been carried out from Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The main focus of this campaign was on surveying the Arctic summer tropopause as well as on detecting and probing forest fire plumes from Siberia and Canada. During the campaign observations of several atmospheric components like ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide and aerosol were obtained. Model simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) are used for interpretation of observational data. Utilization of a suite of inert tracers initialized with origins of air masses with respect to Potential Vorticity and geographical position as well as tracers marking forest fire and pollution plumes give insight into the influence of transport processes on the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Model results show a mixing layer below the thermally defined tropopause, consisting of shallow structures of mixed-in formerly stratospheric air, possibly being remnants of stratospheric intrusions, as well as upper level isentropic transport of tropospheric air of subtropical origin into the stratosphere. Additionally tropospheric influence from East Asian pollution on the lowermost stratosphere triggered by special meteorological conditions is visible in the model results, in good agreement with observations.

  2. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  3. Procyanidin, anthocyanin, and chlorogenic acid contents of highbush and lowbush blueberries.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; Tabatabaee, Setareh; Lecras, Caroline; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2012-06-13

    The health benefits of blueberry consumption on the vascular system and brain are mediated in part by their flavonoid content. In light of this, six cultivated highbush blueberry varieties ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and one lowbush or wild blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium L.) were analyzed for their anthocyanin, flavanol oligomer, and chlorogenic acid contents. The highbush varieties Bluecrop, O'Neal, Bluejay, and Brigitta had significantly greater levels of anthocyanidins compared to the other varieties, whereas Bluejay and Brigitta organic had the highest amount of flavanol oligomers. The organically grown highbush blueberry had the highest flavanol oligomer and chlorogenic acid contents but a lower anthocyanidin content than its conventionally grown counterpart. The lowbush variety contained the highest chlorogenic acid concentration. Delphinidin and malvidin were the predominant anthocyanidins in the varieties tested, with concentrations ranging between 45.0 and 74.9 mg/100 g FW for delphinidin and between 37.1 and 62.2 mg/100 g FW for malvidin. Flavanol dimers were the most abundant flavanols, with a mean percentage of 24 ± 1.5% of the total, with flavanol monomers representing 11 ± 0.7%.

  4. Biological activities of conjugated fatty acids: conjugated eicosadienoic (conj. 20:2delta(c11,t13/t12,c14)), eicosatrienoic (conj. 20:3delta(c8,t12,c14)), and heneicosadienoic (conj. 21:2delta(c12,t14/c13,t15)) acids and other metabolites of conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonhwa; Storkson, Jayne M; Albright, Karen J; Liu, Wei; Pariza, Michael W

    2005-02-21

    The elongated form of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), conjugated eicosadienoic acid (CEA, conj. 20:2delta(c11,t13/t12,c14)), was generated from CLA by liver microsomal fractions. Subsequent testing showed that dietary CEA significantly reduced body fat, and increased lean mass similar to CLA when compared to controls. CEA also decreased lipoprotein lipase activity and triacylglyceride, and increased glycerol release in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, correlated with the trans-12,cis-14 isomer, but CEA required a longer incubation period than cells treated with CLA. Based on the fact that CEA fed animals had CLA in tissue, we suggest that the effect of CEA is due to the CLA converted from CEA in the system. The delta-6 desaturated and elongated form of trans-10,cis-12 CLA (conjugated eicosatrienoic acid, CETA, conj. 20:3delta(c8,t12,c14)) inhibited LPL activity and increased glycerol release but was less active than trans-10,cis-12 CLA or CEA. The 21-carbon conjugated fatty acid, conjugated heneicosadienoic acid (CHDA, conj. 21:2delta(c12,t14/c13,t15)), was not active on LPL inhibition, triacylglyceride, or glycerol release in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also provide evidence that CLA was metabolized to conjugated dodecadienoic acid (conj. 12:2delta(c3,t5/t4,c6)). In addition, there were indications of the presence of conjugated tetradecadienoic acid (conj. 14:2delta(c5,t7/t6,c8)), suggesting that CLA can be metabolized through fatty acid beta-oxidation. This is the first work to report the presence of conjugated 12 and 14 carbon fatty acids, originated from CLA, and the biological activities of CEA, CETA and CHDA.

  5. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health.

  6. Variation in gymnemic acid content and non-destructive harvesting of Gymnema sylvestre (Gudmar)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Yadav, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.) commonly known as ‘Gudmar’ in Hindi is an important medicinal climber and extensively used in almost all Indian System of Medicine as a remedy for diabetes, rheumatism, cough, ulcer, jaundice, dyspepsia, constipation, eyes pain and also in snakebite. In India, it is found growing in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The major phytoconstituents are gymnemic acids, gudmarin and saponins. Methods: In the present study, Gymnema germplasm collected from various regions of Madhya Pradesh was evaluated on the basis of their morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content. Gymnemic acid content in the leaves was estimated by HPLC. We have also standardized the non-destructive harvesting practices of Gudmar. Selective harvesting was done without harming the main plant. Only mature leaves (60%) were hand plucked in the month of October. Second harvest was done in the month of June. Results: Data revealed that gymnemic acid content varied between 0.96% ± 0.03 (Seoni) to 1.58% ±0.03 (Amarkantak). It was also observed that the leaves left at the time of 1st harvest during October matured in June at the time of 2nd harvest. Conclusion: Non destructive harvesting practice did not have any negative impact on overall development of the plant. It is evident that there is wide variation in the morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content in G. sylvestre collected from various locations, which can be exploited for further crop improvement programmes. PMID:21589758

  7. [The content of phenolic acids in the edible parts of selected varieties of apples].

    PubMed

    Malik, Agnieszka; Kiczorowska, Bozena; Zdyb, Justyna

    2009-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are essential sources of many nutritive substances which are necessary for normal function of the organism. One of the mostly consumed fruits in many European countries, including Poland is apples. The prohealthy properties of apples are associated with the contents of polyphenolic compounds, thus including in parts phenolic acids which have antioxidant properties. The concentration of these compounds depends on many factors such as variety climate and soil conditions, maturity as well as agro technical operations. The aim of this investigation was to compare the concentrations of phenolic acids and epicatechin in the varieties of apple Champion and Jonica, which were collected from different orchards around Lublin. The phenolic compounds were assayed using a Symmetry column carrier RP-C18 (Waters) integrated with a high pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The dominant phenolic acids found in the Champion variety was chlorogenic acid, whereas in the Jonica variety, chlorogenic and homovanilic acids were the dominate once. The highest concentrations of chlorogenic acid was detected in the pulp of an apple (Jonica variety) collected from the orchards around the cities of Puławy and Lublin, whereas homovanilic acid was the highest in the other samples collected from the orchards in the vicinity of Stryjno and Góry Markuszowskie. Among the Jonica and Champion varieties of apples collected from various orchards in the vicinity of Lublin, the highest content of epicatechin (13,12 mg/kg) was found in the pulps of Champions variety collected in Puławy. In general, the Champion variety was the best source of phenolic acids and epicatechin compared to the Jonica variety independent of the harvest zone.

  8. Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical contents of greenhouse grown lettuces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

    2010-05-26

    Antioxidants and phytochemicals in vegetables are known to provide health benefits. Strategies that enhance these properties are expected to increase the nutritional values of vegetables. The objective of this research is to assess the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical content of lettuces grown in a greenhouse. Red loose leaf lettuce (cv. Galactic) and green loose leaf lettuce (cv. Simpson Elite) were cultivated using a randomized complete block design. Three concentrations of ABA in water [0 (control), 150, 300 ppm] were sprayed on the 30th and 39th days after sowing, and lettuces were harvested on the 46th day. Exogenous ABA significantly decreased yield of green and red lettuces. Total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents in red lettuce treated with ABA were significantly higher than in controls, whereas no significant differences were observed in green lettuce. ABA significantly induced the accumulation of chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in lettuces. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified in red and green lettuces included caffeoyltartaric acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin 3-(6''-malonyl)-glucoside. Additionally, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(3''-malonoyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6''-malonoyl)-glucoside in red lettuces were quantified. No significant effects of ABA on these individual phytochemicals were observed in green lettuces, whereas ABA significantly elevated the content of individual phytochemicals in red lettuces except for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Differences among red lettuces with or without exogenous ABA were visualized on the score plots of principal component analyses. Loading plot indicated that multiple phenolic compounds contributed to the observed differences in red lettuces.

  9. Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

    2013-04-12

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava.

  10. Tomato fruit ascorbic acid content is linked with monodehydroascorbate reductase activity and tolerance to chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R; Page, D; Gouble, B; Garchery, C; Zamir, D; Causse, M

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a step towards the identification of factors regulating traits such as fruit ascorbic acid content. A previously identified QTL controlling variations in tomato fruit ascorbic acid has been fine mapped and reveals that the QTL has a polygenic and epistatic architecture. A monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) allele is a candidate for a proportion of the increase in fruit ascorbic acid content. The MDHAR enzyme is active in different stages of fruit ripening, shows increased activity in the introgression lines containing the wild-type (Solanum pennellii) allele, and responds to chilling injury in tomato along with the reduced/oxidized ascorbate ratio. Low temperature storage of different tomato introgression lines with all or part of the QTL for ascorbic acid and with or without the wild MDHAR allele shows that enzyme activity explains 84% of the variation in the reduced ascorbic acid levels of tomato fruit following storage at 4 degrees C, compared with 38% at harvest under non-stress conditions. A role is indicated for MDHAR in the maintenance of ascorbate levels in fruit under stress conditions. Furthermore, an increased fruit MDHAR activity and a lower oxidation level of the fruit ascorbate pool are correlated with decreased loss of firmness because of chilling injury.

  11. Influence of maternal diet enrichment with conjugated linoleic acids on lipoxygenase metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum of their offspring with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Małgorzata; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which are a group of naturally occurring in food isomers of linoleic acid, seem to be active in each step of cancer development. There are many possible mechanisms of this action, and interactions with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways are among the most likely ones. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of diet supplementation with CLA of pregnant and breastfeeding Sprague-Dawley female rats on selected polyunsaturated fatty acids and their LOX metabolites concentrations in serum of the progeny with chemically induced mammary tumors. We confirmed that higher supply of CLA in the diet of female rats corresponded with the lower susceptibility to chemically induced mammary tumors in their female offspring. It also influenced the polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acid concentrations in serum, as well as the concentrations of their LOX metabolites. The significant negative correlation between the concentrations of two CLA isomers in serum and linoleic acid (p=0.0144, p=0.0098), eicosapentaenoic acid (p=0.0158, p=0.0124), and 5-HEPE (p=0.0014, p=0.01690) and between cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 15-HEPE was detected, whereas arachidonic acid concentration positively correlated with CLA concentration in serum (p=0.0150, p=0.0231). Our results indicate that CLA can compete with PUFA and influence serum concentration of PUFA and their LOX metabolites, which could partly explain the anticancerogenic action of CLA.

  12. Determination of the asphaltene and carboxylic acid content of a heavy oil using a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen A; Wilson, Rab; Parnell, John; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2009-03-21

    Heavy oil utilisation is set to increase over the coming decades as reserves of conventional oil decline. Heavy oil differs from conventional oil in containing relatively large quantities of asphaltene and carboxylic acids. The proportions of these compounds greatly influence how oil behaves during production and its utilisation as a fuel or feedstock. We report the development of a microfluidic technique, based on a H-cell, that can extract the carboxylic acid components of an oil and assess its asphaltene content. Ultimately this technology could yield a field-deployable device capable of performing measurements that facilitate improved resource management at the point of resource-extraction.

  13. An Extremely Halophilic Proteobacterium Combines a Highly Acidic Proteome with a Low Cytoplasmic Potassium Content*

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W.; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K+. This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K+ content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K+ ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K+-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface. PMID:23144460

  14. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  15. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  16. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (p<0.05) to that of the PC class. The phytosterol content of the NMC class, determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was distinct from the IMCs, but similar (p<0.05) to a portion of the PCs. Principal component analysis (eigenvalue⩾1) indicated that the NMCs can be differentiated from the IMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved.

  17. Systematic evaluation on the effectiveness of conjugated linoleic acid in human health.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Gitane; Nornberg, José Laerte

    2017-01-02

    The term CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) corresponds to a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. Two of these isomers (9c, 11t and 10t, 12c) have biological activity. The milk and dairy products are the most abundant source of conjugated linoleic acid, which refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of CLA (CLA 18:2 cis-9, cis-12). The following research aims to approach aspects regarding the CLA, as well as its relationship with diseases. Conjugated linoleic acids have been studied for their beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, including obesity, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Scientific information put together the physiological properties of CLA, which serves as inputs to claim their potential as functional ingredients to be used in the prevention and control of several chronic metabolic disorders.

  18. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  19. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  20. [The effect of lime cooking of corn on phytic acid, calcium, total and ionizable iron content].

    PubMed

    Urizar Hernández, A L; Bressani, R

    1997-09-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective to learn about the effect of the nixtamalization process of corn on the content of phytic acid and availability of iron in the lime-cooked corn. For the study, lots of corn with 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.20% of lime on the basis of corn weight, in water in the ratio of 3 to 1, and cooking times at each level of lime of 55, 65 and 75 minutes, were processed. Half of the treatments were not soaked after cooking, while the other half were soaked in the cooking solution for a 12-hour period. Statistical analysis of the data and correlations calculated showed that the phytic acid content decreased significantly during the nixtamalization process, affected by the cooking time and the level of lime used, reaching levels of reduction of around 35%. Both the ionizable iron and calcium level increased up to 52-77% and 400-478% respectively. The amount of calcium present in the cooked corn as the result of the lime cooking process, is significantly higher in comparison with the phytic acid content, which may be easily saturated and thus, unavailable to bind iron. An inverse relationship was found between phytic acid and bioavailable iron and its absorption percentage. On the other hand, soaking time did not significantly affected the phytic acid and available iron, although it contributed to a slightly higher Ca accumulation. The amount of ionizable iron was higher at higher levels of lime, which suggested that the nixtamalization process would favor the biological utilization of iron in lime-cooked corn and provide calcium to the diet.

  1. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-03

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  2. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded.

  3. Short communication: The effect of substituting fish oil in dairy cow diets with docosahexaenoic acid-micro algae on milk composition and fatty acids profile.

    PubMed

    Abughazaleh, A A; Potu, R B; Ibrahim, S

    2009-12-01

    The effects of substituting fish oil (FO) with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-micro algae on milk chemical and fatty acid composition were examined in this study. Twenty-four Holstein cows in mid lactation grazing on an alfalfa-grass based pasture were divided into 4 treatment groups (6 cows/treatment) and supplemented with 7 kg/d grain mix plus 350 g of soybean oil and one of the following: 1) 150 g of FO, 2) 100 g of FO plus 50 g of algae, 3) 50 g of FO plus 100 g of algae, or 4) 150 g of algae. Cows were fed treatment diets for 3 wk, and milk samples were collected from each cow during the last 3 d of the study. Milk production (17.96, 17.56, 17.55, and 19.26 kg/d for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively), milk fat percentages (3.17, 3.49, 3.74, and 3.43%), and milk protein percentages (3.35, 3.50, 3.71, and 3.42%) were similar between treatment diets. Concentrations (g/100 g of fatty acids) of milk cis-9 trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 3.41, 3.69, 4.47, and 4.21 for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively) and vaccenic acid (11.80, 12.83, 13.87, and 13.53) were similar between treatment diets. Results of this study suggest that DHA-micro algae can partially or fully substitute FO in a cow's diet without any adverse effects on milk production, milk composition, or milk c9t11 CLA content. The DHA-micro algae may be used as a viable alternative for FO in cow's diet to modify rumen biohydrogenation to increase milk c9t11 CLA content.

  4. Bioconversion enhancement of conjugated linoleic acid by Lactobacillus plantarum using the culture media manipulation and numerical optimization.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Azin; Safari, Mohammad; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2015-09-01

    The ability of different Lactobacillus strains to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic acid was evaluated. Preliminary experiments revealed that L. plantarum among the screened strains had the highest CLA-producing potential (95.25 μg/mL). The cell growth of this bacterium was studied in three media of MRS broth, skim milk and skim milk supplemented with yeast extract and glucose. Results showed that the use of yeast extract and glucose could significantly increase the cell growth and CLA production. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of three independent variables; linoleic acid (LA), yeast extract concentrations and inoculum size on the CLA formation. A second-order polynomial model with high R (2) value (0.981) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The optimum conditions to achieve the highest CLA production (240.69 μg/mL) was obtained using 3 mg/mL LA, 4 g/L yeast extract and inoculum size of 4 % v/v. CLA concentration of the optimal sample was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC). The cis-9, trans-11 CLA was the major CLA isomer of total CLA detected.

  5. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  6. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components.

  7. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at approximately 4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at approximately 2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  8. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching.

    PubMed

    Archana; Sehgal, S; Kawatra, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the changes in polyphenol and phytic acid content in malted and blanched pearl millet grains. For malting, grains were steeped for 16 hours, germinated for 48 or 72 hours and then kilned at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. Blanching was done for 30 seconds in boiling water at 98 degrees C. Results indicated that blanching resulted in significant reduction in polyphenol (28%) and phytic acids (38%). Destruction of polyphenols (38 to 48%) and phytic acid (46 to 50%) was significantly higher in grains subjected to malting than blanching: The overall results suggested that malting with 72 hours of germination was most effective in reducing the antinutrient levels of pearl millet grains.

  9. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  10. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  11. Chemical composition and fatty acid content of some spices and herbs under Saudi Arabia conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823  mg/100 g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270  mg/100 g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102  mg/100 g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65  mg/100 g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices.

  12. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  13. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  14. Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  15. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  16. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  17. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  18. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  19. Reducing capacity, chlorogenic acid content and biological activity in a collection of scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants.

    PubMed

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-09-26

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  20. Nucleic acid content in crustacean zooplankton: bridging metabolic and stoichiometric predictions.

    PubMed

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although 'fast-growth' cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to 'slow-growth' copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories.

  1. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  2. Effect of different types of fibre supplemented with sunflower oil on ruminal fermentation and production of conjugated linoleic acids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanling; Meng, Qingxiang

    2006-10-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different types of fibre supplemented with sunflower oil on ruminal fermentation and formation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Cell wall components extracted from wheat straw (representing lignified fibre), soybean hulls (representing easily digestible fibre), and purified cellulose were used as substrates. Sunflower oil was supplemented at the same level for all three types of fibre. After 24 h of incubation, ruminal fermentation parameters (including 24 h gas production, pH value, concentration of ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids) and the concentration of long chain fatty acids in the culture fluid were determined. Results showed that the type of fibre influenced ruminal fermentation traits and the biohydrogenation of unsaturated C18 fatty acids in vitro. Composition of LCFA and profile of CLA were altered by the fibre type. Compared to the digestible fibre and purified cellulose, lignified fibre significantly increased the production of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA (sum of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, trans-10, cis-12 CLA, trans-9, trans-11 CLA, and cis-9, cis-11 CLA) by ruminal microorganisms. It was concluded that ruminal fermentation and production of CLA can be affected by the type of dietary fibre.

  3. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the technological quality of backfat of pigs.

    PubMed

    Bothma, C; Hugo, A; Osthoff, G; Joubert, C C; Swarts, J C; de Kock, H L

    2014-06-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Compared to controls, backfat from CLA fed pigs was firmer and extracted lipid contained increasing amounts of CLA, but a ±11% overall decrease in unsaturated fatty acids and a ±5% overall increase in each of C16:0 and C18:0 saturated fatty acids were noted. This resulted in a change in the melting properties of fat. The onset setting temperature increased from ±14°C to ±18°C for lipid of backfat of pigs from the 0.25 and 0.5% CLA supplementation groups, and to ±26°C for lipid from the 1% CLA supplementation group. The final melting temperatures increased from ±37°C to ±43°C and ±45°C, respectively. The presence of β'-crystals of C18:0-C16:0-C18:1c9 triacylglycerides in fat from CLA fed pigs and β-crystals in fat from 1% CLA fed pigs was observed. Fatty acid and melting point results explained the improvement in the technological quality of backfat as a result of dietary CLA supplementation.

  4. Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acid on obesity-related cancers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Seuk

    2014-12-05

    Considerable evidence suggests that obesity and overweight play an important role in cancers i.e., breast, colon, endometrial, kidney, pancreatic, and liver. In fact, overweight and obesity are now established risk factors for cancer and cancer-related mortality. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of positional and geometric fatty acid (FA) isomers that are derived from linoleic acid (LA) [18:2(n-6)], which occurs naturally in food with a high concentration in products from ruminant animals. Studies in both in vitro cell and in vivo animal models have shown that CLA, specifically cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis 12 CLA isomer, inhibits the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, suggesting that CLA has received considerable attention as a chemopreventive agent. In this review, the biological activities and multiple mechanisms of CLA in obesity-related cancers including cell lines, animal models and clinical observations are explained.

  5. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding.

  6. Phenylketonuria: protein content and amino acids profile of dishes for phenylketonuric patients. The relevance of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Torres, Duarte; Almeida, Manuela F; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-04-15

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, involving, in most cases, a deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Neonatal diagnosis and a prompt special diet (low phenylalanine and natural-protein restricted diets) are essential to the treatment. The lack of data concerning phenylalanine contents of processed foodstuffs is an additional limitation for an already very restrictive diet. Our goals were to quantify protein (Kjeldahl method) and amino acid (18) content (HPLC/fluorescence) in 16 dishes specifically conceived for phenylketonuric patients, and compare the most relevant results with those of several international food composition databases. As might be expected, all the meals contained low protein levels (0.67-3.15 g/100 g) with the highest ones occurring in boiled rice and potatoes. These foods also contained the highest amounts of phenylalanine (158.51 and 62.65 mg/100 g, respectively). In contrast to the other amino acids, it was possible to predict phenylalanine content based on protein alone. Slight deviations were observed when comparing results with the different food composition databases.

  7. Variation of Select Flavonols and Chlorogenic Acid Content of Elderberry Collected Throughout the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Mudge, Elizabeth; Applequist, Wendy L.; Finley, Jamie; Lister, Patience; Townesmith, Andrew K.; Walker, Karen M.; Brown, Paula N.

    2016-01-01

    American elderberries are commonly collected from wild plants for use as food and medicinal products. The degree of phytochemical variation amongst wild populations has not been established and might affect the overall quality of elderberry dietary supplements. The three major flavonols identified in elderberries are rutin, quercetin and isoquercetin. Variation in the flavonols and chlorogenic acid was determined for 107 collections of elderberries from throughout the eastern United States using an optimized high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection method. The mean content was 71.9 mg per 100g fresh weight with variation ranging from 7.0 to 209.7 mg per 100 g fresh weight within the collected population. Elderberries collected from southeastern regions had significantly higher contents in comparison with those in more northern regions. The variability of the individual flavonol and chlorogenic acid profiles of the berries was complex and likely influenced by multiple factors. Several outliers were identified based on unique phytochemical profiles in comparison with average populations. This is the first study to determine the inherent variability of American elderberries from wild collections and can be used to identify potential new cultivars that may produce fruits of unique or high-quality phytochemical content for the food and dietary supplement industries. PMID:26877585

  8. Modulation of body composition and immune cell functions by conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animal models: benefits vs. risks.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Erickson, K L

    2003-04-01

    We have reviewed the published literature regarding the effects of CLA on body composition and immune cell functions in humans and in animal models. Results from studies in mice, hamsters, rats, and pigs generally support the notion that CLA reduced depot fat in the normal or lean strains. However, in obese rats, it increased body fat or decreased it less than in the corresponding lean controls. These studies also indicate that t10,c12-CLA was the isomer that reduced adipose fat; however, it also increased the fat content of several other tissues and increased circulating insulin and the saturated FA content of adipose tissue and muscle. Four of the eight published human studies found small but significant reductions in body fat with CLA supplementation; however, the reductions were smaller than the prediction errors for the methods used. The other four human studies found no change in body fat with CLA supplementation. These studies also report that CLA supplementation increased the risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease including increased blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, VLDL, C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and decreased HDL. Most studies regarding the effects of CLA on immune cell functions have been conducted with a mixture of isomers, and the results have been variable. One study conducted in mice with the purified c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA isomers indicated that the two isomers have similar effects on immune cell functions. Some of the reasons for the discrepancies between the effects of CLA in published reports are discussed. Although significant benefit to humans from CLA supplementation is questionable, it may create several health risks in both humans and animals. On the basis of the published data, CLA supplementation of adult human diets to improve body composition or enhance immune functions cannot be recommended at this time.

  9. Whey fermentation by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria: evolution of carbohydrates and protein content.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2008-05-01

    Whey, a by-product of the cheese industry usually disposed as waste, is a source of biological and functional valuable proteins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potentiality of three lactic acid bacteria strains to design a starter culture for developing functional whey-based drinks. Fermentations were performed at 37 and 42 degrees C for 24h in reconstituted whey powder (RW). Carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids concentrations during fermentation were evaluated by RP-HPLC. Proteolytic activity was measured by the o-phthaldialdehyde test and hydrolysis of whey proteins was analyzed by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The studied strains grew well (2-3log cfu/ml) independently of the temperature used. Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804 consumed 12% of the initial lactose concentration and produced the highest amount of lactic acid (45 mmol/l) at 24h. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 was the most proteolytic (91 microg Leu/ml) strain and released the branched chain amino acids Leu and Val. In contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 and S. thermophilus CRL 804 consumed most of the amino acids present in whey. The studied strains were able to degrade the major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin being degraded in a greater extent (2.2-3.4-fold) than beta-lactoglobulin. Two starter cultures were evaluated for their metabolic and proteolytic activities in RW. Both cultures acidified and reduced the lactose content in whey in a greater extent than the strains alone. The amino acid release was higher (86 microg/ml) for the starter SLb (strains CRL 804+CRL 454) than for SLa (strains CRL 804+CRL 636, 37 microg/ml). Regarding alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin degradation, no differences were observed as compared to the values obtained with the single cultures. The starter culture SLb showed high potential to be used for developing fermented whey-based beverages.

  10. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  11. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential.

  12. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption.

  13. Synthesis of glycerides containing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid by solvent-free acidolysis of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G

    2000-12-05

    Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-10-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice that is a model for postmenopausal women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice were fed with a high-fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared with OVX mice fed with a high-fat diet without CLA. Although CLA was effective in slowing down body weight gain of both sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these 2 groups of mice. Treatment with CLA did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an antiobesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women and that the antiobesity effect of CLA is not estrogen related.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of body weight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Potential Health Benefits as a Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention since the 1980s for its various biological activities. CLA consists mainly of two isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, and the mixture of these two (CLA mix or 50:50) has been approved for food as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) in the United States since 2008. Along with its original discovery as an anticancer component, CLA has been shown to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, reduce body fat while improving lean body mass, and modulate immune and/or inflammatory responses. This review summarizes the clinical trials involving CLA since 2012; additional uses of CLA for age-associated health issues are discussed; and CLA's potential health concerns, including glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and milk-fat depression, are examined. With ongoing applications to food products, CLA consumption is expected to rise and close monitoring of not only its efficacy but also its known and unknown consequences are required to ensure proper applications of CLA.

  17. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of oleic acid in the infraspinatus and LM, and increased linoleic acid (P < 0.01). Oil supplementation increased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of various isomers of CLA in muscle, with the greatest change in the cis-9,trans-11 isomer. Supplementation of sheep diets with safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty

  18. Comparison of nucleic acid content in populations of free-living and symbiotic Rhizobium meliloti by flow microfluorometry.

    PubMed Central

    Paau, A S; Lee, D; Cowles, J R

    1977-01-01

    Populations of symbiotic Rhizobium meliloti extracted from alfalfa nodules were shown by flow microfluorometry to contain a significant number of bacteroids with higher nucleic acid content than the free-living rhizobia. Bacteroids with lower nucleic acid content than the free-living bacteria were not detected in significant quantities in these populations. These results indicate that the incapability of bacteroids to reestablish growth in nutrient media may not be caused by a decrease in nucleic acid content of the symbiotic rhizobia. PMID:838682

  19. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid changes belly and bacon quality from pigs fed varied lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S T; Wiegand, B R; Parrish, F C; Swan, J E; Sparks, J C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary lipid source with or without the addition of CLA on bacon composition and quality. Forty-eight barrows at a beginning BW of 55 kg +/- 2.2 were fed 1 of 6 diets for 56 d. These diets consisted of: 1) normal corn (NC), 2) NC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CLA), 3) high-oil corn (HOC), 4) HOC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (HOC-CLA), 5) NC + choice white grease (CWG; NC + CWG), and 6) NC + CWG + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CWG + CLA). The CLA-60 contains 60% CLA isomers in the oil, and therefore, 1.25% oil was needed to achieve 0.75% CLA in the diet. Soy oil replaced CLA in control diets. Choice white grease and high-oil corn were selected as fat sources for this study because of their utility in energy density for growing-finishing pigs, especially in hot weather. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 113 kg +/- 4.1, and carcasses were fabricated at 24 h postmortem. Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed model procedure of SAS, and the main effects tested were dietary lipid source, CLA, and 2-way interaction. The addition of CLA to each basal diet improved (P < 0.05) belly firmness measured either lean side down or fat side down from the belly bar firmness test [4.39 cm vs. 7.01 cm (lean down) and 5.75 cm vs. 10.54 cm (fat down)] for 0 and 0.75% dietary CLA, respectively. The compression test used on bacon slabs showed that bacon from CLA-supplemented pigs was approximately 20% firmer than that from controls. Pigs fed the HOC diets had softer bellies compared (P < 0.05) with pigs fed the NC diet as measured by the belly bar test [6.94 cm vs. 9.26 cm (fat down)], respectively. Conjugated linoleic acid did not, however, improve bacon sliceability. No differences were observed for moisture, protein, or lipid percentages between any treatments. Overall, there was a CLA effect (P < 0.04) for lipid oxidation, in which the addition of CLA decreased bacon oxidation (0.1498 CLA vs. 0.1638 no CLA). Dietary CLA

  20. THE BIOSYNTHESIS AND CONTENT OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID IN THE GOLDFISH RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Dominic M. K.

    1972-01-01

    Goldfish retinas incubated with L-glutamate-14C (UL) were found to synthesize γ-aminobutyric acid-14C (GABA-14C) The accumulation of newly synthesized GABA was enhanced by physiological stimulation of the retina with flashing light; and this increase was directly proportional to the logarithm of the light intensity. The total GABA content was also higher in light-stimulated than in dark-adapted retinas, although the glutamate content remained unchanged No differences were found in the cell-free activities of glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4 1.1 15) and GABA-glutamate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19) extracted from light-stimulated and dark-adapted retinas. These findings, together with other physiological and morphologcal evidence, suggest that GABA plays a functional role in synaptic transmission in the goldfish retina PMID:4339278

  1. Effects of heat treatment and moisture contents on interactions between lauric acid and starch granules.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengdan; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Huang, Qiang; Jane, Jay-lin

    2014-08-06

    This study aimed to understand the effects of the moisture content of granular normal cornstarch (NC), heat treatment at 80 °C, and order of adding lauric acid (LA) to starch before or after the heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of the starch. LA was added to NC priority heated with different moisture contents (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) or added to dried NC and then heated with different moisture contents. The hydrothermal/LA treatments increased the pasting temperature but decreased the peak viscosity of the NC. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the addition of LA retarded gelatinization. The hydrothermal/LA treatments changed the X-ray pattern of the NC to a mixture of A- and V-type patterns. The thermal property and digestibility analysis showed that 40% was the optimum moisture content for the formation of the amylose-LA complex and adding LA prior to heating the NC favored the formation of slowly digestible starch.

  2. QTL for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in Brassica napus L. collocate with the two erucic acid genes.

    PubMed

    Amar, Samija; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Improving oil and protein quality for food and feed purposes is an important goal in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) breeding programs. Rapeseed contains phytosterols, used to enrich food products, and sinapate esters, which are limiting the utilization of rapeseed proteins in the feed industry. Increasing the phytosterol content of oil and lowering sinapate ester content of meal could increase the value of the oilseed rape crop. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in a winter rapeseed population of 148 doubled haploid lines, previously found to have a large variation for these two traits. This population also segregated for the two erucic acid genes. A close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and phytosterol content (Spearman's rank correlation, r(s) = -0.80**). For total phytosterol content, three QTL were detected, explaining 60% of the genetic variance. The two QTL with the strongest additive effects were mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. For sinapate ester content four QTL were detected, explaining 53% of the genetic variance. Again, a close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and sinapate ester content (r(s) = -0.66**) and the QTL with the strongest additive effects mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. The results suggests, that there is a pleiotropic effect of the two erucic acid genes on phytosterol and sinapate ester content; the effect of the alleles for low erucic acid content is to increase phytosterol and sinapate ester content. Possible reasons for this are discussed based on known biosynthetic pathways.

  3. The uronic acid content of coccolith-associated polysaccharides provides insight into coccolithogenesis and past climate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Renee B. Y.; Mavridou, Despoina A. I.; Papadakos, Grigorios; McClelland, Harry L. O.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular phytoplanktonic algae (coccolithophores) are among the most prolific producers of calcium carbonate on the planet, with a production of ∼1026 coccoliths per year. During their lith formation, coccolithophores mainly employ coccolith-associated polysaccharides (CAPs) for the regulation of crystal nucleation and growth. These macromolecules interact with the intracellular calcifying compartment (coccolith vesicle) through the charged carboxyl groups of their uronic acid residues. Here we report the isolation of CAPs from modern day coccolithophores and their prehistoric predecessors and we demonstrate that their uronic acid content (UAC) offers a species-specific signature. We also show that there is a correlation between the UAC of CAPs and the internal saturation state of the coccolith vesicle that, for most geologically abundant species, is inextricably linked to carbon availability. These findings suggest that the UAC of CAPs reports on the adaptation of coccolithogenesis to environmental changes and can be used for the estimation of past CO2 concentrations. PMID:27782214

  4. The uronic acid content of coccolith-associated polysaccharides provides insight into coccolithogenesis and past climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Renee B. Y.; Mavridou, Despoina A. I.; Papadakos, Grigorios; McClelland, Harry L. O.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Unicellular phytoplanktonic algae (coccolithophores) are among the most prolific producers of calcium carbonate on the planet, with a production of ~1026 coccoliths per year. During their lith formation, coccolithophores mainly employ coccolith-associated polysaccharides (CAPs) for the regulation of crystal nucleation and growth. These macromolecules interact with the intracellular calcifying compartment (coccolith vesicle) through the charged carboxyl groups of their uronic acid residues. Here we report the isolation of CAPs from modern day coccolithophores and their prehistoric predecessors and we demonstrate that their uronic acid content (UAC) offers a species-specific signature. We also show that there is a correlation between the UAC of CAPs and the internal saturation state of the coccolith vesicle that, for most geologically abundant species, is inextricably linked to carbon availability. These findings suggest that the UAC of CAPs reports on the adaptation of coccolithogenesis to environmental changes and can be used for the estimation of past CO2 concentrations.

  5. The uronic acid content of coccolith-associated polysaccharides provides insight into coccolithogenesis and past climate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Renee B Y; Mavridou, Despoina A I; Papadakos, Grigorios; McClelland, Harry L O; Rickaby, Rosalind E M

    2016-10-26

    Unicellular phytoplanktonic algae (coccolithophores) are among the most prolific producers of calcium carbonate on the planet, with a production of ∼10(26) coccoliths per year. During their lith formation, coccolithophores mainly employ coccolith-associated polysaccharides (CAPs) for the regulation of crystal nucleation and growth. These macromolecules interact with the intracellular calcifying compartment (coccolith vesicle) through the charged carboxyl groups of their uronic acid residues. Here we report the isolation of CAPs from modern day coccolithophores and their prehistoric predecessors and we demonstrate that their uronic acid content (UAC) offers a species-specific signature. We also show that there is a correlation between the UAC of CAPs and the internal saturation state of the coccolith vesicle that, for most geologically abundant species, is inextricably linked to carbon availability. These findings suggest that the UAC of CAPs reports on the adaptation of coccolithogenesis to environmental changes and can be used for the estimation of past CO2 concentrations.

  6. [The effect of gamma rays on glutathion and ascorbic acid content in rabbit lenses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Zygulska-Mach, H; Mach, Z

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that the partner non radiated eye is also influenced after employment of high radiation on an eye. The authors radiated rabbit eyes with gamma rays employing Stallard-applicators and determined the glutathion and ascorbic acid content in the lenses. The lenses of the partner eye were also examined for comparison. In those eyes which were directly radiated there was a fall of concentration of the two substances indirectly proportional to the dose of rays employed. In the partner eyes which were not directly subjected to direct radiation there were changes of similar character which were however not so much pronounced. The role of glutathion and ascorbic acid in lens metabolism is pointed out.

  7. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans.

  8. Blood lymphocyte ultrastructure and deoxyribonucleic acid content in children with systemic lupus erythematosis.

    PubMed

    Ptasekas, R; Matulis, A; Urmonas, V; Graziene, V; Zukiene, G

    1980-01-01

    Two varieties of peripheral blood lymphocytes have been disclosed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases: one showing signs of degradation and nuclear chromatine elimination and the other one manifesting a state of biological activation, possibly of an immunologic nature. This karyostructural lymphocyte heterogeneity in SLE may cause a great scattering of these cells on histograms in respect to their nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content determined by cytophotometry. On the other hand, the expressiveness of the scattering and the degree of predominance of negative tendency towards proliferation (with a shift to the left from 2 n) may thereby serve as a very objective quantitative indication of nuclear structure degradation and of loss by lymphocytes of chromatine with deoxyribonucleic acid during SLE.

  9. Establishing safe and potentially efficacious fortification contents for folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dary, Omar

    2008-06-01

    Determining the micronutrient contents infortified foods depends not only on the health goal (additional intake to complement the diet), but also on ensuring that fortification does not raise micronutrient intakes beyond the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), i.e., the safe limit. Technological incompatibility and cost may also restrict the fortification contents. For folic acid, the limiting factor is safety, while for vitamin B12, it is cost. However, adequate fortification contents that are both safe and efficacious can be estimated for both nutrients. In order to obtain the maximum benefit from the fortification programs, three different formulas responding to three categories of consumption, as specified by the median and 95th percentile of consumption, are proposed. The model presented is based on the estimation of a Feasible Fortification Level (FFL), which then is used to determine the average, minimum, and maximum contents of the nutrients during production, taking into consideration the acceptable variation of the fortification process. Finally, the regulatory parameters, which support standards and enforcement, are calculated by reducing the proportion of the nutrient that is degraded during the usual marketing process of the fortified food. It is expected that this model will establish a common standard for food fortification, and improve the reliability and enforcement procedures of these programs. The model was applied to flours as vehicles for folic acid in the United States, Guatemala, and Chile. Analysis of the data revealed that, with the exception of Chile, where wheat flour consumption is very high and probably within a narrow range, supplementation with folic acid is still needed to cover individuals at the low end of consumption. This is especially true when the difference in flour consumption is too wide, as in the case of Guatemala, where the proportional difference between consumption at the 95th percentile of the nonpoor group is as high

  10. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  11. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  12. Quantitative trait loci mapping for conjugated linoleic acid, vaccenic acid and ∆(9) -desaturase in Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle using selective DNA pooling.

    PubMed

    Strillacci, M G; Frigo, E; Canavesi, F; Ungar, Y; Schiavini, F; Zaniboni, L; Reghenzani, L; Cozzi, M C; Samoré, A B; Kashi, Y; Shimoni, E; Tal-Stein, R; Soller, M; Lipkin, E; Bagnato, A

    2014-08-01

    A selective DNA pooling approach was applied to identify QTL for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vaccenic acid (VA) and Δ(9) -desaturase (D9D) milk content in Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Milk samples from 60 animals with higher values (after correction for environmental factors) and 60 animals with lower values for each of these traits from each of five half-sib families were pooled separately. The pools were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low tails at the sire and marker level for SNPs for which the sires were heterozygous. An r procedure was implemented to perform data analysis in a selective DNA pooling design. A correction for multiple tests was applied using the proportion of false positives among all test results. BTA 19 showed the largest number of markers in association with CLA. Associations between SNPs and the VA and Δ(9) -desaturase traits were found on several chromosomes. A bioinformatics survey identified genes with an important role in pathways for milk fat and fatty acids metabolism within 1 Mb of SNP markers associated with fatty acids contents.

  13. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits.

  14. Positional distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols from subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, corn oil, or beef tallow.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Behrends, J M; Jenschke, B E; Rhoades, R D; Smith, S B

    2004-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary beef tallow, corn oil, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the distribution of fatty acids among positions within triacylglycerols. Crossbred barrows (n=6 per treatment group) received diets containing 1.5% beef tallow, 1.5% corn oil, or 1.5% CLA for 5 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained immediately postmortem. The fatty acid composition was determined for the sn-2 positions of the triacylglycerols by digestion with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. Fatty acids in the sn-1/3 position were calculated from these data. Feeding CLA increased (P<0.05) the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA, especially 16:0) and isomers of CLA in adipose tissue lipids, but reduced (P<0.05) the concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, especially 18:1n-9). Dietary CLA caused an accumulation of total SFA in the sn-1/3 position, with a proportional decrease in total MUFA and 18:2n-6 in the outer positions. Correspondingly, lipids extracted from CLA-fed pigs had slip points that were 10 °C higher (P<0.05) than those from corn oil- or tallow-fed pigs. These data suggest that dietary CLA increases the melting point of lipids in porcine adipose tissue by increasing the proportion of SFA at the sn-1/3 position of lipids.

  15. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces hepatic steatosis and restores liver triacylglycerol secretion and the fatty acid profile during protein repletion in rats.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María F; Illesca, Paola G; González, Marcela A; Bernal, Claudio A

    2010-11-01

    Protein depletion is associated with hepatic steatosis and decreased circulating triacylglycerol (TAG). Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increases lean body mass, protects against muscle catabolism, and modulates lipid metabolism, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of CLA with two different amounts of dietary fat on the regulation of plasma and hepatic TAG concentration, and its possible connections with changes in fatty acid (FA) profile in plasma, liver and adipose tissue and hepatic oxidative status during protein repletion. Rats were fed a low protein diet (14 days) and then a protein repletion diet (30 days), supplemented or not with CLA, containing 7% (w/w) or 20% (w/w) of fat. Hepatic TAG secretion and removal by muscle and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, FA profile and liver oxidative status were evaluated. Protein depletion affected hepatic TAG secretion and peripheral removal, decreasing plasma and increasing liver TAG concentration, whereas protein repletion with CLA improved these abnormalities independently of the amount of dietary fat by increasing hepatic TAG secretion. This prevention in the absence of CLA was not observed. CLA was incorporated in plasma and tissues (adipose > liver > plasma, and c9,t11-CLA > t10,c12-CLA), accompanied by alterations in FA composition, mainly in adipose tissue. The hepatic oxidative stress was overcome by protein repletion. CLA had a beneficial impact on TAG metabolism in protein repleted animals, preventing hepatic steatosis through higher hepatic TAG secretion.

  17. The self-crosslinked ufasome of conjugated linoleic acid: investigation of morphology, bilayer membrane and stability.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ye; Fang, Yun; Ma, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid liposomes (Ufasomes) have attracted interests because of the ready availability of unsaturated fatty acids and the simple assembly strategy. However, the colloidal instability of the ufasomes hinders them from applying in the fields of drug delivery and food additives. In the present work, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with triple activities of bioactive, assembling and crosslinking was employed as a new molecular building block to construct ufasome and afterwards crosslinked ufasome. First, CLA ufasome was self-assembled from CLA molecules in response to pH variation, and the suitable CLA concentrations and pH ranges were determined by surface tension measurement and acid-base titration. Subsequently, the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome was prepared by intra-ufasomal crosslinking of conjugated double bonds in the CLA molecules. The morphologies of the self-crosslinked CLA ufasomes were imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), from which the size of 20-50 nm and the bilayer thickness of 2.7±0.5 nm were detected. Most importantly, based on the comparison of the bilayer thicknesses of the different fatty acids, the molecular arrangement in the bilayer membrane of the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome is named "side-by-side" model contrary to the ordinary "tail-to-tail" model. The pH stability of the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome was examined in virtue of dynamic light scattering tests. Finally, in vitro release results of 5-fluorouracil from the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome showed that the process was slow and sustainable.

  18. Fates of acid-resistant and non-acid-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in ruminant digestive contents in the absence and presence of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Faqir, Fahima; Ameilbonne, Aurélie; Rozand, Christine; Martin, Christine

    2010-02-01

    Healthy ruminants are the main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). During their transit through the ruminant gastrointestinal tract, STEC encounters a number of acidic environments. As all STEC strains are not equally resistant to acidic conditions, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether acid resistance confers an ecological advantage to STEC strains in ruminant digestive contents and whether acid resistance mechanisms are induced in the rumen compartment. We found that acid-resistant STEC survived at higher rates during prolonged incubation in rumen fluid than acid-sensitive STEC and that they resisted the highly acidic conditions of the abomasum fluid, whereas acid-sensitive strains were killed. However, transit through the rumen contents allowed acid-sensitive strains to survive in the abomasum fluid at levels similar to those of acid-resistant STEC. The acid resistance status of the strains had little influence on STEC growth in jejunal and cecal contents. Supplementation with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 or Lactobacillus acidophilus BT-1386 led to killing of all of the strains tested during prolonged incubation in the rumen contents, but it did not have any influence in the other digestive compartments. In addition, S. cerevisiae did not limit the induction of acid resistance in the rumen fluid. Our results indicate that the rumen compartment could be a relevant target for intervention strategies that could both limit STEC survival and eliminate induction of acid resistance mechanisms in order to decrease the number of viable STEC cells reaching the hindgut and thus STEC shedding and food contamination.

  19. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-01-01

    Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs. PMID:18759970

  20. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  1. Biochemical composition and fatty acid content of zooplankton from tropical lagoon for larval rearing.

    PubMed

    Lokman, H S

    1993-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing.

  2. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  3. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  4. Does trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid affect the intermediary glucose and energy expenditure of dairy cows due to repartitioning of milk component synthesis?

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Jens; Metzger-Petersen, Katrin; Tröscher, Arnulf H A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate if intermediary energy metabolism of cows fed with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was modified such that milk-energy compounds were produced with less intermediary energy expenditure as compared to control cows. Published data on supplemented CLA were assembled. The extent was calculated to which the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer has an impact on glucose and energy conversion in the mammary gland by modifying glucose equivalent supply and energy required for fatty acid (FA) and fat synthesis, and if this will eventually lead to an improved glucose and energy status of CLA-supplemented high-yielding dairy cows. A possible relationship between CLA supplementation level and milk energy yield response was also studied. Calculations were conducted separately for orally and abomasally administered CLA and based on energy required for supply of glucose equivalents, i.e. lactose, glycerol and NADPH2. Further, modifications of milk FA profile due to CLA supplementation were considered when energy expenditures for FA and fat synthesis were quantified. Differences in yields between control and CLA groups were transformed into glucose energy equivalents. Only abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.31) but not oral CLA administration (r(2) = 0.11) supplementation to dairy cow diets resulted in less glucose equivalent energy. Modifications of milk FA profiles also saved energy but the relationship with CLA supplementation was weaker for abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.06) than oral administration (r(2) = 0.38). On average, 10 g/d of abomasally infused trans-10, cis-12 CLA saved 1.1 to 2.3 MJ net energy expressed as glucose equivalents, whereas both positive and negative values were observed when the trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed to the cows. This study revealed a weak to moderate dose-dependent relationship between the amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA administered and the amount of energy in glucose equivalents and energy for the

  5. Inheritance of sugar and acid contents in the ripe berries of a tetraploid x diploid grape cross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance patterns of sugar and organic acid contents of ripe berries in a tetraploid x diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. Sugar content in tetraploid pro...

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  7. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  8. Effect of water content on the acid-base equilibrium of cyanidin-3-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Isabel B; Freitas, Adilson; Maçanita, António L; Lima, J C

    2015-04-01

    Laser Flash Photolysis was employed to measure the deprotonation and reprotonation rate constants of cyanidin 3-monoglucoside (kuromanin) in water/methanol mixtures. It was found that the deprotonation rate constant kd decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin, which may accommodate and stabilize the outgoing protons. On the other hand, the reprotonation rate constant, kp, increases with the decrease in water concentration from a value of kp = 2 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) in water up to kp = 6 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) at 5.6M water concentration in the mixture. The higher value of kp at lower water concentrations reflects the fact that the proton is not freely escaping the solvation shell of the molecule. The deprotonation rate constant decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin that can accommodate the outgoing protons. Overall, the acidity constant of the flavylium cation decreases with the decrease in water concentration from pKa values of 3.8 in water to approximately 4.8 in water-depleted media, thus shifting the equilibrium towards the red-coloured form, AH(+), at low water contents. The presence, or lack, of water, will affect the colour shade (red to blue) of kuromanin. This is relevant for its role as an intrinsic food component and as a food pigment additive (E163).

  9. mRNA abundance of genes involved in mammary lipogenesis during fish oil- or trans-10,cis-12 CLA-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2017-04-01

    Milk fat depression (MFD) caused by trans-10,cis-12 18:2 is known to be mediated in cows and ewes by downregulation of mammary lipogenic genes. However, transcriptional mechanisms underlying marine lipid-induced MFD have not been well defined yet and the few available studies in ovine are not consistent. This trial was conducted to directly compare changes in animal performance, milk fatty acid composition, and particularly mammary mRNA abundance of candidate lipogenic genes and transcription factors in response to the inclusion of fish oil or trans-10,cis-12 18:2 in the dairy sheep diet. To meet this objective, 12 lactating Assaf ewes (on average, 64 days in milk, producing 1.72 kg of milk/d with 5.17% of fat) were divided into 3 groups and offered a total mixed ration without supplementation (control) or supplemented with 2.4% dry matter of fish oil (FO treatment) or 1% dry matter of a commercial product rich in trans-10,cis-12 18:2 (CLA treatment) for 39 d. Measurements and samplings were conducted before starting the treatments and at the end of the trial. Milk samples were used for RNA extraction from somatic cells. Feed intake was not affected by lipid supplements, and as designed, reductions in milk fat concentration (-31%) were similar in the 2 treatments, although the unpredicted increase in milk production with FO counteracted the anticipated reduction in milk fat yield. Nevertheless, this did not preclude the detection of FO-induced decreases in the mRNA abundance of candidate lipogenic genes [e.g., acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and lipin 1 (LPIN1)], thus supporting the hypothesis that transcriptional regulation would be a relevant component of this type of MFD in sheep. Expected CLA-induced downregulation of some genes, such as FASN or sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), could not be detected in our samples, which might be related, at least in part, to high inter

  10. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Yang, L; Yuan, H; Rao, P; Lo, Y M

    2008-10-01

    To date, the published information on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products in China remains scarce and of questionable accuracy. Systematic approaches to educate the consumers and to ensure proper labeling of TFAs are among the many urgent challenges the regulatory agencies in this rapidly growing country have to face. In the present study, 97 most popular, national brand food products on the Chinese market, including 6 cheeses, 10 chocolates, 10 crisps, chips, and fries, 10 ice creams, 15 margarines, 10 pies and cakes, 8 sauces and dressings, 19 wafers and biscuits, and 9 Chinese-style snacks, were assayed to profile their fat content and fatty acid composition, particularly the TFAs. The highest level of TFAs, up to 30.9% of total fatty acids, were found in pies. The average TFAs contents in different product categories, ranging from high to low, were: pie and cake (12.07%), cheese (6.95%), margarine (5.09%), wafer and biscuit (4.35%), ice cream (2.67%), sauce and dressing (2.65%), crisps, chips, and fries (2.15%), chocolate (1.44%), and Chinese-style snacks (0.83%). One hundred percent of cheese contained TFAs, so did pie and cake, followed by crisps, chips, and fries (90%), sauce and dressing (88%), ice cream and margarine (80%), chocolate (60%), wafer and biscuit (53%), then Chinese-style snacks (33%). Profiling of key TFAs constituents could yield information characteristic to the types of partially hydrogenated oils employed, which is a critical step towards product reformulation in order to reduce or eliminate TFAs in the products.

  11. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  12. CLA Selection Guidelines: How to Choose Materials for Parish and School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weathers, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Reviews selection guidelines suggested by the Catholic Library Association (CLA) for parish and school libraries. Highlights include who develops the selection policy; American Library Association selection guidelines for school libraries; criteria for both print and nonprint materials; how to handle censorship challenges; and issues concerning…

  13. The Influence of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) on Children's Learning and Teachers' Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Sue; Lawrence, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) as a means of evidencing, supporting and promoting children's creative learning in arts-based contexts. The research team at the Centre for Literacy in Primary Education (CLPE) worked with a group of teachers in inner-city Lambeth primary schools to develop an…

  14. Interviews with the 2000 CLA Breakfast Speakers: Mary Pope Osborne, Rosemary Wells, and Patricia Reilly Giff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darigan, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Presents three interviews with the 2000 CLA (Children's Literature Assembly) Breakfast Speakers. Discusses how Osborne has written for virtually every genre for all ages and discusses the new Magic Treehouse book. Talks about Wells' two Mother Goose books, McDuff books and books to come. Considers where Giff gets her ideas for books and discusses…

  15. Lagrangian Simulations of polar ozone loss: from box model to 3-d CTM CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooss, J.; Konopka, P.; Gunther, G.; Walter, R.; Müller, R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985, simulations of polar ozone loss improved persistently over the years. Especially using the Lagrangian view in which chemical processes are simulated for air parcels that move in location has been demonstrated to be a successful method. We describe the development of Lagrangian simulations of polar ozone loss starting with chemical box model simulations along particular trajectories up to the 3-dimensional version of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). Besides chemistry and Lagrangian advection CLaMS contains sophisticated modules for mixing and denitrification. We show CLaMS simulations for the Arctic winters 2002/03, 2004/05 and for the Antarctic winter 2003. The focus will be on chemical ozone loss and denitrification. The processes involved in denitrification, especially the nucleation of NAT particles are not fully understood. From comparisons of the simulated denitrification with observations we conclude that the sensitivity of denitrification on key assumptions is largest at the time of onset of the denitrification. Further we show that besides possible inconsistencies in the ozone loss rates in early winter the ozone depletion over the winter is simulated in agreement with the observations. Overall, CLaMS simulations reproduce the inhomogeneity of chemical ozone loss within the polar vortex well.

  16. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  17. Effect of defatting on acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-11-01

    The effect of defatting on the physiochemical properties and the acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents was evaluated in this study. The increase in the number of pores and the stripping of starch surface layers were observed after defatting by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the peaks attributing to the amylose-lipid complex disappeared. The relative crystallinity increased by 19% for high-amylose maize starch (HMS) on defatting, while the other tested starches virtually unchanged. Differential scanning calorimetry study indicated an increase in the thermal stability for the defatted starches. Compared with native waxy maize starch, the acid hydrolysis rate of the defatted one increased by 6% after 10 days. For normal maize starch (NMS) and HMS, the higher rate of hydrolysis was observed during the first 5 days. Thereafter, the hydrolysis rate was lower than that of their native counterpart. The increase in susceptibility to acid hydrolysis (in the first 5 days) was mainly attributed to the defective and porous structures formed during defatting process, while the decrease of hydrolysis rate for NMS and HMS samples (after the first 5 days) probably resulted from the increase in the relative crystallinity.

  18. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  19. Differentiation of green, white, black, Oolong, and Pu-erh teas according to their free amino acids content.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, A; Ballesteros, O; Jurado, J M; Pablos, F; Martín, M J; Vilches, J L; Navalón, A

    2007-07-25

    In this paper, the differentiation of green, black, Oolong, white, and Pu-erh teas has been carried out according to their free amino acid contents. Alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, theanine, threonine, and tyrosine have been determined by liquid chromatography with derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and fluorescence detection. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a Hypersil ODS column and gradient elution. The amino acid contents were used as chemometric descriptors for classification purposes of different tea varieties. Principal component analysis, k-nearest neighbors, linear discriminant analysis, and artificial neural networks were applied to differentiate tea varieties. Using back-propagation multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, 100% success in the classification was obtained. The most differentiating amino acids were glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, alanine, leucine, and isoleucine.

  20. Operational Management Plans: Status, Content, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    A NATURAL RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM US Amy CrpsMISCELLANEOUS PAPER R-89-2 ofEgier OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT PLANS: STATUS, CONTENT , AND IMPLEMENTATION...NO NO. CCESSIONNO/ 32503 11. TITLE (incude Security Cla m karion) Operational Management Plans: Status, Content , and Implementation 12. PERSONAL...reverse if necessaty and identify by block number) - This report presents the current status, content , and implecrntation of Operational Management Plans

  1. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  2. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Klotz, Elliott T; Stevens, Robyn L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nazarenus, Tara J; Pereira, Suzette L; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2013-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45-50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions.

  3. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  4. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on growth characteristics and biochemical content of wheat seeds under arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the phytotoxic effect of As on wheat seedlings and pre-application of salicylic acid in alleviating toxic effect of arsenic. Wheat seedlings treated with different concentrations (50-400 μM) of arsenic decreased the germination rate (34.7% and 86.9%), root and coleptile length, fresh and dry weight of roots and coleoptile, chlorophyll (67%) and protein content (27.1%), while increased proline and MDA content. However, pretreatment with 1mM saliycilic acid partially alleviated the toxic effect of arsenic on germination parameters and significantly reduced the proline (181.2%) and MDA (80%) content thereby increasing chlorophyll and protein content in As stressed wheat plants (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The data suggests that saliycilic acid reduced the damaging effects generated by As and enhanced the tolerance of wheat plants to arsenic toxicity.

  5. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns.

  6. Lipid content and fatty acid distribution in tissues from Portuguese dogfish, leafscale gulper shark and black dogfish.

    PubMed

    Remme, Jannicke Fugledal; Larssen, Wenche Emblem; Bruheim, Inge; Saebø, Per Christian; Saebø, Asgeir; Stoknes, Iren S

    2006-04-01

    The lipid characterization in tissues from the three deep-sea sharks leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus), Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis) and black dogfish (Centrocyllium fabricii) captured at Hatton Bank in the North Atlantic were examined. The objective was to determine the lipid content and the fatty acid composition in different tissues. In addition, the fatty acid composition in tissues and species was compared. The tissues examined were pancreas, heart, kidney, stomach, spleen and liver. The lipid content was high in liver (40-50%) and ranged from 1% to 5% in the other tissues. The dominant fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1 (n-9), C18:1 (n-7) and C22:6 (n-3) in all tissues. All tissues had a high content of unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Modeling weight loss and chlorogenic acids content in coffee during roasting.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Raul; Donangelo, Carmen M; Farah, Adriana

    2010-12-08

    Roasting is a key step in the production of a high-quality coffee. Roasting degree is directly related to coffee chemical composition and may be determined objectively by weight loss after roasting. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are thermally labile phenolic compounds that play an important role in the final cup quality and health benefits of coffee. Considering the interest in finding a reliable method to predict weight loss and CGA content in coffee, models have been developed to estimate these parameters during roasting. Weight loss was successfully modeled (r = 0.99) independent of the instant temperature. CGA degradation followed first-order Arrhenius-compliant kinetic models with good predictability (r = 0.98), especially for light to moderately dark samples. In both cases distinct models for Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were calculated, because of differences in chemical composition and cell wall structure between these species. The proposed models may become important predictive tools in the coffee industry.

  8. In vitro availability of zinc from infant foods with increasing phytic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Bosscher, D; Lu, Z; Janssens, G; Van Caillie-Bertrand, M; Robberecht, H; De Rycke, H; De Wilde, R; Deelstra, H

    2001-08-01

    An in vitro method was used to determine the availability of Zn from infant foods containing increasing amounts of phytate, and to quantify the effect of the phytate:Zn molar ratio on the availability. During the in vitro assay, digestive conditions of infants, younger and older than 4 months of age, were carefully simulated since the solubility of phytate-Zn complexes during digestion is pH dependent. Availability was measured with a continuous flow dialysis in vitro procedure with previous intralumen digestive stage. Zn concentrations were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Phytic acid content was measured with HPLC. Adding phytate to infant formula lowered Zn availability to 2.84 (sd 0.17) % when the phytate:Zn molar ratio increased to 2.2 as compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability from vegetables (23.83 (sd 2.17) %) significantly decreased at a ratio > 7.9 (15.12 (sd 1.63) %). Zn availability from soyabean-based formula (2.26 (sd 0.36) %) was lower compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability between soyabean- and cows' milk-based formula was similar when a phytate:Zn ratio of 2.2 (2.84 (sd 0.17) %) was obtained in the cows' milk formula. The negative effect of phytic acid on Zn availability was dependent on the type of the food and the phytate content, and should be considered when using soyabean-based formulas during early infancy.

  9. EFFECT OF POLYAMINE STRUCTURE ON GROWTH STIMULATION AND SPERMINE AND SPERMIDINE CONTENT OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Guirard, Beverly M.; Snell, Esmond E.

    1964-01-01

    Guirard, Beverly M. (University of California, Berkeley), and Esmond E. Snell. Effect of polyamine structure on growth and spermine and spermidine content of lactic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:72–80. 1964.—Growth from small inocula of six species of lactobacilli was stimulated by addition of spermine or spermidine to a defined medium; none of four streptococcal species showed this effect. Lactobacillus casei was stimulated to the greatest extent. Several homologues and analogues partially duplicated the growth-promoting effects of spermidine; one inactive homologue, N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,6-hexanediamine, competitively inhibited the growth response to spermidine and spermine, and reduced or eliminated the response to several weakly active compounds. A procedure for separation of spermine and spermidine, and their estimation by bioassay with L. casei, was developed and applied to the estimation of these compounds in bacterial cells. Both compounds are present in lactic acid bacteria in amounts much smaller (1 to 5%) than those found in Escherichia coli. Addition of spermine or spermidine to the growth medium results in large accumulations in the cells, and the two amines show limited interconvertibility. Putrescine does not increase the cell content of either spermine or spermidine. Presence of the inhibitor prevents accumulation of the growth-stimulating amines. The polyamines appear to fill at least two valuable roles in the cell, one relatively nonspecific in its structural requirements, and one filled only by spermine and spermidine or their nearest homologues. N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,6-hexanediamine appears to prevent the latter function by competition for an appropriate cellular receptor. PMID:14197908

  10. Low phytic acid 1 mutation in maize modifies density, starch properties, cations, and fiber contents in the seed.

    PubMed

    Landoni, Michela; Cerino Badone, Francesco; Haman, Nabil; Schiraldi, Alberto; Fessas, Dimitrios; Cesari, Valentina; Toschi, Ivan; Cremona, Roberta; Delogu, Chiara; Villa, Daniela; Cassani, Elena; Pilu, Roberto

    2013-05-15

    Monogastric animals are unable to digest phytic acid, so it represents an antinutritional factor and also an environmental problem. One strategy to solve this problem is the utilization of low phytic acid (lpa) mutants that accumulate low levels of phytic P and high levels of free phosphate in the seeds; among the lpa maize mutants lpa1 exhibited the highest reduction of phytic acid in the seed. This study indicated that the low phytic acid mutations exerted pleiotropic effects not directly connected to the phytic acid pathway, such as on seed density, content of ions, and the antioxidant compounds present in the kernels. Furthermore some nutritional properties of the flour were altered by the lpa1 mutations, in particular lignin and protein content, while the starch does not seem to be modified as to the total amount and in the amylose/amylopectin ratio, but alterations were noticed in the structure and size of granules.

  11. Dimethylsulfoxide and conjugated linoleic acids affect bovine embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stinshoff, Hanna; Wilkening, Sandra; Hanstedt, Ana; Bollwein, Heinrich; Wrenzycki, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are employed to overcome the bovine periparturitional negative energy balance. Especially of interest are trans10,cis12 -linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) and cis9,trans11-linoleic acid (c9t11-CLA). Their impact on embryonic development, though, is not clear. Here, effects of both above-mentioned CLA on bovine in vitro-produced embryos were assessed. Zygotes (n=2098) were allocated to one of seven groups: cultured with 50 or 100µM of either c9t11-CLA or t10c12-CLA, with 14 or 28mM DMSO or without supplement (control). Messenger RNA analysis of target gene transcripts (IGF1R, IGFBP2, IGFBP4, CPT2, ACAA1, ACAA2, FASN, SCD) via RT-qPCR was performed in single blastocysts. Cleavage rates did not differ, whereas development rates were decreased in both t10c12-supplemented groups in comparison to the unsupplemented group (31.7% ±2.2 control vs 20.2% ±2.0 50µM t10c12 vs 21.0% ±2.8 100µM t10c12). Compared with the unsupplemented group, SCD was expressed at a lower level in embryos cultured with 50µM c9t11-CLA. The relative amount of several transcripts was increased in embryos cultured with 14mM DMSO in comparison to those that developed in the presence of 50µM t10c12-CLA (IGFBP2, ACAA1, CPT2, FASN, SCD) or 50µM c9t11-CLA (IGF1R, IGFBP2, ACAA1, CPT2, FASN, SCD). The molecular analyses show that CLA influence embryonic fat metabolism.

  12. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  13. Effect of clay content on morphology and processability of electrospun keratin/poly(lactic acid) nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Isarankura Na Ayutthaya, Siriorn; Tanpichai, Supachok; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2016-04-01

    This research work has concerned the development of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal filters from biomaterials, based on keratin extracted from chicken feather waste and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (50/50%w/w) blend. Clay (Na-montmorillonite) was also added to the blend solution prior to carrying out an electro-spinning process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clay content on viscosity, conductivity, and morphology of the electrospun fibers. Scanning electron micrographs showed that smooth and bead-free fibers were obtained when clay content used was below 2 pph. XRD patterns of the electrospun fibers indicated that the clay was intercalated and exfoliated within the polymers matrix. Percentage crystallinity of keratin in the blend increased after adding the clay, as evidenced from FTIR spectra and DSC thermograms. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a kind of core-shell structure with clay being predominately resided within the keratin rich shell and at the interfacial region. Filtration performance of the electrospun keratin/PLA fibers, described in terms of pressure drop and its capability of removing methylene blue, were also explored. Overall, our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve process-ability, morphology and filtration efficiency of the electrospun keratin fibers by adding a suitable amount of clay.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variations of High and Low Nucleic Acid Content Bacteria in an Exorheic River

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lili; Ji, Yurui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA) content are commonly observed in aquatic environments. To date, limited knowledge is available on their temporal and spatial variations in freshwater environments. Here an investigation of HNA and LNA bacterial abundance and their flow cytometric characteristics was conducted in an exorheic river (Haihe River, Northern China) over a one year period covering September (autumn) 2011, December (winter) 2011, April (spring) 2012, and July (summer) 2012. The results showed that LNA and HNA bacteria contributed similarly to the total bacterial abundance on both the spatial and temporal scale. The variability of HNA on abundance, fluorescence intensity (FL1) and side scatter (SSC) were more sensitive to environmental factors than that of LNA bacteria. Meanwhile, the relative distance of SSC between HNA and LNA was more variable than that of FL1. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that the influence of geographical distance (reflected by the salinity gradient along river to ocean) and temporal changes (as temperature variation due to seasonal succession) on the patterns of LNA and HNA were stronger than the effects of nutrient conditions. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the distribution of LNA and HNA bacteria, including the abundance, FL1 and SSC, was controlled by different variables. The results suggested that LNA and HNA bacteria might play different ecological roles in the exorheic river. PMID:27082986

  15. Spatio-Temporal Variations of High and Low Nucleic Acid Content Bacteria in an Exorheic River.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Hao, Zhenyu; Ma, Lili; Ji, Yurui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA) content are commonly observed in aquatic environments. To date, limited knowledge is available on their temporal and spatial variations in freshwater environments. Here an investigation of HNA and LNA bacterial abundance and their flow cytometric characteristics was conducted in an exorheic river (Haihe River, Northern China) over a one year period covering September (autumn) 2011, December (winter) 2011, April (spring) 2012, and July (summer) 2012. The results showed that LNA and HNA bacteria contributed similarly to the total bacterial abundance on both the spatial and temporal scale. The variability of HNA on abundance, fluorescence intensity (FL1) and side scatter (SSC) were more sensitive to environmental factors than that of LNA bacteria. Meanwhile, the relative distance of SSC between HNA and LNA was more variable than that of FL1. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that the influence of geographical distance (reflected by the salinity gradient along river to ocean) and temporal changes (as temperature variation due to seasonal succession) on the patterns of LNA and HNA were stronger than the effects of nutrient conditions. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the distribution of LNA and HNA bacteria, including the abundance, FL1 and SSC, was controlled by different variables. The results suggested that LNA and HNA bacteria might play different ecological roles in the exorheic river.

  16. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Md S I; Bowra, S; Schmidt, D; Dionisio, G; Holm, P B; Vincze, E

    2016-02-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7% reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, the protein band were excised and the proteins identified by quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subsequent SDS-PAGE separation and analysis of the prolamin fraction of the transgenic lines revealed a reduction in the amounts of C-hordeins and increases in the content of other hordein family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C-hordein level. All transgenic lines that exhibited a reduction for C-hordein showed off-target effects: the lines exhibited increased level of B/γ-hordein while D-hordein level was reduced. Furthermore, the multicopy insertions correlated negatively with silencing.

  17. Maternal dietary docosahexanoic acid content affects the rat pup auditory system.

    PubMed

    Haubner, Laura Y; Stockard, Janet E; Saste, Monisha D; Benford, Valerie J; Phelps, Christopher P; Chen, Li T; Barness, Lewis; Wiener, Doris; Carver, Jane D

    2002-05-01

    Previous studies of the effects of dietary docosahexanoic acid (DHA), 22:6n3, on neurodevelopment have focused mainly on visual-evoked potentials and indices of visual activity, measures that may be confounded by effects on the retina rather than on neural pathways. We investigated the effect of pre- and postnatal maternal dietary DHA content on auditory brainstem conduction times (ABCTs), the appearance of the auditory startle reflex (ASR), and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) activity in brainstem homogenates. Timed pregnant dams were fed, beginning on day 2 of gestation and throughout lactation, a purified diet containing one of three levels of DHA (0, 1, or 3% of total fatty acids, or 0, 0.4 or 1.2% of total energy). On postnatal day (PND) 3, pups were randomly crossfostered within diet groups to minimize litter effects and culled to 10 per litter. Cerebrums and milk from culled pups stomachs were collected for lipid analysis. The timing of appearance of the ASR was determined between PND 10 through 14 and ABCTs were measured in pups on PND 24 and 31. Pups were sacrificed on PND 31 and cerebrums were removed. In each of two replicated studies, pups in the 1% DHA group weighed significantly less on PND 3 and they gained significantly less weight from PND 3 to 31 compared with pups in the 0 or 3% groups (p<0.01). The auditory studies were not conducted on the 1% DHA group since measures of auditory function are in part a function of somatic growth. The tissue fatty acid data for the 1% DHA group did not show unexpected findings. Higher dietary DHA was reflected in milk and pup cerebrums, and levels of arachidonic acid were inversely related to levels of DHA. In the pups of dams fed diets containing 3% versus 0% DHA, the ASR appeared significantly later (p<0.001) and the ABCTs were longer (p<0.05) on PND 31. CNPase activity levels were not different between the 0 and 3% DHA groups. This study demonstrated that the auditory brainstem response

  18. Effects of laser and acid etching and air abrasion on mineral content of dentin.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Taşdemir, Serife Tuba; Ozturk, A Nilgun; Ozturk, Bora; Berk, Gizem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of dentin prepared using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser at four different power settings, acid etching, and air abrasion. The study teeth comprised 35 molars which were randomly divided into seven equal groups. The occlusal third of the crowns were cut with a slow-speed diamond saw. The groups were as follows: group A, control group; group B, dentin etched with 35% buffered phosphoric acid for 30 s; group C, dentin abraded at 60 psi with 50-µm aluminium oxide for 1 s; groups D-G, dentin irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 1.50 W (group D), 2.25 W (group E), 3.00 W (group F), and 3.50 W (group G). The levels of Mg, P, Ca, K and Na in each dentin slab were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were analysed by one way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. There were no significant differences between the groups in the levels of Ca, P and Na, and the Ca/P ratio (p>0.05); however, there were significant differences in the levels of K (p<0.001) and Mg (p=0.13). In addition, the levels of Mg in the air abrasion group were higher than in the other groups (p<0.01). Etching with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser system, air abrasion and acid etching did not affect the levels of Ca, P and Na, or the Ca/P ratio, in the dentin surface.

  19. Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar contents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize shortday onions of 3 pungency levels with regard to the composition of flavor related compounds. A total of 9 onion breeding lines/cultivars were selected, per each of low, medium, and high pungency level, with pyruvic acid contents of 1.9 to 2.8, 4.8 to 5.4, and 7.2 to 8.3 micromoles/mL, respectively. The contents of flavor precursors (S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide [1-PeCSO] and S-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide [MCSO]), free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. The flavor precursor contents ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 mg/g fresh weight (FW) for MCSO, 0.07 to 0.65 mg for 1-PeCSO, and 0.12 to 0.77 mg in total, and precursor contents increased with the pungency levels. Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most abundant amino acids were glutamine and arginine. The total sugar contents ranged from 50 to 75 mg/g FW, and total S contents (3.5 to 5.1 mg/g dry weight) were not correlated with the pungency levels. However, pungency levels were correlated inversely with bulb weight and positively with SSC, presumably by the effect of dilution. This study indicates that onion pungency is primarily determined by the content of flavor precursor compounds and not by total S, total sugars, or individual/total free amino acids in shortday bulbs.

  20. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have large implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  1. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; ...

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have largemore » implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  2. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “negligible source... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these...

  3. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “negligible source... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these...

  4. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “negligible source... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these...

  5. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “negligible source... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these...

  6. Effects of the heating process of soybean oil and seeds on fatty acid biohydrogenation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Puaut, S; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2014-09-01

    Heating fat is an efficient way to alter ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and milk fat quality. Nevertheless, results are variable among studies and this could be due to various heating conditions differently affecting BH. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of type and duration of heating of soybean oil or seeds on BH in vitro. Ruminal content cultures were incubated to first investigate the effects of roasting duration (no heating, and 0.5- and 6-h roasting) at 125°C and its interaction with fat source (soybean seeds vs. soybean oil), focusing on linoleic acid BH and its intermediates: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-C18:1. Additionally, we compared the effects of seed extrusion with the 6 combinations of unheated and roasted oils and seeds. None of the treatments was efficient to protect linoleic acid from BH. Soybean oil resulted in higher trans-11 isomer production than seeds: 5.7 and 1.2 times higher for cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1, respectively. A 125°C, 0.5-h roasting increased trans-11 isomer production by 11% compared with no heating and 6-h roasted fat. Extrusion of seeds was more efficient to increase trans-11 C18:1 production than seed roasting, leading to values similar to oils. For other fatty acids, including cis-9,trans-11 CLA, extrusion resulted in similar balances to seeds (mainly 0.5-h-roasted seeds). Extruded oilseeds would be more efficient than roasted seeds to produce trans-11 C18:1; nevertheless, effects of conditions of extrusion need to be explored.

  7. CLaSPS: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR KNOWLEDGE EXTRACTION FROM COMPLEX ASTRONOMICAL DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Laurino, O.; Djorgovski, G.; Donalek, C.; Longo, G.

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, we present the Clustering-Labels-Score Patterns Spotter (CLaSPS), a new methodology for the determination of correlations among astronomical observables in complex data sets, based on the application of distinct unsupervised clustering techniques. The novelty in CLaSPS is the criterion used for the selection of the optimal clusterings, based on a quantitative measure of the degree of correlation between the cluster memberships and the distribution of a set of observables, the labels, not employed for the clustering. CLaSPS has been primarily developed as a tool to tackle the challenging complexity of the multi-wavelength complex and massive astronomical data sets produced by the federation of the data from modern automated astronomical facilities. In this paper, we discuss the applications of CLaSPS to two simple astronomical data sets, both composed of extragalactic sources with photometric observations at different wavelengths from large area surveys. The first data set, CSC+, is composed of optical quasars spectroscopically selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, observed in the x-rays by Chandra and with multi-wavelength observations in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet spectral intervals. One of the results of the application of CLaSPS to the CSC+ is the re-identification of a well-known correlation between the {alpha}{sub OX} parameter and the near-ultraviolet color, in a subset of CSC+ sources with relatively small values of the near-ultraviolet colors. The other data set consists of a sample of blazars for which photometric observations in the optical, mid-, and near-infrared are available, complemented for a subset of the sources, by Fermi {gamma}-ray data. The main results of the application of CLaSPS to such data sets have been the discovery of a strong correlation between the multi-wavelength color distribution of blazars and their optical spectral classification in BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars, and a

  8. Physico-chemical modifications of conjugated linoleic acid for ruminal protection and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Lee, Hong-Gu; Chung, Chung-Soo; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2008-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid [linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6]. Although ruminant milk and meat products represent the largest natural source of CLA and therefore, their concentration in ruminant lipids are of interest to human health, chemical or physical modifications of CLA should be needed as a means to enhance oxidative stability, to improve post-ruminal bioavailability, and to increase the clinical application. In fact, CLA are rapidly decomposed to form furan fatty acids when its are oxidized in air, and the effectiveness of dietary supplements of CLA may be related to the extent that their metabolisms by rumen bacteria are avoided. For these reasons, many scientists have examined the effect of manufacturing and protection on the stability of CLA in ruminants and food products. In this review, physico-chemical modifications of CLA for ruminal protection such as calcium salt (Ca), formaldehyde protection (FP), lipid encapsulation (LE), and amide linkage (AL), and for oxidative stability such as green tea catechin (GTC), cyclodextrin (CD), arginine (Arg), amylase, and PEGylation are proposed.

  9. Physico-chemical modifications of conjugated linoleic acid for ruminal protection and oxidative stability

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Lee, Hong-Gu; Chung, Chung-Soo; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid [linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6]. Although ruminant milk and meat products represent the largest natural source of CLA and therefore, their concentration in ruminant lipids are of interest to human health, chemical or physical modifications of CLA should be needed as a means to enhance oxidative stability, to improve post-ruminal bioavailability, and to increase the clinical application. In fact, CLA are rapidly decomposed to form furan fatty acids when its are oxidized in air, and the effectiveness of dietary supplements of CLA may be related to the extent that their metabolisms by rumen bacteria are avoided. For these reasons, many scientists have examined the effect of manufacturing and protection on the stability of CLA in ruminants and food products. In this review, physico-chemical modifications of CLA for ruminal protection such as calcium salt (Ca), formaldehyde protection (FP), lipid encapsulation (LE), and amide linkage (AL), and for oxidative stability such as green tea catechin (GTC), cyclodextrin (CD), arginine (Arg), amylase, and PEGylation are proposed. PMID:18513443

  10. [Effect of graded dietary protein rations on the amino acid content of crude protein in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and blood fractions of laying hens].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K; Wiefel, P

    1985-03-01

    Four groups of four colostomized laying hens each received rations only consisting of wheat, vitamins plus a mineral mixture and a graded daily feed supply of 110 g, 88 g, 66 g and 44 g. The determination of amino acids from faeces was carried out after hydrolysis from a 6-day sampling period from the 16 laying hybrids. At the end of the experiment the animals were slaughtered. The corpuscular fractions of the blood, the contents of crop and stomach as well as of the intestines were also hydrolysed and the amino acid content in the crude protein was determined. In addition, the content of free amino acids in the blood plasma was determined. The content of amino acids in the protein of the corpuscular blood fractions remained uninfluenced by the decreasing amino acid and energy supply. The content of free basic amino acids in the blood plasma decreased with the decreasing supply with amino acids and energy, whereas the content of free amino acids with branched chains and hydroxylized ones increased. The content of glutamic acid in the contents of crop and stomach changed considerably in comparison with feed protein. The amino acid values of the crude protein in the contents of the intestines and in faeces to a large extent differ considerably from those of the wheat fed and are approximate values of body protein. Deficient supply with amino acids and energy did not influence the apparent digestibility of the amino acids.

  11. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and fish oil supplementation on performance and egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C; Cachaldora, P; Méndez, J; García-Rebollar, P; De Blas, J C

    2004-08-01

    1. Laying hen performance, yolk fat fatty acid concentrations and firmness of eggs were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil. 2. Nine diets were arranged factorially, with three levels of supplementation of CLA (1, 3 and 5 g/kg) and fish oil (0, 14 and 20 g/kg). 3. Type of diet did not affect egg production traits. 4. CLA addition increased yolk weight and yolk fat concentrations of CLA, saturated and total long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but decreased those of monounsaturated and total long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 5. Fish oil addition increased long-chain n-3 fatty acids yolk fat concentrations but decreased those of CLA, saturated and long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 6. Effects of CLA addition on yolk fat concentrations of C22:4 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 were greater when no fish oil was added to the diet. 7. CLA supplementation increased linearly yolk moisture and firmness and altered albumen and yolk pH.

  12. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  13. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  14. Clustering amino acid contents of protein domains: biochemical functions of proteins and implications for origin of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Torshin, I Y

    2001-04-01

    Structural classes of protein domains correlate with their amino acid compositions. Several successful algorithms (that use only amino acid composition) have been elaborated for the prediction of structural class or potential biochemical significance. This work deals with dynamic classification (clustering) of the domains on the basis of their amino acid composition. Amino acid contents of domains from a non-redundant PDB set were clustered in 20-dimensional space of amino acid contents. Despite the variations of an empirical parameter and non-redundancy of the set, only one large cluster (tens-hundreds of proteins) surrounded by hundreds of small clusters (1-5 proteins), was identified. The core of the largest cluster contains at least 64% DNA (nucleotide)-interacting protein domains from various sources. About 90% of the proteins of the core are intracellular proteins. 83% of the DNA/nucleotide interacting domains in the core belong to the mixed alpha-beta folds (a+b, a/b), 14% are all-alpha (mostly helices) and all-beta (mostly beta-strands) proteins. At the same time, when core domains that belong to one organism (E.coli) are considered, over 80% of them prove to be DNA/nucleotide interacting proteins. The core is compact: amino acid contents of domains from the core lie in relatively narrow and specific ranges. The core also contains several Fe-S cluster-binding domains, amino acid contents of the core overlap with ferredoxin and CO-dehydrogenase clusters, the oldest known proteins. As Fe-S clusters are thought to be the first biocatalysts, the results are discussed in relation to contemporary experiments and models dealing with the origin of biological macromolecules. The origin of most primordial proteins is considered here to be a result of co-adsorption of nucleotides and amino acids on specific clays, followed by en-block polymerization of the adsorbed mixtures of amino acids.

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and its effect on immune response in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Pinelli-Saavedra, A; Peralta-Quintana, J R; Sosa-Castañeda, J; Moya-Camarena, S Y; Burgara-Estrella, A; Hernández, J

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on immune response in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 18 pigs 4 weeks of age were allocated to 3 treatments, 6 per treatment: 0% CLA, 1% CLA, and 2% CLA. Serum IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; lymphocyte proliferation; and IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-12 in PBMCs were evaluated. NF-κB, COX2, iNOS and PPAR-γ mRNA were also evaluated. No differences were observed among treatment groups in most of the in vivo cytokine profiles; only TNF-α production was increased in infected pigs in the CLA-supplemented groups. The cytokine profile in vitro was not affected by CLA supplementation. CLA decreased the proliferation of PBMCs stimulated with PRRSVs. Inflammation mediators and PPAR-γ were not affected by CLA in infected pigs. CLA did not improve the immune response of PRRSV infected pigs.

  16. Saturated and trans fatty acids content in unpackaged traditional bakery products in Santa Fe city, Argentina: nutrition labeling relevance.

    PubMed

    Negro, Emilse; González, Marcela Aída; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; Williner, María Rosa

    2016-12-20

    Studies have reported the relationship between the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (t-FA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since 2006, the MERCOSUR countries require that the mandatory nutrition labeling should include information not only about the content of SFA but also about the content of t-FA. This does not apply to fractionated products at the point of retail, such as bakery products. This paper aimed to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid profile in unpackaged traditional bakery products (breads, biscuits and pastries) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Except for French bread, the contribution of t-FA and SFA to the total FA consumption from baked products was high. On the other hand, due to the high variability detected in the FA composition of bakery products between bakeries, it would be necessary to implement regulations making nutrition labeling mandatory in these products.

  17. Evaluation of microwave acid digestion for determination of fiber-volume contents in carbon-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.C.; McLaughlin, V.N.; El-Amin, L.; Ilias, S.

    1995-06-01

    The analysis of carbon-epoxy composites for fiber-volume contents is significant in determining the quality and strength of a given composite. The method commonly being used is acid digestion in a hot water bath, which takes about 2.5 hours for digestion alone. A study has been done using a new technique, what is known as Microwave Acid Digestion (MAD) for quick determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites. This technique uses a specially designed teflon bomb for digestion. The bomb allows for temperatures up to 250 C and pressures up to 1,200 psi. Under such operating conditions, the MAD technique reduces digestion time to about 70 seconds. The study demonstrated that the microwave acid digestion (MAD) is an efficient means for determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites.

  18. Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahaman, Samia M; Elmaki, Hagir B; Idris, Wisal H; Hassan, Amro B; Babiker, Elfadil E; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2007-02-01

    Four pearl millet cultivars of two different species--Kordofani and Ugandi (Pennisetum typhoideum) and Madelkawaya and Shambat (Pennisetum glaucum)--were germinated for 6 days. The germinated grains were dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals from the malt flours were determined at intervals of 2 days during germination. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents decreased significantly (P <0.01) with an increase in germination time, with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals. However, the major mineral content was significantly decreased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. When the grains were germinated for 6 days, Madelkawaya had higher extractable calcium while Ugandi had higher extractable phosphorus, whereas iron and manganese recorded high levels in Shambat and Madelkawaya, respectively. There was good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and the increment in extractable minerals with germination time.

  19. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  20. [The content of individual fatty acids and numbers of double bonds, insulin, C-peptide and unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma in testing tolerance to glucose].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N; Aripovskiĭ, A V; Evteeva, N M; Tkhagalizhokova, É M; Parkhimovich, R M

    2014-10-01

    The glucose tolerance test demonstrates that content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma decreases up to three times and the content of oleic and linoleic acids is more decreased in the pool of fatty acids lipids. Out of resistance to insulin, hormone secretion increases up to three times. The decreasing of level of individual fatty acids occurs in a larger extent. Under resistance to insulin secretion of insulin is increasing up to eight times. The decreasing of level of each fatty acid is less expressed. The effect of insulin reflects decreasing of content of double bonds in blood plasma. The number of double bonds characterizes the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids in lipids of blood plasma. The higher number of double bonds is in the pool of unesterified fatty acids the more active is the effect of insulin. The hyper-secretion of insulin is directly proportional to content of palmitic fatty acid in lipids of blood plasma on fasting. According the phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the effect of insulin on metabolism of glucose is mediated by fatty acids. The insulin is blocking lipolysis in insulin-depended subcutaneous adipocytes and decreases content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma. The insulin is depriving all cells of possibility to absorb unesterified fatty acids and "forces" them to absorb glucose increasing hereby number of GLUT4 on cell membrane. The resistance to insulin is manifested in high concentration of unesterfied fatty acids, hyperinsulinemia, hyperalbuminemia and increasing of concentration of C-reactive protein-monomer. The resistance to insulin is groundlessly referred to as a symptom of diabetes mellitus type II. The resistance to insulin is only a functional disorder lasting for years. It can be successfully arrested. The diabetes mellitus is developed against the background of resistance to insulin only after long-term hyper-secretion of insulin and under emaciation and death of β-cells. The diabetes

  1. [Improvement of natamycin production in an industrial strain by heterologous expression of the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes].

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Yemin; Zheng, Hualiang; Tao, Meifeng

    2015-05-01

    The afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus activate the production of two antibiotics in Streptomyces lividans. In this study, we gained an increase of 38% in the production of natamycin (3.56 g/L) in an industrial strain Streptomyces gilvosporeus TZ1401 through the integration of pHL851 that bears the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes into its genome. We discovered by quantitive real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that the expression of 6 genes of the natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster were improved from 1.9 to 2.7 times. This suggests that afsRS(cla) improve the production of natamycin through increased transcription. This study provides a good example for applying afsRS(cla) in high yield breeding of industrial antibiotic producers.

  2. Microbial Substrate Usage Indicated by C-14 Contents of Phospholipid Fatty Acids From Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethemeyer, J.; Nadeau, M. J.; Grootes, P. M.; Kramer, C.; Gleixner, G.

    2004-05-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA's) are generally associated with viable (bacterial) cell membranes. They are thought to be short-lived under normal soil conditions. We compare the C-14 levels in PLFA's obtained from soil samples from the,clean" experimental site at Rotthalmünster (Germany) with those from the agricultural research station at Halle (Germany), where the soil is contaminated with,old" carbon from lignite mining and industry. The most abundant PLFA's were isolated via preparative capilla