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Sample records for acid cla supplementation

  1. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    PubMed

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  2. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids. PMID:27180424

  3. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  4. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms. PMID:26388708

  5. Supplementation with CLA: isomer incorporation into serum lipids and effect on body fat of women.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Sagredos, Angelos

    2003-08-01

    Animal studies have suggested that CLA, a natural component of meat and dairy products, may confer beneficial effects on health. However, human studies using supplementation with CLA have produced contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on human body fat, serum leptin, and serum lipids, as well as the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum lipids classes. Sixteen young healthy nonobese sedentary women received 2.1 g of CLA (divided equally between the cis,trans-9,11 and trans,cis-10,12 isomers) daily for 45 d and placebo for 45 d in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Body fat was estimated (by measurement of skinfold thickness at 10 sites), and blood was sampled at the beginning, middle, and end of the entire intervention period; an additional blood sample was obtained 2 wk thereafter. No significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, lipid, or protein intake existed between the CLA and placebo intake periods. No significant differences were found in body fat or serum leptin, TAG, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase between CLA and placebo. The CLA isomer content of serum TAG, phospholipids, and total lipids increased 2-5 times with CLA supplementation (P < 0.05). In contrast, the CLA content of cholesteryl esters did not change significantly. The period of 2 wk after the end of CLA supplementation was sufficient for its washout from serum lipids. These data indicate that supplementation with 2.1 g of CLA daily for 45 d increased its levels in blood but had no effect on body composition or the lipidemic profile of nonobese women.

  6. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p < 0.05), however, post hoc statistical tests did not reveal any differences (p > 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acids modulate UVR-induced IL-8 and PGE2 in human skin cells: potential of CLA isomers in nutritional photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Storey, Amy; Rogers, Julia S; McArdle, Francis; Jackson, Malcolm J; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2007-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), derivatives of linoleic acid found in food products, inhibit chemically induced skin cancers in mice. However, their potential photoprotective properties remain unexplored. We examined whether CLA may modulate ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)), mediators implicated in UVR-induced inflammation and carcinogenesis, in human skin cells. Since tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is an early mediator of UVR effects, we also examined influence of CLA on TNF-alpha-induced mediator release. HaCaT keratinocytes were supplemented with CLA isomers cis-9-trans-11 (c9,t11-CLA; > or =90%), trans-10-cis-12 (t10,c12-CLA; > or =90%) or all trans-trans isomers (tt-CLA; 23.7%) in tetrahydrofuran/fetal calf serum (THF/FCS) or THF/FCS control. Supplementation of keratinocytes with c9,t11-CLA reduced Ultraviolet B(UVB)-induced IL-8 from 37 113 +/- 2903 pg/ng protein in control cells to 14 167 +/- 2063 pg/ng protein (P < 0.001). Similarly, t10,c12-CLA reduced UVB-induced IL-8 to 9786 +/- 1291.5 pg/ng protein (P < 0.001). Additionally, t10,c12-CLA and tt-CLA inhibited TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 from 11 669 +/- 1692 pg/ng protein in control cells to 5540 +/- 191 (P < 0.001) and 8082 +/- 1298 pg/ng (P < 0.01) protein, respectively. UVB-induced PGE(2) release was reduced by tt-CLA supplementation, from 4.8 +/- 1.2 to 1.6 +/- 0.8 pg/mg protein (P < 0.01), but increased by t10,c12-CLA to 8.8 +/- 1 pg/mg protein (P < 0.001). Influence of CLA on UVB-induced PGE(2) release was further explored in CCD922SK dermal fibroblasts. CLA isomers reduced UVB-induced PGE(2) in fibroblasts, reaching significance with c9,t11-CLA (98 +/- 5 falling to 0 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05). Hence, CLA isomers differentially modulate UVB effects on skin cells in vitro. CLA-containing foods have potential in photoprotection; the cutaneous effects of individual isomers warrant clinical study.

  8. Response of milk fatty acid composition to dietary supplementation of soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid, or both.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Schoonmaker, J P; Bradford, B J; Beitz, D C

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six Holstein cows were blocked by parity and allotted by stage of lactation to 6 treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; free acid or calcium salt), or both, on CLA content of milk. Diets were fed for 4 wk and are as follows: (1) control, (2) control + 5% soy oil, (3) control + 1% CLA, (4) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2, (5) control + 1% CLA + 4% soy oil, and (6) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2 + 4% soy oil. Rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, blood fatty acid concentrations, milk yield, and milk composition were measured weekly or biweekly. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Dietary supplementation of soy oil or CLA had no effect on daily milk yield, milk protein concentration and production, or milk lactose concentration and production. Supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids as soy oil, CLA, or Ca(CLA)2 increased total fatty acid concentration in plasma, decreased milk fat concentration and production, and had no effect on rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The weight percentage of CLA in milk was increased from 0.4 to 0.7% with supplementation of 1% CLA, to 1.2% with supplementation of soy oil, and to 1.3% with supplementation of 1% CLA plus soy oil. Supplementation with Ca(CLA)2 or Ca(CLA)2 + soy oil increased the CLA content of milk fat to 0.9 and 1.4%, respectively. In summary, adding 5% soy oil was as effective as supplementing CLA, Ca(CLA)2, or a combination of 1% CLA (free acid or calcium salt) + 4% soy oil at increasing CLA concentrations in milk fat. Feeding CLA as the calcium salt resulted in greater concentrations of CLA in milk fat than did feeding CLA as the free acid. Dietary supplementation of 5% soy oil or 4% soy oil + 1% CLA as the free acid or the calcium salt increased the yield of CLA in milk.

  9. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  10. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatCLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  11. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatCLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  12. Fatty acid profile and proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells after conjugated linoleic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are in focus of dairy cattle research because of its milk fat reducing effects. Little is known about the impact of CLA on immune function in dairy cows. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of a long term supplementation of dairy cows with CLA on the fatty acid profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their proliferation ex vivo. Results The supplementation of dairy cows with either 100 g/d of a control fat preparation (CON, n = 15), 50 g/d of the control fat preparation and 50 g/d CLA supplement – containing 12.0% cis-9, trans-11 and 11.9% trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acid methyl esters – (CLA-50, n = 15) or 100 g/d of the CLA supplement (CLA-100, n = 16) did not influence the major fatty acids (C18:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1, cis-9, cis-12 C18:2, cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14 C20:4) in the lipid fraction of PBMC. The proportion of trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acids was increased in both CLA supplemented groups, but there was no effect on the cis-9, trans-11 isomer. Furthermore, the proportion of trans-9 C18:1 and cis-12 C24:1 was reduced in the CLA-100 group. The mitogen stimulated cell proliferation was not influenced by CLA feeding. Conclusion CLA supplementation influenced the FA profile of some minor FA in PBMC, but these changes did not lead to differences in the mitogen induced activation of the cells. PMID:22668674

  13. Maternal high-fat diet-induced programing of gut taste receptor and inflammatory gene expression in rat offspring is ameliorated by CLA supplementation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation influences later life predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease in offspring. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined, but one potential target that has received scant attention and is likely pivotal to disease progression is that of the gut. The present study examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on offspring metabolic profile and gut expression of taste receptors and inflammatory markers. We speculate that preventing high-fat diet-induced metainflammation improved maternal metabolic parameters conferring beneficial effects on adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA) throughout gestation and lactation. Plasma/tissues were taken at day 24 and RT-PCR was carried out on gut sections. Offspring from HF mothers were significantly heavier at weaning with impaired insulin sensitivity compared to controls. This was associated with increased plasma IL-1β and TNFα concentrations. Gut Tas1R1, IL-1β, TNFα, and NLRP3 expression was increased and Tas1R3 expression was decreased in male offspring from HF mothers and was normalized by maternal CLA supplementation. Tas1R1 expression was increased while PYY and IL-10 decreased in female offspring of HF mothers. These results suggest that maternal consumption of a HF diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring predisposition to obesity and metabolic dysregulation. This may be associated with dysregulation of taste receptor, incretin, and inflammatory gene expression in the gut. PMID:26493953

  14. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  15. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks.

  16. A supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat yield but does not alter organ weight or body fat deposition in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Liam A; Weerasinghe, Weerasinghe M P B; Wilkinson, Robert G; de Veth, Michael J; Bauman, Dale E

    2010-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants, but effects on carcass composition and organ weight are unknown. Our objectives in this experiment were to determine the dose response of ruminally protected CLA on the performance, organ weight, and fatty acid (FA) composition of early lactation dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous dairy ewes were fed a basal diet for 10 wk that was supplemented with a lipid-encapsulated CLA at 1 of 3 levels: no CLA (control, CON), low CLA (L-CLA), or high CLA (H-CLA) to supply 0, 1.5, or 3.8 g/d, respectively, of both trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Dry matter intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Ewes fed H-CLA had a 13% higher milk yield compared with those receiving either CON or L-CLA. Compared with CON, milk fat yield (g/d) was 14 and 24% lower in ewes fed L-CLA or H-CLA, respectively. Supplementing ewes with CLA did not affect carcass or organ weights, carcass composition, or organ FA content. Compared with ewes receiving the CON diet, CLA supplementation had little effect on the FA composition of the Longissimus dorsi, although cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA were increased in ewes receiving H-CLA. The current findings are consistent with the view that the energy spared by the CLA reduction in milk fat content was mainly partitioned to milk yield and there was no evidence of organ hypertrophy or liver steatosis.

  17. Three hen strains fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk accumulation rates and source-specific isomer deposition.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2015-04-01

    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation.

  18. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. PMID:25309587

  19. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  20. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  1. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration.

  2. Absorption and metabolism of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and of its oxidation product 9,11-furan fatty acid by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Merkel, Roswitha; Lengler, Imme; Lampen, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    Furan fatty acids (furan-FA) can be formed by auto-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and may therefore be ingested when CLA-containing foodstuff is consumed. Due to the presence of a furan ring structure, furan-FA may have toxic properties, however, these substances are toxicologically not well characterized so far. Here we show that 9,11-furan-FA, the oxidation product of the major CLA isomer cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), is not toxic to human intestinal Caco-2 cells up to a level of 100 μM. Oil-Red-O staining indicated that 9,11-furan-FA as well as c9,t11-CLA and linoleic acid are taken up by the cells and stored in the form of triglycerides in lipid droplets. Chemical analysis of total cellular lipids revealed that 9,11-furan-FA is partially elongated probably by the enzymatic activity of cellular fatty acid elongases whereas c9,t11-CLA is partially converted to other isomers such as c9,c11-CLA or t9,t11-CLA. In the case of 9,11-furan-FA, there is no indication for any modification or activation of the furan ring system. From these results, we conclude that 9,11-furan-FA has no properties of toxicological relevance at least for Caco-2 cells which serve as a model for enterocytes of the human small intestine.

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species. PMID:25915857

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  5. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in atherosclerotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hassan Eftekhari, Mohammad; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Babaei-Beigi, Mohammad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability in Iranian people. Inflammation and oxidative processes are key components of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on inflammation markers and oxidative stress in atherosclerotic patients. METHODS This study was a two-month clinical, randomized trial. 90 volunteers who referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) from February to March 2011 and had the inclusion criteria of this study were selected. Participants were classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA, 1920 mg/d ω-3, or placebo for 2 months. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured before and after supplementation. RESULTS The hs-CRP level decreased significantly in both the omega-3 and CLA group (P < 0.05). IL-6 reduced significantly in the ω-3 group, but the reduction of IL-6 levels in the CLA group was not significant. GPx increased in the CLA and omega-3 groups (P < 0.05). MDA level decreased significantly in both omega-3 and CLA groups (P < 0.05). Comparison between the groups indicates a significant change in CRP levels in the ω-3 group relative to the control group. However, other indices did not cause any significant change in the ω-3 and CLA groups in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION Diet supplementation with CLA and ω-3 can have a beneficial effect on some indices of inflammatory and oxidative stress. PMID:24575132

  6. Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Fan, Yawei; Zhang, Zhiwu; Yu, Hai; An, Yin; Kramer, John K G; Deng, Zeyuan

    2009-03-01

    Human milk was obtained from 97 healthy lactating women from five different regions in China. Twenty-four hour dietary questionnaire identified the foods consumed that showed distinct differences in food types between cities. The southern and central regions had higher levels of total trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in human milk than the northern region. The major isomers in human milk from the northern region were vaccenic and rumenic acids, whereas the other regions had a random distribution of these isomers. This was consistent with the isomer distribution in the refined vegetable oils used and their increased formation during high temperature stir-frying. The human milk composition showed little evidence that partially hydrogenated fats were consumed, except eight mothers in Guangzhou who reported eating crackers, plus four other mothers. The TFA concentration in these human milk samples was higher (2.06-3.96%). The amount of n-6 (1.70-2.24%) and n-3 (0.60-1.47%) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in human milk and the resultant ratio (1.43-2.95) showed all mothers in China had an adequate supply of HUFA in their diet. Rapeseed oil was consumed evidenced by erucic acids in human milk. The levels of erucic acid were below internationally accepted limits for human consumption. The levels of undesirable TFA and CLA isomers in human milk are a concern. Efforts to decrease the practice of high temperature stir-frying using unsaturated oils, and a promotion to increase consumption of dairy and ruminant products should be considered in China.

  7. Hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens fed CLA or n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Gita; Goeger, Mary P

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary CLA and n-3 PUFA on hepatic TAG accumulation, histopathology, and FA incorporation in lipid classes by laying chickens was investigated. One hundred twenty 30-wk-old single comb white leghorn laying hens were distributed randomly to four treatments (3 replications of 10 birds) and were fed diets containing CLA and animal fat (Diet I), 18:3n-3 (Diet II), or long-chain n-3 FA (Diet III). A sunflower oil (n-6 FA)-based diet vvas the control. Feeding Diet I resulted in an increase in hepatic total lipids (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 32.2, 18.9, 29.4, and 18.7 mg/g for hens fed Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and the control diet, respectively (P< 0.05). The serum TAG was lowest in birds fed Diet II (P < 0.05). Diet I resulted in an increase in the total number of fat vacuoles and lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). The number of cells with 75% or higher lipid vacuolation was observed only in birds fed Diet I. Feeding diets containing CLA resulted in an increase in the content of the c9,t11 CLA isomer in liver TAG and PC (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the CLA concentration of hepatic PE fractions. The content of DHA (22:6n-3) was higher in the TAG, PC, and PE of hens fed Diet II and Diet III than Diet I and the control (P < 0.05). Feeding CLA resulted in an increase in total saturated FA in the TAG and PC fractions (P < 0.05). Long-term feeding of CLA in laying birds leads to an increase in liver TAG and may predispose birds to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

  8. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores.

  9. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores. PMID:26331961

  10. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  11. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages. PMID:26775969

  12. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Beigi, Mohammad Ali Babaei; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis patient. Materials and Methods: This study was a 2-month clinical randomized trial. Ninety atherosclerotic patients with angiographically diagnosed coronary atherosclerosis who were referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February to march 2011 were selected if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The participants were randomly classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA or 1 920 mg/d ω3 or placebo for 2 months. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol were measured before and after the intervention. This study was a two-month clinical randomized trial. Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, version19). Although CLA did not appear to have a significant effect on TG, ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level. Consumption of CLA and ω3 supplementation did not significantly affect HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol. Conclusions: ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level but CLA and ω3 did not show significant changes in other indices of lipid profile in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:24600599

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  14. Total lipids of Sarda sheep meat that include the fatty acid and alkenyl composition and the CLA and trans-18:1 isomers.

    PubMed

    Santercole, Viviana; Mazzette, Rina; De Santis, Enrico P L; Banni, Sebastiano; Goonewardene, Laki; Kramer, John K G

    2007-04-01

    The total lipids of the longissimus dorsi muscle were analyzed from commercial adult Sarda sheep in Sardina taken from local abattoirs, and in the subsequent year from three local farms in the Sassari region that provided some information on the amount and type of supplements fed to the pasture-fed sheep. The complete lipid analysis of sheep meat included the fatty acids from O-acyl and N-acyl lipids, including the trans- and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and the alk-1-enyl ethers from the plasmalogenic lipids. This analysis required the use of a combination of acid- and base-catalyzed methylation procedures, the former to quantitate the O-acyl, N-acyl and alkenyl ethers, and the latter to determine the content of CLA isomers and their metabolites. A combination of gas chromatographic and silver-ion separation techniques was necessary to quantitate all of the meat lipid constituents, which included a prior separation of the trans-octadecenoic acids (18:1) and a separation of fatty acid methyl esters and the dimethylacetals (DMAs) from the acyl and alk-1-enyl ethers, respectively. The alk-1-enyl moieties of the DMAs were analyzed as their stable cyclic acetals. In general, about half of the meat lipids were triacylglycerols, even though excess fat was trimmed from the meat. The higher fat content in the meat appears to be related to the older age of these animals. The variation in the trans-18:1 and CLA isomer profiles of the Sarda sheep obtained from the abattoirs was much greater than in the profiles from the sheep from the three selected farms. Higher levels of 10t-18:1, 7t9c-18:2, 9t11c-18:2 and 10t12c-18:2 were observed in the commercial sheep meat, which reflected the poorer quality diets of these sheep compared to those from the three farms, which consistently showed higher levels of 11t-18:1, 9c11t-18:2 and 11t13c-18:2. In the second study, sheep were provided with supplements during the spring and summer grazing season, which contributed to higher

  15. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  16. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n=10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n=10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 5.7 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1 kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3 kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5 kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in

  17. Fatty acid composition, including CLA's isomers and cholesterol content of m. longissimus lumborum and m. semimebranosus of Katahdin, Suffolk, Katahdin x Suffolk, and Suffolk x Katahdin lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in meat products have important human health implications. Muscle tissues from Katahdin (KK), Suffolk (SS), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS), and Suffolk x Katahdin (SS) lambs were analyzed to determine the effect of breed-type on muscle fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)...

  18. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P < 0.01) and in both CO and SO-fed mice (P < 0.05) in response to CLA on d14. Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P < 0.01) but not in SO-fed mice on day 7 and 10, but on day 14 CLA increased lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P < 0.001). Expression and activation level of proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Sterol regulatory binding protein 1c was decreased by CLA in CO-fed mice and increased in SO-fed mice (P < 0.05). Malic enzyme expression was increased by CLA (P < 0.001) and CO (P < 0.01). Therefore, CLA-induced lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  20. Determination by GC×GC of fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer profiles in six selected tissues of lambs fed on pasture or on indoor diets with and without rumen-protected CLA.

    PubMed

    Pellattiero, Erika; Cecchinato, Alessio; Tagliapietra, Franco; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2015-01-28

    In this study GC×GC was used to study the effects of pasture, hay, concentrate (indoor), and indoor plus 8 g/day of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (indoor-CLA) diets on the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of six tissues (muscles, fatty tissues, and liver) collected from 36 lambs. This powerful technique allowed the quantification of 128 FAs, of which 21 SFAs, 16 MUFAs, 19 PUFAs were identified by reference standards. The diets had similar, but not identical, effects on FA profiles (g/100 g FA) in the various tissues, as both indoor diets reduced total PUFAs (from 8.91 ± 6.27 to 8.06 ± 5.97; p < 0.05) and n-3 PUFAs (from 2.70 ± 2.37 to 1.50 ± 1.69; p < 0.01) and increased n-6 PUFA (from 3.76 ± 2.46 to 4.58 ± 3.42; p < 0.01), branched (from 2.37 ± 2.05 to 3.23 ± 0.54; p < 0.01), odd-chain FAs (from 5.88 ± 5.33 to 7.07 ± 1.51; p < 0.01) compared to pasture. Indoor-CLA increased CLAc9,t11 (from 0.42 ± 0.13 to 0.53 ± 0.19; p < 0.01), CLAt10,c12 (from 0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.12 ± 0.22; p < 0.05), and CLAc11,t13 (from 0.02 ± 0.04 to 0.05 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) compared to indoor. PMID:25525905

  1. Low Dietary c9t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake from Dairy Fat or Supplements Reduces Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Dietary cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fed at 0.5 % w/w was previously shown to attenuate inflammation in the murine collagen-induced (CA) arthritis model, and growing evidence implicates c9t11-CLA as a major anti-inflammatory component of dairy fat. To understand c9t11-CLA's contribution to dairy fat's anti-inflammatory action, the minimum amount of dietary c9t11-CLA needed to reduce inflammation must be determined. This study had two objectives: (1) determine the minimum dietary anti-inflammatory c9t11-CLA intake level in the CA model, and (2) compare this to anti-inflammatory effects of dairy fat (non-enriched, naturally c9t11-CLA-enriched, or c9t11-CLA-supplemented). Mice received the following dietary fat treatments (w/w) post arthritis onset: corn oil (6 % CO), 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 % c9t11-CLA, control butter (6 % CB), c9t11-enriched butter (6 % EB), or c9t11-CLA-supplemented butter (6 % SB, containing 0.2 % c9t11-CLA). Paw arthritic severity and pad swelling were scored and measured, respectively, over an 84-day study period. All c9t11-CLA and butter diets decreased the arthritic score (25-51 %, P < 0.01) and paw swelling (8-11 %, P < 0.01). Throughout the study, plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) was elevated in CO-fed arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic (NA) mice but was reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 were increased in arthritic CO-fed mice compared to NA mice but were reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice through day 42. In conclusion, 0.125 % c9t11-CLA reduced clinical arthritis as effectively as higher doses, and decreased arthritis in CB-fed mice suggested that the minimal anti-inflammatory levels of c9t11-CLA might be below 0.125 %. PMID:27270404

  2. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  3. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on blood lipids and adiposity of rats fed diets rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Rebecca; Linscheid, Janna; Johnson, Amy; Lawson, Brian; Edwards, Kylie; Linder, Travis; Stocker, Kelly; Petitte, Jeremy; Kern, Mark

    2005-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may decrease adiposity and improve blood lipid profiles under some conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of CLA supplementation on blood lipid profiles and adiposity of rats fed a diet containing a primarily saturated fat versus a diet containing a primarily unsaturated fat. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing coconut oil, coconut oil with CLA, corn oil or corn oil with CLA. After 28 days, blood was collected and serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TG) were assessed. Food intake, body weights, and epididymal fat pads were measured. No significant differences (p>0.05) were noted among groups for amount of food consumed, weight gained, food efficiency ratio or serum TG concentrations. TC concentrations were lower (p<0.05) in the CLA-supplemented rats that were fed coconut oil but not those consuming corn oil. Serum HDL-C was lower (p<0.05) in rats consuming corn oil but was not significantly different (p>0.05) for CLA supplemented groups. Epididymal fat pads weighed significantly more (p<0.05) in the coconut oil fed group compared to the corn oil fed group, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the corn oil and coconut oil + CLA group. Overall, this study suggests that CLA is more beneficial for control of blood lipids and adiposity when supplemented to a diet rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  5. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids and dietary concentrate proportion on performance, milk composition, milk yield and metabolic parameters of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Spilke, Joachim; Kramer, Ronny; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to periparturient cows receiving different concentrate proportions ante partum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on lipid mobilisation and metabolism. Compared to adapted feeding, a high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation post partum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. Sixty-four pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations 3 weeks prior to calving until day 60 p.p. Ante partum, cows received control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement at 100 g/d, either in a low-concentrate (CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (CON-60, CLA-60). Post partum, concentrate proportion was adjusted, while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic situation p.p. was not achieved and therefore impacts of CLA could not be examined. Live weight, milk yield and composition, blood parameters remained unaffected by the treatments. Only a slightly reduced milk fat yield (not significant) was recorded for Group CLA-20. The proportion of trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA in milk fat was significantly increased in CLA-groups compared to CON-groups. With the exception of a reversible CLA effect on milk fat in Group CLA-20, no post-treatment effects occurred. Dry matter intake (DMI) of Group CLA-60 was highest before calving, resulting in a significantly improved estimated energy balance after calving. Ante partum, net energy intakes were significantly increased in high-concentrate groups. Overall, supplemented CLA preparation did not relieve metabolism and lipid mobilisation of early lactating cows. But feeding CLA in a high-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase DMI and thereby improve the energy balance of cows immediately after calving.

  6. Maternal conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and inflammation in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, C A; Segovia, S A; Markworth, J F; Gray, C; Zhang, X D; Milan, A M; Mitchell, C J; Barnett, M P G; Roy, N C; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M; Cameron-Smith, D

    2016-03-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation leads to metabolic disorders in offspring concomitant with increased adiposity and a proinflammatory phenotype in later life. During the fetal period, the impact of maternal diet on skeletal muscle development is poorly described, despite this tissue exerting a major influence on life-long metabolic health. This study investigated the effect of a maternal HFD on skeletal muscle anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory signaling in adult rat offspring. Furthermore, the actions of maternal-supplemented conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on these measures of muscle phenotype were investigated. A purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal fat), a CD supplemented with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal fat, 1% total fat as CLA), a high-fat (HFD; 45% kcal fat from lard), or a HFD supplemented with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal fat from lard, 1% total fat as CLA) was fed ad libitum to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring received a standard chow diet from weaning, and the gastrocnemius was collected for analysis at day 150. Offspring from HF and HFCLA mothers displayed lower muscular protein content accompanied by elevated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 (Ser(536)) and expression of the catabolic E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were increased in HF offspring, an effect reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. The present study demonstrates the importance of early life interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of poor maternal diet on offspring skeletal muscle development. PMID:26632603

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shama V; Jacques, Hélène; Plourde, Mélanie; Mitchell, Patricia L; McLeod, Roger S; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-07-01

    The usefulness of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a nutraceutical remains ambiguous. Our objective was, therefore, to investigate the effect of CLA on body composition, blood lipids, and safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. A double-blinded, 3-phase crossover trial was conducted in overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), borderline hypercholesterolemic [LDL-cholesterol (C) ≥ 2.5 mmol/L] men aged 18-60 y. During three 8-wk phases, each separated by a 4-wk washout period, 27 participants consumed under supervision in random order 3.5 g/d of safflower oil (control), a 50:50 mixture of trans 10, cis 12 and cis 9, trans 11 (c9, t11) CLA:Clarinol G-80, and c9, t11 isomer:c9, t11 CLA. At baseline and endpoint of each phase, body weight, body fat mass, and lean body mass were measured by DXA. Blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers, including insulin sensitivity, blood concentrations of adiponectin, and inflammatory (high sensitive-C-reactive protein, TNFα, and IL-6) and oxidative (oxidized-LDL) molecules, were measured. The effect of CLA consumption on fatty acid oxidation was also assessed. Compared with the control treatment, the CLA treatments did not affect changes in body weight, body composition, or blood lipids. In addition, CLA did not affect the β-oxidation rate of fatty acids or induce significant alterations in the safety markers tested. In conclusion, although no detrimental effects were caused by supplementation, these results do not confirm a role for CLA in either body weight or blood lipid regulation in humans.

  8. Transfer of conjugated linoleic acids into different tissues of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    von Soosten, Dirk; Kramer, Ronny; Jahreis, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of supplemented trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) and cis-9, trans-11 (c9,t11) conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) into the body of dairy cows during the first 105 days in milk (DIM). Therefore, five out of 25 first lactation German Holstein cows were slaughtered at 1 DIM without previous CLA or fat supplementation. The remaining animals received daily 6.0 g t10,c12 CLA and 5.7 g c9,t11 CLA as feed supplement (Group CLA, 10 cows) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (Group CON, 10 cows). From both groups, five cows were slaughtered at 42 and 105 DIM, respectively. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass of the cow was partitioned into nine fractions (retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, subcutaneous fat, meat, bone, offal, hide and mammary gland). The fat content and the fatty acid composition of these fractions were determined. The c9,t11 CLA isomer was detected in all fractions across all groups, but the amount of c9,t11 CLA was not changed because of CLA supplementation. Except for the retroperitonealfat depot, no t10,c12 CLA was detected in the fractions of Group CON. After CLA supplementation, the amount of t10,c12 CLA in the retroperitoneal, mesenteric, subcutaneous, offal and mammary gland fractions was increased. The transfer of t10,c12 CLA into the fractions was more pronounced from 42 until 105 DIM. However, the transfer efficiency of consumed t10,c12 CLA into the fat depot fractions and all fractions was <0.1% and <0.2%, respectively. Overall, the transfer of supplemented CLA isomers into the dairy cow's body was only marginal during the first 105 DIM.

  9. Chemometric analysis of the interactions among different parameters describing health conditions, breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how different doses of conjugated linoleic acids applied for various periods of time influence breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats treated or not with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). We also search for interactions among parameters describing health conditions and cancer risk. Animals were divided into 18 groups with different diet modifications (vegetable oil, 1.0%, 2.0% additions of CLA) and different periods of supplementation. In groups treated with DMBA mammary adenocarcinomas appeared. Due to the complexity of experiment apart from statistical analysis a chemometric tool-Partial Least Square method was applied. Analysis of pairs of correlated parameters allowed to identify some regularities concerning the relationships between fatty acid profiles and clinical features of animals. Fatty acids profile was the result of prolonged exposure to high dose of CLA and DMBA administration. These two factors underlined the differences in fatty acids profiles among clusters of animals. PMID:26926361

  10. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-07

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  11. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Felice, Valentina Di

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

  12. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, A; Dirandeh, E; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Shohreh, B

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA. A total of 16 cows were randomly assigned to two treatments: (1) control (75 g/day palm oil) and (2) CLA (75 g/day CLA) from 21 days prepartum to Day 42 postpartum. Cows underwent uterine biopsy on days 21 and 42 postpartum. The abundance of mRNA encoding endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was measured by real-time PCR. Results reported that relative levels of mRNA encoding CNR2 and NAPEPLD were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with control cows between Days 21 and 42 postpartum. Relative levels of mRNA coding for NAAA and MGLL were not different (P > 0.05) in the same situation. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher in CLA-fed cows compared with control cows at Day 42 postpartum (3.51 and 1.42 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with CLA are the result of a decrease in relative gene expression of the endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2) and enzymes that synthesize fatty acid amides (NAPEPLD) and of an increase in the expression of PTGS2 that in turn can oxidate endocannabinoids and consequently resulted in increased plasma progesterone concentrations during early lactation. PMID:27262886

  13. Effect of trans-10 cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on bovine oocyte competence and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Lapa, M; Marques, C C; Alves, S P; Vasques, M I; Baptista, M C; Carvalhais, I; Silva Pereira, M; Horta, A E M; Bessa, R J B; Pereira, R M

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive performance of dairy cows may be improved by feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements during early lactation. The mechanism of action of t10,c12 CLA is not clearly known. Our objective was to investigate the effect of t10,c12 CLA on oocyte maturation and lipid composition of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC). The developmental potential of oocytes incubated in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium supplemented with t10,c12 CLA to the blastocyst stage and embryo quality were also assessed. In experiment 1, abattoir-derived oocytes were matured in TCM199 + 10% serum supplemented with 100 μM t10,c12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA n = 672) or without it (control n = 672). Mature oocytes were either stained for chromatin configuration or inseminated and cultured for embryo development assessment. In experiment 2, COC and IVM culture media were subjected to fatty acid (FA) analysis prior and after maturation with t10,c12 CLA or without it (control). Total lipids and FA profiles in oocytes, cumulus cells and culture media were determined by gas chromatography. t10,c12 CLA supplementation to IVM medium improved (p = 0.05) embryo quality evaluated morphologically. This effect was associated with t10,c12 CLA presence (3.1 ± 0.7%, p = 0.04) and lower levels of arachidonic acid in FA profile of t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes (immature oocytes = 4.4 ± 1.9%, t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes = 1.0 ± 0.7%, p = 0.05). Differences in myristic and eicotrienoic acids, saturated and unsaturated FA concentrations between oocytes and cumulus cells were detected (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of t10,c12 CLA during maturation interfered on lipid metabolism improving bovine oocyte competence to develop into higher quality embryos.

  14. Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Lu, Jing; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2008-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid [VA; 18:1(n-9)] is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and is the precursor to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans. Despite VA being the predominant trans monoene in ruminant-derived lipids, very little is known about its nutritional bioactivity, particularly in conditions of chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of VA to improve dyslipidemia, insulin sensitivity, or inflammatory status in obese and insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. The obese rats and age-matched lean littermates were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 1.5% (wt:wt) VA for a period of 3 wk. The incorporation of VA and subsequent conversion to CLA in triglyceride was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose and insulin metabolism were assessed via a conscious adapted meal tolerance test procedure. Plasma lipids as well as serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by commercially available assays. VA supplementation did not result in any observable adverse health effects in either lean or obese JCR:LA-cp rats. After 3 wk of feeding, body weight, food intake, and glucose/insulin metabolism did not differ between VA-supplemented and control groups. The incorporation of VA and CLA into adipose triglycerides in obese rats fed VA increased by 1.5-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared with obese rats fed the control diet. The most striking effect was a 40% decrease (P < 0.05) in fasting triglyceride concentrations in VA-treated obese rats relative to obese controls. Serum Il-10 concentration was decreased by VA, regardless of genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term dietary supplementation of 1.5% VA did not result in any detrimental metabolic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats. In contrast, dietary VA had substantial hypo-triglyceridemic effects, suggesting a new bioactivity of this fatty acid that is typically found in ruminant

  15. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    PubMed

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  16. The deposition of conjugated linoleic acids in eggs of laying hens fed diets varying in fat level and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Huyghebaert, Gerard; De Smet, Stefaan; Nollet, Lode; Arnouts, Sven; Demeyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into eggs and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism when layers are fed diets with different fat sources and fat levels. Layers were fed either a low fat diet (LF) or one of three high fat diets based on soybean oil (SB), animal fat (AF) or flaxseed oil (FSO). CLA was added at a concentration of 1 g/100 g feed from two different CLA premixes with a different CLA profile. For the trial, 144 laying hens were allocated to 12 treatments (4 basal fat sources x 3 CLA treatments) with 3 replicates of 4 hens each. No significant differences were observed in feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion or laying rate between chickens fed control and CLA-supplemented diets. Differences in yolk fat, cholesterol or yolk color were not clearly related to the dietary CLA. However, the supplementation of CLA to the diets had clear effects on the fatty acid composition, i.e., a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content were essentially unaffected. The results suggest that CLA may influence the activity of the desaturases to a different extent in the synthesis of (n-6) and (n-3) long-chain fatty acids. These effects of CLA depend on the level of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids available in the feed. The apparent deposition rate (%) is clearly higher for the c9, t11 isomer than for the t10, c12 isomer. Adding CLA to layers diets rich in (n-3) fatty acids produces eggs that could promote the health of the consumer in terms of a higher intake of (n-3) fatty acids and CLA. PMID:11823576

  17. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used.

  18. Effects of previous diet and duration of soybean oil supplementation on light lambs carcass composition, meat quality and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bessa, R J B; Lourenço, M; Portugal, P V; Santos-Silva, J

    2008-12-01

    Forty Merino Branco ram lambs were used to study the effects of initial diet and duration of supplementation with a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) promoting diet, on carcass composition, meat quality and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat. The experimental period was 6 weeks. The experimental design involved 2 initial diets (commercial concentrate (C); dehydrated lucerne (L)), and 2 finishing periods (2 and 4 weeks) on dehydrated lucerne plus 10% soybean oil (O). Data were analysed as a 2×2 factorial arrangement with initial diet and time on finishing (CLA promoting) diet as the main factors. The lambs were randomly assigned to four groups: CCO; COO; LLO; LOO according to the lamb's diet fed in each period. Lambs initially fed with concentrate showed higher hot carcass weights (11.2 vs 9.6kg) than lambs fed initially with lucerne. The increase of the duration of finishing period reduced the carcass muscle percentage (57.4% vs 55.5%) and increased the subcutaneous fat percentage (5.67% vs 7.03%). Meat colour was affected by initial diet. Lambs initially fed with concentrate showed a lower proportion of CLA (18:2cis-9, trans-11 isomer) (0.98% vs 1.38% of total fatty acids) and most of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids than lambs initially fed with lucerne. Initial diet did not compromise the response to the CLA-promoting diet and the proportion of 18:2cis-9, trans-11 in intramuscular fat increased with the duration of time on the CLA-promoting diet (1.02% vs 1.34% of total fatty acids).

  19. Fatty acid profile of milk and Cacioricotta cheese from Italian Simmental cows as affected by dietary flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; d'Angelo, F; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of adding flaxseed to the diet on the fatty acid profile of the milk of Italian Simmental cows and on the Cacioricotta cheese thereby produced. The experiment involved 24 Italian Simmental cows divided into 2 groups of 12 animals according to the diet fed: a control diet (CO) with no flaxseed supplementation, and a diet supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS). Milk yield and composition was not significantly changed by diet, whereas saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased by flaxseed supplementation. Cows fed flaxseed showed higher percentages of long-chain fatty acids: in particular, linolenic acids, mainly represented by C18:3n-3, and n-3 series were higher in the FS group than in the CO group. The percentage of MUFA was higher by about 12% in FS than in CO, mainly due to the contribution of C18:1 cis-9. The percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk was not significantly changed by flaxseed supplementation. Furthermore, atherogenic and thrombogenic indices were lower by about 30 and 16%, respectively, in the FS group compared with the CO group. The fatty acid profile of Cacioricotta cheese produced using Italian Simmental cow milk showed higher levels of MUFA, PUFA, and n-3, and improved atherogenic and thrombogenic indices in FS than in CO, confirming the ability to transfer beneficial molecules from milk into cheese. In particular, cheese-making technology contributed to the increased CLA content in Cacioricotta cheese. PMID:26851850

  20. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  1. Does trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid affect the intermediary glucose and energy expenditure of dairy cows due to repartitioning of milk component synthesis?

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Jens; Metzger-Petersen, Katrin; Tröscher, Arnulf H A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate if intermediary energy metabolism of cows fed with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was modified such that milk-energy compounds were produced with less intermediary energy expenditure as compared to control cows. Published data on supplemented CLA were assembled. The extent was calculated to which the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer has an impact on glucose and energy conversion in the mammary gland by modifying glucose equivalent supply and energy required for fatty acid (FA) and fat synthesis, and if this will eventually lead to an improved glucose and energy status of CLA-supplemented high-yielding dairy cows. A possible relationship between CLA supplementation level and milk energy yield response was also studied. Calculations were conducted separately for orally and abomasally administered CLA and based on energy required for supply of glucose equivalents, i.e. lactose, glycerol and NADPH2. Further, modifications of milk FA profile due to CLA supplementation were considered when energy expenditures for FA and fat synthesis were quantified. Differences in yields between control and CLA groups were transformed into glucose energy equivalents. Only abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.31) but not oral CLA administration (r(2) = 0.11) supplementation to dairy cow diets resulted in less glucose equivalent energy. Modifications of milk FA profiles also saved energy but the relationship with CLA supplementation was weaker for abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.06) than oral administration (r(2) = 0.38). On average, 10 g/d of abomasally infused trans-10, cis-12 CLA saved 1.1 to 2.3 MJ net energy expressed as glucose equivalents, whereas both positive and negative values were observed when the trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed to the cows. This study revealed a weak to moderate dose-dependent relationship between the amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA administered and the amount of energy in glucose equivalents and energy for the

  2. Does trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid affect the intermediary glucose and energy expenditure of dairy cows due to repartitioning of milk component synthesis?

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Jens; Metzger-Petersen, Katrin; Tröscher, Arnulf H A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate if intermediary energy metabolism of cows fed with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was modified such that milk-energy compounds were produced with less intermediary energy expenditure as compared to control cows. Published data on supplemented CLA were assembled. The extent was calculated to which the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer has an impact on glucose and energy conversion in the mammary gland by modifying glucose equivalent supply and energy required for fatty acid (FA) and fat synthesis, and if this will eventually lead to an improved glucose and energy status of CLA-supplemented high-yielding dairy cows. A possible relationship between CLA supplementation level and milk energy yield response was also studied. Calculations were conducted separately for orally and abomasally administered CLA and based on energy required for supply of glucose equivalents, i.e. lactose, glycerol and NADPH2. Further, modifications of milk FA profile due to CLA supplementation were considered when energy expenditures for FA and fat synthesis were quantified. Differences in yields between control and CLA groups were transformed into glucose energy equivalents. Only abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.31) but not oral CLA administration (r(2) = 0.11) supplementation to dairy cow diets resulted in less glucose equivalent energy. Modifications of milk FA profiles also saved energy but the relationship with CLA supplementation was weaker for abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.06) than oral administration (r(2) = 0.38). On average, 10 g/d of abomasally infused trans-10, cis-12 CLA saved 1.1 to 2.3 MJ net energy expressed as glucose equivalents, whereas both positive and negative values were observed when the trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed to the cows. This study revealed a weak to moderate dose-dependent relationship between the amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA administered and the amount of energy in glucose equivalents and energy for the

  3. Effect of linoleic acid and dietary vitamin E supplementation on sustained conjugated linoleic acid production in milk fat from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Capper, J L; Weiss, W P; Bauman, D E

    2012-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9,trans-11 18:2), a bioactive fatty acid (FA) found in milk and dairy products, has potential human health benefits due to its anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat can be markedly increased by dietary manipulation; however, high levels of CLA are difficult to sustain as rumen biohydrogenation shifts and milk fat depression (MFD) is often induced. Our objective was to feed a typical Northeastern corn-based diet and investigate whether vitamin E and soybean oil supplementation would sustain an enhanced milk fat CLA content while avoiding MFD. Holstein cows (n=48) were assigned to a completely randomized block design with repeated measures for 28 d and received 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), (2) 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (VE), (3) 2.5% soybean oil (SO), and (4) 2.5% soybean oil plus 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (SO-VE). A 2-wk pretreatment control diet served as the covariate. Milk fat percentage was reduced by both high-oil diets (3.53, 3.56, 2.94, and 2.92% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), whereas milk yield increased significantly for the SO-VE diet only, thus partially mitigating MFD by oil feeding. Milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed the SO diet (3.04, 3.05, 3.28, and 3.03% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), implying that nutrient partitioning or ruminal supply of microbial protein was altered in response to the reduction in milk fat. Milk fat concentration of CLA more than doubled in cows fed the diets supplemented with soybean oil, with concurrent increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-11 18:1 FA. Moreover, milk fat from cows fed the 2 soybean oil diets had 39.1% less de novo synthesized FA and 33.8% more long-chain preformed FA, and vitamin E had no effect on milk fat composition. Overall, dietary supplements of soybean oil caused a reduction in milk fat percentage and a shift in FA composition characteristic of MFD. Supplementing diets with vitamin E

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation enhances insulin sensitivity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose transporter type 4 protein expression in the skeletal muscles of rats during endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kangok; Song, Youngju; Kwon, Daekeun

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study examined whether conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation affects insulin sensitivity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) protein expressions in the skeletal muscles of rats during endurance exercise. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into HS (high-fat diet (HFD) sedentary group, n = 8), CS (1.0% CLA supplemented HFD sedentary group, n = 8), and CE (1.0% CLA supplemented HFD exercise group, n = 8). The rats in the CE swam for 60 min a day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Results: The serum glucose and insulin contents and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value of the CS and CE were significantly decreased compared to those of the HS. The PPAR-γ protein expressions in the soleus muscle (SOM) and extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) were significantly higher in the CE than in the HS. In addition, the PPAR-γ protein expression in the SOM of the CS was significantly higher than that in the HS. On the other hand, the GLUT-4 protein expression of the SOM in the CE was significantly higher compared to that in the HS. However, there was no significant difference in GLUT-4 protein expression in the EDL among the groups. Conclusion: CLA supplementation with/without endurance exercise has role in improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, when CLA supplementation was accompanied by endurance exercise, the PPAR-γ protein expression in SOM and EDL and the GLUT-4 protein expression in SOM were enhanced compared with the control group. PMID:27096060

  5. Folic acid supplementation lowers blood arsenic2

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Mary V; Liu, Xinhua; Slavkovich, Vesna; Pilsner, J Richard; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Levy, Diane; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Mominul; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure currently affects >100 million persons worldwide. Methylation of ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) to monomethylarsonic (MMAs) and dimethylarsinic (DMAs) acids relies on folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and facilitates urinary arsenic elimination. Objective We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation to arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults would increase arsenic methylation and thereby lower total blood arsenic. Design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated blood concentrations of total arsenic, InAs, MMAs, and DMAs in 130 participants with low plasma folate (<9 nmol/L) before and after 12 wk of supplementation with folic acid (400 μg/d) or placebo. Results MMAs in blood was reduced by a mean ± SE of 22.24 ± 2.86% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 1.24 ± 3.59% in the placebe group (P < 0.0001). There was no change in DMAs in blood; DMAs is rapidly excreted in urine as evidenced by an increase in urinary DMAs (P = 0.0099). Total blood arsenic was reduced by 13.62% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 2.49% in the placebo group (P = 0.0199). Conclusions Folic acid supplementation to participants with low plasma concentrations of folate lowered blood arsenic concentrations, primarily by decreasing blood MMAs and increasing urinary DMAs. Therapeutic strategies to facilitate arsenic methylation, particularly in populations with folate deficiency or hyperhomocysteinemia or both, may lower blood arsenic concentrations and thereby contribute to the prevention of arsenic-induced illnesses. PMID:17921403

  6. Influence of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid mixture on carcass traits and meat quality in young Simmental heifers.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Shibani, M; Most, E; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period on physical and chemical beef properties in young Simmental heifers. A total of 36 heifers (5 mo old; initial BW 185 ± 21 kg) were fed 250 g of different rumen-protected fats daily for 16 wk in 1 of 3 treatment groups: 250 g of a CLA-free control fat; 100 g of a CLA fat containing 2.4% of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and 2.1% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 150 g control fat; or 250 g of the CLA fat. Heifer growth performance variables as well as carcass weight, classification (conformation and fatness), and weights of organs and fat depots were not affected (P > 0.05) by CLA supplementation. Concentration of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in tissues (LM and subcutaneous fat) was dose-dependently increased (P < 0.01) by CLA supplementation, whereas that of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in these tissues did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. The ratio of SFA to MUFA was increased (P < 0.01) in tissues of CLA-fed heifers compared with control heifers. Concentration of α-tocopherol in LM was greater (P = 0.01) in heifers of the 2 CLA groups than in control heifers. Other quality characteristics such as drip loss during storage, cooking loss, intramuscular fat content, and color variables in LM did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period changes tissue fatty acid composition but does not influence beef quality variables. Performance variables and carcass traits in young heifers, unlike in pigs and laboratory animals, are not influenced by CLA feeding.

  7. Influence of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid mixture on carcass traits and meat quality in young Simmental heifers.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Shibani, M; Most, E; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period on physical and chemical beef properties in young Simmental heifers. A total of 36 heifers (5 mo old; initial BW 185 ± 21 kg) were fed 250 g of different rumen-protected fats daily for 16 wk in 1 of 3 treatment groups: 250 g of a CLA-free control fat; 100 g of a CLA fat containing 2.4% of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and 2.1% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 150 g control fat; or 250 g of the CLA fat. Heifer growth performance variables as well as carcass weight, classification (conformation and fatness), and weights of organs and fat depots were not affected (P > 0.05) by CLA supplementation. Concentration of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in tissues (LM and subcutaneous fat) was dose-dependently increased (P < 0.01) by CLA supplementation, whereas that of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in these tissues did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. The ratio of SFA to MUFA was increased (P < 0.01) in tissues of CLA-fed heifers compared with control heifers. Concentration of α-tocopherol in LM was greater (P = 0.01) in heifers of the 2 CLA groups than in control heifers. Other quality characteristics such as drip loss during storage, cooking loss, intramuscular fat content, and color variables in LM did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period changes tissue fatty acid composition but does not influence beef quality variables. Performance variables and carcass traits in young heifers, unlike in pigs and laboratory animals, are not influenced by CLA feeding. PMID:22573839

  8. Productive performance, meat quality and fatty acid profile of steers finished in confinement or supplemented at pasture.

    PubMed

    Patino, H O; Medeiros, F S; Pereira, C H; Swanson, K C; McManus, C

    2015-06-01

    Thirty Aberdeen Angus crossbred steers (281 ± 16 kg) were used to test the effect of finishing feeding system on growth performance, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profile in intramuscular fat. Steers were fed in confinement (forage:concentrate ratio of 50 : 50; DM basis) or with different levels of energy supplementation (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2% BW) at pasture (Avena strigosa Schreb and Lolium multiflorum L.). There were no differences between treatments for ADG (average=1.60 kg/day), hot carcass weight (HCW) (average=229 kg) and subcutaneous fat depth (average=3 mm). Dressing % (P=0.06; tendency) and carcass ADG (P=0.02) linearly increased with level of supplementation for pasture steers. No differences were observed between treatments for tenderness, marbling, pH, color b*, or cooking loss and drip loss in samples of Longissimus dorsi. However L* increased linearly (P=0.05) with level of supplementation. The concentrations of myristic, palmitic, estearic and linoleic FA did not differ among treatments. The concentration of n-3 FA increased (P<0.001) in steers at pasture compared with confinement, but n-6 FA concentrations did not differ between feeding system. Supplementation up to 0.4% BW increase (P<0.001) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and linolenic FA concentrations in intramuscular fat when compared with confinement. The level of supplementation on pasture linearly decreased (P<0.001) n-3 and CLA and linearly increased (P=0.001) the n-6 : n-3 ratio. Finishing of steers grazing winter pasture with energy supplementation or in confinement fed a medium-concentrate diet did not affect meat quality (tenderness, marbling, parameter b* on the CIE L*a*b* scale, cooking and drip losses) except for a* and L*. However, intramuscular fat of animals finished at pasture with moderate level of supplementation compared to animals fed in confinement had greater concentration of CLA, linolenic, and n-3, and lower n-6 : n-3 in intramuscular fat.

  9. 10E,12Z-conjugated linoleic acid impairs adipocyte triglyceride storage by enhancing fatty acid oxidation, lipolysis, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    den Hartigh, Laura J.; Han, Chang Yeop; Wang, Shari; Omer, Mohamed; Chait, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring dietary trans fatty acid found in food from ruminant sources. One specific CLA isomer, 10E,12Z-CLA, has been associated with health benefits, such as reduced adiposity, while simultaneously promoting deleterious effects, such as systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The precise mechanisms by which 10E,12Z-CLA exerts these effects remain unknown. Despite potential health consequences, CLA continues to be advertised as a natural weight loss supplement, warranting further studies on its effects on lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that 10E,12Z-CLA impairs lipid storage in adipose tissue by altering the lipid metabolism of white adipocytes. We demonstrate that 10E,12Z-CLA reduced triglyceride storage due to enhanced fatty acid oxidation and lipolysis, coupled with diminished glucose uptake and utilization in cultured adipocytes. This switch to lipid utilization was accompanied by a potent proinflammatory response, including the generation of cytokines, monocyte chemotactic factors, and mitochondrial superoxide. Disrupting fatty acid oxidation restored glucose utilization and attenuated the inflammatory response to 10E,12Z-CLA, suggesting that fatty acid oxidation is critical in promoting this phenotype. With further investigation into the biochemical pathways involved in adipocyte responses to 10E,12Z-CLA, we can discern more information about its safety and efficacy in promoting weight loss. PMID:23956445

  10. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA) solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Methods FAME of conventional and Alpine milk lipids (MLcon, MLalp) and cells treated with FFA derivatives of milk lipids were analyzed by means of GC-FID and Ag+-HPLC. Cellular viability and growth of the cells were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue®-assay and DAPI-assay (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride), respectively. Results Supplementation with milk lipids significantly decreased viability and growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLalp showed a lower SFA/MUFA ratio, a 8 fold increased CLA content, and different CLA profile compared to MLcon but did not demonstrate additional growth-inhibitory effects. In addition, total concentration and fatty acid distribution of cellular lipids were altered. In particular, treatment of the cells yielded highest amounts of two types of milk specific major fatty acids (μg FA/mg cellular protein) after 8 h of incubation compared to 24 h; 200 μM of MLcon (C16:0, 206 ± 43), 200 μM of MLalp (C18:1 c9, (223 ± 19). Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) contained in milk lipids was converted to c9,t11-CLA in HT-29 cells. Notably, the ratio of t11,c13-CLA/t7,c9-CLA, a criterion for pasture feeding of the cows, was significantly changed after incubation for 8 h with lipids from MLalp (3.6 - 4.8), compared to lipids from MLcon (0.3 - 0.6). Conclusions Natural lipids from conventional and Alpine milk showed similar growth inhibitory effects. However, different changes in cellular lipid composition

  11. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and

  12. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  13. Effect of forage type with or without corn supplementation on animal performance, beef fatty acid composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Andrae, J G; Rosso, C Fernandez; Miller, M C; Pavan, E; Bridges, W; Duckett, S K

    2015-10-01

    gravimetric basis (mg/100 g LM), -3 PUFA and CLA contents were not altered with supplementation, indicating that corn grain can be supplemented at this level in a forage-finishing beef system without negative consequences on perceived beneficial fatty acids. PMID:26523597

  14. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid induces lipolysis in adipose tissue of coconut oil-fed mice but not soy oil-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ippagunta, S; Hadenfeldt, T J; Miner, J L; Hargrave-Barnes, K M

    2011-09-01

    Mice fed diets containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are leaner than mice not fed CLA. This anti-obesity effect is amplified in mice fed coconut oil-containing or fat free diets, compared to soy oil diets. The present objective was to determine if CLA alters lipolysis in mice fed different base oils. Mice were fed diets containing soy oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), or fat free (FF) for 6 weeks, followed by 10 or 12 days of CLA or no CLA supplementation. Body fat, tissue weights, and ex vivo lipolysis were determined. Relative protein abundance and activation of perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) were determined by western blotting. CLA feeding caused mice to have less (P < 0.05) body fat than non-CLA fed mice. This was enhanced in CO and FF-fed mice (CLA × oil source, P < 0.05). There was also a CLA × oil source interaction on lipolysis as CO + CLA and FF + CLA-fed mice had increased (P < 0.05) rates of lipolysis but SO + CLA-fed mice did not. However, after 12 days of CLA consumption, activated perilipin was increased (P < 0.05) only in SO + CLA-fed mice and total HSL and ATGL were decreased (P < 0.05) in CO + CLA-fed mice. Therefore, the enhanced CLA-induced body fat loss in CO and FF-fed mice appears to involve increased lipolysis but this effect may be decreasing by 12 days of CLA consumption.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  16. Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wan; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-07-17

    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism. However, causality of CLA-mediated responses to body fat loss, particularly the linkage between inflammation, thermogenesis, and energy metabolism, is unclear. This review examines whether CLA's antiobesity properties are due to inflammatory signaling and considers CLA's linkage with lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, and browning of white and brown adipose tissue. We propose a series of questions and studies to interrogate the role of the sympathetic nervous system in mediating CLA's antiobesity properties. PMID:27431366

  17. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers.

  18. Influence of maternal diet enrichment with conjugated linoleic acids on lipoxygenase metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum of their offspring with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Małgorzata; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which are a group of naturally occurring in food isomers of linoleic acid, seem to be active in each step of cancer development. There are many possible mechanisms of this action, and interactions with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways are among the most likely ones. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of diet supplementation with CLA of pregnant and breastfeeding Sprague-Dawley female rats on selected polyunsaturated fatty acids and their LOX metabolites concentrations in serum of the progeny with chemically induced mammary tumors. We confirmed that higher supply of CLA in the diet of female rats corresponded with the lower susceptibility to chemically induced mammary tumors in their female offspring. It also influenced the polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acid concentrations in serum, as well as the concentrations of their LOX metabolites. The significant negative correlation between the concentrations of two CLA isomers in serum and linoleic acid (p=0.0144, p=0.0098), eicosapentaenoic acid (p=0.0158, p=0.0124), and 5-HEPE (p=0.0014, p=0.01690) and between cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 15-HEPE was detected, whereas arachidonic acid concentration positively correlated with CLA concentration in serum (p=0.0150, p=0.0231). Our results indicate that CLA can compete with PUFA and influence serum concentration of PUFA and their LOX metabolites, which could partly explain the anticancerogenic action of CLA.

  19. Effect of CLA on performance and immune response of weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M; Ledur, V S; Fischer, M M; Bockor, L; Cibulski, S P; Gava, D

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA on the immune response and performance of piglets when subjected to an immune challenge. A total of 32 weanling pigs (17 to 23 d of age) with an initial BW of 8.9 kg were allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 3 levels of dietary CLA (0%, 1%, and 2%) and 2 levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (unchallenged and challenged). Challenged pigs were challenged on d 7 and 21. On d 4 and 18, all pigs were inoculated with BSA for assessment of IgG production. There was no difference in growth performance among piglets receiving different CLA supplementation levels. However, LPS-challenged piglets had poorer BW (P < 0.05), ADFI (P < 0.01), and ADG (P < 0.001) compared with the control group at d 35 postweaning. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets also had increased respiratory rate (P < 0.001) and rectal temperature (P < 0.001), and decreased plasma proteins, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts (P < 0.05). Production of IgG against BSA was increased in the 1% CLA supplementation group (P < 0.001), indicating that CLA has an immunomodulatory effect. Supplementation with CLA did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, plasma proteins, red and white blood cell count, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature after LPS challenge. Although CLA supplementation did not influence growth performance or certain immune system measurements, the increased IgG titers with 1% CLA dietary supplementation indicate that it has a beneficial effect on the humoral immune system of weaned piglets.

  20. Effect of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and adipose tissue development in young Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Albertí, P; Gómez, I; Mendizabal, J A; Ripoll, G; Barahona, M; Sarriés, V; Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Realini, C

    2013-06-01

    Forty-eight young Holstein bulls (slaughtered at 458.6±9.79 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effect of whole linseed and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on animal performance, adipose tissue development, and carcass characteristics. The animals were fed with one of four isoenergetic and isoproteic diets: control (0% linseed, 0% CLA), linseed (10% linseed, 0% CLA), CLA (0% linseed, 2% CLA), and linseed plus CLA (10% linseed, 2% CLA). Animal performance and carcass characteristics were unaffected by diet composition. Adding linseed or CLA to the concentrate diet did not result in significant differences in adipocyte size and number or lipogenic enzyme activity. However, while the frequency distribution of subcutaneous adipocyte diameters followed a normal distribution, the frequency distribution of intramuscular adipocyte diameters was not normal in any dietary group (skewness coefficients: 0.8, 1.2, 0.9, 0.8 for control, linseed, CLA, and linseed plus CLA, respectively; P<0.05), indicative of adipocyte proliferation in the intramuscular adipose tissue.

  1. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  2. c9,t11-Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates steatosis by modulating mitochondrial uncoupling and Nrf2 pathway[S

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Maria Pina; Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Cocca, Ennio; Gaita, Marcello; Della-Gatta, Antonio; Marano, Angela; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of cis9,trans11 (9,11-CLA) and trans10,cis12 (10,12-CLA) isomers enhanced the antioxidant/detoxifying mechanism via the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and improved mitochondrial function, but less is known about the actions of specific isomers. The differential ability of individual CLA isomers to modulate these pathways was explored in Wistar rats fed for 4 weeks with a lard-based high-fat diet (L) or with control diet (CD), and, within each dietary treatment, two subgroups were daily administered with 9,11-CLA or 10,12-CLA (30 mg/day). The 9,11-CLA, but not 10,12-CLA, supplementation to CD rats improves the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, mitochondrial functions, and Nrf2 activity. Histological examination reveals a reduction of steatosis in L-fed rats supplemented with both CLA isomers, but 9,11-CLA downregulated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory markers, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress markers in liver more efficiently than in 10,12-CLA treatment. The present study demonstrates the higher protective effect of 9,11-CLA against diet-induced pro-oxidant and proinflammatory signs and suggests that these effects are determined, at least in part, by its ability to activate the Nrf2 pathway and to improve the mitochondrial functioning and biogenesis. PMID:24634500

  3. Screening of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid in milk and to adhere to the intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Castañeda, J; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Astiazarán-García, H; Garcia, H S; Estrada-Montoya, M C; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to provide beneficial effects on health; however, the amount consumed in food is far from that required for the desired effects. Thus, increasing the CLA content in dairy foods through milk fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers an interesting alternative. Moreover, some LAB may be able to adhere to the intestinal mucosa and produce CLA through endogenous synthesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to screen LAB isolates for their ability to produce CLA in skim milk and in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Additionally, the ability of selected CLA-producing LAB to adhere to the intestinal mucosa in a murine model was assessed. Results showed that of 13 strains of Lactobacillus tested, only 4 were able to produce CLA in skim milk supplemented with linoleic acid (13.44 ± 0.78 to 50.9 ± 0.26 µg/mL). Furthermore, these 4 Lactobacillus strains were able to survive and produce CLA in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and to adhere to the intestinal mucosa of Wistar rats after 7 d of oral inoculation with fluorescently labeled bacteria. Accordingly, these 4 Lactobacillus strains may be used to manufacture fermented dairy foods to increase CLA content, and consumption of these fermented milks may result in CLA produced endogenously by these LAB.

  4. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  5. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate

  6. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate

  7. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  8. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  9. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  10. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  11. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  12. Enrichment of maternal diet with conjugated linoleic acids influences desaturases activity and fatty acids profile in livers and hepatic microsomes of the offspring with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Stawarska, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Czuba, Katarzyna; Konarska, Anna; Mazurkiewicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of diet supplementation of pregnant and breast-feeding female Sprague-Dawley rats with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on the Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activity in hepatic microsomes as well as on fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in liver and hepatic microsomes of the progeny with chemically induced mammary tumors. Rats were divided into two groups with different diet supplementation (vegetable oil (which did not contain CLA) or CLA). Their female offspring was divided within these groups into two subgroups: (1)--fed the same diet as mothers (K1 - oil, 01 - CLA), and (2)--fed the standard fodder (K2, O2). At 50th day of life, the progeny obtained carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene). Higher supply of CLA in diet of mothers resulted in lower susceptibility to chemically induced mammary tumors in their offspring (p = 0.0322). It also influenced the fatty acids profile in livers and in hepatic microsomes, especially polyunsaturated n3 and n6 fatty acids. CLA inhibited the activity of the desaturases, which confirmed that CLA can reduce the level of arachidonic acid directly, reducing linoleic acid content in membranes, or indirectly, through the regulation of its metabolism. We were unable to confirm or deny the antioxidative properties of CLA. Our results indicate that the higher supply of CLA in mothers' diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding causes their incorporation into tissues of children, changes the efficiency of fatty acids metabolism and exerts health-promoting effect in their adult life reducing the breast cancer risk.

  13. Growth, carcass characteristics, muscle conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, and response to intravenous glucose challenge in high percentage Wagyu, Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin steers fed sunflower oil-containing diet.

    PubMed

    Mir, P S; Mir, Z; Kubert, P S; Gaskins, C T; Martin, E L; Dodson, M V; Calles, J A Elias; Johnson, K A; Busboom, J R; Wood, A J; Pittenger, G J; Reeves, J J

    2002-11-01

    muscle fat content but increased (P = 0.01) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations by 339%. Results indicated that IVGTT measures were not appropriate indices of marbling potential in cattle and that dietary oil can enhance CLA content of beef.

  14. Effect of Diet Supplementation on the Expression of Bovine Genes Associated with Fatty Acid Synthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Robbins, Kelly R.; Pavan, Enrique; Pratt, Scott L.; Duckett, Susan K.; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are of important nutritional and health benefit to human. Food products of animal origin are their major dietary source and their concentration increases with high concentrate diets fed to animals. To examine the effects of diet supplementation on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, 28 Angus steers were fed either pasture only, pasture with soybean hulls and corn oil, pasture with corn grain, or high concentrate diet. At slaughter, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected, from which RNA was extracted. Relative abundance of gene expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome array. An ANOVA model nested within gene was used to analyze the background adjusted, normalized average difference of probe-level intensities. To control experiment wise error, a false discovery rate of 0.01 was imposed on all contrasts. Expression of several genes involved in the synthesis of enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism and lipogenesis such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), fatty acid synthetase (FASN), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty-acyl elongase (LCE) along with several trancription factors and co-activators involved in lipogenesis were found to be differentially expressed. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was done to validate the microarray results, which showed satisfactory correspondence between the two platforms. Results show that changes in diet by increasing dietary energy intake by supplementing high concentrate diet have effects on the transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in fat metabolism which in turn has effects on fatty acid content in the carcass tissue as well as carcass quality. Corn supplementation either as oil or grain appeared to significantly alter the expression of genes directly associated with fatty acid synthesis. PMID:20448844

  15. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. )

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  16. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  17. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  18. Transfer of conjugated linoleic acid from sows to their offspring and its impact on the fatty acid profiles of plasma, muscle, and subcutaneous fat in piglets.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y; Ren, F; Yin, J D; Fang, Q; Li, F N; Li, D F

    2010-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine if CLA could be transferred from sows to their offspring through the umbilical cord or milk. Eighteen pregnant Dalland sows of mixed parity were used in a completely randomized block design based on parity and BW. The sows were allotted to 1 of 3 groups and fed diets containing 0, 0.5, or 1.0% CLA during the last 50 d of gestation and throughout a 26-d lactation (n = 6). Umbilical cord blood was sampled at parturition. Colostrum and milk were collected from each sow on d 2 and 15 after farrowing. Samples of blood, backfat, and the LM were obtained from piglets at 2 and 26 d of age. Sow reproductive performance and piglet growth were not altered by CLA supplementation during the late gestation and lactation periods. The CLA supplementation of sow diets had an impact on the fatty acid profiles in colostrum and milk. Dietary CLA increased the concentrations of total SFA (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), but reduced the total MUFA in the colostrum (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01). Although dietary CLA increased the concentrations of total SFA (quadratic, P < 0.01), it had no influence on total MUFA concentrations in the milk. In addition, feeding sows diets supplemented with CLA resulted in increases (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) in the CLA content of plasma, backfat, and the LM in their offspring. However, trans-10, cis-12-18:2, rather than cis-9, trans-11-18:2, was detected in the umbilical cord blood, which indicates that CLA may be transported from the sow to the fetus in an isomer-specific manner.

  19. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 on in vitro bovine embryo production and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Absalón-Medina, V A; Bedford-Guaus, S J; Gilbert, R O; Siqueira, L C; Esposito, G; Schneider, A; Cheong, S H; Butler, W R

    2014-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers can affect the lipid profile and signaling of cells and thereby alter their function. A total of 5,700 bovine oocytes were used in a structured series of experiments to test the effects of CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12 in vitro. In experiment 1, high doses of each CLA isomer during in vitro maturation (IVM) were compared with high or low doses during the entire in vitro culture (IVC) of parthenogenetic embryos. High doses of the CLA isomers ranged from 50 to 200 μM and low doses were 15 and 25 μM. In experiment 2, the low doses of each CLA isomer were tested during IVM/IVC on embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Experiment 3 compared the effects of 15 μM doses of each CLA isomer during IVM or IVC of IVF embryos. In experiment 4, post-rewarming survival rates and blastomere counts were assessed for embryos supplemented with each CLA isomer during IVM or for 36 h before vitrification. In experiment 1, when either CLA isomer was provided only during IVM, we observed no effects on overall rates of maturation, cleavage, or blastocysts (92.2 ± 1.6%, 78.3 ± 4.1%, and 28.9 ± 5.1%, respectively). However, high doses of each CLA isomer, but not low doses, during the entire embryo culture period decreased blastocyst rates (5-20%) in a dose-dependent manner. Cleavage rates improved with 15 or 50 μM CLA trans-10,cis-12. Progesterone concentrations in maturation media were significantly increased by high doses of each CLA isomer compared with control, but low doses of CLA isomers had no effect. In experiment 2 with IVF embryos, low doses of each CLA isomer did not alter cleavage rates (average 84.9 ± 1.9%) and only 25 μM CLA trans-10,cis-12 during IVC reduced blastocyst rates below those of controls (25.5 ± 2.1 vs. 38.2 ± 2.3%). The lipid content of embryos was increased and relative expression of the BIRC5 (baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5) gene was depressed by CLA trans-10,cis-12. In experiment 3

  20. CLaMS: Classifier for Metagenomic Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Amrita

    2010-12-01

    CLaMS-"Classifer for Metagenonic Sequences" is a Java application for binning assembled metagenomes wings user-specified training sequence sets and other user-specified initial parameters. Since ClAmS analyzes and matches sequence composition-based genomic signatures, it is much faster than binning tools that rely on alignments to homologs; CLaMS can bin ~20,000 sequences in 3 minutes on a laptop with a 2.4 Ghz. Intel Core 2 Duo processor and 2 GB Ram. CLaMS is meant to be desktop application for biologist and can be run on any machine under any operating system on which the Java Runtime Environment is enabled. CLaMS is freely available in both GVI-based and command-line based forms.

  1. CLaMS: Classifier for Metagenomic Sequences

    2010-12-01

    CLaMS-"Classifer for Metagenonic Sequences" is a Java application for binning assembled metagenomes wings user-specified training sequence sets and other user-specified initial parameters. Since ClAmS analyzes and matches sequence composition-based genomic signatures, it is much faster than binning tools that rely on alignments to homologs; CLaMS can bin ~20,000 sequences in 3 minutes on a laptop with a 2.4 Ghz. Intel Core 2 Duo processor and 2 GB Ram. CLaMS is meant to be desktop applicationmore » for biologist and can be run on any machine under any operating system on which the Java Runtime Environment is enabled. CLaMS is freely available in both GVI-based and command-line based forms.« less

  2. Fatty acid profiles of milk and Minas frescal cheese from lactating grazed cows supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Weiler Giacomazza; Viegas, Julio; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Dias, Carina Anunciação; Costa, Emellinne Souza; Nornberg, José Laerte; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Silveira, Alisson Minozzo

    2016-02-01

    Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0.0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0.0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0.0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0.0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0.0447), C : 12 (P = 0.0002), mirystic (C : 14, P 0.05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic).

  3. Fatty acid profiles of milk and Minas frescal cheese from lactating grazed cows supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Weiler Giacomazza; Viegas, Julio; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Dias, Carina Anunciação; Costa, Emellinne Souza; Nornberg, José Laerte; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Silveira, Alisson Minozzo

    2016-02-01

    Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0.0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0.0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0.0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0.0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0.0447), C : 12 (P = 0.0002), mirystic (C : 14, P 0.05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic). PMID:26610695

  4. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  5. Implication of fermentable carbohydrates targeting the gut microbiota on conjugated linoleic acid production in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Druart, Céline; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Dewulf, Evelyne M; De Backer, Fabienne C; Possemiers, Sam; Van de Wiele, Tom; Moens, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc; Cani, Patrice D; Larondelle, Yvan; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-09-28

    In vitro experiments have shown that isolated human gut bacteria are able to metabolise PUFA into conjugated PUFA like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). The hypothesis of the present paper was that high-fat (HF) diet feeding and supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates that have prebiotic properties modulate the in vivo production of CLA by the mouse gut microbiota. Mice were treated for 4 weeks as follows: control (CT) groups were fed a standard diet; HF groups were fed a HF diet rich in linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6); the third groups were fed with the HF diet supplemented with either inulin-type fructans (HF-ITF) or arabinoxylans (HF-Ax). HF diet feeding increased rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2 CLA) content both in the caecal and liver tissues compared with the CT groups. ITF supplementation had no major effect compared with the HF diet whereas Ax supplementation increased further rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2 CLA) in the caecal tissue. These differences between both prebiotics may be linked to the high fat-binding capacity of Ax that provides more substrates for bacterial metabolism and to differential modulation of the gut microbiota (specific increase in Roseburia spp. in HF-Ax v. HF). In conclusion, these experiments supply the proof of concept that the mouse gut microbiota produces CLA in vivo, with consequences on the level of CLA in the caecal and liver tissues. We postulate that the CLA-producing bacteria could be a mediator to consider in the metabolic effects of both HF diet feeding and prebiotic supplementation.

  6. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation.

  7. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid and vitamin E on glycemic control, body composition, and inflammatory markers in overweight type2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The healthy properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) such as weight loss, reducing cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation have been reported. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer is related to increasing insulin resistance, but the effects of cis-9, trans-11 isomer is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CLA with and without Vitamin E on body weight, body composition, glycemic index, inflammatory and coagulation factors, lipid profile, serum leptin and adiponectin, malondialdehyde (MDA), and blood pressure in type2 diabetes. Methods 56 patients with type2 diabetes were included in 8 week double-blind control trial that used metformin. They randomly divided into three groups: CLA + VitE, CLA + VitE placebo, CLA placebo + VitE placebo. All variables, anthropometric measurements, and body composition were evaluated at the beginning and the end of study. Statistical analysis and analysis of dietary data were performed using SPSS and nutritionist IV software, respectively. Results There were not any significant differences in variable changes among three groups. However, there was a trend to increase in MDA and decrease in apoB100 among CLA consumers. Conclusion The results of this study showed that administration of CLA supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect any indicators of metabolic control in overweight type2 diabetic patients. PMID:23870044

  8. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese children123

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Natalie M; Watras, Abigail C; Carrel, Aaron L; Allen, David B; McVean, Jennifer J; Clark, Robert R; O'Brien, Abigail R; O'Shea, Marianne; Scott, Corey E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a supplemental dietary fatty acid that decreases fat mass accretion in young animals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine CLA's efficacy with regard to change in fat and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) in children. Design: We conducted a 7 ± 0.5-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CLA in 62 prepubertal children aged 6–10 y who were overweight or obese but otherwise healthy. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d of 80% CLA (50:50 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers) or placebo in chocolate milk. Results: Fifty-three subjects completed the trial (n = 28 in the CLA group, n = 25 in the placebo group). CLA attenuated the increase in BMI (0.5 ± 0.8) compared with placebo (1.1 ± 1.1) (P = 0.05). The percentage change in body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was smaller (P = 0.001) in the CLA group (−0.5 ± 2.1%) than in the placebo group (1.3 ± 1.8%). The change in abdominal body fat as a percentage of total body weight was smaller (P = 0.02) in the CLA group (−0.09 ± 0.9%) than in the placebo group (0.43 ± 0.6%). There were no significant changes in plasma glucose, insulin, or LDL cholesterol between groups. Plasma HDL cholesterol decreased significantly more (P = 0.05) in the CLA group (−5.1 ± 7.3 mg/dL) than in the placebo group (−0.7 ± 8 mg/dL). Bone mineral accretion was lower (P = 0.04) in the CLA group (0.05 ± 0.03 kg) than in the placebo group (0.07 ± 0.03 kg). Reported gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: CLA supplementation for 7 ± 0.5 mo decreased body fatness in 6–10-y-old children who were overweight or obese but did not improve plasma lipids or glucose and decreased HDL more than in the placebo group. Long-term investigation of the safety and efficacy of CLA supplementation in children is recommended. PMID:20200257

  9. Rapeseed or linseed in grass-based diets: effects on conjugated linoleic and conjugated linolenic acid isomers in milk fat from Holstein cows over 2 consecutive lactations.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Shingfield, K J; Ferlay, A; Vanhatalo, A; Chilliard, Y

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the distribution of conjugated linoleic (CLA) and conjugated linolenic (CLnA) acid isomers in milk from Holstein cows in response to 4 different oilseed supplements rich in either cis-9 18:1 or 18:3n-3 were determined over 2 consecutive lactations in 58 and 35 cows during the first and second years, respectively. For the first 5 wk of the first lactation, all cows were fed the same diet. Thereafter, cows received 1 of 5 treatments for 2 consecutive lactations, including the prepartum period. Treatments comprised the basal diet with no additional lipid, or supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), extruded rapeseeds (ER), cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal, or whole unprocessed rapeseeds to provide 2.5 to 3.0% of additional oil in diet dry matter. During indoor periods, cows were housed and received a mixture (3:1, wt/wt) of grass silage and hay, whereas cows were at pasture during outdoor periods. Over the entire study, EL resulted in the enrichment of ∆11,13 CLA, ∆12,14 CLA, trans-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-13,trans-15 CLA, ∆9,11,15 CLnA, and cis-9,trans-11,trans-13 CLnA (identified for the first time in bovine milk fat) in milk fat, whereas ER and cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal in particular, increased milk fat trans-7,cis-9 CLA concentration. With the exception of the first indoor period, whole unprocessed rapeseeds decreased cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and trans-10,trans-12 CLA abundance. During the second indoor period, EL increased milk trans-9,cis-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentrations, but the increases in cis-9,trans-11 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA, trans-11,cis-13 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 CLnA concentrations to EL and ER were lower for the second than first indoor period. In contrast to the indoor periods, EL and ER decreased milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentrations at pasture. The extent of changes in the relative distribution and abundance of CLA and CLnA isomers in milk fat

  10. C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 trans and cis fatty acid isomers including conjugated cis delta 9, trans delta 11 linoleic acid (CLA) as well as total fat composition of German human milk lipids.

    PubMed

    Precht, D; Molkentin, J

    1999-08-01

    In particular with respect to infant nutrition knowledge of the current contents of trans fatty acids (TFA) and of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in human milk lipids is of interest. After pre-separation by Ag-TLC 11 trans-C18:1 isomers could be quantified by GC with a mean total content of 2.40 +/- 0.60 wt% in samples from 40 German women. For the positional isomers t4, t5, t6-8, t9, t10, t11, t12, t13, t14, t15 and t16 contents of 0.02, 0.02, 0.21, 0.37, 0.32, 0.68, 0.23, 0.15, 0.18, 0.09 and 0.14 wt% were established, with vaccenic acid being the predominant isomer. Further, small trans-C14:1 and trans-C16:1 contents of 0.08% and 0.15% on average were found. As the trans-C18:1 isomers also the trans-C16:1 isomers of human milk lipids could for the first time be baseline-resolved by GC to a great extent. Moreover, besides a mean CLA (c9,t11) content of 0.40 +/- 0.09% further 6 cis/trans isomers of linoleic acid with a total content of 1.07 +/- 0.56% on average (w/o CLA) were determined. Further, 4 trans isomers of alpha-linolenic acid could be baseline-resolved exhibiting a total content of 0.11%. Altogether German human milk lipids on average were found to contain 3.81 +/- 0.97% TFA with a range of 2.38-6.03%. Direct connections between the dietary intake of trans-C18:1 isomers and the composition of human milk lipids could be established. The major fatty acids exhibited the following contents (wt%): C4: 0.16, C6: 0.18, C8: 0.06, C10: 0.58, C12: 3.12, C14: 6.43, C16: 25.28, C18: 7.41, C18: 1 (total): 33.67, C18: 2 (total): 10.63 and alpha-C18: 3:0.87.

  11. Influence of diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acids on their distribution in tissues of rats with DMBA induced tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backround Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with proven beneficial influence on health. They show e.g. anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, and antiatherogenic effect. Milk, dairy products and meat of poligastric animals are their most valuable dietary sources, with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (RA - rumenic acid) being the predominant isomer. Dietary supplements with CLA became very popular, mainly among the overweight and bodybuilders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies. Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark) given intragastrically) and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene). Animals were decapitated at 21st week of experiment and serum and microsomes were extracted. Results and conclusions The mammary tumours (adenocarcinoma) occurred in groups treated with DMBA. Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil) and delayed the cancer induction (p = 0.0018). There were no differences in body and organs weight. The supplement used in the study was a mixture of several fatty acids with the greatest proportion of CLA isomers: trans-10, cis-12 (33%) and cis-9, trans-11 (31%). Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. Dietary supplementation had also significant impact on other fatty acids content, both in serum and in microsomes. PMID:21044306

  12. Cerebral folate deficiency: life-changing supplementation with folinic acid.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Flemming Juul; Blau, Nenad

    2005-04-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency is characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and a broad spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. A patient with progressive spasticity, gait disturbance, speech difficulties, initially diagnosed as a recessive spastic paraplegia recovered on folinic acid (15-30 mg/day) and her 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in CSF normalized. This report demonstrates the importance of CSF investigation in the diagnosis of cerebral folate deficiency and efficiency of folinic acid (5-formyltetrahydrofolate) supplementation. PMID:15781200

  13. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  14. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  15. Effect of corn supplementation of grass finishing of Holstein bulls on fatty acid composition of meat lipids.

    PubMed

    Rosa, H J D; Rego, O A; Silva, C C G; Alves, S P; Alfaia, C M M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B

    2014-08-01

    Finishing Holstein young bulls exclusively on pasture generally results in very lean carcass and meat, but corn supplementation is expected to simultaneously improve carcass traits and intramuscular lipids (IML). The expected increase in IML would allow for a larger 18:2c9,t11 (CLA) deposition in meat without affecting the n-3 PUFA present in LM phospholipids (PL). Holstein bulls (n = 33) with initial BW of 423 ± 52.4 kg reared exclusively on pasture were assigned to 1 of 3 finishing period (85 d) diets: finished exclusively on pasture (P0) or finished on pasture and individually supplemented with 4 (P4) or 8 kg/d (P8) of ground corn. Final BW (546 ± 56.3 kg) was not affected (P > 0.05) by corn supplementation, but ADG increased (P < 0.01) with the increasing corn supplementation level from 1.23 kg/d for P0 to 1.44 kg/d for P4 and to 1.67 kg/d for P8. Subcutaneous fat depth in P0 bulls was 0.8 mm and increased (P < 0.001) in both P4 (2.9 mm) and P8 (2.7 mm) bulls, but no difference (P = 0.73) was observed between P4 and P8 bulls. Similarly, the IML increased with corn supplementation, from 1.84 g/100 g muscle in P0 to 2.96 in P4 and to 3.24 in P8, but no difference (P = 0.55) was found between P4 and P8 bulls. Corn supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) 18:1t11 in neutral lipids (NL) but not 18:2c9,t11 (P > 0.34). The 18:1t10 (mg/g total NL fatty acid [FA] ± SEM) were 2.5 ± 0.13 in P0, 5.5 ± 1.68 in P4, and 14.8 ± 3.18 in P8 bulls, being greater in P8 compared with P4 (P = 0.02). Total FA in muscle PL and SFA were unaffected, but increasing corn supplementation resulted (P < 0.001) in an increase of 18:2n-6 in PL by replacement of mostly the 18:1c9 and 18:3n-3. Notably, the total number of cis double bonds present in FA of PL remained constant (P = 0.74) with corn supplementation. Compared with P0, corn supplementation maintained (P > 0.05) the high n-3 PUFA content in meat (mg/100 g meat) and increased the 18:2c9,t11 (P = 0.028) and 18:1c9 (P < 0.001). However

  16. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  17. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  18. Effects of postweaning administration of conjugated linoleic acid on development of obesity in nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Good, Deborah J; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to prevent body weight gain and fat accumulation in part by improving physical activity in mice. However, the effects of postweaning administration of CLA on the development of obesity later in life have not yet been demonstrated. The current study investigated the role of postweaning CLA treatment on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in genetically induced inactive adult-onset obese model, nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout (N2KO) mice. Four-week-old male N2KO and wild type mice were fed either control or a CLA-containing diet (0.5%) for 4 weeks, and then CLA was withdrawn and control diet provided to all mice for the following 8 weeks. Postweaning CLA supplementation in wild type animals, but not N2KO mice, may activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) as well as promote desensitization of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and sensitization of protein kinase B (AKT) at threonine 308 in gastrocnemius skeletal muscle, improving voluntary activity and glucose homeostasis. We suggest that postweaning administration of CLA may in part stimulate the underlying molecular targets involved in muscle energy metabolism to reduce weight gain in normal animals, but not in the genetically induced inactive adult-onset animal model.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  20. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-07-24

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.

  1. Metabolic supplementation with orotic acid and magnesium orotate.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, F L

    1998-09-01

    Orotic acid (OA), a naturally occurring substance, is a key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of pyrimidines. Previous investigations in the heart suggest that orotate can protect recently infarcted hearts against a further ischemic stress and may be beneficial in certain types of experimental cardiomyopathy. At the Hamburg symposium on magnesium orotate, a number of studies of this form of metabolic supplementation were presented that indicate orotic acid and its magnesium salt have a modest beneficial effect on the myocardium under conditions of stress ranging from myocardial infarction to severe physical exercise. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Orotic acid can improve the energy status of the recently infarcted myocardium (rat hearts). (2) Orotic acid may improve myocardial purine and pyrimidine levels by stimulating hepatic release of uridine into the bloodstream, which in turn augments depleted myocardial pyrimidines and purines (rat heart). (3) Orotic acid improves the tolerance of the recently infarcted heart to global ischemia (rats). (4) Magnesium orotate may reduce the severity of chronic myocardial dysfunction and structural damage in cardiomyopathy (cardiomyopathic hamsters). (5) Magnesium orotate may improve exercise tolerance in patients with coronary artery disease and in trained athletes (humans). (6) Magnesium orotate has only a weak inotropic effect, if any, on normal hearts (rats). (7) Further clinical testing is indicated to determine if the effects described could be of significant clinical benefit in the treatment of heart disease. PMID:9794088

  2. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and energy metabolism in rats supplemented with chlorogenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Zhou, Yan; Wen, Yanmei; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Assaad, Houssein; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) supplementation on serum and hepatic metabolomes in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either CGA (60 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water (control) for 4 weeks. Growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, and hepatic morphology were measured. Additionally, serum and liver tissue extracts were analyzed for metabolomes by high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and multivariate statistics. CGA did not affect rat growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, or hepatic morphology. However, supplementation with CGA decreased serum concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, succinate, citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, while increasing serum concentrations of glycine and hepatic concentrations of glutathione. These results suggest that CGA supplementation results in perturbation of energy and amino acid metabolism in rats. We suggest that glycine and glutathione in serum may be useful biomarkers for biological properties of CGA on nitrogen metabolism in vivo. PMID:24927697

  3. Association of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and infant bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Dorris, Stacy L; Mitchel, Edward F; Hartert, Tina V; Cooper, William O; Tylavsky, Frances A; Dupont, William; Hartman, Terryl J; Carroll, Kecia N

    2014-04-15

    Viral bronchiolitis affects 20%-30% of infants; because there is no known effective treatment, it is important to identify risk factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. Although adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period prevents neural tube defects, animal data suggest that higher supplementation may be a risk factor for child respiratory diseases. Using a population-based retrospective cohort of 167,333 women and infants, born in 1995-2007 and enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, we investigated the association between the filling of folic acid-containing prescriptions and infant bronchiolitis. We categorized women into the following 4 groups in relation to the first trimester: "none" (no prescription filled), "first trimester only," "after first trimester," and "both" (prescriptions filled both during and after the first trimester). Overall, 21% of infants had a bronchiolitis diagnosis, and 5% were hospitalized. Most women filled their first prescriptions after the fifth to sixth weeks of pregnancy, and most prescriptions contained 1,000 µg of folic acid. Compared with infants born to women in the "none" group, infants born to women in the "first trimester only" group had higher relative odds of bronchiolitis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22) and greater severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22). This study's findings contribute to an understanding of the implications of prenatal nutritional supplement recommendations for infant bronchiolitis.

  4. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat.

  5. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat. PMID:26506539

  6. Folic acid supplementation and IVF pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wånggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A

    2014-06-01

    Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P < 0.001). Women with unexplained infertility also had significantly higher median plasma folate and lower median plasma homocysteine concentrations than fertile women (both P < 0.001), but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate

  7. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  8. Using rumen probes to examine effects of conjugated linoleic acids and dietary concentrate proportion on rumen pH and rumen temperature of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Petzold, M; Meyer, U; Spilke, J; Dänicke, S

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of supplemented conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to periparturient cows receiving different concentrate proportions antepartum on rumen pH (RpH) and rumen temperature (RT). Twenty pregnant German Holstein cows were equipped with rumen probes for continuous RpH and RT measurement in a frequency of 15 min to investigate effects of dietary concentrate and CLA around parturition and the impact of parturition itself on RpH and RT. Cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations, 3 weeks prior to calving until day 7 post-partum. Antepartum, cows received 100 g/day control fat (CON) or CLA supplement, either in low (20%; CON-20, CLA-20) or high concentrate diet (60%; CON-60, CLA-60). Post-partum, concentrate proportion was adjusted to 50% while fat supplementation continued. Compared with adapted feeding, high concentrate proportions antepartum tended to increase DMI and reduced RpH. Groups CON-60 and CLA-60 spent more than 4 h per day below RpH 5.6 during late pregnancy, indicating the presence of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). The RT remained unaffected antepartum. Before calving, cows spent less time below RpH 5.6 and SARA could be detected in each group post-partum. Mean RpH increased slightly antepartum, whereas few hours before parturition a sharp decrease in RpH could be observed, accompanied with increased RT. Overall, it seems that CLA supplementation influences RpH and RT. Bearing in mind that rumen parameters fluctuate during day and herd level must be known, rumen probes for continuous RpH and RT measurement could be a useful management tool for animal health surveillance and may also help to predict parturition.

  9. Folic acid supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis: cellular and molecular effects.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carlos Eduardo Andrade; Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; de Souza, Camila Alexandre Soares; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Paiva, Sérgio Alberto Rupp; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2011-11-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation during carcinogenesis is controversial. Considering the impact of liver cancer as a public health problem and mandatory FA fortification in several countries, the role of FA supplementation in hepatocarcinogenesis should be elucidated. We evaluated FA supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats received daily 0.08 mg (FA8 group) or 0.16 mg (FA16 group) of FA/100 g body weight or water (CO group, controls). After a 2-week treatment, animals were subjected to the "resistant hepatocyte" model of hepatocarcinogenesis (initiation with diethylnitrosamine, selection/promotion with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy) and euthanized after 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to the CO group, the FA16 group presented: reduced (p < 0.05) number of persistent and increased (p < 0.05) number of remodeling glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL); reduced (p < 0.05) cell proliferation in persistent GST-P positive PNL; decreased (p < 0.05) hepatic DNA damage; and a tendency (p < 0.10) for decreased c-myc expression in microdissected PNL. Regarding all these parameters, no differences (p > 0.05) were observed between CO and FA8 groups. FA-treated groups presented increased hepatic levels of S-adenosylmethionine but only FA16 group presented increased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between experimental groups regarding apoptosis in persistent and remodeling GST-P positive PNL, and global DNA methylation pattern in microdissected PNL. Altogether, the FA16 group, but not the FA8 group, presented chemopreventive activity. Reversion of PNL phenotype and inhibition of DNA damage and of c-myc expression represent relevant FA cellular and molecular effects.

  10. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24842467

  11. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; Olumese, F. E.; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation. PMID:24454345

  12. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  13. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  14. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2-24 h post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16-24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2 and 24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16-24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects.

  15. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  16. Individual CLA Isomers, c9t11 and t10c12, Prevent Excess Liver Glycogen Storage and Inhibit Lipogenic Genes Expression Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maslak, Edyta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Szumny, Antoni; Szczepnski, Wojciech; Franczyk-Zarow, Magdalena; Kopec, Aneta; Chlopicki, Stefan; Leszczynska, Teresa; Kostogrys, Renata B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of individual conjugated linoleic acid isomers, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and systemic endothelial dysfunction in rats fed for four weeks with control or high-fructose diet. The high-fructose diet hampered body weight gain (without influencing food intake), increased liver weight and glycogen storage in hepatocytes, upregulated expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the liver. Both CLA isomers prevented excessive accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Specifically, t10c12-CLA decreased concentration of serum triacylglycerols and LDL + VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol, and affected liver lipid content and fatty acid composition by downregulation of liver SCD-1 and FAS expression. In turn, the c9t11-CLA decreased LDL+VLDL cholesterol in the control group and downregulated liver expression of FAS without significant effects on liver weight, lipid content, and fatty acid composition. In summary, feeding rats with a high-fructose diet resulted in increased liver glycogen storage, indicating the induction of gluconeogenesis despite simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Although both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12) display hepatoprotective activity, the hypolipemic action of the t10c12-CLA isomer proved to be more pronounced than that of c9t11-CLA.

  17. Catalyst for Change: The CIC/CLA Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, David C.

    2011-01-01

    From the fall of 2008 through the spring of 2011, 47 colleges and universities, organized and supported by the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), administered the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) to their students. The CLA is a test of critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving, and written communication developed by the…

  18. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    PubMed

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  19. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  20. Detection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor in various adipose tissue depots of dairy cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Friedauer, K; Dänicke, S; Schulz, K; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2015-10-01

    Early lactating cows mobilize adipose tissue (AT) to provide energy for milk yield and maintenance and are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired immune response. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), mainly the trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduce milk fat synthesis and may attenuate negative energy balance. Circulating glucocorticoids (GC) are increased during parturition in dairy cows and mediate differentiating and anti-inflammatory effects via glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the presence of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1). Activated GC are the main ligands for both receptors in AT; therefore, we hypothesized that tissue-specific GC metabolism is effected by varying amounts of GR, MR and 11βHSD1 and/or their localization within AT depots. Furthermore, the lipolytic and antilipogenic effects of CLA might influence the GC/GR/MR system in AT. Therefore, we aimed to localize GR and MR as well as the expression pattern and activity of 11βHSD1 in different AT depots during early lactation in dairy cows and to identify potential effects of CLA. Primiparous German Holstein cows were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From day 1 post-partum (p.p.) until sample collection, the CLA group was fed with 100 g/d CLA (contains 10 g each of the cis-9, trans-11 and the trans-10, cis-12-CLA isomers). CON cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 1, 42 and 105 p.p., while CLA cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 42 and 105 p.p. Subcutaneous fat from tailhead, withers and sternum, and visceral fat from omental, mesenteric and retroperitoneal depots were sampled. The localization of GR and 11βHSD1 in mature adipocytes - being already differentiated - indicates that GC promote other effects via GR than differentiation. Moreover, MR were observed in the stromal vascular cell fraction and positively related to the pre-adipocyte marker Pref-1. However, only marginal CLA effects were observed in this study.

  1. Detection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor in various adipose tissue depots of dairy cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Friedauer, K; Dänicke, S; Schulz, K; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2015-10-01

    Early lactating cows mobilize adipose tissue (AT) to provide energy for milk yield and maintenance and are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired immune response. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), mainly the trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduce milk fat synthesis and may attenuate negative energy balance. Circulating glucocorticoids (GC) are increased during parturition in dairy cows and mediate differentiating and anti-inflammatory effects via glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the presence of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1). Activated GC are the main ligands for both receptors in AT; therefore, we hypothesized that tissue-specific GC metabolism is effected by varying amounts of GR, MR and 11βHSD1 and/or their localization within AT depots. Furthermore, the lipolytic and antilipogenic effects of CLA might influence the GC/GR/MR system in AT. Therefore, we aimed to localize GR and MR as well as the expression pattern and activity of 11βHSD1 in different AT depots during early lactation in dairy cows and to identify potential effects of CLA. Primiparous German Holstein cows were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From day 1 post-partum (p.p.) until sample collection, the CLA group was fed with 100 g/d CLA (contains 10 g each of the cis-9, trans-11 and the trans-10, cis-12-CLA isomers). CON cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 1, 42 and 105 p.p., while CLA cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 42 and 105 p.p. Subcutaneous fat from tailhead, withers and sternum, and visceral fat from omental, mesenteric and retroperitoneal depots were sampled. The localization of GR and 11βHSD1 in mature adipocytes - being already differentiated - indicates that GC promote other effects via GR than differentiation. Moreover, MR were observed in the stromal vascular cell fraction and positively related to the pre-adipocyte marker Pref-1. However, only marginal CLA effects were observed in this study. PMID

  2. Improved HRGC separation of cis, trans CLA isomers as Diels-Alder adducts of alkyl esters.

    PubMed

    Blasi, F; Giua, L; Lombardi, G; Codini, M; Simonetti, M S; Damiani, P; Cossignani, L

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the separation of four isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), c,t/t,c-8,10; c,t/t,c-9,11; c,t/t,c-10,12; c,t/t,c-11,13, after reaction of esterification with aliphatic alcohols of different chain length and adduct formation with 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (MTAD). The high resolution gas chromatographic analyses were carried out using a simple 50-m cyanopropyl polysiloxane capillary column both with a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer. The resolution between the two pair of isomers: c,t/t,c-9,11 and c,t/t,c-10,12 and between c,t/t,c-10,12 and c,t/t,c-11,13 isomers were good for all the investigated alkyl esters and increased with the chain length of alcohol esterified to carboxylic moiety of CLA isomers. The most interesting result was relative to the c,t/t,c-8,10 and c,t/t,c-9,11 isomers, critical pair of isomers also when analyzed with a 120-m cyanopropyl polysiloxane capillary column; their resolution also increased from methyl to hexyl esters of CLA isomers and reached an acceptable value (0.8) in the case of hexyl esters. The best resolutions of the four considered CLA isomers were obtained with the hexyl esters of MTAD adducts of the isomers, without excessive analysis time. This method was useful and simple to evaluate the profile of the four main c,t isomers in commercial CLA samples.

  3. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and lutein on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Santin, E; Klasing, K C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of lutein and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens were evaluated in the presence and absence of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune challenge. Cobb chicks (360; 1 to 22 d of age) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of CLA (0, 1, and 2%) and lutein (0 and 50 mg/kg) dietary levels. At d 8 and 15, birds were injected with BSA to assess IgY production. At d 20, birds were injected with LPS. Samples of liver, spleen, and duodenum were collected at 3 and 16 h post-LPS challenge for RT-qPCR analysis of RXRα, RXRγ, PPARα, PPARγ, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12 gene expression. CLA decreased BW, BW gain (BWG), and G:F from d 1 to 20, but these effects were reversed when lutein was included in the 1% CLA diet (P < 0.001). The production of IgY anti-BSA increased following a 2% CLA supplementation (P < 0.01). LPS increased the liver:BW ratio at 3 h post-injection (P < 0.001) and decreased BWG at 3, 16, and 40 h (P < 0.001). Lutein decreased plasmatic nitric oxide levels (P < 0.01). LPS downregulated PPARα mRNA in the duodenum (P = 0.02) and liver (P = 0.04), and PPARγ (P = 0.01) and RXRα (P = 0.08) in the spleen; these effects were not reversed by CLA or lutein as initially hypothesized. Although LPS upregulated IL-1β (P = 0.02) and IL-12 (P = 0.07) expression, lutein downregulated these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver (P = 0.03 and P = 0.07, respectively). Lutein decreased splenic (P = 0.09) but increased hepatic (P = 0.06) TLR-4 mRNA. A dietary CLA supplementation of 2% increased hepatic RXRα (P = 0.10). In conclusion, CLA decreased broiler chicken growth performance, but lutein could prevent this negative effect (depending on CLA dose). Lutein had an anti-inflammatory effect, and a 2% CLA supplementation improved the humoral immune response. PMID:26527712

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and lutein on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Santin, E; Klasing, K C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of lutein and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens were evaluated in the presence and absence of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune challenge. Cobb chicks (360; 1 to 22 d of age) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of CLA (0, 1, and 2%) and lutein (0 and 50 mg/kg) dietary levels. At d 8 and 15, birds were injected with BSA to assess IgY production. At d 20, birds were injected with LPS. Samples of liver, spleen, and duodenum were collected at 3 and 16 h post-LPS challenge for RT-qPCR analysis of RXRα, RXRγ, PPARα, PPARγ, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12 gene expression. CLA decreased BW, BW gain (BWG), and G:F from d 1 to 20, but these effects were reversed when lutein was included in the 1% CLA diet (P < 0.001). The production of IgY anti-BSA increased following a 2% CLA supplementation (P < 0.01). LPS increased the liver:BW ratio at 3 h post-injection (P < 0.001) and decreased BWG at 3, 16, and 40 h (P < 0.001). Lutein decreased plasmatic nitric oxide levels (P < 0.01). LPS downregulated PPARα mRNA in the duodenum (P = 0.02) and liver (P = 0.04), and PPARγ (P = 0.01) and RXRα (P = 0.08) in the spleen; these effects were not reversed by CLA or lutein as initially hypothesized. Although LPS upregulated IL-1β (P = 0.02) and IL-12 (P = 0.07) expression, lutein downregulated these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver (P = 0.03 and P = 0.07, respectively). Lutein decreased splenic (P = 0.09) but increased hepatic (P = 0.06) TLR-4 mRNA. A dietary CLA supplementation of 2% increased hepatic RXRα (P = 0.10). In conclusion, CLA decreased broiler chicken growth performance, but lutein could prevent this negative effect (depending on CLA dose). Lutein had an anti-inflammatory effect, and a 2% CLA supplementation improved the humoral immune response.

  5. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Xu-mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system. PMID:20838574

  6. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases adipocyte lipolysis and alters lipid droplet-associated proteins: role of mTOR and ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soonkyu; Brown, Jonathan Mark; Sandberg, Maria Boysen; McIntosh, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Lipid droplet-associated proteins play an important role in adipocyte triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Here, we show that trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), but not cis-9,trans-11 CLA, increased lipolysis and altered human adipocyte lipid droplet morphology. Before this change in morphology, there was a rapid trans-10,cis-12 CLA-induced increase in the accumulation of perilipin A in the cytosol, followed by the disappearance of perilipin A protein. In contrast, protein levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) were increased in cultures treated with trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Immunostaining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of small lipid droplets, displacing perilipin. Intriguingly, trans-10,cis-12 CLA increased ADRP protein expression to a much greater extent than ADRP mRNA without affecting stability, suggesting translational control of ADRP. To this end, we found that trans-10,cis-12 CLA increased activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase/S6 ribosomal protein (mTOR/p70S6K/S6) pathway. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the trans-10,cis-12 CLA-mediated reduction of human adipocyte TG content is associated with the differential localization and expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins. This process involves both the translational control of ADRP through the activation of mTOR/p70S6K/S6 signaling and transcriptional control of perilipin A. PMID:15716587

  7. [Bioconversion of conjugated linoleic acid by resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 in potassium phosphate buffer system].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-yan; Chen, Wei; Tian, Feng-wei; Zhao, Jian-xin; Zhang, Hao

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, which was screened from the Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, has the capacity to convert the linoleic acid (LA) into conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Some specific isomers of CLA with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from free linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 under aerobic conditions. The produced CLA isomers are identified as the mixture of cis-9, trans-ll-octadecadienoic acid (CLA1) trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (CLA2), 96.4% of which is CLA1. The washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 producing high levels of c9, t11-CLA were obtained by cultivated in MRS media containing 0.5 mg/mL linoleic acid, indicating that the enzyme system for CLA production is induced by linoleic acid. After a 24-hour bioconversion at 37 degrees C with shaking (120 r/min), 312.4 microg/mL c9, t11-CLA is produced. And after a 36-hour bioconversion, the content of c9, t11-CLA decreases while hydroxy-octadecaenoic acid increases. In addition, the c9, t11-CLA isomer can be transformed to hydroxy- octadecaenoic acid when the mixed CLA (c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA) were used as the substrate, which suggests that c9, t11-CLA is one of the intermediates of the bioconversion products from free LA by washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058.

  8. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia-A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N; Perkins, Sherry L; Walker, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE.

  9. Refeeding with conjugated linoleic acid increases serum cholesterol and modifies the fatty acid profile after 48 hours of fasting in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim; Andreoli, María Florencia; Illesca, Paola G; Payão Ovídio, Paula; Bernal, Claudio A; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2014-12-01

    There is no consensus about the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism, especially in animals fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum, liver and adipose tissue, as well as the oxidative stress generated in rats refed with high-fat diets after a 48 hour fast. Rats were refed with diets containing soybean oil, rich in linoleic acid [7% (Control Group - C) or 20% (LA Group)], CLA [CLA Group - 20% CLA mixture (39.32 mole% c9,t11-CLA and 40.59 mole% t10,c12- CLA)], soybean oil + CLA (LA+CLA Group - 15.4% soybean oil and 4.6% CLA) or animal fat (AF, 20% lard). The CLA group showed lower weight gain and liver weight after refeeding, as well as increased serum cholesterol. The high dietary fat intake induced fat accumulation and an increase in -tocopherol in the liver, which were not observed in the CLA group. Circulating -tocopherol was increased in the CLA and CLA+LA groups. The high- fat diets reduced liver catalase activity. CLA isomers were incorporated into serum and tissues. In this shortterm refeeding experimental model, CLA prevented hepatic fat accumulation, although it produced an increase in serum cholesterol.

  10. Effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on preeclampsia: the folic acid clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 8(0/7) and 16(6/7) weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  11. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  12. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  13. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Boar Semen Quality After Long-term Refrigeration at 17°C.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Smp; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (10 trans, 12 cis) (CLA) on refrigerated boar sperm quality parameters up to 14 days at 17°C was assessed. Semen was extended in Androhep and divided into four treatments supplemented with CLA (25, 50, 100 and 200 μm) and control group, then kept for 2 h at 22°C. Afterwards an aliquot of each treatment was removed, and mitochondrial activity, viability, lipid membrane peroxidation (LPO) and stability of the sperm plasma membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. The remaining extended semen was maintained at 17°C until 336 h, repeating the same analysis every 48 h. Regarding percentage of live spermatozoa, no statistical differences were observed among treatments up to 96 h. After this time, viability decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for CLA concentrations of 100 and 200 μm. Despite these results, there was an individual response to CLA. Although in the control group, the boar A presented better results when compared with the other boars, especially at concentrations of 50 and 100 μm boar B showed significantly higher results (p < 0.05). Supplementation with CLA improved (p < 0.05) LPO, but not the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm. The highest two CLA concentrations showed to be toxic for sperm as all results were lower than the observed for the control. In conclusion, CLA at 50 μm seems to be an efficient concentration for reducing the oxidative stress, decreasing LPO, maintaining viability, membrane stability and mitochondrial potential on refrigerated boar spermatozoa. PMID:25976112

  14. Effects of essential fatty acid supplementation in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Helen; Granger, Nicolas; Wood, James; Skelly, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    The effects of essential fatty acid supplementation (EFA) on the control of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs were investigated in a blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Fifteen dogs were treated with triple purified Ω-3 oil containing 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 250 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 22 mg vitamin E per 1.5 mL at a dose of 1.5 mL/10 kg once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 12 week placebo period of supplementation with olive oil. Owners recorded seizure frequency and severity and any adverse events. EFA supplementation did not reduce seizure frequency or severity in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  15. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (P<0.01) feed conversion ratio than those fed CON, and increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets tended (P<0.10) to linearly decrease feed conversion ratio. In assessing the effects of including WDG diets without FE, concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (P<0.10) for steers fed WDG than steers fed CON. In addition, inclusion of wheat DDGS into the diet increased (P<0.05) concentration of CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (P<0.05) ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA compared with that from steers fed CON diet. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets did not modify the concentrations of individual or total fatty acids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health.

  16. The Pathway-Specific Regulator ClaR of Streptomyces clavuligerus Has a Global Effect on the Expression of Genes for Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Burgo, Yolanda; Álvarez-Álvarez, Rubén; Rodríguez-García, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus claR::aph is a claR-defective mutant, but in addition to its claR defect it also carries fewer copies of the resident linear plasmids pSCL2 and pSCL4 (on the order of 4 × 105-fold lower than the wild-type strain), as shown by qPCR. To determine the function of ClaR without potential interference due to plasmid copy number, a new strain, S. clavuligerus ΔclaR::aac, with claR deleted and carrying the wild-type level of plasmids, was constructed. Transcriptomic analyses were performed in S. clavuligerus ΔclaR::aac and S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 as the control strain. The new ΔclaR mutant did not produce clavulanic acid (CA) and showed a partial expression of genes for the early steps of the CA biosynthesis pathway and a very poor expression (1 to 8%) of the genes for the late steps of the CA pathway. Genes for cephamycin C biosynthesis were weakly upregulated (1.7-fold at 22.5 h of culture) in the ΔclaR mutant, but genes for holomycin biosynthesis were expressed at levels from 3- to 572-fold higher than in the wild-type strain, supporting the observed overproduction of holomycin by S. clavuligerus ΔclaR::aac. Interestingly, three secondary metabolites produced by gene clusters SMCp20, SMCp22, and SMCp24, encoding still-cryptic compounds, had partially or totally downregulated their genes in the mutant, suggesting a regulatory role for ClaR wider than previously reported. In addition, the amfR gene was downregulated, and consequently, the mutant did not produce aerial mycelium. Expression levels of about 100 genes in the genome were partially up- or downregulated in the ΔclaR mutant, many of them related to the upregulation of the sigma factor-encoding rpoE gene. PMID:26187955

  17. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing. PMID:25891927

  18. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing.

  19. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    PubMed

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  20. Nonsteroidal management of canine pruritus: chlorpheniramine and a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps) in combination, and the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H

    1990-10-01

    Forty-three dogs having pruritus associated with atopy, flea bite hypersensitivity, and idiopathy were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment protocols. Twenty-three dogs received chlorpheniramine in combination with a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps). Twenty dogs received the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage. All 43 dogs were known to be unresponsive to chlorpheniramine and the manufacturer's recommended dosage of the fatty acid supplement when either drug was used alone. Pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 34.8% of the dogs in the chlorpheniramine--DVM Derm Caps protocol. No dog in the double DVM Derm Caps protocol showed a beneficial response. Side effects were uncommon and mild with either protocol.

  1. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production.

  2. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  3. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-29

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness.

  4. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  5. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-02-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  8. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children. PMID:19772683

  9. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children.

  10. Pregnancy intentions and folic acid supplementation exemplars: findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Roxanne; Volkman, Julie E; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Weisman, Carol S; Chase, Gary A; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2009-06-01

    One Healthy People 2010 objective is that 80% of women in the United States start a pregnancy with optimal levels of folic acid. This often requires women to use folic acid supplements preconceptionally to get adequate levels. Efforts to achieve the objective have resulted in a suboptimal floor effect at less than 50% of women. We advance a framework based on exemplification theory, identifying supplementation as an additive action in which two role models exemplify folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age able to become pregnant (n = 1,258). The women were participants in Phase I of the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS). One exemplar identified represents the positive habits aligned with supplementers considering a pregnancy sometime in their future, while the other resides in the exemplification of positive habits aligned with supplementers not considering a pregnancy sometime in their future but still able to become pregnant. Among women not considering a future pregnancy, daily green salad consumption, weekly fish consumption, having had a health care visit in the past year, and having had any ob/gyn visit in the past 2 years resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, an increase in age resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use. Among women considering a future pregnancy, not smoking cigarettes, having higher levels of psychosocial stress, and having higher levels of interaction social support resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, those who have had a health care visit in the past year, as well as those who have received pregnancy planning counseling, were also more likely to use a folic acid supplement. Implications for strategic communication are considered.

  11. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  12. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids fed to dairy cows during early gestation on hematological, immunological, and metabolic characteristics of cows and their calves.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, S; Kowalczyk, J; Renner, L; Pappritz, J; Meyer, U; Kramer, R; Weber, E-M; Döll, S; Rehage, J; Jahreis, G

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) expressed as stimulation index (SI) of newborn calves and of their dams fed a control fat supplement (CON, n=6) or 50 and 100g/d of a CLA-containing fat supplement (CLA50, n=5, and CLA100, n=6, respectively) during the preceding lactation period for 182 d after calving. The total intake of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA by groups CLA50 and CLA100 amounted to 4 and 8 g/d each, respectively. For this purpose, blood was collected immediately after parturition from calves before and after colostrum intake, and from cows after parturition and 21 d later. The SI was related to the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte and milk lipids and to various hematological and clinical-chemical parameters. Retrospective evaluation revealed that depletion time (i.e., the individual period elapsed between the day of terminating the feeding of the experimental diet in the preceding lactation period and the day of calving) ranged from 190 to 262 d, which corresponded to fetal exposure times of 19 to 102 d. The SI from cows increased significantly by 77 and 55%, within 21 d after calving according to the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Alamar Blue assays, respectively. However, feeding of 50 g of the CLA product failed to demonstrate this increase in the MTT assay. Moreover, SI was significantly lower for calves whose dams belonged to the CLA50 group, whereas stimulation ability was comparable for the PBMC from calves whose mothers were treated with CON and CLA100. Plasma metabolites (total bilirubin, total cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, and albumin) and hematological parameters (hematocrit, white blood cell profile) were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments of the cows in the preceding lactation period. Although the fatty acid pattern of erythrocyte lipids

  13. Transcriptional regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α isoforms in dairy ewes during conjugated linoleic acid induced milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Ticiani, E; Urio, M; Ferreira, R; Harvatine, K J; De Oliveira, D E

    2016-10-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA to lactating ewes reduces milk fat by down-regulating expression of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis in the mammary gland and increases adipose tissue lipogenesis. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC-α) is a key regulated enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis and is decreased by CLA. In the ovine, the ACC-α gene is expressed from three tissue-specific promoters (PI, PII and PIII). This study evaluated promoter-specific ACC-α expression in mammary and adipose tissue of lactating cross-bred Lacaune/Texel ewes during milk fat depression induced by rumen-unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement. In all, 12 ewes arranged in a completely randomized design were fed during early, mid and late lactation one of the following treatments for 14 days: Control (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate on a dry matter basis) and CLA (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate+27 g/day of CLA (29.9% trans-10, cis-12)). Mammary gland and adipose tissue biopsies were taken on day 14 for gene expression analysis by real-time PCR. Milk fat yield and concentration were reduced with CLA supplementation by 27%, 21% and 35% and 28%, 26% and 42% during early, mid and late lactation, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that trans-10, cis-12 CLA down-regulates mammary ACC-α gene expression by decreasing expression from PII and PIII in mammary gland and up-regulates adipose ACC-α gene expression by increasing expression from PI.

  14. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen.

    PubMed

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05). Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

  15. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05). Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation. PMID:26950867

  16. Chem I Supplement: Emphasis on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education Staff

    1977-01-01

    Provides supplementary notes on acids and bases suitable for secondary school chemistry instruction, including acidity in solid and natural waters, acidity balance in body chemistry, acid and basic foods, pH values of common fluids, examples of drugs, and commercial preparation of nitric acid. (SL)

  17. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception. PMID:26627544

  18. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health.

  19. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health. PMID:22459498

  20. Probiotic administration modifies the milk fatty acid profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal fatty acid profile of goats.

    PubMed

    Apás, A L; Arena, M E; Colombo, S; González, S N

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of potentially probiotic bacteria (MPPB; Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum strains) on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the middle stage of goat lactation, was determined. In addition, the effects of MPPB feeding on the FA profile in intestinal content and intestinal morphology in weaned goats were analyzed. The probiotic supplement was able to modify FA composition of milk and intestinal content. The unsaturated FA concentrations in milk (g of FA/L of milk) increased from 4.49 to 7.86 for oleic (18:1), from 0.70 to 1.39 for linoleic (18:2), from 0.063 to 0.187 for linolenic (18:3) acid, and from 0.093 to 0.232 for CLA. The atherogenicity index diminished 2-fold after MPPB ingestion. In the intestinal content of the weaned goats, no significant difference in saturated FA concentration compared with the control was observed. However, oleic acid, linolenic acid, CLA, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased by 81, 23, 344, and 74%, respectively, after probiotic consumption. The ruminal production of CLA was increased by the MPPB. However, bacterial strains of MPPB were unable to produce CLA in culture media. By histological techniques, it was observed that the treated group had intestinally more conserved morphological structures than the control group. The results obtained in this study indicate that the MPPB administration in lactating and weaned goats allows for the production of milk with improved concentrations of beneficial compounds, and also produces a protective effect in the goat intestine. The results obtained in this study reinforce the strategy of probiotics application to enhance goat health with the production of milk with higher concentrations of polyunsaturated FA.

  1. Supplementation of dairy cow diets with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and nicotinic acid in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P S; Murphy, M R; Clark, J H

    1992-04-01

    Forty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments 15 d postpartum according to milk yield during wk 2 postpartum to examine the effects of supplementing niacin, Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids, and their interaction. Treatments were control, niacin (12 g/d), Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (3% of dietary DM), or a combination of niacin and Ca salts. On d 99 postpartum, all cows were fed the control treatment for 2 wk to evaluate residual effects. Milk and FCM yields, blood plasma NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and apparent total tract hemicellulose digestibility were increased; milk protein percentage, milk SNF percentage, and blood plasma glucose concentrations were reduced by treatments containing the Ca soaps. Niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield but reduced blood plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. During the residual period, in which all cows received the control treatment, milk yield and plasma NEFA concentration remained elevated, milk protein and SNF contents remained depressed, and milk fat content was reduced for cows previously supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids. Methionine and phenylalanine uptakes by the mammary gland were enhanced by niacin supplementation. Results indicated that dairy cattle in early lactation yielded more milk when their diets were supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids and that niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield.

  2. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  3. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  4. The use of 2-dimensional gas chromatography to investigate the effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid, breed, and lactation stage on the fatty acid profile of sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Pellattiero, E; Cecchinato, A; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to obtain a detailed fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep milk and to evaluate the effects of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) supply, breed, days in milk (DIM), sampling period, and number of lambs suckling on the FA profile. Twenty-four ewes, from 3 autochthonous breeds of the Veneto Alps (Brogna, Foza, and Lamon), were housed in 6 pens (2 pens/breed), according to DIM (38 ± 23 d) and body weight (61 ± 13 kg). The ewes and their offspring of 3 pens (1 pen/breed) were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (control), and the other animals received the same diet supplemented with 12 g/d per ewe, plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d, of an rpCLA mixture. The study lasted 63 d. Two composite milk samples for each ewe were prepared during the first and second months of the trial. The pooled milk samples were analyzed in duplicate for FA profile by 2-dimensional gas chromatography, which allowed us to obtain a detailed FA profile of sheep milk, with 170 different FA detected, including many that were present in small concentrations. The milk relative proportions of individual FA, groups of FA, or FA indices were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), considering diet, breed, DIM, and sampling period as sources of variation. The random effect of animal was used to test diet, breed, and DIM, whereas the effects of period were tested on the residual. Breed had a small influence on milk FA profile, mainly on branched- and odd-chain FA. Within breed, animal repeatability for the relative proportions of milk FA was notable for almost all monounsaturated FA and for saturated FA with 14 to 19 carbon atoms, except C16:0, and less so for polyunsaturated FA. The inclusion of rpCLA (CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12) increased the presence of the same CLA isomers in the milk as well as that of CLA trans-9,trans-11, and decreased the proportions of de novo

  5. The use of 2-dimensional gas chromatography to investigate the effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid, breed, and lactation stage on the fatty acid profile of sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Pellattiero, E; Cecchinato, A; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to obtain a detailed fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep milk and to evaluate the effects of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) supply, breed, days in milk (DIM), sampling period, and number of lambs suckling on the FA profile. Twenty-four ewes, from 3 autochthonous breeds of the Veneto Alps (Brogna, Foza, and Lamon), were housed in 6 pens (2 pens/breed), according to DIM (38 ± 23 d) and body weight (61 ± 13 kg). The ewes and their offspring of 3 pens (1 pen/breed) were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (control), and the other animals received the same diet supplemented with 12 g/d per ewe, plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d, of an rpCLA mixture. The study lasted 63 d. Two composite milk samples for each ewe were prepared during the first and second months of the trial. The pooled milk samples were analyzed in duplicate for FA profile by 2-dimensional gas chromatography, which allowed us to obtain a detailed FA profile of sheep milk, with 170 different FA detected, including many that were present in small concentrations. The milk relative proportions of individual FA, groups of FA, or FA indices were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), considering diet, breed, DIM, and sampling period as sources of variation. The random effect of animal was used to test diet, breed, and DIM, whereas the effects of period were tested on the residual. Breed had a small influence on milk FA profile, mainly on branched- and odd-chain FA. Within breed, animal repeatability for the relative proportions of milk FA was notable for almost all monounsaturated FA and for saturated FA with 14 to 19 carbon atoms, except C16:0, and less so for polyunsaturated FA. The inclusion of rpCLA (CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12) increased the presence of the same CLA isomers in the milk as well as that of CLA trans-9,trans-11, and decreased the proportions of de novo

  6. Effects of supplemental fat on growth performance and quality of beef from steers fed barley-potato product finishing diets: II. Fatty acid composition of muscle and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Marks, D J; Nelson, M L; Busboom, J R; Cronrath, J D; Falen, L

    2004-12-01

    One hundred sixty-eight crossbred steers (317.1 +/- 1.0 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat in finishing diets on the fatty acid composition, including the 9,11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, of beef. Steers were allotted within three weight blocks to a randomized complete block design with a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Main effects were level of yellow restaurant grease (RG; 0, 3, and 6%), and level of alfalfa hay (AH; 3.5 and 7%) with an added treatment containing 6% tallow (T) and 7% AH in barley-based diets containing 15% potato by-product and 7% supplement (all dietary levels are on a DM basis) fed for an average of 165 d. Fatty acids of the LM and s.c. fat from four randomly selected steers per pen were quantified using GC after methylation with sodium methoxide. Dietary treatment did not (P > 0.10) affect total fatty acid (FA) content of the LM (143 +/- 5.2 mg/g) or fat (958 +/- 7.9 mg/g). Myristic acid increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing RG from 3.1 to 3.7 +/- 0.1 g/100 g of FA in muscle. Stearic acid increased linearly (P < 0.05) as RG increased in the diet, from 11.4 to 12.9 +/- 0.4 g/100 g of FA in LM and from 9.9 to 12.2 +/- 0.3 g/100 g of FA in fat. Compared with T, steers fed 6% RG had more (P < 0.05) oleic acid in LM (42.7 vs. 40.3 +/- 0.5 g/100g FA) and in fat (43.0 vs. 40.9 +/- 0.5 g/100g FA). The cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary RG in LM from 0.45 to 0.64 to 0.62 +/- 0.03 g/100 g of FA and increased in fat from 0.61 to 0.84 to 0.83 +/- 0.04 g/100 g of FA. Moreover, cis-9, trans-11 CLA was higher (P < 0.05) in fat from steers fed RG compared with T (0.81 vs. 0.69 +/- 0.04 g/100 g of FA), and tended to be higher (P = 0.07) in muscle (0.62 vs. 0.54 +/- 0.03 g/100 g of FA. Feeding yellow restaurant grease increased content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in beef without an increase total FA content. PMID:15537782

  7. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal digestion of OM and NDF, and increased (linear, P < 0.05) ruminal N efficiency. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P < 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal starch digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation increased postruminal digestion of starch in heavier steers but did not affect starch digestion in lighter steers. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal fatty acid digestion, which was due to a decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of C16:0 and C18:0. Supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) total-tract digestion of OM and NDF. The estimated NEm (Mcal/kg) of yellow grease averaged (linear, P < 0.01) 6.02, 5.70, and 5.06 for the 3, 6, and 9% of level supplementation, respectively. We conclude that intestinal fatty acid digestion (FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) of total fatty acid intake per unit body weight (FAI, g/kg BW): FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes

  8. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  9. Effect of supplementation with different fat sources on the mechanisms involved in reproductive performance in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, I A; Hennessy, A A; Waters, S M; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2012-07-01

    Supplementary fat positively influences reproductive performance in dairy cattle, although the mechanisms involved are not clearly defined. Our objective was to determine the effects of four different fat supplements on follicle development, plasma steroid hormone concentrations and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in lactating dairy cattle. Forty-eight early lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (21 primiparous, 27 multiparous) were used in a completely randomized block design. Cows were fed the same basal TMR diet and received one of four fat supplements: (i) palmitic acid (18:0 fatty acid; Control), (ii) flaxseed (rich in 18:3 n-3 fatty acid; Flax), (iii) conjugated linoleic acid (a mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers; CLA), and (iv) fish oil (rich in 20:5 and 22:6 n-3 fatty acids; FO). All lipid supplements were formulated to be isolipidic; palmitic acid was added as necessary to provide a total lipid supplement intake of 500 g/day. Cows were synchronized to be in estrus on Day 15 of dietary treatment. All antral follicles were counted, and dominant follicles, subordinate follicles and corpora lutea were measured daily via transrectal ovarian ultrasonography for one complete estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected daily, and selected samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids. Estrus was synchronized a second time, and liver and endometrial biopsies were collected on Day 7 of the estrous cycle. Gene expression was evaluated for a number of genes involved in prostaglandin synthesis (endometrium) and fatty acid uptake and utilization (liver). Fat supplementation had little effect on follicle development. Cows receiving supplementary n-3 fatty acids had lesser plasma progesterone (P4) and smaller corpora lutea than cows receiving the CLA or Control supplements. Effects of fat supplementation on the endometrial expression of genes involved in PG synthesis were

  10. Folic Acid Supplementation Adversely Affects Chemosensitivity of Colon Cancer Cells to 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Lisa; Yang, Michael; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Streutker, Catherine J; Grin, Andrea; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Folic acid (FA) fortification and widespread supplemental use have significantly increased folate status in North America. Furthermore, >50% of colorectal cancer patients use FA supplement. The increased folate status may interfere with cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of FA supplementation on chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using a xenograft model. Mice harboring human HCT116 colon cancer xenografts were randomized to receive the control, or 4× or 12.5× supplemental levels of FA. Within each diet group, mice were randomized to receive 5-FU+leucovorin or saline and xenograft growth and characteristics were determined. The expression of genes involved in folate metabolism and cancer treatment was determined. FA supplementation and 5-FU significantly interacted to influence xenograft growth (P < 0.007). At the control level, 5-FU significantly inhibited the growth of the xenografts (P < 0.0001). However, at the 4× supplemental level, 5-FU-treated xenografts grew faster than untreated xenografts (P = 0.048) while at the 12.5× supplemental level, 5-FU exhibited no effect. Cell proliferation, degree of necrosis, and expression of the selected genes did not significantly differ by the supplemental levels of FA. Our data suggest that FA supplementation may be detrimental to 5-FU chemotherapy of colon cancer and pose public health concern.

  11. The fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of steers offered unwilted or wilted grass silage supplemented with sunflower oil and fishoil.

    PubMed

    Noci, F; Monahan, F J; Scollan, N D; Moloney, A P

    2007-03-01

    The effects of the type of grass silage and dietary inclusion of fish oil (FO) on the fatty acid profile of bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue were investigated. Eighty Friesian steers were assigned (n 10) to unwilted or wilted silage, and to one of four rations which contained, per kg, 80 g of sunflower oil and either 0, 10, 20 or 40 g of FO replacing lard. Animals were slaughtered after 108 d and the fatty acid profile of the neutral, polar and total lipid fractions of the M. longissimus dorsi, and the total lipid fraction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined. Wilting of grass prior to ensiling increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in intramuscular total lipid (P<0 x 01), but did not affect the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Increasing FO supply linearly increased (P<0 x 05) the concentration of the cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers of CLA and trans-11 18 : 1 predominantly in the neutral lipid fraction of intramuscular total lipid, and linearly decreased the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Wilting of grass prior to ensiling increased the concentration of CLA in subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<0 x 001), while increasing FO supply linearly increased the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. From a human nutrition perspective, increasing the level of FO in the ration or wilting of grass prior to ensiling appear to modify the fatty acid composition of beef muscle favourably. However, the health implications of associated increases in trans fatty acids remain to be elucidated.

  12. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p < 0.05) dressing yield and loin eye area with Ca-FA supplementation. The value of thiobarbituric reactive substances for nuggets prepared from frozen carcasses revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in T3 compared to the other dietary groups. Fatty acid profile of adipose tissue revealed higher (p < 0.001) 9-octadecanoic, 9-12-octadecadienoic, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), higher ratio of PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA), ω-6/ω-3 and lower SFA in Ca-FA-supplemented groups. It is concluded that supplementation of 40 g/kg calcium soap prepared from industrial grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40

  13. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not.

  14. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  15. Amino acid supplementation decreases plasma and liver triglycerides in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bui, Quynh-Uyen T.; Tissier, Sandrine; Cree, Melanie G.; Rønsen, Ola; Morio, Beatrice; Ferrando, Arny A.; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AA supplementation on plasma, liver and muscle lipid concentrations and insulin sensitivity in elderly. Methods Twelve impaired glucose tolerant elderly (67.0 ± 5.6 (SD) years, 7 females, 5 males) ingested 11 g of essential AA + arginine twice a day for 16 weeks, after a 7 week control run in. Diet and activity were not otherwise modified. Plasma lipid concentrations and oral glucose tolerance were measured every 4th week, and tissue lipid concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) every 8th week. Results No changes in plasma lipids were observed during the control run-in. AA supplementation lowered plasma triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.048) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P < 0.001) concentrations. Plasma TG dropped ~20% from the initial value of 1.45 ± 0.18 (SE) mmol/l (128 ± 16 mg/dl), with greatest decrease in the subjects starting out with highest concentrations (r = −0.83). Similarly, liver fat content (liver TG/intralipid standard) decreased ~50% from the initial value of 0.34 ± 0.06 (P = 0.021; n = 9), with greatest decrease in the subjects that initially had highest values (r = −0.86). Intramuscular fat content and insulin sensitivity did not change. Conclusion Diet supplementation with AA lowers plasma TG, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations, and liver lipid content in impaired glucose tolerant elderly. AA supplementation may have a potential role in treatment of hypertriglyceridemia or hepatic steatosis. PMID:19041223

  16. Folic acid supplementation for 4 weeks affects liver morphology in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Roncalés, María; Achón, María; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Maestro de las Casas, Carmen; Ramírez, Carmen; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Julia

    2004-05-01

    Several countries have approved universal folic acid (FA) fortification to prevent neural tube defects and/or high homocysteine levels; this has led to a chronic intake of FA. Traditionally, the vitamin is considered to be safe and nontoxic, except for the potential masking of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Recent reports from our laboratories showed several effects of high-dose folate supplementation in rats. In this work, we compared the effect of FA on the liver of weanling (3 wk) and aged (18 mo) male rats fed either a diet supplemented with 40 mg FA/kg diet or a control diet (1 mg FA/kg diet) for 4 wk. FA supplementation did not alter serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, glucose oxidase, total bilirubin, or uric acid. Routine histological staining as well as immunohistochemistry with proliferating cell nuclear antibody for dividing cells, and cytokeratin-8 against bile ductal cells, showed that aged, supplemented rats had the same number of hepatocytes as both control and supplemented weanling rats, and tended to have more (17%, P = 0.07) hepatocytes than aged, control rats. Moreover, the bile duct cells of aged, control rats proliferated and transformed into cholestatic rosettes at a higher frequency than in aged, supplemented rats. The morphology of the liver in weanling rats was similar in both diet groups, and comparable to the supplemented, aged rats, thus indicating that a high intake of FA improves normal liver morphology in livers of aged rats.

  17. Rapeseed and sunflower oilcake as supplements for dairy sheep: animal performance and milk fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Amores, Gustavo; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Mandaluniz, Nerea; Arranz, Josune; Bustamante, María Angeles; Valdivielso, Izaskun; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Aser; Barron, Luis J R; de Renobales, Mertxe

    2014-11-01

    The influence of different amounts of oilseed cake (rapeseed and sunflower) on animal production parameters and fatty acid (FA) concentrations of the milk was studied in a Latxa dairy sheep experimental flock, both in winter (50% oilcakes; indoor feeding) and in spring (30% oilcakes; part-time grazing). The two different levels of the oilcakes tested did not affect animal production parameters or milk yield. Milk fat content and the fat/protein ratio decreased significantly with 30 and 50% sunflower cake. Yet, fat/protein ratio values were within the range for cheesemaking. Both levels of either type of oilcake tested significantly increased the concentrations of nutritionally interesting FA (CLA isomer C18:2cis-9, trans-11, vaccenic, oleic, and total unsaturated FA), while simultaneously decreasing the concentration of atherogenic FA. The atherogenicity indexes of milks from ewes fed 50 or 30% of either oilcake were significantly lower than those of their corresponding control. The use of cakes in winter increased the concentration of nutritionally interesting FA to the values obtained with part-time grazing.

  18. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study.

  19. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study. PMID:25665795

  20. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional

  1. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional

  2. Effect of daily food supplementation with essential fatty acids on canine semen quality.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, A A; da Cunha, I C N; Ederli, B B; Albernaz, A P; Quirino, C R

    2009-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important membrane components that influence membrane integrity and fluidity. In the present study, the effect of oral supplementation for 60 days with essential fatty acids (omega 3, 6 and 9) and vitamin E on canine semen quality was evaluated. Sixteen dogs were selected for the experiment; eight were used as the control group and eight received the fatty acid supplemented diet for 60 days. Semen samples were taken every 15 days during the entire experimental period and were analyzed for volume (ml), motility (%), vigour (0-5), concentration (x10(6)/ml), morphology of spermatozoa (%), plasma membrane integrity (%; using the hyposmotic swelling test) and thermoresistance (motility and vigour after 4 h at 38 degrees C). We concluded that, daily supplementation with omega 3, omega 6 and omega 9 fatty acids, together with vitamin E, for a period of 60 days, significantly increased the semen volume of the treated group after 15 days of supplementation; the vigour and concentration of spermatozoa were superior after the first month of supplementation, while the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa decreased and the cells were protected against thermal stress.

  3. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future.

  4. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future. PMID:16466091

  5. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  6. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  7. Protein quality of supplements and meal replacements. Amino acids and calculated indicators of protein quality.

    PubMed

    Marable, N L; Hinners, M L; Hardison, N W; Kehrberg, N L

    1980-09-01

    The amino acid composition of several types of dietary supplements and meal replacements was measured and compared with label values when available and to published values for egg. Calculated indicators of protein quality, such as chemical score, protein calorie:total calorie ratio, individual essential amino acid:total essential amino acid ratio, and total essential amino acid:total amino acid ratio were also compared for products, egg, and the estimated pattern of adult requirements. Predigested liquid protein products were notably lower in protein quality than other products. All non-predigested products compared favorably with egg in terms of protein quality, but were more expensive and had no advantages over regular meals in terms of protein quality as reducing aids or protein supplements.

  8. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  9. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  10. Effect of supplemental folic acid on valproic acid-induced embryotoxicity and tissue zinc levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D K; Grafton, T F; Dial, S L; Gehring, T A; Siitonen, P H

    1995-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-convulsant drug known to cause spina bifida in humans. Administration of the vitamin, folic acid, has been shown to decrease the recurrence and possibly also the occurrence of neural tube defects, primarily spina bifida, in humans. Additionally, treatment with a derivative (folinic acid) of folic acid has been reported to decrease the frequency of VPA-induced exencephaly in mice treated with the drug in vivo. A protective effect by folinic acid has not been observed in vitro. The purpose of this investigation was to reexamine the ability of folinic acid to decrease the incidence of VPA-induced neural tube defects in vivo. We also examined the effect of increased intake of folic acid on zinc levels in various maternal and embryonic tissues. Folinic acid, whether administered by intraperitoneal injection or in osmotic mini-pumps, did not decrease the number of mouse fetuses with VPA-induced exencephaly. Dietary supplementation with 10-20 times the daily required intake of folic acid in rodents also failed to decrease the embryotoxicity of VPA. Such dietary supplementation had no effect on zinc levels in maternal liver, brain, or kidney, nor in embryonic tissues. These results indicate that folic acid is not able to reverse the embryotoxicity induced by the anticonvulsant, that there is no apparent effect of high dietary folate intake on maternal or embryonic zinc levels and suggest that folate is probably not involved in the mechanism of VPA-induced embryotoxicity. PMID:8838251

  11. Identification of enriched conjugated linoleic acid isomers in cultures of ruminal microorganisms after dosing with 1-(13)C-linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jae; Jenkins, Thomas C

    2011-08-01

    Most studies of linoleic acid biohydrogenation propose that it converts to stearic acid through the production of cis-9 trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1. However, several other CLA have been identified in ruminai contents, suggesting additional pathways may exist. To explore this possibility, this research investigated the linoleic acid biohydrogenation pathway to identify CLA isomers in cultures of ruminai microorganisms after dosing with a (13)C stable isotope. The (13)C enrichment was calculated as [(M+1/M)×100] in labeled minus unlabeled cultures. After 48 h incubation, significant (13)C enrichment was observed in seven CLA isomers, indicating their formation from linoleic acid. All enriched CLA isomers had double bonds in either the 9,11 or 10,12 position except for trans-9 cis-11 CLA. The cis-9 trans-11 CLA exhibited the highest enrichment (30.65%), followed by enrichments from 21.06 to 23.08% for trans-10 cis-12, cis-10 trans-12, trans-9 trans-11, and trans-10 trans-12 CLA. The remaining two CLA (cis-9 cis-11 and cis-10 cis-12 CLA) exhibited enrichments of 18.38 and 19.29%, respectively. The results of this study verified the formation of cis-9 trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 CLA isomers from linoleic acid biohydrogenation. An additional five CLA isomers also contained carbons originating from linoleic acid, indicating that pathways of linoleic acid biohydrogenation are more complex than previously described.

  12. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid–sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4‐1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3‐ to 5‐fold higher in Northern China and 3‐fold higher in India. A recent population‐based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with

  13. The proteomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose conditions with amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Wright, Phillip C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose (VHG) media with an amino acid supplement was investigated. Amino acid supplementation led to positive cell responses, including reduced lag time and increased cell viability in VHG media. A quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was used to understand how amino acid supplemented S. cerevisiae responds to high osmotic conditions. iTRAQ data revealed that most proteins involved in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated under high glucose shock. Reactivation of amino acid metabolism was also observed at the end of the lag phase. The relative abundance of most identified proteins, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis proteins, and heat-shock proteins, remained unchanged in the hours immediately following application of glucose shock. However, the expression of these proteins increased significantly at the end of the lag phase. Furthermore, the up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis proteins, first maintaining then latterly increasing glycolysis pathway activity was also observed. This was verified by enhanced ethanol yields at 10 and 12 h (0.43 and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose) compared to 2 h (0.32 g ethanol/g glucose). These data combined with relevant metabolite measurements demonstrates that enhanced ethanol fermentation under VHG conditions can be achieved with the aid of amino acid supplementation.

  14. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  15. Effects of supplemental protein on acid-base status and calcium metabolism of nonlactating Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Beede, D K

    1990-11-01

    The objective was to study effects of 11, 15, and 19% dietary CP on acid-base status, Ca balance, and metabolic responses to intravenous infusion of disodium EDTA. Dietary protein content was increased by supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal and distillers dried grains with solubles to a concentrate combined with cottonseed hulls (40:60). Six nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Jersey cows (average 6.7 yr old) were used in two balanced 3 x 3 Latin squares with 24-d periods. Increasing supplemental CP decreased blood base excess, urinary titratable base, and net base excretion, but increased urinary ammonium excretion. Calcium excretion and balance were not affected by supplemental CP. Analysis to detect heterogeneity of regression showed that response of plasma EDTA-free Ca to EDTA infusion over time was not different among treatments. Increasing supplemental protein induced mild acidosis but did not affect Ca balance or responses to Ca removal from blood (via EDTA infusion) of non-lactating cows.

  16. Role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects: physicians yet unaware!

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Kumhar, G Das; Harit, D; Faridi, M M A

    2010-09-01

    Folic acid supplementation is important in the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD). The study was conducted to assess the awareness amongst physicians regarding the role of Folic Acid (FA) in the prevention of NTD. Physicians were interviewed regarding the awareness of FA dose, timing of supplementation and knowledge about its role in prevention of neural tube defects using a semistructured questionnaire. Among 202 physicians interviewed (48 pediatricians, 54 obstetricians, 100 recently qualified medical graduates) overall awareness about FA was present in 92.07%, similar in three groups (P > 0.05). Only 47.52% were aware of preconception administration, 61.38% about dose of supplementation and 11.88% about recurrence rate of NTD. Only 15 (7.4%) knew all these. Regarding the etiology of NTDs only 26.7% said both FA and genetic factors are involved. Though majority were aware that folic acid has a role in prevention of NTDs, their knowledge about timing and dose of supplementation was lacking. Hence attempts should be made to increase the awareness regarding prevention of NTD's by FA supplementation at a proper time.

  17. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maria J; Veldhuizen, Maria G; de Araujo, Ivan E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers.

  18. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  19. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  20. High dose of maternal folic acid supplementation is associated to infant asthma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Liwen; Bi, Meirong; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Youqing; He, Chuan; Yao, Yao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation had a positive effect on preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), but its effects in infant asthma remained unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with outpatients between March 2010 and March 2011 including 150 onset infant asthma cases and 212 controls, together with a meta-analysis involving 14,438 participants, was performed. The association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of infant asthma was not significant either in the meta-analysis (OR = 1.06, 95% CI =0.99-1.14) or in the case-control study (OR = 0.72, 95% CI =0.37-1.39). However, quantitative analysis of the supplementation dose demonstrated that the risk of infant asthma significantly increased for the infants whose mother were with high-dose supplementation (>72,000 µg•d; OR = 3.16, 95% CI =1.15-8.71) after adjusting for confounding factors in the case-control study. Meanwhile, the risk of infant asthma significantly decreased for the infants whose mother were with low-dose supplementation (<36,000 µg•d; OR = 0.36, 95% CI =0.17-0.77). A high dose of folic acid supplementation for mother during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of infant asthma, whereas supplementation with a relatively low-dose was associated with a decreased risk of infant asthma. These findings should be further investigated in a large population.

  1. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

  2. Fermentanomics informed amino acid supplementation of an antibody producing mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Read, Erik K; Bradley, Scott A; Smitka, Tim A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Lute, Scott C; Brorson, Kurt A

    2013-01-01

    Fermentanomics, or a global understanding of a culture state on the molecular level empowered by advanced techniques like NMR, was employed to show that a model hybridoma culture supplied with glutamine and glucose depletes aspartate, cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, and tyrosine during antibody production. Supplementation with these amino acids prevents depletion and improves culture performance. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the distribution of glycans attached to the IgG3 in cultures supplemented with specific amino acids, arguing that this strategy can be implemented without fear of impact on important product quality attributes. In summary, a targeted strategy of quantifying media components and designing a supplementation strategy can improve bioprocess cell cultures when enpowered by fermentanomics tools.

  3. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Klemp, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  4. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  5. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  6. Effects of extruded linseed supplementation on n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk and cheese from ewes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Bach, A; Luna, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of extruded linseed on animal performance and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk for the production of n-3 FA- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses. A Manchega ewe flock (300 animals) receiving a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet was divided into 3 groups supplemented with 0, 6, and 12 g of extruded linseed/100 g of dry matter for the control, low, and high extruded linseed diets, respectively. Bulk and individual milk samples from 5 dairy ewes per group were monitored at 7, 14, 28, 45, and 60 d following supplementation. Manchego cheeses were made with bulk milk from the 3 treatment groups. Milk yield increased in dairy ewes receiving extruded linseed. Milk protein, fat, and total solids contents were not affected by linseed supplementation. Milk contents of alpha-linolenic acid increased from 0.36 with the control diet to 1.91% total FA with the high extruded linseed diet. Similarly, cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 rose from 0.73 to 2.33% and its precursor in the mammary gland, trans-11 C18:1, increased from 1.55 to 5.76% of total FA. This pattern occurred with no significant modification of the levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 FA. Furthermore, the high extruded linseed diet reduced C12:0 (-30%), C14:0 (-15%) and C16:0 (-28%), thus significantly diminishing the atherogenicity index of milk. The response to linseed supplementation was persistently maintained during the entire study. Acceptability attributes of n-3-enriched versus control cheeses ripened for 3 mo were not affected. Therefore, extruded linseed supplementation seems a plausible strategy to improve animal performance and nutritional quality of dairy lipids in milk and cheese from ewes. PMID:19700673

  7. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL USE OF FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTS AND RISK OF AUTISM IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Surén, Pål; Roth, Christine; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Haugen, Margaretha; Hornig, Mady; Hirtz, Deborah; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Smith, George Davey; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Susser, Ezra; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Context Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and the subsequent risk of autistic disorder in children. Design, Setting, and Patients The study sample of 85,176 was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002–08. By the end of follow-up on March 31st, 2012, the age range was 3.3–10.2 years and the mean age 6.4 years. The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy. The start of pregnancy was defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASD were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity. Main Outcome Measure Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autistic disorder. Results To date, 114 children in the study sample have been diagnosed with autistic disorder. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41–0.90). Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use. Conclusion Prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception were associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. PMID:23403681

  8. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  9. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (P<0.05) feed conversion in the period from one to 42 d of age. The ability of cell proliferation and the villus:crypt ratio in response to enteric challenge were greater (P<0.05) for broilers that received diets supplemented with amino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges.

  10. The Effect of Forage Level and Oil Supplement on Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Anaerovibrio lipolytica in Continuous Culture Fermenters.

    PubMed

    Gudla, P; Ishlak, A; AbuGhazaleh, A A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forage level and oil supplement on selected strains of rumen bacteria believed to be involved in biohydrogenation (BH). A continuous culture system consisting of four fermenters was used in a 4×4 Latin square design with a factorial arrangement of treatments, with four 10 d consecutive periods. Treatment diets were: i) high forage diet (70:30 forage to concentrate (dry matter basis); HFC), ii) high forage plus oil supplement (HFO), iii) low forage diet (30:70 forage to concentrate; LFC), and iv) low forage plus oil supplement (LFO). The oil supplement was a blend of fish oil and soybean oil added at 1 and 2 g/100 g dry matter, respectively. Treatment diets were fed for 10 days and samples were collected from each fermenter on the last day of each period 3 h post morning feeding. The concentrations of vaccenic acid (t11C18:1; VA) and c9t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater with the high forage diet while the concentrations of t10 C18:1 and t10c12 CLA were greater with the low forage diet and addition of oil supplement increased their concentrations at both forage levels. The DNA abundance of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens vaccenic acid subgroup (Butyrivibrio VA) were lower with the low forage diets but not affected by oil supplement. The DNA abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens stearic acid producer subgroup (Butyrivibrio SA) was not affected by forage level or oil supplement. In conclusion, oil supplement had no effects on the tested rumen bacteria and forage level affected Anaerovibrio lipolytica and Butyrivibrio VA. PMID:25049556

  11. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  12. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Bombardier, Eric; Irvine, Thomas; Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D; Duhamel, Todd; Rush, James W E; Green, Howard J; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the efficiency and increase the energy consumption of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump and mitochondrial electron transport chain by promoting Na(+) and H(+) membrane permeability, respectively. In skeletal muscle, the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are major contributors to resting metabolic rate. Whether DHA can affect SERCA efficiency remains unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with DHA would reduce Ca(2+) transport efficiency of the SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle. Total lipids were extracted from enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes that were isolated from red vastus lateralis skeletal muscles of rats that were either fed a standard chow diet supplemented with soybean oil or supplemented with DHA for 8 weeks. The fatty acid composition of total SR membrane lipids and the major phospholipid species were determined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After 8 weeks of DHA supplementation, total SR DHA content was significantly elevated (control, 4.1 ± 1.0% vs. DHA, 9.9 ± 1.7%; weight percent of total fatty acids) while total arachidonic acid was reduced (control, 13.5 ± 0.4% vs. DHA-fed, 9.4 ± 0.2). Similar changes in these fatty acids were observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol, altogether indicating successful incorporation of DHA into the SR membranes post-diet. As hypothesized, DHA supplementation reduced SERCA Ca(2+) transport efficiency (control, 0.018 ± 0.0002 vs. DHA-fed, 0.014 ± 0.0009) possibly through enhanced SR Ca(2+) permeability (ionophore ratio: control, 2.8 ± 0.2 vs. DHA-fed, 2.2 ± 0.3). Collectively, our results suggest that DHA may promote skeletal muscle-based metabolism and thermogenesis through its influence on SERCA.

  13. Dietary supplements of folic acid during lactation: effects on the performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J

    1998-05-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid administered from 4 wk prepartum to 305 d of lactation on lactational performance. Sixty-three Holstein cows were assigned to 22 blocks of 3 cows according to lactation number, milk production, and body weight (BW). Within each block, cows received 0, 2, or 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d. Dietary supplements of folic acid increased serum and milk folates but affected milk production and composition of primiparous and multiparous cows differently. Supplementary folic acid had little effect on milk production and composition of primiparous cows, except that milk production decreased during the first 100 d of lactation. However, during a complete lactation (3 to 305 d after calving), supplementary folic acid was associated with increased milk production by multiparous cows (8284 +/- 560, 8548 +/- 380, and 8953 +/- 191 kg for cows fed diets supplemented with 0, 2, and 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d, respectively). The percentage of ash in milk was decreased for cows fed the highest amount of dietary folic acid. During the first 100 d of lactation, supplementary folic acid was associated with a lower concentration of nonprotein nitrogen in the milk of multiparous cows. The present study confirms results obtained previously, suggesting that, although the supply of folates from an unsupplemented diet and the ruminal microflora is sufficient to avoid a deficiency in folic acid, supplementary folic acid may increase the milk production of cows in the second lactation or greater.

  14. High Dosage Folic Acid Supplementation, Oral Cleft Recurrence and Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Félix, Têmis Maria; Goco, Norman; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Souza, Josiane; Pereira, Rui; Padovani, Carla; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. Patients and Methods: The study included 2,508 women who were at-risk for oral cleft recurrence and randomized into two folic acid supplementation groups: 0.4 and 4 mg per day before pregnancy and throughout the first trimester. The infant outcome data were based on 234 live births. In addition to oral cleft recurrence, several secondary outcomes were compared between the two folic acid groups. Cleft recurrence rates were also compared to historic recurrence rates. Results: The oral cleft recurrence rates were 2.9% and 2.5% in the 0.4 and 4 mg groups, respectively. The recurrence rates in the two folic acid groups both separately and combined were significantly different from the 6.3% historic recurrence rate post the folic acid fortification program for this population (p = 0.0009 when combining the two folic acid groups). The rate of cleft lip with palate recurrence was 2.9% in the 0.4 mg group and 0.8% in the 4 mg group. There were no elevated fetal growth complications in the 4 mg group compared to the 0.4 mg group. Conclusions: The study is the first double-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT) to study the effect of high dosage folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence. The recurrence rates were similar between the two folic acid groups. However, the results are suggestive of a decrease in oral cleft recurrence compared to the historic recurrence rate. A RCT is still needed to identify the effect of folic acid on oral cleft recurrence given these suggestive results and the supportive results from previous interventional and observational studies, and the study offers suggestions for such future studies. The results also suggest that high dosage folic acid does not compromise fetal growth. PMID:23380913

  15. Effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine concentration and association with training in handball players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strenuous physical activity can alter the status of folic acid, a vitamin directly associated with homocysteine (Hcy); alterations in this nutrient are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Handball players are a population at risk for nutrient deficiency because of poor dietary habits. Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate nutritional status for macronutrients and folic acid in members of a high-performance handball team, and determine the effect of a nutritional intervention with folic acid supplementation and education. Design A total of 14 high-performance handball players were monitored by recording training time, training intensity (according to three levels of residual heart rate (RHR): <60%, 60%–80% and >80%), and subjective perceived exertion (RPE) during a 4-month training period. Nutritional, laboratory and physical activity variables were recorded at baseline (Week 0), after 2 months of dietary supplementation with 200 μg folic acid (50% of the recommended daily allowance) (Week 8) and after 2 months without supplementation (Week 16). We compared training load and analyzed changes in plasma concentrations of Hcy before and after the intervention. Results Bivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy and folic acid concentrations (r = −0.84) at Week 8, reflecting a significant change in Hcy concentration (P < 0.05) as a result of hyperhomocysteinemia following the accumulation of high training loads. At Week 16 we observed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy concentration and training time with an RHR <60%, indicating that aerobic exercise avoided abrupt changes in Hcy and may thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular accidents in high-performance athletes. Conclusion Integral monitoring and education are needed for practitioners of handball sports to record their folic acid status, a factor that directly affects Hcy metabolism. Folic acid

  16. Folic acid supplement use is the most significant predictor of folate concentrations in Canadian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; O'Connor, Deborah L; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    One-fifth of Canadian women of childbearing age (WCBA) have red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations below those considered optimal for neural tube defect risk reduction (≥906 nmol·L(-1)). Determinants of optimal concentrations have not been examined in a nationally representative sample of Canadian WCBA since food fortification with folic acid was implemented. This study explored correlates of optimal RBC folate concentrations and characteristics of folic acid supplement users in a sample of Canadian WCBA. RBC folate concentrations from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey were assessed in women aged 15 to 45 years (n = 1162). Sociodemographic, behavioural, and clinical determinants of RBC folate ≥906 nmol·L(-1) were examined using univariate and separate multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age and household income. t tests were used to study differences between folic acid supplement users and nonusers. WCBA not taking folic acid supplements were less likely to achieve a RBC folate concentration ≥906 nmol·L(-1) compared with folic acid supplement users (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24, 0.92). Twenty-five percent of WCBA reported folic acid supplement use, and there was a higher percentage of folic acid supplement users in the highest income group. Folic acid supplement users were also more frequent consumers of supplemental vitamin B(12) and of fruit and vegetables (>3 times per day). Folic acid supplement use was the most significant predictor of WCBA achieving optimal RBC folate concentrations. These results indicate a need for targeted strategies to improve compliance with folic acid supplement recommendations among WCBA.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).

    PubMed

    Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou

    2015-02-01

    Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty acid to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty acid profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could

  18. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  19. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  20. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-12-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

  1. Analysis of possible influence of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance and losses of piglets.

    PubMed

    Hadaš, Z; Čechová, M; Nevrkla, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementing the feed ration for lactating sows with the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance and losses of piglets from birth to weaning. The monitoring comprised 20 litters in control and 20 litters in experimental group of Czech Large White × Czech Landrace hybrid combination sows. The control group was given a standard feed mixture for lactating sows, and experimental group was fed with the feed mixture supplemented with 2% of CLA, from the day of farrowing to the weaning of piglets, that is for the time of 28 days. The results of the experiment indicate the significantly better parameters of the numbers of reared piglets in the experimental group and the related lower level of losses of piglets from birth to weaning (p < 0.01). However, the feed mixture for lactating sows enriched in conjugated linoleic acid had no significant effect on the growth performance of piglets from birth to weaning (p > 0.05). Sows in the experimental group showed earlier onset of post-partal oestrus after weaning of piglets (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that the supplementation of diet for lactating sows with CLA can improve survival of piglets from birth to weaning and shortening of weaning-to-oestrous interval in sows.

  2. Folic Acid Supplementation and Cardiac and Stroke Mortality among Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leung, June; Larive, Brett; Dwyer, Johanna; Hibberd, Patricia; Jacques, Paul; Rand, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess whether use of folic acid vitamin supplements reduces cardiac and stroke mortality in hemodialysis patients. Further, we examined whether consumption of folic acid from vitamin supplements greater than 1000 μg compared to standard 1000 μg, and 1000 μg compared to either lower dose or no consumption were associated with reduced cardiac and stroke mortality risk. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, a randomized clinical trial examining dialysis treatment regimens over three years follow-up. Participants: One thousand eight hundred and forty-six hemodialysis patients previously participating in the HEMO study. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure Cardiac and stroke mortality. Results From time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regression models, folic acid consumption from vitamin supplements, above or below the standard 1000 μg dose was not associated with decrease or increase in cardiac mortality (P = 0.53 above vs. standard dose and P = 0.46, below vs. standard dose). There was also no association between folic acid consumption and mortality from stroke (P = 0.27, above vs. standard dose and P = 0.64, below vs. standard dose). Conclusion Consumption of higher than the standard 1000 μg prescribed dose of folic acid was not beneficial in reducing cardiac or stroke mortality in hemodialysis patients. Similarly, consumption of lower than standard dose was not associated with an increase in either cardiac or stroke mortality. PMID:20303789

  3. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  4. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  5. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  6. Pilot study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ibegbulam, Obike; Duru, Augustine; Ocheni, Sunday; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Umar, Garba; Asinobi, Isaac; Madu, Anazoeze; Okoye, Augustine; Nwagha, Tessy; Oguonu, Uche; Uamai, Ify; Agwu, Obineche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anike, Uche; Agu, Kingsley; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Herrada, Sagrario

    2011-07-01

    In a previous retrospective study, it was observed that the greater the amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood, the lesser the number of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the higher the steady state haemoglobin level. SCD causes ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation; which can be ameliorated by a metabolite of DHA that down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The objectives of this prospective pilot study were to evaluate the effects of DHA and EPA supplements in SCD, and test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated partly by reducing inflammation. Oral DHA and EPA supplements were given to 16 SCD patients for 6 months. We then compared pre- and post-supplementation values of number of crisis, steady state Hb, plasma unconjugated bilirubin and three indices of inflammation: plasma interleukin-6, blood neutrophil and platelet counts. There was a significant reduction in the plasma level of unconjugated bilirubin, and the number of sickle cell crisis; but not in the markers of inflammation. The pilot data suggest that DHA and EPA supplements reduce the number of crisis and steady state haemolysis in SCD; but provide no evidence that these effects are mediated by reducing inflammation.

  7. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes. PMID:21761236

  8. Nicotinic acid supplementation in the context of alcoholic liver injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2014-07-01

    Li and colleagues (2014) in this issue report that dietary nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation ameliorates ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but a deficiency does not worsen injury induced by alcohol alone. The authors further present some mechanistic insights into the protective role of NA supplementation. Results of this and other previous studies in the context of alcoholic liver injury raise one important question as to what should be an adequate dose of NA that will provide the maximum benefit to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues and with minimum adverse effects.

  9. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dangardt, Frida; Chen, Yun; Gronowitz, Eva; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Friberg, Peter; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 months each with a six-week washout period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipids were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed, and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3 PUFA in muscle phospholipids increased in both sexes. In the females, omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation improved glucose tolerance by 39% (P = 0.04) and restored insulin concentration by 34% (P = 0.02) during IVGTT. Insulin sensitivity improved 17% (P = 0.07). In males, none of these parameters was influenced by omega-3 supplementation. Thus, three months of supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA improved glucose and insulin homeostasis in obese girls without influencing body weight. PMID:22523671

  10. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  11. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  12. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  13. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial. PMID:27528436

  14. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  15. DNA methylation in Folbp1 knockout mice supplemented with folic acid during gestation.

    PubMed

    Finnell, Richard H; Spiegelstein, Ofer; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Triplett, Aleata; Pogribny, Igor P; Melnyk, Stepan; James, Jill S

    2002-08-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation has been shown to prevent up to 70% of neural tube and other birth defects in humans; however, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we tested whether defective intracellular folate transport, as achieved by inactivation of the murine folate-binding protein 1 (Folbp1), affects global DNA methylation in the liver and brain from gestational day (GD) 15 embryos. Complete Folbp1 inactivation is embryolethal but can be reversed by maternal folinic acid (FA) supplementation, and thus we also tested the effect of FA supplementation on DNA methylation in Folbp1 fetuses. Overall, the extent of global DNA methylation seems to be similar across all genotypes in unsupplemented control Folbp1 mice; however, explicit conclusions regarding Folbp1(-/-) fetuses were not possible because only a single living unsupplemented fetus was viable at GD 15. FA supplementation induced global DNA hypomethylation across all genotypes. FA-induced hypomethylation is most likely due to its ability to inhibit the enzyme glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, thereby inhibiting the homocysteine remethylation cycle necessary to regenerate S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor for DNA methyltransferases. Our hypothesis was that due to defective folate transport in Folbp1(-/-) embryos and fetuses, DNA would be hypomethylated, thereby altering the temporal expression of critical genes necessary for normal embryonic development. However, these results suggest that an extended examination of changes in DNA methylation prior to GD 15 is required to unequivocally prove or disprove the hypothesis. PMID:12163711

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  17. The enrichment of eggs with folic acid through supplementation of the laying hen diet.

    PubMed

    House, J D; Braun, K; Ballance, D M; O'Connor, C P; Guenter, W

    2002-09-01

    In light of evidence supporting a need for humans to increase their dietary folate intakes, experiments were conducted to evaluate the extent to which egg folate levels could be increased. In Study 1, Hyline W36 hens (n = 6/diet) received a barley-based diet, containing 0 or 10 mg/kg of crystalline folic acid, to establish the potential for folate incorporation into table eggs. In Study 2, 70 hens were divided into seven treatment groups (n = 10 hens/diet) and received diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg folic acid/kg diet. In Study 3, 64 hens received the barley-based diet with or without 4 mg folic acid/kg diet. Eggs were collected and stored for 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 d, prior to folate determinations. The folate content of eggs was determined by HPLC for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (the sole form of folate in egg yolk). Results from Study 1 showed that a 10 mg/kg inclusion of folic acid increased folate incorporation into egg yolk (41.0 +/- 0.7 microg /egg) over that of an unsupplemented diet (17.5 +/- 0.7 microg /egg; P = 0.0001). In Study 2, the response of egg folate to dietary folic acid supplementation was saturable, with 90% of maximal egg folate levels established at approximately 4 mg folic acid/ kg diet. Results from Study 3 showed that folate levels are stable, in control and fortified eggs, during 28 d of storage at 4 C. In terms of its nutritional value, one large egg collected from a folic acid-supplemented hen provided approximately 12.5% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adult humans (RDA = 400 mg/d).

  18. Effect of the feeding system on the fatty acid composition, expression of the Δ9-desaturase, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha, Gamma, and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 genes in the semitendinous muscle of light lambs of the Rasa Aragonesa breed

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are receiving increasing attention because of their beneficial effects on human health, with milk and meat products derived from ruminants as important sources of CLA in the human diet. SCD gene is responsible for some of the variation in CLA concentration in adipose tissues, and PPARγ, PPARα and SREBP1 genes are regulator of SCD gene. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the feeding system on fatty acid composition, CLA content and relative gene expression of Δ9-desaturase (SCD), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha, (PPARα) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP1) in Rasa Aragonesa light lambs in semitendinous muscle. Forty-four single-born male lambs were used to evaluate the effect of the feeding system, varying on an intensity gradient according to the use of concentrates: 1. grazing alfalfa, 2. grazing alfalfa with a supplement for lambs, 3. indoor lambs with grazing ewes and 4. drylot. Results Both grazing systems resulted in a higher concentration of vaccenic acid (VA), CLA, CLA/VA acid ratio, and a lower oleic content, oleic acid (C18:1)/stearic acid (C18:0) ratio, PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio and SCD expression compared to other diets. In addition feeding system affected the fatty acid composition and SCD expression, possibly due to CLA concentration or the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio. Both expression of the SCD gene and the feeding system were important factors affecting CLA concentration in the animal's semitendinous muscle. PPARγ, PPARα and SREBP1 expression seemed to be unaffected by the feeding system. Although no significant results were found, PPARγ, PPARα and SREBP1 showed similar expression pattern as SCD. Moreover, the correlation results between SCD expression and PPARγ (p < 0.01), as well as SREBP1 (p < 0.01) expression, may suggest that these genes were affecting SCD expression in a different way. Conclusions

  19. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  20. Use of dietary supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-09-30

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Daily periconceptional consumption of 400 mug of folic acid, as recommended by the Public Health Service (PHS) since 1992, reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. The Food and Drug Administration ordered mandatory fortification with folic acid of U.S. cereal grain products, beginning in 1998. However, despite a 26% reduction in NTDs, not all women of childbearing age receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the number of women who take dietary supplements containing 400 mug of folic acid daily remains an important component of NTD prevention. This report summarizes results from the 2005 March of Dimes Gallup survey, which determined a decrease in the proportion of childbearing-aged women who reported taking folic acid in dietary supplements daily, from 40% in 2004 to 33% in 2005, returning to a level consistent with that reported during 1995-2003. These results emphasize the need for innovative programs to increase folic acid consumption to further reduce NTDs.

  1. [Lipid peroxidation in cardiac mitochondrial fraction of rats exposed to different supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Shmarakov, I O; Marchenko, M M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) used at different ratios of w-6/w-3 was studied on the content of primary (diene conjugates, DC; triene conjugates, TC), secondary (ketodienes, CD; coupled trienes, CT; TBA-active products) and terminal (Schiff bases) lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and generation of superoxide anion-radical in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. It was shown that diet supplementation with high doses of w-6 or w-3 PUFAs increased the content of primary, secondary and terminal LPO in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. Llipid peroxidation was accompanied by the intensification of superoxide anion-radical generation in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. During diet consumption with the PUFAs leading factor affecting the intensity of lipoperoxidation in rat heart mitochondria is fatty acid composition, rather than the level of their saturation.

  2. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  3. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Jin, L.; Wen, Q. N.; Kopparapu, N. K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2016-01-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  4. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established.

  5. Three targets of branched-chain amino acid supplementation in the treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan

    2010-05-01

    The article explains the pathogenesis of disturbances in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in various forms of hepatic injury and it is suggested that the main cause of decrease in plasma BCAA concentration in liver cirrhosis is hyperammonemia. Three possible targets of BCAA supplementation in hepatic disease are suggested: (1) hepatic encephalopathy, (2) liver regeneration, and (3) hepatic cachexia. The BCAA may ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy by promoting ammonia detoxification, correction of the plasma amino acid imbalance, and by reduced brain influx of aromatic amino acids. The influence of BCAA supplementation on hepatic encephalopathy could be more effective in chronic hepatic injury with hyperammonemia and low concentrations of BCAA in blood than in acute hepatic illness, where hyperaminoacidemia frequently develops. The favorable effect of BCAA on liver regeneration and nutritional state of the body is related to their stimulatory effect on protein synthesis, secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, glutamine production and inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Presumably the beneficial effect of BCAA on hepatic cachexia is significant in compensated liver disease with decreased plasma BCAA concentrations, whereas it is less pronounced in hepatic diseases with inflammatory complications and enhanced protein turnover. It is concluded that specific benefits associated with BCAA supplementation depend significantly on the type of liver disease and on the presence of inflammatory reaction. An important task for clinical research is to identify groups of patients for whom BCAA treatment can significantly improve the health-related quality of life and the prognosis of hepatic disease. PMID:20071143

  6. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  7. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  8. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  9. Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonemia and performance under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Saulo Rodrigo Alves e Silva; Lima, Rafaela Carvalho Pereira; França, Thássia Casado Lima; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; Rodrigues, Daniela Souza Araújo; Gouveia, Marcos Guilherme de Sousa; Cameron, L C; Prado, Eduardo Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of cerebral function, fatigue and disturbance in cognitive-motor performance can be caused by hyperammonemia and/or hot environmental conditions during exercise. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) to improve exercise tolerance. In the present study, we evaluated KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism and cognitive-motor performance after high-intensity exercise under a low heat stress environment. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for 2 d and were divided into two groups, KAAA (KEx) or placebo (CEx) supplementation. The athletes performed a 2 h cycling session followed by a maximum test (MAX), and blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. Cognitive-motor tasks were performed before and after the protocol, and the exhaustion time was used to evaluate physical performance. The hydration status was also evaluated. The CEx group showed a significant increase (∼ 70%) in ammonia concentration at MAX, which did not change in the KEx group. The non-supplemented group showed a significant increase in uremia. Both the groups had a significant increase in blood urate concentrations at 120 min, and an early significant increase from 120 min was observed in the CEx group. There was no change in the glucose concentrations of the two groups. A significant increase in lactate was observed at the MAX moment in both groups. There was no significant difference in the exhaustion times between the groups. No changes were observed in the cognitive-motor tasks after the protocol. We suggest that KAAA supplementation decreases ammonia concentration during high-intensity exercise but does not affect physical or cognitive-motor performances under a low heat stress environment. PMID:26679329

  10. Lipids in the diet and the fatty acid profile in beef: a review and recent patents on the topic.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Marcio M; Machado Neto, Otavio R; Chizzotti, Mario L; Oliveira, Dalton M; Chalfun Junior, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this review is to report how the use of lipid sources in diets for ruminants can affect the fatty acid profile of beef. In addition, recent patents that can be utilized to alter the fatty acid profile in the meat, or which concern the synthesis of conjugated fatty acids will be reviewed. The industrial production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has already started and the commercial products present isomers cis-9, trans-11; trans-9, cis-11; and trans-10, cis-12. Patents on the biological synthesis of isomer C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 from the linoleic acid have also been published. However, the economic production of CLA in industrial scale is a difficult process. Most of the patents published for CLA production utilize bacteria of the genera Bifidobacterium sp. and Propionibacterium sp. Lipid supplementation, with the objective to improve the fatty acid profile of beef, can be done through the use of patented products, such as genetically modified oilseeds and calcium soaps of fatty acids.

  11. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid on homocysteine induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, Dj; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2015-06-01

    Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.

  12. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  13. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TOORANG, Fatemeh; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:27141496

  14. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  15. Supplemental dietary fat and ruminally protected amino acids for lactating Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Karunanandaa, K; Goodling, L E; Varga, G A; Muller, L D; McNeill, W W; Cassidy, T W; Lykos, T

    1994-11-01

    Eight Jersey cows receiving a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate on a DM basis were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of added fat (3.4% of dietary DM) and ruminally protected AA (8 g of Met and 24 g of Lys daily) on yield and composition of milk. Treatments were 1) basal control, 2) added fat, 3) added AA, and 4) fat plus AA. Compared with no added fat, fat supplementation increased 4% FCM yield (24.7 vs. 23.0 kg/d) and milk fat yield (1.05 vs. .97 kg), depressed milk protein content (3.58 vs. 3.74%), and altered fatty acid composition of milk. Blood triglyceride and NEFA were elevated (34.4 vs. 29.5 mg/dl and 175.1 vs. 143.7 microeq/L, respectively) by added fat. Supplementation with AA elevated blood Lys, Met, and urea N without increasing milk protein yield. Increase in blood NEFA was further augmented by fat plus AA supplementation, but no changes in concentrations of Lys or Met in blood were found. Addition of AA did not alleviate the depression of milk protein content when supplemental fat was added to the diet for Jersey cows.

  16. Single-laboratory validated method for determination of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in chaparral-containing dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gay, Martha L; Musser, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) occurs naturally in chaparral (Larrea tridentate Coville), a plant which commonly grows in the Southwest United States and has been used for medicinal purposes by Native Americans indigenous to that region. In addition to its traditional use as a tea, manufacturers of dietary supplements have marketed chaparral-containing products in a variety of formulations. Because of the hepatotoxicity of NDGA, and its occurrence in regulated products, we have developed a method for the determination of NDGA in dietary supplements and have tested this method in several dietary supplement formulations. Products were extracted with 80% methanol, filtered, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. NDGA was detected and determined with both a diode array detector and negative-ion electrospray. Fragmentation in the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was obtained by collisional activation of the [M-H](-) ion. Collisional activation produced sufficient fragmentation to provide unambiguous identification. Lack of a stable isotope labeled internal standard has led us to compare quantitations based on UV detection with quantitations based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Presence of NDGA was confirmed in several dietary supplement products. Quantitative results from the 2 detection methods were comparable for most products. The limit of quantitation using MS/MS was lower and fewer interferences were observed, although UV detection provided better linearity.

  17. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kushner, Laura J; Kramer, Neil; Kazandjian, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in vitro and in many disease states, in particular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The benefit of n-3 PUFA supplementation has been documented in animal models of periodontal inflammation and a trend towards reduced inflammation has been seen in human experimental gingivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PUFA supplementation, by administration of fish oil as a source of the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and borage oil as a source of the n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), to adults with periodontitis. Thirty adult human subjects with periodontitis were administered either fish oil 3000 mg daily; borage oil 3000 mg daily; fish oil 1500 and borage oil 1500 mg daily, or placebo. The modified gingival index, the plaque index (PI), periodontal probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed in subjects treated with borage oil (P<0.016), with a trend apparent in subjects treated with fish oil or a combination of PUFA. There was no statistically significant improvement in PI, although a trend was apparent in those receiving borage oil. Improvement in probing depth was seen in those subjects treated with either fish oil alone or borage oil alone, but statistical significance was only seen for the comparison of borage oil and placebo (P<0.044). No change was seen in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) beta-glucuronidase levels. The use of borage oil supplementation, a source of the n-6 PUFA, GLA, can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. n-6 PUFA supplementation seemed to offer more impressive results than either n-3 PUFA supplementation or the combination of lower doses of the two supplements. Additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the

  18. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  19. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  20. Synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid by the linoleate isomerase complex in food-derived lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B.; Chen, H.; Gu, Z.; Tian, F.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.; Chen, Y. Q.; Chen, W.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess strains of lactobacilli for their capacity to produce functional fatty acid-conjugated linoleic acid. To assess the linoleate isomerase for CLA production in the most efficient CLA producer. Methods and Results In this study, strains of food-derived lactobacilli were cultured in media with linoleic acid and CLA production was assessed. Most of the selected strains produced CLA at different levels, with Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 being the most efficient CLA producer converting over 50% of linoleic acid to c9, t11-CLA and t9, t11-CLA. Some intermediates 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid and 10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid were determined via GC-MS. The genes coding the multicomponent linoleate isomerase containing myosin-cross-reactive antigen, short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase and acetoacetate decarboxylase for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. With the mixture of recombinant E. coli, c9, t11-CLA and three kinds of intermediates were produced from linoleic acid, which were in line with those in the lactobacilli. Conclusions The ability for CLA production by lactobacilli exhibited variation. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lact. bulgaricus were the most efficient producers in the selected strains. Lact. plantarum ZS2058 converted linoleic acid to CLAs with 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid and 10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid as intermediates. The multiple-step reactions for CLA production catalysed by multicomponent linoleate isomerase in Lact. plantarum ZS2058 were confirmed successfully. Significance and Impact of the study Multicomponent linoleate isomerase provides important results for the illustration of the mechanism for CLA production in lactic acid bacteria. Food-derived lactobacilli with CLA production ability offers novel opportunities for functional foods development. PMID:24750362

  1. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation: a new indication for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tam, Carolyn; McKenna, Kate; Goh, Y Ingrid; Klieger-Grossman, Chagit; O'Connor, Deborah L; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    The role of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) has been well established. Maternal red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration is inversely associated with NTD risk, and concentrations above 906 nmol/L are associated with a low risk of NTDs. Current guidelines call for a minimum of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day for all women who could become pregnant and higher levels of supplementation for women with a family history of NTDs or risk factors associated with NTDs. However, there is variability in supplement adherence and lack of knowledge of conditions that may elevate folate requirements or NTD risk. Therefore, guidance provided to the population as a whole may be inappropriate for individual women. Current data show that a significant proportion of women of childbearing age have RBC folate concentrations below 906 nmol/L, rendering a higher-than-baseline risk for NTDs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of RBC folate could be used to identify these women and to help them improve their folate status, thus reducing their risk for having a child with an NTD.This review describes the evolution of the evidence for TDM of RBC folate and preliminary experience with TDM in a population of 12 women who were planning a pregnancy and who were being treated with an atypical antipsychotic.

  2. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  3. The effect of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Younger, K M

    1981-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides were studied in vegans and in omnivores. 2. A supplement of 18:3 omega 3 led to an increase in 20:5 omega 3 but was less effective than one of 20:5 omega 3 + 22:6 omega 3.

  4. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future. PMID:22259192

  5. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  6. A diet with lactosucrose supplementation ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaoli; Huang, Xiaoliu; Li, Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shiqiang; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation contributes to an increased risk of colon cancer. Lactosucrose (LS), a kind of functional trisaccharide, can modulate immunity and promote microbe growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LS on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: the normal group, TNBS group, LS group, and salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) group for five weeks. LS supplementation ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. LS supplementation increased IL-10 production and suppressed the secretion of IL-12 in the colon, as compared to the TNBS group. LS decreased the production of TLR-2 protein and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein, as well as mRNA levels, as compared with colitic rats. These results indicate that chronic feeding of LS inhibited TNBS-induced chronic inflammation. LS has potential nutraceutical intervention to combat colitis.

  7. Interaction of exercise training and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tom R; Liu, Ying; Linden, Melissa A; Rector, R Scott

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation and exercise training treatment on postprandial lipemia (PPL) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of n-3 FA and exercise training in attenuating PPL after a high-fat meal. Previously sedentary, overweight, subjects (n=22; 12 women, 10 men, BMI 26.6+/-0.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: n-3 FA supplementation alone (FO, n=10) or n-3 FA supplementation plus exercise training (FO+ExTr, n=12). Both groups consumed 4 g/d n-3 FA, and one group also exercise trained for 45 min/d, 5d/week of brisk walking and (or) jogging at 60% VO2 max. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, subjects performed a baseline PPL and a PPL following a single session of exercise (ExPPL). PPL was assessed by triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (AUC) and peak TG response (TGpeak). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare results from treatments for baseline and exercise trials. FO alone reduced PPL and Ex PPL, and FO+ExTr attenuated the ExPPL response measured as total AUC and TGpeak. There was no significant main effect for group or group by time interaction for baseline PPL or ExPPL. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C (i.e., subfraction 2) concentrations were significantly increased in the FO+ExTr group after the treatments. These results suggest that n-3 FA supplementation reduced PPL in sedentary subjects. Exercise training has no interference or additive effects with n-3 FA supplementation in attenuating PPL, but combined treatments may be additive in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:17510682

  8. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 μg of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense.

  9. Isomer-specific regulation of differentiating pig preadipocytes by conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Brandebourg, T D; Hu, C Y

    2005-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids are a group of geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid that decrease body fat in growing animals by a poorly understood mechanism. The objective of this study was to investigate the isomer-specific effect of CLA on the proliferation and differentiation of pig preadipocytes in primary culture. The effect of CLA on preadipocyte proliferation was determined using cleavage of the tetrazolium salt, WST-1, as a marker for proliferation. Preadipocyte number was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion by trans-12,cis-10 CLA (P < 0.05). No other fatty acid affected preadipocyte number. Differentiation was monitored on d 10 after induction morphologically, enzymatically, and by measuring the mRNA abundance of key adipogenic transcription factors. Both a crude CLA preparation containing a mixture of CLA isomers (CLA-mix) and the pure trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer inhibited glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent fashion, with trans-10,cis-12 CLA being more potent (P < 0.01) than the CLA-mix. Cis-9,trans-11 CLA failed to decrease GPDH activity; however, increasing concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 CLA tended to blunt the inhibitory effect of trans-10,cis-12 CLA on GPDH activity (P < 0.09), suggesting that cis-9,trans-11 CLA may antagonize the action of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in porcine adipocytes. Finally, the isomer-specific effect of CLA on adipogenic transcription factor gene expression was investigated. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma; P < 0.01) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c; P < 0.05) mRNA, while failing to alter the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) mRNA. Interestingly, both the CLA-mix and the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer increased the mRNA abundance of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF; P < 0.002). No other fatty acid affected COUP-TF mRNA levels

  10. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, James A.; Clendenon, Sherry G.; Ratcliffe, Don R.; Fielding, Stephen M.; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid signaling caused by embryonic ethanol. Retinoic acid deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100 mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with retinoic acid at a low concentration (10−9 M) and 100 mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100 mM ethanol alone. The rescue phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10−9 M retinoic acid alone (retinoic acid toxicity) than to untreated or 100 mM ethanol treated embryos. Retinoic acid rescues defects caused by 100 mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e. g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by retinoic acid supplement. PMID:20036484

  11. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  12. New insights in nutritional management and amino acid supplementation in urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate is used in the pharmacological treatment of urea cycle disorders to create alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion. The primary metabolite, phenylacetate, conjugates glutamine in the liver and kidney to form phenylacetylglutamine that is readily excreted in the urine. Patients with urea cycle disorders taking sodium phenylbutyrate have a selective reduction in the plasma concentrations of branched chain amino acids despite adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, this depletion is usually the harbinger of a metabolic crisis. Plasma branched chain amino acids and other essential amino acids were measured in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females, and treated patients with urea cycle disorders (ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency) in the absorptive state during the course of stable isotope studies. Branched chain amino acid levels were significantly lower in treated patients with urea cycle disorders when compared to untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects. These results were replicated in control subjects who had low steady-state branched chain amino acid levels when treated with sodium phenylbutyrate. These studies suggested that alternative pathway therapy with sodium phenylbutyrate causes a substantial impact on the metabolism of branched chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders, implying that better titration of protein restriction can be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in these patients who are on alternative pathway therapy.

  13. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy alters neonatal behavior in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capper, Judith L; Wilkinson, Robert G; Mackenzie, Alexander M; Sinclair, Liam A

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine whether supplementation of pregnant ewes with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids present in fish oil, in combination with dietary vitamin E, would alter neonatal behavior in sheep. Twin- (n=36) and triplet- (n=12) bearing ewes were allocated at d 103 of gestation to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 1 of 2 fat sources [Megalac, a calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate or a fish oil mixture, high in 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] and 1 of 2 dietary vitamin E concentrations (50 or 500 mg/kg) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Feeding fish oil increased gestation length by 2 d and increased the proportion of 22:6(n-3) within neonatal plasma by 5.1-fold and brain by 10%, whereas brain 20:5(n-3) was increased 5-fold. Supranutritional dietary vitamin E concentrations decreased the latency of lambs to stand in ewes fed fish oil but not Megalac, whereas latency to suckle was decreased from 43 to 34 min by fish oil supplementation. Supplementation with fish oil also substantially decreased the secretion rate (mL/h) of colostrum and the yield (g/h) of fat and protein. We conclude that supplementation of ewes with fish oil decreases the latency to suckle, increases gestation length and the 22:6(n-3):20:4(n-6) ratio in the neonatal brain, and may improve lamb survival rate. However, further work is required to determine how to mitigate the negative effects of fish oil on colostrum production.

  15. Use of folic acid-containing supplements among women of childbearing age--United States, 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-02-27

    Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies result in spina bifida or anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when taken daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. This report summarizes findings from a survey conducted during January and February 1997 and indicates that only one third of women of childbearing age consume a supplement containing the recommended amount of folic acid daily.

  16. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Folic acid (FA) added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d) for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA) doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6%) of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00), compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97). Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49). Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses. PMID:21255390

  17. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties.

  18. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  19. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). There was no effect of BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  20. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laurence; Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Ferlay, Anne; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Based on the potential benefits to long-term human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. The impact of plant oil supplements to diets containing different forages on caprine milk fatty acid composition was examined in two experiments using twenty-seven Alpine goats in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with 28 d experimental periods. Treatments comprised of no oil (control) or 130 g/d of sunflower-seed oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) supplements added to diets based on grass hay (H; experiment 1) or maize silage (M; experiment 2). Milk fat content was enhanced (P<0.01) on HSO, HLO and MLO compared with the corresponding H or M control diets, resulting in 17, 15 and 14% increases in milk fat secretion, respectively. For both experiments, plant oils decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0-16:0 and odd- and branched-chain fatty acid content and increased 18:0, trans-Delta(6-9,11-14,16)-18:1 (and their corresponding Delta-9 desaturase products), trans-7, trans-9-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-8, cis-10-CLA concentrations. Alterations in the distribution of cis-18:1, trans-18:1, -18:2 and CLA isomers in milk fat were related to plant oil composition and forage in the diet. In conclusion, plant oils represent an effective strategy for altering the fatty acid composition of caprine milk, with evidence that the basal diet is an important determinant of ruminal unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the goat.

  1. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2012-10-01

    Piglets with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or with normal birth weight (NBW) were selected to evaluate the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis and mitochondrial function. During gestation, primiparous Yorkshire sows were fed a Control diet (folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or a folic acid-supplemented diet (folic acid 30 mg/kg) with 16 replicates per diet. During the 28-d lactation period, sows were fed a common diet. Compared with NBW piglets, hepatic ATP concentrations and mtDNA contents were decreased in IUGR piglets. Furthermore, IUGR piglets exhibited lower membrane potential and decreased oxygen consumption in liver mitochondria, but these parameters were not affected by maternal folic acid supplementation. Intrauterine growth retardation decreased mRNA expression abundance of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, uncoupling protein 3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and IV. Impaired antioxidant capacity characterised by increased malondialdehyde content and decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in IUGR pigs. In IUGR piglets, however, nearly all of these parameters were normalised to the level of NBW piglets when the maternal diet was supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy. Hence, maternal folic acid supplementation was proved to be an effective way to reverse the changes in gene expressions in IUGR pigs, which provided a possible nutritional strategy to improve growth development of IUGR individuals.

  2. Effect of thyroxine supplementation on the response to perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutshall, D.M.; Pilcher, G.D.; Langley, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) is a member of a family of perfluorinated carboxylic acids that have found widespread commercial applications as lubricants, surfactants, wetting agents and corrosion inhibitors. The effects of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) supplementation on perfluoro-n-decanoic acid- (PFDA) induced decreases in food consumption, body weight, and body temperature were examined. A dose-response study was carried out with 50-, 100-, 200-, or 250-{mu}g/kg ip doses of T{sub 4} for 7 d prior to PFDA administration, and daily dosing with T{sub 4} was continued for an additional 30 d. From this study a T{sub 4} dose of 200 {mu}g/kg was chosen, and subsequent experiments were conducted with this dose. Supplementation with T{sub 4} at 200 {mu}g/kg daily alleviated the hypophagia but not the severe weight loss and hypothermia produced by PFDA treatment. Their results suggest that some component of the thyroid axis plays a role in feeding behavior. In addition, the PFDA-induced wasting syndrome and hypothermia appear to be unrelated to changes in serum thyroid hormones. The unexpected observation that severe weight loss occurred in the presence of essentially normal food intake suggests that PFDA alters basic cellular metabolic processes.

  3. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  4. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation: impact on signaling and relevance to critical illness.

    PubMed

    Mattick, John S A; Kamisoglu, Kubra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The changes that occur in mammalian systems following trauma and sepsis, termed systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elicit major changes in carbohydrate, protein, and energy metabolism. When these events persist for too long they result in a severe depletion of lean body mass, multiple organ dysfunction, and eventually death. Nutritional supplementation has been investigated to offset the severe loss of protein, and recent evidence suggests that diets enriched in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may be especially beneficial. BCAAs are metabolized in two major steps that are differentially expressed in muscle and liver. In muscle, BCAAs are reversibly transaminated to the corresponding α-keto acids. For the complete degradation of BCAAs, the α-keto acids must travel to the liver to undergo oxidation. The liver, in contrast to muscle, does not significantly express the branched-chain aminotransferase. Thus, BCAA degradation is under the joint control of both liver and muscle. Recent evidence suggests that in liver, BCAAs may perform signaling functions, more specifically via activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, influencing a wide variety of metabolic and synthetic functions, including protein translation, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress following severe injury and infection. However, understanding of the system-wide effects of BCAAs that integrate both metabolic and signaling aspects is currently lacking. Further investigation in this respect will help rationalize the design and optimization of nutritional supplements containing BCAAs for critically ill patients. PMID:23554299

  5. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation delays the progression of neuroblastoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gleissman, Helena; Segerström, Lova; Hamberg, Mats; Ponthan, Frida; Lindskog, Magnus; Johnsen, John Inge; Kogner, Per

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies have revealed that omega-3 fatty acids have anticancer properties. We have previously shown that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells in vitro by mechanisms involving intracellular peroxidation of DHA by means of 15-lipoxygenase or autoxidation. In our study, the effects of DHA supplementation on neuroblastoma tumor growth in vivo were investigated using two complementary approaches. For the purpose of prevention, DHA as a dietary supplement was fed to athymic rats before the rats were xenografted with human neuroblastoma cells. For therapeutic purposes, athymic rats with established neuroblastoma xenografts were given DHA daily by gavage and tumor growth was monitored. DHA levels in plasma and tumor tissue were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. DHA delayed neuroblastoma xenograft development and inhibited the growth of established neuroblastoma xenografts in athymic rats. A revised version of the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program evaluation scheme used as a measurement of treatment response showed that untreated control animals developed progressive disease, whereas treatment with DHA resulted in stable disease or partial response, depending on the DHA concentration. In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with DHA delayed neuroblastoma development, suggesting that DHA could be a potential agent in the treatment of minimal residual disease and should be considered for prevention in selected cases. Treatment results on established aggressive neuroblastoma tumors suggest further studies aiming at a clinical application in children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  7. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. PMID:25846410

  8. Obstructive Heart Defects Associated with Candidate Genes, Maternal Obesity, and Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A.; Nick, Todd G.; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L.; Erickson, Stephen W.; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. PMID:25846410

  9. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity.

  10. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population.

  11. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population. PMID:18185493

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) But Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Reverses Trans-10, Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Insulin Resistance in Mice1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: t10, c12-Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces insulin resistance and fatty liver in mice which can be reversed by fish oils. We determined if it is eicospentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) or docoshexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) that reverses these adverse effects of CLA. Research Design and M...

  13. Enhanced undecylprodigiosin production from Serratia marcescens SS-1 by medium formulation and amino-acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wan-Ju; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2005-10-01

    Serratia marcescens Simon Swift-1 (SS-1) was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment, undecylprodigiosin (UP), known to have antitumor activities and potential as an anticancer drug. Modified media containing components of Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and selected amino acids were used to improve UP production from S. marcescens SS-1. Optimal culture conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, agitation rate) for UP production were also identified. It was found that S. marcescens SS-1 was able to produce 690 mg l-1 of UP when it was grown with 5 g l-1 yeast extract alone (YE medium) under the optimal culture conditions of 30 degrees C, 200 rpm, and pH 8. The UP production of 690 mg l-1 is nearly 23-fold of that obtained from original LB medium. Addition of amino acids containing pyrrole-like structures further enhanced UP production. Nearly 2 and 1.4 g l-1 of UP was produced when the SS-1 strain was cultivated with YE medium supplemented with proline and histidine (5 g l-1), respectively. Moreover, the addition of aspartic acid (5 g l-1) also resulted in a high UP production of 1.4 g l-1. Optimal dosages of the three amino acids were subsequently determined and the highest UP production (2.5 g l-1) was achieved with the addition of 10 g l-1 of proline. This suggests that the supplementation of amino acids related to the formation of a UP precursor (e.g., pyrrolylpyrromethene) could enhance UP production by the SS-1 strain.

  14. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI.

  15. Folic acid supplementation dysregulates gene expression in lymphoblastoid cells--implications in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Mohammed A; Kuizon, Salomon; Cardona, Juan; Azher, Tayaba; Murakami, Noriko; Pullarkat, Raju K; Brown, W Ted

    2011-09-01

    For over a decade, folic acid (FA) supplementation has been widely prescribed to pregnant women to prevent neural tube closure defects in newborns. Although neural tube closure occurs within the first trimester, high doses of FA are given throughout pregnancy, the physiological consequences of which are unknown. FA can cause epigenetic modification of the cytosine residues in the CpG dinucleotide, thereby affecting gene expression. Dysregulation of crucial gene expression during gestational development may have lifelong adverse effects or lead to neurodevelopmental defects, such as autism. We have investigated the effect of FA supplementation on gene expression in lymphoblastoid cells by whole-genome expression microarrays. The results showed that high FA caused dysregulation by ≥ four-fold up or down to more than 1000 genes, including many imprinted genes. The aberrant expression of three genes (FMR1, GPR37L1, TSSK3) was confirmed by Western blot analyses. The level of altered gene expression changed in an FA concentration-dependent manner. We found significant dysregulation in gene expression at concentrations as low as 15 ng/ml, a level that is lower than what has been achieved in the blood through FA fortification guidelines. We found evidence of aberrant promoter methylation in the CpG island of the TSSK3 gene. Excessive FA supplementation may require careful monitoring in women who are planning for, or are in the early stages of pregnancy. Aberrant expression of genes during early brain development may have an impact on behavioural characteristics. PMID:21867686

  16. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value. PMID:7395791

  17. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value.

  18. The clinical benefits of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in cystic fibrosis patients - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, L; Thiébaut, I; Lefèvre, N; Malfroot, A; Knoop, C; Duchateau, J; Casimir, G

    2016-05-01

    Effectiveness of omega-3 supplementation in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This study sought to evaluate clinical status, exercise tolerance, inflammatory parameters, and erythrocyte fatty acid profile after 1 year of oral omega-3 supplementation in CF patients. Fifteen ΔF508-homozygous patients undergoing chronic azithromycin were randomized to receive omega-3 fish oil supplementation at a dose of 60mg/Kg/day or placebo. In comparison with the previous year, in the supplemented group, the number of pulmonary exacerbations decreased at 12 months (1.7 vs. 3.0, p<0.01), as did the duration of antibiotic therapy (26.5 days vs. 60.0 days, p<0.025). Supplementation significantly increased the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as early as <3 months of administration, with concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid (AA) levels. This pilot study suggests that long-term omega-3 supplementation offers several clinical benefits as to the number of exacerbations and duration of antibiotic therapy in CF patients.

  19. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids in the gravid pig uterus as affected by maternal supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Brazle, A E; Johnson, B J; Webel, S K; Rathbun, T J; Davis, D L

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of maternal fatty acid supplementation to alter conceptus and endometrial fatty acid composition. In Exp. 1, treatments were 1) the control, a corn-soybean meal diet; 2) flax, the control diet plus ground flax (3.75% of diet); and 3) protected fatty acids (PFA), the control plus a protected fish oil source rich in n-3 PUFA (Gromega, JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN; 1.5% of diet). Supplements replaced equal parts of corn and soybean meal. When gilts reached 170 d of age, PG600 (PMSG and hCG, Intervet USA, Millsboro, DE) was injected to induce puberty, and dietary treatments (n = 8/treatment) were initiated. When detected in estrus, gilts were artificially inseminated. On d 40 to 43 of gestation, 7 gilts in the control treatment, 8 gilts in the PFA treatment, and 5 gilts in the flax treatment were pregnant and were slaughtered. Compared with the control treatment, the flax treatment tended to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5n-3) in fetuses (0.14 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/g of dry tissue; P = 0.055), whereas gilts receiving PFA had more (P < 0.05) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6n-3) in their fetuses (5.23 vs. 4.04 +/- 0.078 mg/g) compared with gilts fed the control diet. Both the flax and PFA diets increased (P < 0.05) DHA (0.60, 0.82, and 0.85 +/- 0.078 mg/g for the control, flax, and PFA diet, respectively) in the chorioallantois. In the endometrium, EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3) were increased by the flax diet (P < 0.001; P < 0.05), whereas gilts receiving PFA had increased DHA (P < 0.001). The flax diet selectively increased EPA, and the PFA diet selectively increased DHA in the fetus and endometrium. In Exp. 2, gilts were fed diets containing PFA (1.5%) or a control diet beginning at approximately 170 of age (n = 13/treatment). A blood sample was collected after 30 d of treatment, and gilts were artificially inseminated when they were approximately 205 d old. Conceptus and endometrial samples were collected on

  1. Long-term post-pneumonectomy pulmonary adaptation following all-trans-retinoic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Priya; Dane, D. Merrill; McDonough, Paul; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Estrera, Aaron S.

    2011-01-01

    In adult dogs following right pneumonectomy (PNX) and receiving all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) supplementation for 4 mo, we found modestly enhanced alveolar-capillary growth in the remaining lung without enhanced resting lung function (J Appl Physiol 96: 1080–1089 and 96: 1090–1096, 2004). Since alveolar remodeling progresses beyond this period and the lipid-soluble RA continues to be released from tissue stores, we hypothesized that RA supplementation may exert additional long-term effects. To examine this issue, adult male litter-matched foxhounds underwent right PNX followed by RA supplementation (2 mg/kg po 4 days/wk, n = 6) or placebo (n = 4) for 4 mo. Cardiopulmonary function was measured at rest and during exercise at 4 and 20 mo post-PNX. The remaining lung was fixed under a constant airway pressure for morphometric analysis. Comparing RA treatment to placebo controls, there were no differences in aerobic capacity, cardiopulmonary function, or lung volume at rest or exercise. Alveolar-capillary basal lamina thickness and mean harmonic thickness of air-blood diffusion barrier were 23–29% higher. The prevalence of double-capillary profiles remained 82% higher. Absolute volumes of septal interstitium, collagen fibers, cells, and matrix were 32% higher; the relative volumes of other septal components and alveolar-capillary surface areas expressed as ratios to control values were up to 24% higher. Thus RA supplementation following right PNX modestly and persistently enhanced long-term alveolar-capillary structural dimensions, especially the deposition of interstitial and connective tissue elements, in such a way that caused a net increase in barrier resistance to diffusion without improving lung mechanics or gas exchange. PMID:21109601

  2. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children with severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Badaloo, Asha; Wilson, Lorraine; Taylor-Bryan, Carolyn; Chambers, Bentley; Reid, Marvin; Forrester, Terrence; Jahoor, Farook

    2014-05-01

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained during the catch-up growth and recovery phases of treatment. This study aimed to determine whether supplementation with an AAA cocktail (330 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) vs. isonitrogenous Ala would improve measures of protein kinetics in 22 children, aged 4-31 mo, during the catch-up growth and recovery phases of treatment for SAM. Protein kinetics were assessed by measuring leucine, phenylalanine, and urea kinetics with the use of standard stable isotope tracer methods in the fed state. Supplementation started at the end of the maintenance period when the children were clinically/metabolically stable and continued up to full nutritional recovery. Three experiments were performed: at the end of maintenance (at ∼13 d postadmission), at mid-catch-up growth (at ∼23 d post- admission when the children had replenished 50% of their weight deficit), and at recovery (at ∼48 d postadmission when they had achieved at least 90% weight for length). Children in the AAA group had significantly faster protein synthesis compared with those in the Ala group at mid-catch-up growth (101 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 7 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05) and better protein balance at mid-catch-up growth (49 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 2 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05) and at recovery (37 ± 8 vs. 11 ± 3 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05). We conclude that dietary supplementation with AAA accelerates net protein synthesis in children during nutritional rehabilitation for SAM.

  3. Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-05-28

    Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

  4. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  5. Effects of erucic acid supplemented feeding on chronic doxorubucin toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bozcali, Evin; Süzer, Öner; Gürsoy, Hatice Nilüfer; Atukeren, Pinar; Gümüstas, Koray M

    2009-01-01

    One of the undesired complications of the chemotherapy with doxorubicin is cardiotoxicity. Cardiac effect of erucic acid, which is a member of omega-9 fatty acid, is investigated on doxorubicin treatment in this study. Forty-eight rats were divided into eight groups and each group contained six rats. First group rats were fed with milk. In the third and fifth groups we fed rats with milk supplemented 0.5% and 5% erucic acid respectively. The groups 2, 4, 6 were fed as the groups 1, 3, 5 respectively; we injected 2 mg/kg twice weekly intraperitoneal doxorubicin to these groups whereas we injected isovolumous normal saline to the groups 1, 3, 5. Two other groups (groups 7 and 8) were fed with standard pellet. Group 8 received 2 mg/kg doxorubicin twice weekly; group 7 received normal saline. After 4 weeks hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus perfused by modified Tyrode solution. Surviving rats were significantly less in erucic acid + doxorubicin groups at the end of the treatment period (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between groups for malondialdehyde, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and isolated heart measurements. Concomitant application of erucic acid and doxorubicin showed profound toxicity. PMID:20057977

  6. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  7. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  8. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  9. The influence of folic acid supplementation on maternal and fetal bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Maghbooli, Zhila; Najmafshar, Azam; Larijani, Bagher

    2011-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and fetal bone turnover markers and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. In an observational study performed in Tehran University of Medical Sciences related hospitals, 113 healthy pregnant women with gestational age between 8 and 12 weeks and aged between 15 and 42 years were recruited and followed until delivery time. The participants were divided into two groups; women who took 1 mg of folic acid daily supplement from the beginning of the pregnancy until the end of the second trimester entered into group I and women who choose to continue their daily intake of folic acid until the delivery time entered into group II. The two groups were matched based on the maternal anthropometric data, energy, calcium and vitamin D intake. Following the delivery, venous blood samples were collected from mothers and umbilical cords of the neonates. Maternal and fetal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, PTH, osteocalcin (OC), crosslaps and maternal serum level of homocysteine, folate, soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), calcium, and phosphate were measured. Measured birth outcome parameters included weight, length, head circumference, appearance, and respiration. With regard to maternal assessment, the serum levels of OC and OPG and folate were significantly higher in group II compared to group I, while the serum levels of RANKL and homocysteine were significantly higher in group I. We did not find significant differences in serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D, PTH, crosslaps, calcium, or phosphate between the two groups. The neonates from mothers recruited in group II had higher (but not significantly) serum level of OC. We observed that the neonates born from mothers in group II had overall better birth outcome parameters and apgar scores compare to the neonates born from mothers in group I. Our results show that daily supplementation of folic

  10. Metabolism and related human risk factors for hepatic damage by usnic acid containing nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Foti, R S; Dickmann, L J; Davis, J A; Greene, R J; Hill, J J; Howard, M L; Pearson, J T; Rock, D A; Tay, J C; Wahlstrom, J L; Slatter, J G

    2008-03-01

    Usnic acid is a component of nutritional supplements promoted for weight loss that have been associated with liver-related adverse events including mild hepatic toxicity, chemical hepatitis, and liver failure requiring transplant. To determine if metabolism factors might have had a role in defining individual susceptibility to hepatotoxicity, in vitro metabolism studies were undertaken using human plasma, hepatocytes, and liver subcellular fractions. Usnic acid was metabolized to form three monohydroxylated metabolites and two regio-isomeric glucuronide conjugates of the parent drug. Oxidative metabolism was mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and glucuronidation was carried out by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and UGT1A3. In human hepatocytes, usnic acid at 20 microM was not an inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4 relative to positive controls omeprazole, phenobarbital, and rifampicin, respectively. Usnic acid was a relatively weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a potent inhibitor of CYP2C19 (the concentration eliciting 50% inhibition (IC(50)) = 9 nM) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 94 nM), with less potent inhibition of CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and CYP2C18 (IC(50) = 6.3 microM). Pre-incubation of microsomes with usnic acid did not afford any evidence of time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C19, although evidence of slight time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 (K(I) = 2.79 microM and K(inact) = 0.022 min(-1)) was obtained. In vitro data were used with SimCYP(R)to model potential drug interactions. Based on usnic acid doses in case reports of 450 mg to >1 g day(-1), these in vitro data indicate that usnic acid has significant potential to interact with other medications. Individual characteristics such as CYP1A induction status, co-administration of CYP1A2 inhibitors, UGT1A1 polymorphisms, and related hyperbilirubinaemias, or co-administration of low therapeutic index CYP2C substrates could work alone or in consort with other idiosyncrasy risk factors to

  11. Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Oosthuizen, Vinette; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W

    2014-12-01

    Over-consuming amino acids is associated with reduced survival in many species, including honeybees. The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear but one possibility is that excessive intake of amino acids increases oxidative damage. If this is the case, antioxidant supplementation may help reduce the survival costs of high amino acid intake. We tested this hypothesis in African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) using the major antioxidant in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We first determined the dose-range of EGCG that improved survival of caged honeybees fed sucrose solution. We then provided bees with eight diets that differed in their ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to carbohydrate (C) (0:1, 1:250, 1:100, 1:75, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1:5 EAA:C) and also in their EGCG dose (0.0 or 0.4 mM). We found that bees fed sucrose only solution survived better than bees fed EAA diets. Despite this, bees preferred a diet that contained intermediate ratios of EAA:C (ca. 1:25), which may represent the high demands for nitrogen of developing nurse bees. EGCG supplementation improved honeybee survival but only at an intermediate dose (0.3-0.5 mM) and in bees fed low EAA diets (1:250, 1:100 EAA:C). That EGCG counteracted the lifespan reducing effects of eating low EAA diets suggests that oxidative damage may be involved in the association between EAAs and lifespan in honeybees. However, that EGCG had no effect on survival in bees fed high EAA diets suggests that there are other physiological costs of over-consuming EAAs in honeybees.

  12. Folic Acid Supplementation Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease by Reducing Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shuai; Ji, Lu; Wu, Tianfeng; Ji, Yong; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Meilin; Xu, Weili; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Low serum folate levels can alter inflammatory reactions. Both phenomena have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of folic acid on AD itself is unclear. We quantified folate supplementation's effect on inflammation and cognitive function in patients with AD over the course of 6 months. Methods. Patients newly diagnosed with AD (age > 60 years; n = 121; mild to severe; international criteria) and being treated with donepezil were randomly assigned into two groups with (intervention group) or without (control group) supplemental treatment with folic acid (1.25 mg/d) for 6 months. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to all patients at baseline and follow-up, and blood samples were taken before and after treatment. We quantified serum folate, amyloid beta (Aβ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), plasma homocysteine (Hcy), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and the mRNA levels of presenilin (PS), IL-6, and TNFα in leukocytes. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures mixed model. Results. The mean MMSE was slightly increased in the intervention group compared to that in the control group (P < 0.05). Posttreatment, plasma SAM and SAM/SAH levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while Aβ40, PS1-mRNA, and TNFα-mRNA levels were lower in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was also higher in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Folic acid is beneficial in patients with AD. Inflammation may play an important role in the interaction between folic acid and AD. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003246. PMID:27340344

  13. Retinol kinetics in unsupplemented and vitamin A-retinoic acid supplemented neonatal rats: a preliminary model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Libo; Wray, Amanda E.; Green, Michael H.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) metabolism in neonates is virtually uncharacterized. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model of VA metabolism in unsupplemented and VA-supplemented neonatal rats. On postnatal day 4, pups (n = 3/time) received 11,12-[3H]retinol orally, in either oil (control) or VA combined with retinoic acid (VARA) [VA (∼6 mg/kg body weight) + 10% retinoic acid]. Plasma and tissues were collected at 14 time points up to 14 days after dose administration. VARA supplementation rapidly, but transiently, increased total retinol mass in plasma, liver, and lung. It decreased the peak fraction of the dose in plasma. A multi-compartmental model developed to fit plasma [3H]retinol data predicted more extensive recycling of retinol between plasma and tissues in neonates compared with that reported in adults (144 vs. 12–13 times). In VARA pups, the recycling number for retinol between plasma and tissues (100 times) and the time that retinol spent in plasma were both lower compared with controls; VARA also stimulated the uptake of plasma VA into extravascular tissues. A VARA perturbation model indicated that the effect of VARA in stimulating VA uptake into tissues in neonates is both dramatic and transient. PMID:24711633

  14. Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Means-End Problem Solving in 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drover, James; Hoffman, Dennis R.; Castaneda, Yolanda S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether feeding infants formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) improves cognitive function of 9-month-olds. Participants included 229 infants from 3 randomized controlled trials. Children received either formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, or a control formula…

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season. PMID:27600962

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season.

  17. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  18. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  19. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-07

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  20. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  1. Commercially available folic acid supplements and their compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia test for dissolution.

    PubMed

    Sculthorpe, N F; Davies, B; Ashton, T; Allison, S; McGuire, D N; Malhi, J S

    2001-09-01

    A recent report suggested that some folic acid preparations available in the United States failed to meet the specifications for dissolution specified by the US Pharmacopoeia (USP), of 70 per cent drug release in the first hour of testing. The Teratology Society recommends that women of childbearing age should take a daily supplement of 400 microg folic acid when they are trying to conceive, to reduce the risk of foetal neural tube defects. The consequence of this failure to meet the USP requirements may be that an inadequate dose of folate may be absorbed and thus the expected level of protection against neural tube defects not afforded. The purpose of the present study was to examine a number of brands of folic acid (400 microg), available commercially in the United Kingdom, for compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) test for dissolution. Ten tablets (or capsules) from each of 11 brands were tested using dissolution apparatus compliant with BP requirements, using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide as the dissolution medium. The results indicated that four of the brands failed to release 70 per cent of the nominal drug content in the first hour of test and thus did not comply with the test. Two of the seven brands that passed the test went on to release more than 150 per cent of the nominal 400 microg drug content. These results highlight the problems of dose uniformity and the potential health risks of slow dissolution and under-dosing in commercially available folic acid dosage forms.

  2. Folate nutrigenetics: a convergence of dietary folate metabolism, folic acid supplementation, and folate antagonist pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Meshkin, Brian; Blum, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Folate (Vitamin B9, Folic acid, folinic acid, folacin, pteroyglutamic acid) is essential for life-sustaining processes of DNA synthesis, replication, and repair which are naturally present in common foods such as peas, oranges, broccoli, and whole-wheat products. Folate levels have been associated with birth defects, cardiovascular disease, and many other important healthcare issues, which has resulted in government-mandated food fortification to deliver minimum levels of intake. Despite this one-size-fits-all recommendation by governmental regulatory bodies, studies suggest that a genetic predisposition may exist within as much as 67% (combining both the CT and TT alleles) of the population that causes a metabolic folate deficiency. Thus, genetic factors may play an important role in folate levels and metabolism. A substantial body of scientific evidence supports the importance of folate, genes associated with folate, genes associated with anti-folate therapeutics, and thereby a convergence in nutritional genetics or nutrigenetics. This review will comment on the substantial body of scientific evidence demonstrating the relevance for nutrigenetic measurements to guide dietary folate intake and nutritional supplementation with folic acid.

  3. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H.; Rikimaru, K.; Kiyohara, R.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA) content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO) supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO), a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO) (1/2 AAO), a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO), and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO) were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g) increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet), according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454). The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation. PMID:25049636

  4. Bacterially synthesized folate and supplemental folic acid are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets.

    PubMed

    Asrar, Farhan M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2005-10-01

    A large pool of folate exists in the large intestine of humans. Preliminary evidence, primarily in vitro, suggests that this folate may be bioavailable. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that supplemental folic acid and bacterially synthesized folate are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets. The pig was used as an animal model because it resembles the human in terms of folate absorption, at least in the small intestine. A tracer of [3H]-folic acid or [3H]-para-aminobenzoic acid ([3H]-PABA), a precursor of bacterially synthesized folate, was injected into the cecum of 11-day-old piglets. Feces and urine were collected for 3 days. Thereafter, piglets were killed, and livers and kidneys harvested. [3H]-Folate was isolated from biological samples by affinity chromatography using immobilized milk folate binding proteins and counted using a scintillation counter. In piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid, the feces, liver, urine and kidneys accounted for 82.1%, 12.3%, 3.9% and 1.7% of recovered [3H]-folate, respectively. In piglets injected with [3H]-PABA, the amount of recovered bacterially synthesized folate in the feces, liver and urine was 85.1%, 0.4% and 14.6%, respectively. Twenty-three percent and 13% of tritium were recovered in samples examined (liver, kidney, fecal and urine) from piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid and [3H]-PABA, respectively. Using our estimates of [3H]-folic acid absorption and the total and percent monoglutamyl folate content of piglet feces, we predict that at least 18% of the dietary folate requirement for the piglet could be met by folate absorption across the large intestine.

  5. Molecular analysis of microbial community structure in the chicken ileum following organic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Gaskins, H Rex; Richards, James D

    2009-06-12

    To compensate for possible decreases in animal production due to restrictions on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters, several non-antibiotic alternatives have been investigated. Organic acid supplementation (OAS) of feed or water has shown some promising results for affecting intestinal microbiota and reducing pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, few studies have explored the effects of OAS on microbial communities using objective molecular-based techniques. The aim of the present study was to characterize via 16S rRNA gene-based approaches responses of the intestinal microbiota after OAS in chicks. Newborn chicks were randomly divided in four treatments: (a) control (no antibiotic, no OAS); (b) antibiotic administration (bacitracin MD); (c) organic acid blend dl-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid [HMTBA]; lactic, and phosphoric acid (HLP); and (d) organic acid blend HMTBA, formic, and propionic acid (HFP). Ileal contents and mucosal scrapings from 7 chicks/treatment/day were taken at 15, 22, and 29 days of age, and genomic DNA was isolated for the molecular analysis of the intestinal microbiota. The data demonstrate that HFP blend treatment for 29 consecutive days affected ileal microbial populations as indicated by community fingerprinting analysis (16S rRNA PCR-DGGE). In parallel, total bacterial and lactobacilli populations were increased by the HFP blend treatment as demonstrated by targeted qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA. In summary, the present data demonstrate that OAS, HFP blend treatment in particular, shifts intestinal microbiota, generates more homogenous and distinct populations, and increases Lactobacillus spp. colonization of the chick ileum. PMID:19269115

  6. Genome-wide association study of the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Guénard, Frédéric; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Barbier, Olivier; Calder, Philip C.; Minihane, Anne Marie; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ≥0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ≥0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10−5), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond. PMID:24847101

  7. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:26890759

  8. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  9. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jayong; Veeramachaneni, Sudipta; Liu, Chun; Mernitz, Heather; Russell, Robert M; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2009-09-01

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby preventing ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation. For 1 month, 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol (36% of the total energy) diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group) or ethanol in combination with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of all-trans-RA (Alc + RA group), 2 mg/kg body weight of VE (Alc + VE group), or both together (Alc + RA + VE group). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with an isocaloric amount of maltodextrin instead of ethanol. The ethanol-fed groups had 3-fold higher hepatic CYP2E1 levels, 50% lower hepatic RA levels, and significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation when compared with the controls. The ethanol-fed rats given VE had more than 4-fold higher hepatic VE concentrations than the ethanol-fed rats without VE, but this did not prevent ethanol induction of CYP2E1, lower hepatic retinoid levels, or hepatocellular hyperproliferation. Furthermore, VE supplementation could not prevent RA catabolism in liver microsomal fractions of the ethanol-fed rats in vitro. These results show that VE supplementation can neither inhibit ethanol-induced changes in RA catabolism nor prevent ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation in the rat liver.

  10. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Priscila; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Pereira, Renata Virginia Fernandes; Neto, Marcilio Hubner Miranda; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6 ± 46.52 vs 680.6 ± 30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4 ± 5.19 vs 291.1 ± 6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes mellitus with or without supplementation with AA. PMID:19030205

  11. Maternal folate deficiency and pregnancy wastage. IV. Effects of folic acid supplements, anticonvulsants, and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, J A; Scott, D E; Whalley, P J

    1971-02-01

    A group of studies on indigent hospital patients were conducted on the role of folate supplements, pregnancy and oral contraceptives in megaloblastic anemia. First 25 pregnant women, given 500 mg iron dextran and 30 mg folic acid for 2-3 months, had 12.4% hemoglogin at delivery, compared with 49 women given only iron who had 12.5% hemoglobin, and 49 untreated women who had 11.3% hemoglobin. Second, plasma folate levels in groups of pregnant women were compared: mean folate was 4.7 ng/ml in 82 normal women, 3.1 in 21 treated epileptics, and about 1.2 in 31 women with megaloblastic anemia. In 77 pregnancies in 43 epileptic women there were no reasons to blame low folate levels for pregnancy wastage since no abruptio placentae or bleeding occurred; and incidence of low birth weight, perinatal death, and prematurity was lower than in the general population. Third, the effect of oral contraceptives on folate levels was observed. Mean plasma folate levels were 8.1 ng/ml in 55 control women, 8.0 in 57 women using the pill, 4.7 in normal women in late pregnancy, and about 1.1 in pregnant women with megaloblastic anemia. Fourth, mean hemoglobin levels rose from 7.6 to 13.4 9m/100 ml within a few weeks in 5 women with gestational megaloblastic anemia after treatment with normal diet, without supplement, and oral contraceptives. One woman with puerperal megaloblastic anemia failed to respond to a regular diet while taking Ovulen, 6 tablets daily. The results suggest that plasma folate levels were neither lower in oral contracepting women nor did the pill prevent the increase in folate in megaloblastic anemia patients treated with diet. Thus the authors concluded that folate supplement is not needed for pill users. PMID:5549181

  12. Effect of saturated fatty acid supplementation on production and metabolism indices in heat-stressed mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Huo, X K; Guo, T J; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Rastani, R R; Baumgard, L H; Li, F D

    2010-09-01

    Experimental objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental saturated fatty acids on production, body temperature indices, and some aspects of metabolism in mid-lactation dairy cows experiencing heat stress. Forty-eight heat-stressed Holstein cows were allocated into 3 groups (n=16/group) according to a completely randomized block design. Three treatment diets consisted of supplemental saturated fatty acids (SFA) at 0 (SFA0), 1.5 (SFA1.5), or 3.0% (SFA3) of dry matter (DM) for 10 wk. Diets were isonitrogenous (crude protein=16.8%) and contained 1.42, 1.46, and 1.49 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM for the SFA0, SFA1.5 and SFA3 diets, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index at 0700, 1400 and 2200 h was 72.2, 84.3, and 76.6, respectively. Rectal temperatures at 1400 h were decreased with fat supplementation. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake (20.1+/-0.02 kg/d), body condition score (2.72+/-0.04), body weight (627+/-16.1 kg), or calculated energy balance (1.32+/-0.83 Mcal/d). Saturated fatty acid supplementation increased milk yield, milk fat content, and total milk solids. Increasing fat supplementation decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (8%) but had no effect on other energetic metabolites or hormones. In summary, supplemental SFA improved milk yield and milk fat content and yield and reduced peak rectal temperatures in mid-lactation heat-stressed dairy cows. This demonstrates the remarkable amount of metabolic heat that is "saved" by energetically replacing fermentable carbohydrates with supplemental SFA.

  13. Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to fish oil and sunflower oil in the diet of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, K J; Reynolds, C K; Hervás, G; Griinari, J M; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E

    2006-02-01

    Based on the potential benefits of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for human health, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat CLA concentrations. Levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk can be increased by supplements of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO), but there is considerable variation in the response. Part of this variance may reflect time-dependent ruminal adaptations to high levels of lipid in the diet, which lead to alterations in the formation of specific biohydrogenation intermediates. To test this hypothesis, 16 late lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were used in a repeated measures randomized block design to examine milk fatty acid composition responses to FO and SO in the diet over a 28-d period. Cows were allocated at random to corn silage-based rations (8 per treatment) containing 0 (control) or 45 g of oil supplement/kg of dry matter consisting (1:2; wt/wt) of FO and SO (FSO), and milk composition was determined on alternate days from d 1. Compared with the control, the FSO diet decreased mean dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 17.9 kg/d), milk fat (47.7 vs. 32.6 g/kg), and protein content (36.1 vs. 33.3 g/kg), but had no effect on milk yield (27.1 vs. 26.4 kg/d). Reductions in milk fat content relative to the FSO diet were associated with increases in milk trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA, and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations (r(2) = 0.74, 0.57, and 0.80, respectively). Compared with the control, the FSO diet reduced milk 4:0 to 18:0 and cis 18:1 content and increased trans 18:1, trans 18:2, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 concentrations. The FSO diet caused a rapid elevation in milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content, reaching a maximum of 5.37 g/100 g of fatty acids on d 5, but these increases were transient, declining to 2.35 g/100 g of fatty acids by d 15. They remained relatively constant thereafter. Even though concentrations of trans-11 18:1 followed the same pattern of temporal

  14. Advances in research on cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid: a major functional conjugated linoleic acid isomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of linoleic acid. Since the identification of CLA as a factor that can inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, thousands of studies have been conducted in the last several decades. Among the many isomers discovered, cis-9, trans-11 CLA is the most intensively studied because of its multiple, isomer-specific effects in humans and animals. This paper provides an overview of the available data on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, including its isomer-specific effects, biosynthesis, in vivo/in vitro research models, quantification, and the factors influencing its content in ruminant products.

  15. Probiotic supplementation influences faecal short chain fatty acids in infants at high risk for eczema.

    PubMed

    Kim, H K; Rutten, N B M M; Besseling-van der Vaart, I; Niers, L E M; Choi, Y H; Rijkers, G T; van Hemert, S

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota plays a role in the development of allergies. Based on the immunomodulating capacities of bacteria, various studies have investigated the potential role for probiotics in the prevention of childhood eczema. In a previous study we have shown that significantly less children developed eczema after probiotic supplementation (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis W52 and Lactococcus lactis W58, Ecologic(®)Panda) at three months of age as compared to controls. Here, metabolites in faecal samples of these 3-month old children were measured by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate possible gut metabolic alterations. Lower amounts of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), succinate, phenylalanine and alanine were found in faecal samples of children later developing eczema, whereas the amounts of glucose, galactose, lactate and lactose were higher compared to the children not developing eczema. Although these differences were already present at the age of 3 months, eczema did not develop in the majority of children before the age of 1 year. Supplementation of multispecies probiotics seems to induce higher levels of lactate and SCFAs, and lower levels of lactose and succinate when compared with the placebo group. This might explain the temporary preventive effect of probiotics on the development of eczema. These results highlight the role bacterial metabolites may play in development of the immune system, even before clinical manifestations of allergic disease arise.

  16. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid content of fermented cow milk.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Nadia; Pizzolongo, Fabiana; Montefusco, Immacolata; Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaele

    2015-05-01

    The ability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12), to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus during milk fermentation has been evaluated in this study. Pasteurized cow milk and infant formula were used. Infant formula was selected for its high linoleic acid content, for being a source of CLA and for its prebiotic compounds, e.g. galacto-oligosaccharides. The microorganisms were not able to increase the CLA content of the fermented products under the given experimental conditions. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) occurred between the CLA content in milk and the fermented samples. The CLA contents of 10 commercial fermented milk products were determined. The highest CLA content was observed in fermented milk containing only Str. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus. PMID:25657101

  17. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation.

  18. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation. PMID:26084697

  19. Amino acid supplementation and impact on immune function in the context of exercise.

    PubMed

    Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Krause, Maurício; Newsholme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Moderate and chronic bouts of exercise may lead to positive metabolic, molecular, and morphological adaptations, improving health. Although exercise training stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their overall intracellular concentration may not reach damaging levels due to enhancement of antioxidant responses. However, inadequate exercise training (i.e., single bout of high-intensity or excessive exercise) may result in oxidative stress, muscle fatigue and muscle injury. Moreover, during the recovery period, impaired immunity has been reported, for example; excessive-inflammation and compensatory immunosuppression. Nutritional supplements, sometimes referred to as immuno-nutrients, may be required to reduce immunosuppression and excessive inflammation. Herein, we discuss the action and the possible targets of key immuno-nutrients such as L-glutamine, L-arginine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and whey protein. PMID:25530736

  20. Maternal folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methylation and gene expression in the rat offspring in a gestation period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ly, Anna; Ishiguro, Lisa; Kim, Denise; Im, David; Kim, Sung-Eun; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation can alter DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing fetus, which may confer disease susceptibility later in life. We determined which gestation period and organ were most sensitive to the modifying effect of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring. Pregnant rats were randomized to a control diet throughout pregnancy; folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd week of gestation only; or folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy. The brain, liver, kidney and colon from newborn pups were analyzed for folate concentrations, global DNA methylation and gene expression of the Igf2, Er-α, Gr, Ppar-α and Ppar-γ genes. Folic acid supplementation during the 2nd or 3rd week gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly increased brain folate concentrations (P<.001), while only folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy significantly increased liver folate concentrations (P=.005), in newborn pups. Brain global DNA methylation incrementally decreased from early to late gestational folic acid supplementation and was the lowest with folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy (P=.026). Folic acid supplementation in late gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly decreased Er-α, Gr and Ppar-α gene expression in the liver (P<.05). The kidney and colon were resistant to the effect of folic acid supplementation. Maternal folic acid supplementation affects tissue folate concentrations, DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring in a gestation-period-dependent and organ-specific manner. PMID:27152636

  1. Maternal folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methylation and gene expression in the rat offspring in a gestation period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ly, Anna; Ishiguro, Lisa; Kim, Denise; Im, David; Kim, Sung-Eun; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation can alter DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing fetus, which may confer disease susceptibility later in life. We determined which gestation period and organ were most sensitive to the modifying effect of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring. Pregnant rats were randomized to a control diet throughout pregnancy; folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd week of gestation only; or folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy. The brain, liver, kidney and colon from newborn pups were analyzed for folate concentrations, global DNA methylation and gene expression of the Igf2, Er-α, Gr, Ppar-α and Ppar-γ genes. Folic acid supplementation during the 2nd or 3rd week gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly increased brain folate concentrations (P<.001), while only folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy significantly increased liver folate concentrations (P=.005), in newborn pups. Brain global DNA methylation incrementally decreased from early to late gestational folic acid supplementation and was the lowest with folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy (P=.026). Folic acid supplementation in late gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly decreased Er-α, Gr and Ppar-α gene expression in the liver (P<.05). The kidney and colon were resistant to the effect of folic acid supplementation. Maternal folic acid supplementation affects tissue folate concentrations, DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring in a gestation-period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

  2. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  3. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Portier, Hugues; Rouveix, Matthieu; Rosado, Fatima; Bage, Anne S; Gobert, Mylene; Durand, Denys

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase , maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group's levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.

  4. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  5. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  6. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects. PMID:24662092

  7. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  8. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children wHh severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained ...

  9. [The usefulness of the CLA-1 cell subline for the isolation of the dengue virus].

    PubMed

    Morier, L; Castillo, A; Rodríguez, R; Guadalupe Guzmán, M

    1995-01-01

    The live CLA-1 obtained by cloning from the cell live AP-61 (Aedes pseudocutellaris) was used to intend the isolation of dengue virus in 10 serum samples patients in acute phase and clinical diagnosis of dengue. Samples were parallelly inoculated in C6/36 and AP-61 as control systems. Of the 10 samples, 6 were positive in the 3 systems evidencing sensitivity and usefulness for the isolation of the cell subline CLA-1. PMID:9813481

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy: a potential tool to prevent membrane rupture and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Del Chierico, Federica; Rigon, Giuliano; Vernocchi, Pamela; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Manco, Melania; Signore, Fabrizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-05-07

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), a daily intake of DHA is recommended during pregnancy. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-oxidative pathways. Several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and preterm-PROM (pPROM), are associated with placental inflammation and oxidative stress. This pilot study reports on a preliminary evaluation of the significance of the daily DHA administration on PROM and pPROM events in healthy pregnant women. Further extensive clinical trials will be necessary to fully elucidate the correlation between DHA administration during pregnancy and PROM/pPROM occurrence, which is related in turn to gestational duration and overall fetal health.

  11. Determination of omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil supplements using vibrational spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Michael Yemane; Grung, Bjørn; Mjøs, Svein Are

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopic techniques combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression (PLSR) to predict concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) in fish oil supplements was investigated. FT-IR spectroscopy predicted EPA (coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.994, standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 2.90%, and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 2.49%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.983, SECV = 2.89%, and SEP = 2.55%) with six to seven PLS factors, whereas a simpler PLS model with two factors was obtained for total n-3 FAs (R(2) = 0.985, SECV = 2.73%, and SEP = 2.75%). Selected regions in the NIR spectra gave models with good performances and predicted EPA (R(2) = 0.979, SECV = 2.43%, and SEP = 3.11%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.972, SECV = 2.34%, and SEP = 2.60%) with four to six PLS factors. Both the whole and selected NIR regions gave simple models (two PLS factors) with similar results (R(2) = 0.997, SECV = 2.18%, and SEP = 1.60%) for total n-3 FAs. The whole and selected regions of Raman spectra provided models with comparable results and predicted EPA (R(2) = 0.977, SECV = 3.18%, and SEP = 2.73%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.966, SECV = 3.31%, and SEP = 2.56%) with seven to eight PLS factors, whereas a simpler model (three PLS factors) with R(2) = 0.993, SECV = 2.82%, and SEP = 3.27% was obtained for total n-3 FAs. The results demonstrated that FT-IR, NIR, and Raman spectroscopy combined with PLSR can be used as simple, fast, and nondestructive methods for quantitative analysis of EPA, DHA, and total n-3 FAs. FT-IR and NIR spectroscopy, in particular, have the potential to be applied in process industries during production of fish oil supplements.

  12. Dietary supplementation of usnic acid, an antimicrobial compound in lichens, does not affect rumen bacterial diversity or density in reindeer.

    PubMed

    Glad, Trine; Barboza, Perry; Mackie, Roderick I; Wright, André-Denis G; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Mathiesen, Svein D; Sundset, Monica A

    2014-06-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) may include large proportions of lichens in their winter diet. These dietary lichens are rich in phenolic secondary compounds, the most well-known being the antimicrobial usnic acid. Previous studies have shown that reindeer host rumen bacteria resistant to usnic acid and that usnic acid is quickly detoxified in their rumen. In the present study, reindeer (n = 3) were sampled before, during, and after usnic acid supplementation to determine the effect on their rumen microbial ecology. Ad libitum intake of usnic acid averaged up to 278 mg/kg body mass. Population densities of rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea determined by real-time PCR, ranged from 1.36 × 10(9) to 11.8 × 10(9) and 9.0 × 10(5) to 1.35 × 10(8) cells/g wet weight, respectively, and the two populations did not change significantly during usnic acid supplementation (repeated measures ANOVA) or vary significantly between the rumen liquid and particle fraction (paired t test). Rumen bacterial community structure determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis did not change in response to intake of usnic acid. Firmicutes (38.7 %) and Bacteriodetes (27.4 %) were prevalent among the 16S rRNA gene sequences (n = 62) from the DGGE gels, but representatives of the phyla Verrucomicrobia (14.5 %) and Proteobacteria (1.6 %) were also detected. Rapid detoxification of the usnic acid or resistance to usnic acid may explain why the diversity of the dominant bacterial populations and the bacterial density in the reindeer rumen does not change during usnic acid supplementation.

  13. A metabolomic approach to dry eye disorders. The role of oral supplements with antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Martínez-Castillo, Sebastián; Morales, José M.; Monleón, Daniel; Zanon-Moreno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hydrogen-1 nuclei (1H NMR S) to analyze the metabolic profile of reflex tears from patients with dry eye disorders. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study involving 90 participants: 55 patients diagnosed with dry eye syndrome (DESG) and 35 healthy subjects (control group, CG). From the DESG, two subgroups were formed: mild DES (n=22) and moderate DES (n=33). Participants were prescribed an oral nutraceutic supplementation containing antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids to be taken as three capsules per day for 3 months. Reflex tears (20–30 µl) were collected from the tear meniscus of both eyes of each subject with a microglass pipette. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired with a standard one-dimensional pulse sequence with water suppression; 256 free induction decays were collected into 64,000 data points with 14 ppm spectral width. Results Basal tears showed a differential metabolomic profile between groups. Almost 50 metabolites were identified by H cholesterol, N-acetylglucosamine, glutamate, amino-n-butyrate, choline, glucose, and formate were detected before supplementation and choline/acetylcholine after supplementation. The metabolic profile of the tears was statistically different between groups, as well as before and after supplementation. Conclusions Our data indicate that DES induces changes in the tear metabolic profile that can be modified with appropriate oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25999682

  14. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls.

  15. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk.

  16. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Han, Eugene; Yun, Yujung; Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Yong-Ho; Wang, Hye Jin; Lee, Byung-Wan; Cha, Bong Soo; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementation for managing hypertriglyceridemia were included. Reduction in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) were examined. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to the daily O3FA doses. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and urine ACR significantly reduced after O3FA supplementation. Overall, 172 (50.0%) patients did not experience renal function loss, and 125 (36.3%) patients had a GFR with a positive slope. The patients treated with O3FAs at 4g/day showed greater maintenance in renal function than those treated with lower dosages (p < 0.001). This dose dependent effect remains significant after adjustment for multiple variables. O3FA supplementation in diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia shows benefits of reducing albuminuria and maintaining renal function. The effects are dependent on the dose of daily O3FA supplementation.

  17. Long-term ω-3 fatty acid supplementation induces anti-stress effects and improves learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Miguel Á; Terreros, Gonzalo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-06-14

    Chronic stress leads to secretion of the adrenal steroid hormone corticosterone, inducing hippocampal atrophy and dendritic hypertrophy in the rat amygdala. Both alterations have been correlated with memory impairment and increased anxiety. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids improves memory and learning in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ω-3 supplementation on learning and major biological and behavioral stress markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: 1) Control, 2) Vehicle, animals supplemented with water, and 3) ω-3, rats supplemented with ω-3 (100 mg of DHA+25 mg of EPA). Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups: one of which was not subjected to stress while the other was subjected to a restraint stress paradigm. Afterwards, learning was analyzed by avoidance conditioning. As well, plasma corticosterone levels and anxiety were evaluated as stress markers, respectively by ELISA and the plus-maze test. Restraint stress impaired learning and increased both corticosterone levels and the number of entries into the open-arm (elevated plus-maze). These alterations were prevented by ω-3 supplementation. Thus, our results demonstrate that ω-3 supplementation had two beneficial effects on the stressed rats, a strong anti-stress effect and improved learning.

  18. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Yong-ho; Wang, Hye Jin; Lee, Byung-Wan; Cha, Bong Soo; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementation for managing hypertriglyceridemia were included. Reduction in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) were examined. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to the daily O3FA doses. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and urine ACR significantly reduced after O3FA supplementation. Overall, 172 (50.0%) patients did not experience renal function loss, and 125 (36.3%) patients had a GFR with a positive slope. The patients treated with O3FAs at 4g/day showed greater maintenance in renal function than those treated with lower dosages (p < 0.001). This dose dependent effect remains significant after adjustment for multiple variables. O3FA supplementation in diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia shows benefits of reducing albuminuria and maintaining renal function. The effects are dependent on the dose of daily O3FA supplementation. PMID:27135947

  19. Ascorbic acid supplementation enhances recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis than abstention in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnakartha, Harikrishnan; Appu, Abhilash Puthuvelvippel; Indira, Madambath

    2014-01-15

    The impact of ascorbic acid supplementation against ethanol induced Leydig cell toxicity was studied in guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were exposed to ethanol (4g/kgb.wt.) for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was completely stopped and animals in the ethanol group were divided into abstention group and ascorbic acid supplemented group (25mg/100gb.wt.) and those in control group were maintained as control and control+ascorbic acid group. Ethanol administration reduced the serum testosterone and LH (luteinising hormone) levels and elevated estradiol levels. Cholesterol levels in Leydig cell were increased whereas the mRNA and protein expressions of StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) protein, cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome p450side chain cleavage enzyme), 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), 17β-HSD (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and LH receptor were drastically reduced. Administration of ascorbic acid resulted in alteration of all these parameters indicating enhanced recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Although abstention could also reduce the inhibition of steroidogenesis, this was lesser in comparison with ascorbic acid supplemented group.

  20. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Jee, Sun Ha; Charleston, Jeanne; Narrett, Matthew; Appel, Lawrence J

    2010-10-15

    The authors' objective in this study was to estimate the changes in serum folate and homocysteine concentration that resulted from 6 weeks of supplementation with folic acid. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial with a parallel-group design was conducted. A total of 133 participants aged 60-90 years (70% female, 19% nonwhite) were assigned to receive 0, 100, 400, 1,000, or 2,000 μg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. Data were collected in the United States between June and September 1996. At baseline, median serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations were 5.7 ng/mL (interquartile range (25th-75th percentiles), 4.1-7.8) and 8.3 μmol/L (interquartile range, 7.1-10.0), respectively. As the folic acid dose increased, serum folate levels increased (P-trend < 0.001). There was no dose-response relation with homocysteine level among all participants. In analyses restricted to persons with the lowest serum folate concentration (<4.5 ng/mL) at baseline, there was a trend (P = 0.06) toward decreased homocysteine levels with increasing folic acid dose. In healthy, older adults with adequate folate status, folic acid supplementation is not beneficial for homocysteine reduction. However, for older adults with low serum folate levels, supplementation will improve folate status and may be beneficial for lowering homocysteine concentrations.

  1. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, F; Keshavarz, A; Hosseyni, S; Ameri, A; Yarahmadi, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly with supplementation relative to placebo (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in ApoB-100 and malondialdehyde compared to baseline values and compared to the control group. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c.

  2. Effect of amino acid supplementation on protein quality of soy-based infant formulas fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W; Botting, H G

    1993-05-01

    The powder forms of soy-based infant formulas obtained from four manufacturers were fed to weanling rats for two weeks, as the sole source of protein in diets containing 8% protein, 20% fat, and adequate amounts of minerals and vitamins. The relative protein efficiency ratio (RPER) and the relative net protein ratio (RNPR) values (casein + methionine = 100) of diets containing unsupplemented formulas were 71-81 and 78-85, respectively. Supplementation of the formula diets with lysine (0.2%), methionine (0.2%), threonine (0.1%) or tryptophan (0.05%) increased the level of the supplemental amino acid in rat serum but generally failed to improve the RPER or RNPR values. Addition of all four essential amino acids to the formula diets, however, caused a marked improvement in their protein quality (RPER or RNPR values = 100). The data suggested that proteins in soy-based formulas could be marginally co-limited in several indispensable amino acids.

  3. Influence of dietary fat source, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid supplementation on sensory quality of dark chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Grau, A; Grimpa, S; Manich, A; Barroeta, A; Codony, R

    2001-06-01

    We studied the influence of dietary fat source and dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and ascorbic acid supplementation on the sensory quality of cooked dark chicken meat stored at -20 C for different periods. Results showed that dietary fat source and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation influenced sensory scores (rancid flavor and aroma and acceptability). Ascorbic acid had no influence on these scores. Thiobarbituric acid values showed a high correlation with sensory scores. In addition, the low levels of alpha-tocopheryl acetate contained in the trace mineral-vitamin mix (20 IU/kg of feed) were enough to prevent rancidity development in cooked dark chicken meat when broilers were fed a saturated fat diet and samples were vacuum-packed and stored at -20 C for 13 mo.

  4. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during a 100-km ultra-marathon--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Mrazek, Claudia; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-marathon running is supposed to increase the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and impair renal function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and renal function during a 100-km ultra-marathon. Twenty-eight athletes were randomly divided into two groups, one group using branched-chain amino acid supplementation (BCAA) and a control group (CON). The athletes in the BCAA group were supplemented with a total of 50 g of an amino acid concentrate including 20 g of BCAA. The intake of energy, antioxidants and parameters of both skeletal muscle damage and renal function were determined. Race time was not different between BCAA and CON when controlled for the personal best time in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Neither the intake of energy and antioxidants nor the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and renal function were different between BCAA and CON. We concluded that BCAA-supplementation before and during a 100-km ultra-marathon had no effect on performance, skeletal muscle damage or renal function. PMID:23007065

  5. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during a 100-km ultra-marathon--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Mrazek, Claudia; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-marathon running is supposed to increase the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and impair renal function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and renal function during a 100-km ultra-marathon. Twenty-eight athletes were randomly divided into two groups, one group using branched-chain amino acid supplementation (BCAA) and a control group (CON). The athletes in the BCAA group were supplemented with a total of 50 g of an amino acid concentrate including 20 g of BCAA. The intake of energy, antioxidants and parameters of both skeletal muscle damage and renal function were determined. Race time was not different between BCAA and CON when controlled for the personal best time in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Neither the intake of energy and antioxidants nor the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and renal function were different between BCAA and CON. We concluded that BCAA-supplementation before and during a 100-km ultra-marathon had no effect on performance, skeletal muscle damage or renal function.

  6. Expression of a collagen-binding domain fusion protein: effect of amino acid supplementation, inducer type, and culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Fruchtl, McKinzie; Sakon, Joshua; Beitle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Collagen binding domain fusion proteins are of significant importance because of their potential as therapeutic biomaterials. In this paper, we investigate the production of such therapeutic proteins via fermentation of Escherichia coli on both an undefined medium and a defined medium. Defined media with amino acid supplementation provided higher amounts of therapeutic protein than undefined media with no supplementation. Additionally, utilizing lactose instead of isopropyl-β-d-thio-galactoside (IPTG) for induction and extending batch time yielded higher amounts of the model therapeutic.

  7. Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, William G; Mason, Neale S; Muldoon, Matthew F; Moghaddam, Bita

    2012-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that diets deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) lower dopamine neurotransmission as measured by striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) density and amphetamine-induced dopamine release. This suggests that dietary supplementation with fish oil might increase VMAT2 availability, enhance dopamine storage and release, and improve dopamine-dependent cognitive functions such as working memory. To investigate this mechanism in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure VMAT2 availability pre- and post-supplementation of n-3 PUFA in healthy individuals. Healthy young adult subjects were scanned with PET using [(11)C]-(+)-α-dihydrotetrabenzine (DTBZ) before and after six months of n-3 PUFA supplementation (Lovaza, 2 g/day containing docosahexaenonic acid, DHA 750 mg/d and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA 930 mg/d). In addition, subjects underwent a working memory task (n-back) and red blood cell membrane (RBC) fatty acid composition analysis pre- and post-supplementation. RBC analysis showed a significant increase in both DHA and EPA post-supplementation. In contrast, no significant change in [(11)C]DTBZ binding potential (BP(ND)) in striatum and its subdivisions were observed after supplementation with n-3 PUFA. No correlation was evident between n-3 PUFA induced change in RBC DHA or EPA levels and change in [(11)C]DTBZ BP(ND) in striatal subdivisions. However, pre-supplementation RBC DHA levels was predictive of baseline performance (i.e., adjusted hit rate, AHR on 3-back) on the n-back task (y = 0.19+0.07, r(2) = 0.55, p = 0.009). In addition, subjects AHR performance improved on 3-back post-supplementation (pre 0.65±0.27, post 0.80±0.15, p = 0.04). The correlation between n-back performance, and DHA levels are consistent with reports in which higher DHA levels is related to improved cognitive performance. However, the lack of change in [(11)C]DBTZ BP(ND) indicates that

  8. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  9. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  10. Sex-related differences in effect of ethanol administration and folic acid supplementation on pancreatic amylase in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Benítez, Olga; Delgado-Villa, Maria Jesús; Murillo, Maria Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether folic acid supplement is sufficient to reverse the negative effects of ethanol consumption on amylase activity during gestation, lactation, and growth. Moreover, this study investigated the sex-related differences in amylase content in the pancreatic tissue, serum, and urine. The animals were randomized into three groups: Control group (CG) received water and a basic rat diet during pregnancy, lactation, and growth; Ethanol-rats (EG) were fed an ethanol diet during pregnancy, the suckling period, and growth until death; and Ethanol + folic acid group (E + FG) were handled the same way as those of EG, except they received a folic acid supplement from reproduction until the end of experimental period. Our results showed that ethanol consumption decreased the pancreatic amylase level in offspring rats at 2 months postpartum. Folic acid supplementation did not alter pancreatic amylase activities. In offspring males, ethanol administration decreased serum amylase activity at 2 months postpartum. Folic acid supplementation in males resulted in higher serum amylase levels than those corresponding to the ethanol-fed group. In females, no significant differences between groups in serum amylase levels were found. Ethanol consumption decreased urinary amylase excretion (at 30 days and 2 months postpartum), but the folic acid-supplemented group showed a more pronounced decrease in urine amylase activity than in the ethanol-fed group. At 30 days postpartum, no sex difference in urinary amylase was identified. However, in general, males showed higher values for urine amylase than females at 2 months postpartum. A folic acid-supplemented diet exerts an advantageous effect on amylase in serum in offspring males at 2 months postpartum of mothers fed ethanol during gestation and lactation periods, because amylase renal absorption is increased. In offspring females, amylase renal absorption is also increased, but we did not observed

  11. Influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on the overall rumen microbiota of dairy cows and linkages with production parameters.

    PubMed

    Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Moate, Peter J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    The rumen microbiota contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and has an impact on feed efficiency and ruminant product fatty acid composition. Dietary fat supplements have shown promise in reducing enteric methane production and in altering the fatty acid profiles of ruminant-derived products, yet in vivo studies on how these impact the rumen microbiota are limited. In this study, we investigated the rumen bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and ciliate protozoan communities of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with 4 levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0, 25, 50, and 75 g·cow(-1)·day(-1)) and established linkages between microbial communities and production parameters. Supplementation with DHA significantly (P < 0.05) altered rumen bacterial and archaeal, including methanogenic archaeal, communities but had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on rumen fungal or ciliate protozoan communities. Rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving no DHA were correlated with increased saturated fatty acids (C18:0 and C11:0) in their milk. Furthermore, rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving a diet supplemented with 50 g DHA·cow(-1)·day(-1) were correlated with increases in monounsaturated fatty acids (C20:1n-9) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C22:5n-3; C22:6n-3; C18:2 cis-9, trans-11; C22:3n-6; and C18:2n-6 trans) in their milk. The significant diet-associated changes in rumen archaeal communities observed did not result in altered enteric methane outputs in these cows.

  12. Effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric symptoms and immune response in HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prabha M.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish B.; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. Objective: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study. Baseline and follow-up CD4 count, anthropometric measurements, neuropsychiatric assessments, Vitamin B12, and folic acid estimation were done. Results: The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in Group I, 31.9% in Group II, and 23.4% in Group III. The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was 8.16% in Group I, 6.12% in Group II, and 4.16% in Group III. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations were noted to have the lowest mean mini–mental score. After the supplementation of vitamins, anthropometric measurements, MMSE as well as Hamilton depression scores, improved in all the three groups whereas Hamilton anxiety scores improved only in Group III. The CD4 count also improved in Groups I and II after the supplementation of vitamins. Conclusion: Folic acid deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients. The majority of people who had a folic acid deficiency have shown improvement in their neuropsychiatric assessment scores as well as CD4 count after its supplementation. PMID:27365952

  13. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    PubMed

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival.

  15. Influence of Oleic Acid on Rumen Fermentation and Fatty Acid Formation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duanqin; Xu, Liwei; Tang, Shaoxun; Guan, Leluo; He, Zhixiong; Guan, Yongjuan; Tan, Zhiliang; Han, Xuefeng; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    A series of batch cultures were conducted to investigate the effects of oleic acid (OA) on in vitro ruminal dry matter degradability (IVDMD), gas production, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) production, and proportion of fatty acids. Rumen fluid was collected from fistulated goats, diluted with incubation buffer, and then incubated with 500 mg Leymus chinensis meal supplemented with different amounts of OA (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg for the CON, OA20, OA40 and OA60 groups, respectively). Incubation was carried out anaerobically at 39°C for 48 h, and the samples were taken at 12, 24 and 48 h and subjected to laboratory analysis. Supplementation of OA decreased IVDMD, the cumulative gas production, theoretical maximum of gas production and CH4 production, but increased H2 production. However, no effect was observed on any parameters of rumen fermentation (pH, ammonia, production of acetate, propionate and butyrate and total volatile fatty acid production). The concentrations of some beneficial fatty acids, such as cis monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were higher (P < 0.05) from OA groups than those from the control group at 12 h incubation. In summary, these results suggest that the OA supplementation in diet can reduce methane production and increase the amount of some beneficial fatty acids in vitro. PMID:27299526

  16. Influence of Oleic Acid on Rumen Fermentation and Fatty Acid Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaoxun; Guan, Leluo; He, Zhixiong; Guan, Yongjuan; Tan, Zhiliang; Han, Xuefeng; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    A series of batch cultures were conducted to investigate the effects of oleic acid (OA) on in vitro ruminal dry matter degradability (IVDMD), gas production, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) production, and proportion of fatty acids. Rumen fluid was collected from fistulated goats, diluted with incubation buffer, and then incubated with 500 mg Leymus chinensis meal supplemented with different amounts of OA (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg for the CON, OA20, OA40 and OA60 groups, respectively). Incubation was carried out anaerobically at 39°C for 48 h, and the samples were taken at 12, 24 and 48 h and subjected to laboratory analysis. Supplementation of OA decreased IVDMD, the cumulative gas production, theoretical maximum of gas production and CH4 production, but increased H2 production. However, no effect was observed on any parameters of rumen fermentation (pH, ammonia, production of acetate, propionate and butyrate and total volatile fatty acid production). The concentrations of some beneficial fatty acids, such as cis monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were higher (P < 0.05) from OA groups than those from the control group at 12 h incubation. In summary, these results suggest that the OA supplementation in diet can reduce methane production and increase the amount of some beneficial fatty acids in vitro. PMID:27299526

  17. Alleviative effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on acute heat stress-induced thermal panting and the level of plasma nonesterified fatty acids in hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Y

    2012-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid on hypothyroidism-induced negative growth performance and whether α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress in relation to hypothyroid status. 2. Female broiler chickens (14 d-old) were fed diets supplemented with α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) and an antithyroid substance, propylthiouracil (200 mg/kg), for 20 d under thermoneutral conditions (25°C). At 42 d of age, chickens were exposed to a high ambient temperature (36°C, 60% RH) for 4 h. 3. Under the thermoneutral condition, propylthiouracil administration decreased feed efficiency and concomitantly increased adipose tissue and thyroid gland weights. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triacylglycerol were also increased by propylthiouracil administration. However, α-lipoic acid supplementation did not affect the hypothyroidism-induced effects. 4. In hypothyroid chickens, the rise in respiratory rate induced by heat exposure was greatly inhibited by α-lipoic acid administration at 1 h, but this effect had disappeared at 4 h. In addition, a similar inhibitory effect on the concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids was subsequently observed at 4 h. 5. Therefore, the present study suggested that α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress if chickens are in a hypothyroid status.

  18. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids.

    PubMed

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juanéda, Pierre; Durand, Denys; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-02-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA composition, their corresponding purified CLA-enriched fractions, and mixtures of pure synthetic CLA, the composition of which reproduced that of the four selected beef samples, were tested on cancer cell lines. Cancer cells were exposed for 48 h to medium containing 100 microm-FA and their proliferation was determined by quantifying cellular DNA content (Hoechst 33342 dye). Compared with cells incubated without FA, the number of cancer cells was reduced from 25 to 67 % (P<0.0001) following FA treatment. Antiproliferative effects of CLA mixtures varied in magnitude according to the source of FA, the CLA composition and the cell lines. CLA mixtures naturally present in beef inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cell lines, a high content in cis-trans isomers allowing the most important antiproliferative effect. Beef total FA exhibited a greater growth-inhibitory activity than their corresponding CLA-enriched fractions. These results suggested that either beef FA other than beef CLA could possess antiproliferative properties and/or the existence of complementary effects of non-conjugated FA and CLA, which could favour the antiproliferative properties of beef total FA. PMID:16469152

  19. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids.

    PubMed

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juanéda, Pierre; Durand, Denys; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-02-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA composition, their corresponding purified CLA-enriched fractions, and mixtures of pure synthetic CLA, the composition of which reproduced that of the four selected beef samples, were tested on cancer cell lines. Cancer cells were exposed for 48 h to medium containing 100 microm-FA and their proliferation was determined by quantifying cellular DNA content (Hoechst 33342 dye). Compared with cells incubated without FA, the number of cancer cells was reduced from 25 to 67 % (P<0.0001) following FA treatment. Antiproliferative effects of CLA mixtures varied in magnitude according to the source of FA, the CLA composition and the cell lines. CLA mixtures naturally present in beef inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cell lines, a high content in cis-trans isomers allowing the most important antiproliferative effect. Beef total FA exhibited a greater growth-inhibitory activity than their corresponding CLA-enriched fractions. These results suggested that either beef FA other than beef CLA could possess antiproliferative properties and/or the existence of complementary effects of non-conjugated FA and CLA, which could favour the antiproliferative properties of beef total FA.

  20. Effect of folic acid and glycine supplementation on embryo development and folate metabolism during early pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Guay, F; Matte, J J; Girard, C L; Palin, M F; Giguère, A; Laforest, J P

    2002-08-01

    The present work aimed to determine if different levels of prolificacy either by parity or by genetic origin are linked to folate metabolism. Nulliparous Yorkshire-Landrace (YL) and multiparous YL, and multiparous Meishan-Landrace (ML) sows were randomly assigned to two treatments: 0 ppm or 15 ppm folic acid+0.6% glycine. Supplements were given from the estrus before mating until slaughter on d 25 of gestation. At slaughter, embryo and endometrial tissues were collected to determine concentrations of DNA, protein, and homocysteine. Allantoic fluid samples were also collected to determine concentrations of folates, vitamin B12 and amino acids. Blood samples were taken at first estrus, at mating, and on d 8, 16, and 25 of gestation to determine serum concentrations of folates, vitamin B12, and relative total folate binding capacity (TFBC). Over the entire experiment, multiparous YL sows had higher average serum concentrations of folates than nulliparous YL sows (P < 0.05) but had similar serum concentrations of relative TFBC. Concentrations of folates and relative TFBC averaged higher in ML measured over the entire experiment than in multiparous YL sows (P < 0.05). Concentrations of serum vitamin B12 were higher in multiparous YL than in ML sows or YL nulliparous sows (P < 0.05) over the entire experiment. In allantoic fluid, folates, vitamin B12, and essential amino acids contents were significantly lower in ML than in YL multiparous sows (P < 0.05). The folic acid+glycine supplement increased concentrations of serum folates, but the increase was more marked in nulliparous YL sows (nulliparous x folic acid+glycine, P < 0.05). The folic acid+glycine supplement had no effect on litter size and embryo survival, but it tended to increase embryo DNA in multiparous YL sows (P = 0.06) but not in ML and nulliparous YL sows. Homocysteine was decreased by folic acid+glycine supplement in embryos from all sows, but in endometrium, the folic acid+glycine effect was dependent on

  1. Intake of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids from diet and supplements in relation to mortality.

    PubMed

    Bell, Griffith A; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Lampe, Johanna W; Kristal, Alan R; Heckbert, Susan R; White, Emily

    2014-03-15

    Evidence from experimental studies suggests that the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have beneficial effects that may lead to reduced mortality from chronic diseases, but epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Our objective was to evaluate whether intake of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids from diet and supplements is associated with cause-specific and total mortality. Study participants (n = 70,495) were members of a cohort study (the Vitamins and Lifestyle Study) who were residents of Washington State aged 50-76 years at the start of the study (2000-2002). Participants were followed for mortality through 2006 (n = 3,051 deaths). Higher combined intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from diet and supplements was associated with a decreased risk of total mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 0.93) and mortality from cancer (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.92) but only a small reduction in risk of death from cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.68, 1.10). These results suggest that intake of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids may reduce risk of total and cancer-specific mortality.

  2. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-08-24

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  3. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index. PMID:26305244

  4. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma concentrations of free amino acids, insulin, and energy substrates in young men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Sato, Juichi; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in the concentrations of plasma free amino acids, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and urea nitrogen induced by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young men. Overnight-fasted subjects ingested drinks containing 1 or 5 g of a BCAA mixture (weight ratio of 1 : 2.3 : 1.2 for isoleucine : leucine : valine), and blood was intermittently collected for 3 h after ingestion. Ingestion of the BCAA mixture resulted in significant increases in the plasma concentrations of individual BCAAs, corresponding to the amounts of amino acids ingested. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids tended to decrease in the trial with 5 g BCAAs, suggesting that BCAA ingestion affects the metabolism of these amino acids. The ingestion of BCAAs temporarily increased plasma insulin levels and affected plasma concentrations of FFAs, but had almost no effect on glucose or urea nitrogen. PMID:21512300

  5. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion (“HC” with 60:40% or “LC” with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  6. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  7. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  8. Effect of low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Garneata, Liliana; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    Hypoproteic diets are most often discussed for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who do not receive dialysis. A very low-protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues of essential amino acids (keto-diet) proved effective in ameliorating metabolic disturbances of advanced CKD and delaying the initiation of dialysis without deleterious effects on nutritional status. Several recent studies report that the keto-diet could also slow down the rate of decline in renal function, with better outcomes after the initiation of dialysis. Results of a single-center randomized controlled trial addressing the rate of CKD progression revealed a 57% slower decline in renal function with the keto-diet compared with a conventional low-protein diet (LPD). The keto-diet allowed the safe management of selected patients with stage 4-5 CKD, delaying dialysis for almost 1 year, with a major impact on patient quality of life and health expenditures. Therefore, the keto-diet could be a link in the integrated care model. Careful selection of patients, nutritional monitoring, and dietary counseling are required.

  9. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Marrs, James A; Clendenon, Sherry G; Ratcliffe, Don R; Fielding, Stephen M; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with RA at a low concentration (10(-9)M) and 100mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100mM ethanol alone. The rescued phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10(-9)M RA alone (RA toxicity) than to untreated or 100mM ethanol-treated embryos. RA rescued defects caused by 100mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation, and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e.g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by RA supplement.

  10. Proteolysis in goat "coalho" cheese supplemented with probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Taliana Kênia Alves; de Araujo, Ana Rita Ribeiro; do Nascimento, Edilza Santos; de Matos Paz, José Eduardo; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi; Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; do Egypto Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to analyse the proteolytic effects of adding isolated and combined probiotic strains to goat "coalho" cheese. The cheeses were: QS - with culture Start, composed by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris (R704); QLA - with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5); QLP - with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (L. casei 01); QB - with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB 12); and QC, co-culture with the three probiotic microorganisms. The cheeses were analysed during 28 days of storage at 10°C. The probiotic cell count was higher than 6.5 and 7 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) of cheese at the 1st and 28th days of storage, respectively. The addition of co-culture influenced (p<0.01) proteolysis in the cheese and resulted in a higher content of soluble protein and release of amino acids at the 1st day after processing. However, over all 28 days, the cheese supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis in its isolated form showed the highest proteolytic activity, particularly in the hydrolysis of the alpha-s2 and kappa-casein fractions.

  11. Enriched branched-chain amino acid formula versus a casein-based supplement in the treatment of cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Christie, M L; Sack, D M; Pomposelli, J; Horst, D

    1985-01-01

    An orally administered branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) rich supplement (T), Travasorb-Hepatic was compared to a casein based supplement (E), Ensure, in a randomized double-blind cross-over study in eight malnourished, stable cirrhotics unable to achieve a daily dietary protein intake of 1.0 g/kg. Doses of antiportal systemic encephalopathy drugs remained constant and a baseline 1000 kcal, 40 g dietary protein intake was encouraged. To this diet, supplemental protein was added in daily 20-g increments to a maximum of 60 g supplemental protein. Mental status, asterixis, and number connection tests were assessed daily and an antiportal systemic encephalopathy index calculated. There was no significant difference in the mean intake of dietary protein (T, 33.7 +/- 4.0 g; E, 26.7 +/- 10.8 g), supplemental protein (T, 43.1 +/- 8.3 g; E, 47.9 +/- 7.1 g), or N2 balance (T, 4.2 +/- 3.7 g; E, 3.4 +/- 4.4) between treatment trials. The antiportal systemic encephalopathy index improved on E, with no significant change in the BCAA:aromatic acid molar ratio. This ratio improved on T (1.02 +/- 2.0 to 2.7 +/- 1.1), but was not accompanied by improvement in the antiportal systemic encephalopathy index. The improved protein tolerance in both groups was not further increased by a highly enriched BCAA formula compared to one with a moderate BCAA content from a natural dietary protein source. Thus, both conventional casein-based supplements and enriched BCAA formulas are well tolerated and can be safely and effectively used as an integral part of diet therapy.

  12. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not alter oxidative stress markers in healthy volunteers engaged in a supervised exercise program.

    PubMed

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Anthony, Tracy G

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) consumption on the oxidative stress status of untrained volunteers participating in a supervised exercise program. The study included 46 young adults (average age, 23.5 ± 0.59 years; 37 females, 9 males) who remained sedentary (n = 16) or participated in 30 min of outdoor aerobic running (n = 30) at an intensity corresponding to 65%-75% of maximum heart rate for 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Exercised subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group without AA supplementation (control; n = 10) or received either 250 mg (n = 10) or 500 mg (n = 10) of AA supplementation previous to each exercise session. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and day 84 to evaluate metabolic profiles and antioxidant status. Sedentary subjects underwent in a single bout of aerobic running to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondiadehyde (MDA) at pre- and postexercise with or without AA supplementation. No significant change in TAS was observed. Plasma MDA significantly increased at postexercise (P < 0.05), and AA supplementation decreased MDA level significantly (P < 0.05). After 3 months of exercise, there was no significant change in blood glucose, lipid profile, MDA, TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities amongst groups. Supplementation of AA was associated with minor and inconsistent reductions in SOD, GPx, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that pre-exercise supplementation of ascorbic acid does not alter oxidative stress markers in the plasma and erythrocytes of young adults engaged in a supervised exercise program. PMID:26789096

  13. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids on hepatic and muscle lipids in hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Twibell, R G; Watkins, B A; Rogers, L; Brown, P B

    2000-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are the focus of numerous studies, yet the effects of these isomers of octadecadienoic acids have not been evaluated in many species of fish. In this study, graded amounts of CLA--0, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0% of the diet--were fed to juvenile hybrid striped bass for 8 wk. Dietary treatments were fed to apparent satiation twice daily to triplicate groups of fish initially weighing 13.4 g/fish. Feed intake and weight gain of fish fed 1.0% CLA were significantly reduced compared to fish fed no CLA. Fish fed 0.5 and 0.75% CLA exhibited reduced feed intake similar to fish fed 1.0% CLA, but had growth rates that were not significantly different from those of fish fed no CLA. Feed efficiency improved significantly in fish as dietary CLA concentrations increased. Total liver lipid concentrations were significantly reduced in fish fed the diets containing CLA compared to those of fish fed the control diet, and intraperitoneal fat ratio was significantly lower in fish fed 1.0% CLA compared to fish fed no CLA. Fish fed dietary CLA exhibited significant increases in hepatosomatic index and moisture content of muscle and carcass. The CLA isomers were detected in liver and muscle of fish fed the diets containing CLA, while a low concentration of one isomer was detected in liver and muscle of fish fed the control diet. Dietary CLA resulted in a significant increase in 18:2(c-9,c-12) concentration in liver and muscle, but a significant reduction in 18:1n-7 in these tissues. Furthermore, feeding CLA resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in liver, but a reduction of these fatty acids in muscle. This study showed that feeding CLA elevated tissue concentrations of these fatty acid isomers, reduced tissue lipid contents, improved feed efficiency, and altered fatty acid concentrations in liver and muscle of fish.

  14. Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces placental oxidative stress and increases fetal and placental growth in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Megan L; Mark, Peter J; Mori, Trevor A; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Waddell, Brendan J

    2013-02-01

    Placental oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several placenta-related disorders including intrauterine growth restriction. Oxidative stress occurs when accumulation of reactive oxygen species damages DNA, proteins, and lipids, an outcome normally limited by antioxidant defenses. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may limit oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity, but n-3 PUFAs are also highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation; so n-3 PUFA supplementation is potentially harmful. Here we examined the effect of n-3 PUFAs on placental oxidative stress and on placental and fetal growth in the rat. We also investigated whether diet-induced changes in maternal plasma fatty acid profiles are associated with comparable changes in placental and fetal tissues. Rats were fed either standard or high n-3 PUFA diets from Day 1 of pregnancy, and tissues were collected on Day 17 or 22 (term = Day 23). Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs increased fetal (6%) and placental (12%) weights at Day 22, the latter attributable primarily to growth of the labyrinth zone (LZ). Increased LZ weight was accompanied by reduced LZ F(2)-isoprostanes (by 31% and 11% at Days 17 and 22, respectively), a marker of oxidative damage. Maternal plasma PUFA profiles were altered by dietary fatty acid intake and were strongly predictive of corresponding profiles in placental and fetal tissues. Our data indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces placental oxidative stress and enhances placental and fetal growth. Moreover, fatty acid profiles in the mother, placenta, and fetus are highly dependent on dietary fatty acid intake.

  15. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced